liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Refine search result
12345 101 - 150 of 216
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 101.
    Irestig, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Niklas, Hallberg
    FOI.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Peer-to-peer computing in health-promoting voluntary organizations: A system design analysis2005In: Journal of medical systems, ISSN 0148-5598, E-ISSN 1573-689X, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 425-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large part of the health promotion in today's society is performed as peer-to-peer empowerment in voluntary organisations such as sports clubs, charities, and trade unions. In order to prevent work-related illness and long-term sickness absence, the aim of this study is to explore computer network services for empowerment of employees by peer-to-peer communication. The 'technique trade-off' method was used for the analysis of the system design. A Critical Incident Technique questionnaire was distributed to a representative sample of trade union shop stewards (n = 386), and focus-group seminars were arranged where a preliminary set of requirements was discussed. Seven basic requirements were identified and matched to a set of 12 design issues for computer network services, allocating a subset of design issues to each requirement. The conclusion is that the systems design displays an inexpensive and potentially feasible method for peer-to-peer computing in voluntary health-promoting organisations. © 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  • 102.
    Irestig, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, FHVC - Folkhälsovetenskapligt centrum.
    Politics and technology in health information systems development: A discourse analysis of conflicts addressed in a systems design group2008In: Journal of Biomedical Informatics, ISSN 1532-0464, E-ISSN 1532-0480, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 82-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different types of disagreements must be managed during the development of health information systems. This study examines the antagonisms discussed during the design of an information system for 175,000 users in a public health context. Discourse analysis methods were used for data collection and analysis. Three hundred and twenty-six conflict events were identified from four design meetings and divided into 16 categories. There were no differences regarding the types of conflicts that the different participants brought into the design discussions. Instead, conflict occurrence was primarily affected by the agendas that set the stage for examinations and debates. The results indicate that the selection of design method and the structure used for the meetings are important factors for the manner in which conflicts are brought into consideration during health information system design. Further studies comparing participatory and non-participatory information system design practices in health service settings are warranted. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 103.
    Irestig, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Towards responsible system development in health services: A discourse analysis study of design conflict resolution tactics2010In: JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL INFORMATICS, ISSN 1532-0464, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 137-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We set out to examine design conflict resolution tactics used in development of large information systems for health services and to outline the design consequences for these tactics. Discourse analysis methods were applied to data collected from meetings conducted during the development of a web-based system in a public health context. We found that low risk tactics were characterized by design issues being managed within the formal mandate and competences of the design group. In comparison, high risk tactics were associated with irresponsible compromises, i.e. decisions being passed on to others or to later phases of the design process. The consequence of this collective disregard of issues such as responsibility and legitimacy is that the system design will be impossible to implement in factual health service contexts. The results imply that downstream responsibility issues have to be continuously dealt with in system development in health services.

  • 104.
    Jenvald, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Morin, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Simulation as decision support in pandemic influenza preparedness and response2007In: The Conference on Intelligent Human Computer Systems for Crisis Response and Management,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 105. Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A case study of how user interface sketches, scenarios and computer prototypes structure stakeholder meetings2007In: The 21st British HCI Group Annual Conference on People and Computers: HCI...but not as we know it / [ed] Ball, L. J., Sasse, M. A., Sas, C., Ormerod, T. C., Dix, A., Bagnall, P., McEwan, T., Swinton: The British Computer Society , 2007, p. 177-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In stakeholder meetings during an interaction design project, prototypes are commonly used for creating shared representations of design ideas. It can, however, be difficult for designers and meeting facilitators to know which prototyping technique to use. In this case study we compare user interface sketches, scenarios, and computer prototypes, and analyse video material from six stakeholder meetings. The scenario did not facilitate a focus on aesthetic or ethical perspectives, nor did it facilitate operational or perceptual issues. The prototype did not facilitate discussions on the overarching concept of the design, to the same extent as the sketches did, but it did facilitate operational issues. The sketches gave the broadest discussion. The groups also approached the design differently; for example, the system developers constantly returned to a constructional perspective. This means that the choice of prototyping technique should be made based on the composition of the group and the desired focus of the meeting.

  • 106.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rule extraction - the key to accurate and comprehensible data mining models2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of predictive modeling is to achieve high accuracy when the model is applied to novel data. For certain problems this requires the use of complex techniques, such as neural networks, resulting in opaque models that are hard or impossible to interpret. For some domains this is unacceptable, since the model needs to be comprehensible. To achieve comprehensibility, accuracy is often sacrificed by using simpler models; a tradeoff termed the accuracy vs. comprehensibility tradeoff. In this thesis the tradeoff is studied in the context of data mining and decision support. The suggested solution is to transform high-accuracy opaque models into comprehensible models by applying rule extraction. This approach is contrasted with standard methods generating transparent models directly from the data set. Using a number of case studies, it is shown that the application of rule extraction generally results in higher accuracy and comprehensibility.

    Although several rule extraction algorithms exist and there are well-established evaluation criteria (i.e. accuracy, comprehensibility, fidelity, scalability and generality), no existing algorithm meets all criteria. To counter this, a novel algorithm for rule extraction, named GREX (Genetic Rule EXtraction), is suggested. G-REX uses an extraction strategy based on genetic programming, where the fitness function directly measures the quality of the extracted model in terms of accuracy, fidelity and comprehensibility; thus making it possible to explicitly control the accuracy vs. comprehensibility tradeoff. To evaluate G-REX, experience is drawn from several case studies where G-REX has been used to extract rules from different opaque representations; e.g. neural networks, ensembles and boosted decision trees. The case studies fall into two categories; a data mining problem in the marketing domain which is extensively studied and several well-known benchmark problems. The results show that GREX, with its high flexibility regarding the choice of representation language and inherent ability to handle the accuracy vs. comprehensibility tradeoff, meets the proposed criteria well. 

  • 107.
    Kindborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    McGee, Kevin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Visual programming with analogical representations: Inspirations from a semiotic analysis of comics2007In: Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, ISSN 1045-926X, E-ISSN 1095-8533, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 99-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analogical representations based on pictures of domain objects can be used in visual programming to provide a close mapping between the program and the resulting runtime display, which can make programming easier for children and other users. The use of graphical rewrite rules with before and after pictures is an example of this approach. Graphical rewrite rules have some similarities with comics strips, which also use picture sequences of graphical objects to describe dynamics in a static form. However, the visual language of comics is not used to its full potential in visual programming. We discuss how a semiotic analysis of comics can be used to address some of the limitations of graphical rewrite rules. We use a visual programming system we have designed to illustrate that comic strips can express more general computations and be more intuitive and flexible than traditional graphical rewrites. Our conclusion is that the visual language of comics has a strong potential for increasing the expressiveness and flexibility of visual programming with analogical representations of domain objects, while maintaining a direct mapping between the program representation and the runtime representation. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 108.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Controlled exploration of alternative mechanisms in cognitive modeling2000In: Twenty-Second Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society,2000, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates , 2000, p. 280-285Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 109.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Factorial modeling: A method for enhancing the explanatory and predictive power of cognitive models2001In: Fourth International Conference on Cognitive Modeling, 2001, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates , 2001, p. 127-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction and evaluation of cognitive models can, and often do, lead to novel insights into what might constitute a valid account for an empirical phenomenon. These insights constrain the space of viable models, and could be useful also on a theoretical plane, by promoting a deeper understanding of the studied phenomenon. We propose the factorial method for deriving novel, that is, not theory–based constraints in a principled way during model development. The method is based on a systematic comparison of alternative models, realized through a cross–combination of model components in a generic cognitive model. We illustrate the method by describing an application in the area of mental imagery. We conclude by discussing ways to increase the generalizability of results that can be obtained using the factorial method.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 110.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Is mental imagery symbolic?: Exploratory simulations in an interactive activation model1998In: Proceedings of the 2nd EuropeanConference on Cognitive Modelling, 1998, Nottingham: Nottingham University Press, 1998, p. 197-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pelfrene, Jelle
    Space Application Services.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schreiner, Rudolf
    Object Security.
    Jenvald, Johan
    VSL Systems.
    Morin, Magnus
    VSL Systems.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Real-time Support for Exercise Managers’ Situation Assessment and Decision Making2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise managers and instructors have a particularly challenging task in monitoring and controlling on-going exercises, which may involve multiple response teams and organizations in highly complex and continuously evolving crisis situations. Managers and instructors must handle potentially incomplete and conflicting field-observation data and make decisions in real-time in order to control the flow of the exercise and to keep it in line with the training objectives. In simulation-based exercises, managers and instructors have access to a rich set of real-time data, with an increased potential to closely monitor the trainees’ actions, and to keep the exercise on track. To assist exercise managers and instructors, data about the on-going exercise can be filtered, aggregated and refined by real-time decision-support systems. We have developed a model and a prototype decision-support system, using stream-based reasoning to assist exercise managers and instructors in real-time. The approach takes advantage of topic maps for ontological representation and a complex-event processing engine for analyzing the data stream from a virtual-reality simulator for crisis-management training. Aggregated data is presented both on-screen, in Twitter, and in the form of topic maps.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 112.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Foresight training as part of virtual-reality-based exercises for the emergency services2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the chaotic nature of accidents and crisis, emergency responses tend to unfold in a highly dynamic fashion. It is therefore of key importance that emergency service staff are continually trained on being mindful of risks and to spot early signs of things that could go wrong during an emergency response. This article suggests a way to adapt existing regimes for foresight training to the needs of emergency response organizations. Foresight training is currently being tried out in healthcare, and similar ideas, i.e. to base training on “what-if” discussions of typical high-risk scenarios, have also been implemented in the mining industry, and in the off-shore oil and gas industry. We follow this trend and suggest a way for foresight training to be integrated into virtual-reality-based emergency response exercises as part of the after action review (when the emergency response exercise is debriefed). The material for foresight training could be based on events that were encountered during the preceding exercise, as well as other typical high-risk situations, and subsequent discussions could, for example, be focused on the factors contributing to an elevated risk level and to what extent a negative development of events could be avoided through insightful actions. Hence, focus is on training to recognize typical risk factors and associate these with appropriate defensive steps.

  • 113.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Roy, Chandan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cyclone track forecasting based on satellite images using artificial neural networks2009In: ISPRS journal of photogrammetry and remote sensing (Print), ISSN 0924-2716, E-ISSN 1872-8235, Vol. 64, no 6, p. 513-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many places around the world are exposed to tropical cyclones and associated storm surges. In spite of massive efforts, a great number of people die each year as a result of cyclone events. To mitigate this damage, improved forecasting techniques must be developed. The technique presented here uses artificial neural networks to interpret NOAA-AVHRR satellite images. A multi-layer neural network, resembling the human visual system, was trained to forecast the movement of cyclones based on satellite images. The trained network produced correct directional forecast for 98% of test images, thus showing a good generalization capability. The results indicate that multi-layer neural networks could be further developed into an effective tool for cyclone track forecasting using various types of remote sensing data. Future work includes extension of the present network to handle a wide range of cyclones and to take into account supplementary information, such as wind speeds, water temperature, humidity, and air pressure.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 114.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Roy, Chandan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Saifullah, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Local Feature Extraction—What Receptive Field Size Should Be Used?2009In: Proceedings of International Conference on Image Processing, Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biologically inspired hierarchical networks for image processing are based on parallel feature extraction across the image using feature detectors that have a limited Receptive Field (RF). It is, however, unclear how large these receptive fields should be. To study this, we ran systematic tests of various receptive field sizes using the same hierarchical network. After 40 epochs of training, we tested the network both by using similar but novel images of the same tropical cyclone that was used for training, and by using dissimilar images, depicting different cyclones. The results indicate that correct RF size is important for generalization in hierarchical networks, and that RF size should be chosen so that all RFs at least partially cover meaningful parts of the input image.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 115. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Kristensson, Per Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Discrete and Continuous Shape Writing for Text Entry and Control2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile devices gain increasing computational power and storage capabilities, and there are already mobile phones that can show movies, act as digital music players and offer full-scale web browsing. The bottleneck for information flow is however limited by the inefficient communication channel between the user and the small device. The small mobile phone form factor has proven to be surprisingly difficult to overcome and limited text entry capabilities are in effect crippling mobile devices’ use experience. The desktop keyboard is too large for mobile phones, and the keypad too limited. In recent years, advanced mobile phones have come equipped with touch-screens that enable new text entry solutions. This dissertation explores how software keyboards on touch-screens can be improved to provide an efficient and practical text and command entry experience on mobile devices. The central hypothesis is that it is possible to combine three elements: software keyboard, language redundancy and pattern recognition, and create new effective interfaces for text entry and control. These are collectively called “shape writing” interfaces. Words form shapes on the software keyboard layout. Users write words by articulating the shapes for words on the software keyboard. Two classes of shape writing interfaces are developed and analyzed: discrete and continuous shape writing. The former recognizes users’ pen or finger tapping motion as discrete patterns on the touch-screen. The latter recognizes users’ continuous motion patterns. Experimental results show that novice users can write text with an average entry rate of 25 wpm and an error rate of 1% after 35 minutes of practice. An accelerated novice learning experiment shows that users can exactly copy a single well-practiced phrase with an average entry rate of 46.5 wpm, with individual phrase entry rate measurements up to 99 wpm. When used as a control interface, users can send commands to applications 1.6 times faster than using de-facto standard linear pull-down menus. Visual command preview leads to significantly less errors and shorter gestures for unpracticed commands. Taken together, the quantitative results show that shape writing is among the fastest mobile interfaces for text entry and control, both initially and after practice, that are currently known.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 116.
    Kristensson, Per-Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Large Vocabulary Shorthand Writing on Stylus Keyboard2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel text entry method for pen-based computers. We view the trace obtained by connecting the letter keys comprising a word on a stylus keyboard as a pattern. This pattern can be matched against a user-s pen trace, invariant of scale and translation. Hence the patterns become an efficient form of shorthand gestures, allowing users to use eyes-free openloop motor actions to perform the gestures. This can result in higher text entry speed than optimized stylus keyboards, the fastest known text entry technique for pen-computers as of today. The approach supports a gradual and seamless skill transition from novices tracing the letter keys to experts articulating the shorthand gestures. Hence the ratio between the learning effort and efficiency in using the system can be said to be optimized at any given point in time in the user-s experience with the technique. This thesis describes the rationale, architecture and lgorithms behind a stylus keyboard augmented with a high-capacity gesture recognition engine. We also report results from an Expanding Rehearsal Interval (ERI) experiment which indicates that users can acquire about 15 shorthand gestures per 45 minute training session. Empirical expert speed estimates of the technique indicate text entry speeds much higher than any prior known pen-based text entry system for mobile computers.  

    List of papers
    1. Shorthand writing on stylus keyboard
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shorthand writing on stylus keyboard
    2003 (English)In: Proceeding CHI '03 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York: ACM Press , 2003, p. 97-104Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a method for computer-based speed writing, SHARK (shorthand aided rapid keyboarding), which augments stylus keyboarding with shorthand gesturing. SHARK defines a shorthand symbol for each word according to its movement pattern on an optimized stylus keyboard. The key principles for the SHARK design include high efficiency stemmed from layout optimization, duality of gesturing and stylus tapping, scale and location independent writing, Zipf's law, and skill transfer from tapping to shorthand writing due to pattern consistency. We developed a SHARK system based on a classic handwriting recognition algorithm. A user study demonstrated the feasibility of the SHARK method.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: ACM Press, 2003
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-24317 (URN)3940 (Local ID)3940 (Archive number)3940 (OAI)
    Conference
    CHI 2003, April 5–10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA
    Note

    Also in ACM CHI Letters Volume 5 Issue 1

    DOI does not work: 1-58113-630-7

    Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2018-03-13
    2. In search of effective text input interfaces for off the desktop computing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>In search of effective text input interfaces for off the desktop computing
    2005 (English)In: Interacting with computers, ISSN 0953-5438, E-ISSN 1873-7951, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 229-250Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally recognized that today's frontier of HCI research lies beyond the traditional desktop computers whose GUI interfaces were built on the foundation of display—pointing device—full keyboard. Many interface challenges arise without such a physical UI foundation. Text writing—ranging from entering URLs and search queries, filling forms, typing commands, to taking notes and writing emails and chat messages—is one of the hard problems awaiting for solutions in off-desktop computing. This paper summarizes and synthesizes a research program on this topic at the IBM Almaden Research Center. It analyzes various dimensions that constitute a good text input interface; briefly reviews related literature; discusses the evaluation methodology issues of text input; presents the major ideas and results of two systems, ATOMIK and SHARK; and points out current and future directions in the area from our current vantage point.

    Keywords
    Text input; Pervasive; Mobile; Off-desktop computing; Shorthand; Gesture; Stylus; Virtual keyboard
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102012 (URN)10.1016/j.intcom.2003.12.007 (DOI)000229414800001 ()
    Available from: 2013-11-26 Created: 2013-11-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    3. SHARK2: A Large Vocabulary Shorthand Writing System for Pen-based Computers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>SHARK2: A Large Vocabulary Shorthand Writing System for Pen-based Computers
    2004 (English)In: UIST '04 Proceedings of the 17th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology, New York: ACM Press , 2004, p. 43-52Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zhai and Kristensson (2003) presented a method of speed-writing for pen-based computing which utilizes gesturing on a stylus keyboard for familiar words and tapping for others. In SHARK2:, we eliminated the necessity to alternate between the two modes of writing, allowing any word in a large vocabulary (e.g. 10,000-20,000 words) to be entered as a shorthand gesture. This new paradigm supports a gradual and seamless transition from visually guided tracing to recall-based gesturing. Based on the use characteristics and human performance observations, we designed and implemented the architecture, algorithms and interfaces of a high-capacity multi-channel pen-gesture recognition system. The system's key components and performance are also reported.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: ACM Press, 2004
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-24318 (URN)10.1145/1029632.1029640 (DOI)3941 (Local ID)1-58113-957-8 (ISBN)3941 (Archive number)3941 (OAI)
    Conference
    UIST 2004, the Seventeenth Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology. Santa Fe, New Mexico. October 24–27, 2004.
    Note

    Also in ACM CHI Letters Volume 6 Issue 2

    Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2018-01-13
    4. Pattern Matching on Stylus Keyboards: A Powerful Approach to Faster and Easier Pen-based Text Entry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pattern Matching on Stylus Keyboards: A Powerful Approach to Faster and Easier Pen-based Text Entry
    2004 (English)In: Adjunct Proceedings of the 17th ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST 2004), New York: ACM Press , 2004, p. 59-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much work has been done in developing alternative methods of writing for pen-based computers, including handwriting recognition, optimization of keyboard layouts, and specialized writing systems. Generally there is a trade- off between writing speed and the effort required by the user to write the text. My doctoral dissertation is about developing text entry systems maximizing the writing speed but minimizing users' effort by taking advantage of the redundancy of the human languages and viewing the legitimate input strings in the language as patterns mapped on a keyboard layout. I present my work on using pattern matching algorithms to take advantage of these constraints to develop a shorthand writing system combined with a stylus keyboard, allowing fast text entry without the need to learn any custom alphabet or a specialized writing system. I also present some of the feedback and output interfaces I believe can greatly enhance the user experience when using pattern matching text entry systems. I conclude by discussing performance evaluation and planned future work.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: ACM Press, 2004
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-24320 (URN)3943 (Local ID)3943 (Archive number)3943 (OAI)
    Conference
    UIST ’04, October 24–27, 2004, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA
    Note

    Conference Companion

    Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2018-01-13
  • 117.
    Kristensson, Per-Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pattern Matching on Stylus Keyboards: A Powerful Approach to Faster and Easier Pen-based Text Entry2004In: Adjunct Proceedings of the 17th ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST 2004), New York: ACM Press , 2004, p. 59-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much work has been done in developing alternative methods of writing for pen-based computers, including handwriting recognition, optimization of keyboard layouts, and specialized writing systems. Generally there is a trade- off between writing speed and the effort required by the user to write the text. My doctoral dissertation is about developing text entry systems maximizing the writing speed but minimizing users' effort by taking advantage of the redundancy of the human languages and viewing the legitimate input strings in the language as patterns mapped on a keyboard layout. I present my work on using pattern matching algorithms to take advantage of these constraints to develop a shorthand writing system combined with a stylus keyboard, allowing fast text entry without the need to learn any custom alphabet or a specialized writing system. I also present some of the feedback and output interfaces I believe can greatly enhance the user experience when using pattern matching text entry systems. I conclude by discussing performance evaluation and planned future work.

  • 118.
    Kristensson, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhai, Shumin
    IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, USA.
    SHARK2: A Large Vocabulary Shorthand Writing System for Pen-based Computers2004In: UIST '04 Proceedings of the 17th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology, New York: ACM Press , 2004, p. 43-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zhai and Kristensson (2003) presented a method of speed-writing for pen-based computing which utilizes gesturing on a stylus keyboard for familiar words and tapping for others. In SHARK2:, we eliminated the necessity to alternate between the two modes of writing, allowing any word in a large vocabulary (e.g. 10,000-20,000 words) to be entered as a shorthand gesture. This new paradigm supports a gradual and seamless transition from visually guided tracing to recall-based gesturing. Based on the use characteristics and human performance observations, we designed and implemented the architecture, algorithms and interfaces of a high-capacity multi-channel pen-gesture recognition system. The system's key components and performance are also reported.

  • 119.
    Larsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Berglund, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Programming ubiquitous software applications: requirments for distributed user interface2004In: Proceedings of The Sixteenth International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering SEKE04,2004, Skokie, IL, USA: Knowledge Systems Institute graduate school , 2004, p. 246-251Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile and ubiquitous computing require new approaches to user interface design. Incorporating I/O devices in the environment is imperative because small devices do not provide enough interaction richness. Distributed user interfaces (DUIs) are needed to take advantage of such I/O-landscapes.

    A DUI constitutes a fundamental change of the pretext of user interface development. New programming models that support efficient creation and maintenance may be required. This paper presents a case study in DUI design and report on the use of current GUI modeling techniques to provide DUIs. We identified several issues where current programming models need to be extended.

  • 120.
    Larsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Bång, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Berglund, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    ljungblad, sara
    Future labs Viktoriainstitutet.
    Håkansson, Maria
    Future labs Viktoriainstitutet.
    Holmquist, Lars-Erik
    Future labs Viktoriainstitutet.
    Augmenting paper-based work practice.2004In: UbiComp 2004,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 121.
    Larsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ingmarsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sun, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Development Platform for Distributed User Interfaces2007In: Proceedings of the Nineteenth InternationalConference on Software Engineering & Knowledge Engineering (SEKE’2007), 2007, p. 704-704Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing user interfaces for a heterogeneous environment is a difficult challenge. Partial distribution of the user interface is an event harder one. Specifically providing developers with means of describing and controlling how components move around as devices are included or removed We present an approach to overcome these challenges, by combining ontologies with reasoning engines. Our tool MaDoE uses Protégé in combination with Jess to exemplify this in a simulated home setting. Our approach allows system developers to take advantage of the formal knowledge in the ontologies as well harnessing the power of rules inside the expert system when they design distributed user interfaces.

  • 122. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Leifler, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Affordances and Constraints of Intelligent Decision Support for Military Command and Control: Three Case Studies of Support Systems2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers in military command and control (C2) have for several decades sought to help commanders by introducing automated, intelligent decision support systems. These systems are still not widely used, however, and some researchers argue that this may be due to those problems that are inherent in the relationship between the affordances of technology and the requirements by the specific contexts of work in military C2. In this thesis, we study some specific properties of three support techniques for analyzing and automating aspects of C2 scenarios that are relevant for the contexts of work in which they can be used.

    The research questions we address concern (1) which affordances and constraints of these technologies are of most relevance to C2, and (2) how these affordances and limitations can be managed to improve the utility of intelligent decision support systems in C2. The thesis comprises three case studies of C2 scenarios where intelligent support systems have been devised for each scenario.

    The first study considered two military planning scenarios: planning for medical evacuations and similar tactical operations. In the study, we argue that the plan production capabilities of automated planners may be of less use than their constraint management facilities. ComPlan, which was the main technical system studied in the first case study, consisted of a highly configurable, collaborative, constraint-management framework for planning in which constraints could be used either to enforce relationships or notify users of their validity during planning. As a partial result of the first study, we proposed three tentative design criteria for intelligent decision support: transparency, graceful regulation and event-based feedback.

    The second study was of information management during planning at the operational level, where we used a C2 training scenario from the Swedish Armed Forces and the documents produced during the scenario as a basis for studying properties of Semantic Desktops as intelligent decision support. In the study, we argue that (1) due to the simultaneous use of both documents and specialized systems, it is imperative that commanders can manage information from heterogeneous sources consistently, and (2) in the context of a structurally rich domain such as C2, documents can contain enough information about domain-specific concepts that occur in several applications to allow them to be automatically extracted from documents and managed in a unified manner. As a result of our second study, we present a model for extending a general semantic desktop ontology with domain-specific concepts and mechanisms for extracting and managing semantic objects from plan documents. Our model adheres to the design criteria from the first case study.

    The third study investigated machine learning techniques in general and text clustering in particular, to support researchers who study team behavior and performance in C2. In this study, we used material from several C2 scenarios which had been studied previously. We interviewed the participating researchers about their work profiles, evaluated machine learning approaches for the purpose of supporting their work and devised a support system based on the results of our evaluations. In the study, we report on empirical results regarding the precision possible to achieve when automatically classifying messages in C2 workflows and present some ramifications of these results on the design of support tools for communication analysis. Finally, we report how the prototype support system for clustering messages in C2 communications was conceived by the users, the utility of the design criteria from case study 1 when applied to communication analysis, and the possibilities for using text clustering as a concrete support tool in communication analysis.

    In conclusion, we discuss how the affordances and constraints of intelligent decision support systems for C2 relate to our design criteria, and how the characteristics of each work situation demand new adaptations of the way in which intelligent support systems are used.

    List of papers
    1. Combining Technical and Human-Centered Strategies for Decision Support in Command and Control - The ComPlan Approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining Technical and Human-Centered Strategies for Decision Support in Command and Control - The ComPlan Approach
    2008 (English)In: ISCRAM2008 Proceedings of the 5th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] F. Fiedrich and B. Van de Walle, 2008, p. 504-515Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ComPlan (A Combined, Collaborative Command and Control Planning tool) is an approach to providing knowledge-based decision support in the context of command and control. It combines technical research on automated planning tools with human-centered research on mission planning. At its core, ComPlan uses interconnected views of a planning situation to present and manipulate aspects of a scenario. By using domain knowledge flexibly, it presents immediate and directly visible feedback on constraint violations of a plan, facilitates mental simulation of events, and provides support for synchronization of concurrently working mission planners. The conceptual framework of ComPlan is grounded on three main principles from human-centered research on command and control: transparency, graceful regulation, and event-based feedback. As a result, ComPlan provides a model for applying a human-centered perspective on plan authoring tools for command and control, and a demonstration for how to apply that model in an integrated plan-authoring environment.

    Keywords
    Decision support, mixed-initiative planning, critiquing, cognitive systems engineering
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-42584 (URN)66339 (Local ID)66339 (Archive number)66339 (OAI)
    Conference
    5th International ISCRAM Conference, May 4-7, Washington, DC, USA
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    2. A Model for Document Processing in Semantic Desktop Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Model for Document Processing in Semantic Desktop Systems
    2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the I-KNOW '08, the International Conference on Knowledge Management, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag , 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a significant gap between the services provided by dedicated information systems and general desktop systems for document communication and preparation. This situation is a serious knowledge-management problem, which often results in information loss, poor communication, and confusion among users. Semantic desktops promise to bring knowledge-based services to common desktop applications and, ultimately, to support knowledge management by adding advanced functionality to familiar computing environments. By custom tailoring these systems to different application domains, it is possible to provide dedicated services that assist users in combining document handling and communication with structured workflow processes and the services provided by dedicated systems. This paper presents a model for developing custom-tailored document processing for semantic-desktop systems. Our approach has been applied to the domain of military command and control, which as based on highly-structured document-driven processes. Key Words: semantic desktop, document-driven processes, semantic documents, planning

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, 2008
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-42583 (URN)66319 (Local ID)66319 (Archive number)66319 (OAI)
    Conference
    I-KNOW '08, the International Conference on Knowledge Management, 3-5 September, Graz, Austria
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Domain-specific knowledge management in a Semantic Desktop
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Domain-specific knowledge management in a Semantic Desktop
    2009 (English)In: Proceedings of I-KNOW '09 9th International Conference on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Technologies / [ed] Klaus Tochtermann, 2009, p. 360-365Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semantic Desktops hold promise to provide intelligent information-management environments that can respond to users’ needs. A critical requirement for creating such environments is that the underlying ontology reflects the context of work properly. For specialized work domains where people deal with rich information sources in a context-specific manner, there may be a significant amount of domain-specific information available in text documents, emails and other domain-dependent data sources. We propose that this can be exploited to great effect in a Semantic Desktop to provide much more effective knowledge management. In this paper, we present extensions to an existing semantic desktop through content- and structure-based information extraction, domain-specific ontological extensions as well as visualization of semantic entities. Our extensions are justified by needs in strategic decision making, where domain-specific, well-structured knowledge is available in documents and communications but scattered across the desktop. The consistent and efficient use of these resources by a group of co-workers is critical to success. With a domain-aware semantic desktop, we argue that decision makers will have a much better chance of successful sense making in strategic decision making.

    Keywords
    semantic desktop, knowledge management, domain-specific ontology
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-56634 (URN)
    Conference
    9th International Conference on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Technologies 2-4 September, Graz, Austria
    Available from: 2010-05-27 Created: 2010-05-27 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Message classification as a basis for studying command and control communication: an evaluation of machine learning approaches
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Message classification as a basis for studying command and control communication: an evaluation of machine learning approaches
    2012 (English)In: Journal of Intelligent Information Systems, ISSN 0925-9902, E-ISSN 1573-7675, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 299-320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In military command and control, success relies on being able to perform key functions such as communicating intent. Most staff functions are carried out using standard means of text communication. Exactly how members of staff perform their duties, who they communicate with and how, and how they could perform better, is an area of active research. In command and control research, there is not yet a single model which explains all actions undertaken by members of staff well enough to prescribe a set of procedures for how to perform functions in command and control. In this context, we have studied whether automated classification approaches can be applied to textual communication to assist researchers who study command teams and analyze their actions. Specifically, we report the results from evaluating machine leaning with respect to two metrics of classification performance: (1) the precision of finding a known transition between two activities in a work process, and (2) the precision of classifying messages similarly to human researchers that search for critical episodes in a workflow. The results indicate that classification based on text only provides higher precision results with respect to both metrics when compared to other machine learning approaches, and that the precision of classifying messages using text-based classification in already classified datasets was approximately 50%. We present the implications that these results have for the design of support systems based on machine learning, and outline how to practically use text classification for analyzing team communications by demonstrating a specific prototype support tool for workflow analysis.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin: Springer, 2012
    Keywords
    Command and control – Classification, Exploratory sequential data analysis, Workflow mining, Random indexing, Text clustering
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67227 (URN)10.1007/s10844-011-0156-5 (DOI)000302240800001 ()
    Note

    funding agencies|Swedish National Defense College||

    Available from: 2011-04-06 Created: 2011-04-04 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    5. Analysis tools in the study of distributed decision-making: a meta-study of command and control research
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis tools in the study of distributed decision-making: a meta-study of command and control research
    2012 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 157-168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of distributed decision making in professional teams and their performance comes in part from studies in which researchers gather and process information about the communications and actions of teams. In many cases, the data sets available for analysis are large, unwieldy and require methods for exploratory and dynamic management of data. In this paper, we report the results of interviewing eight researchers on their work process when conducting such analyses and their use of support tools in this process. Our aim with the study was to gain an understanding of their workflow when studying distributed decision making in teams, and specifically how automated pattern extraction tools could be of use in their work. Based on an analysis of the interviews, we elicited three issues of concern related to the use of support tools in analysis: focusing on a subset of data to study, drawing conclusionsfrom data and understanding tool limitations. Together, these three issues point to two observations regarding tool use that are of specific relevance to the design of intelligent support tools based on pattern extraction: open-endedness and transparency.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer London, 2012
    Keywords
    Command and control, Text analysis, Interview study, Exploratory sequential data analysis
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67228 (URN)10.1007/s10111-011-0177-4 (DOI)000310239500005 ()
    Note

    funding agencies|Swedish National Defense College||

    Available from: 2011-04-04 Created: 2011-04-04 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    6. Automated text-based analysis for decision-making research
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated text-based analysis for decision-making research
    2012 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 129-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a study on constructing and evaluating a support tool for the extraction of patterns in distributed decision -making processes, based on design criteria elicited from a study on the work process involved in studying such decision-making. Specifically, we devised and evaluated an analysis tool for C2 researchers who study simulated decision-making scenarios for command teams. The analysis tool used text clustering as an underlying pattern extraction technique and was evaluated together with C2 researchers in a workshop to establish whether the design criteria were valid and the approach taken with the analysis tool was sound. Design criteria elicited from an earlier study with researchers (open-endedness and transparency) were highly consistent with the results from the workshop. Specifically, evaluation results indicate that successful deployment of advanced analysis tools requires that tools can treat multiple data sources and offer rich opportunities for manipulation and interaction (open-endedness) and careful design of visual presentations and explanations of the techniques used (transparency). Finally, the results point to the high relevance and promise of using text clustering as a support for analysis of C2 data.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer London, 2012
    Keywords
    Command and control, Text analysis, Exploratory sequential data analysis, Text clustering
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67229 (URN)10.1007/s10111-010-0170-3 (DOI)000310239500003 ()
    Note

    The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com: Ola Leifler and Henrik Eriksson, Text-based Analysis for Command and Control Researchers: The Workflow Visualizer Approach, 2011, Cognition, Technology & Work. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10111-010-0170-3 Copyright: Springer Science Business Media http://www.springerlink.com/

    Available from: 2011-04-06 Created: 2011-04-04 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    Download full text (pdf)
    Affordances and Constraints of Intelligent Decision Support for Military Command and Control: Three Case Studies of Support Systems
    Download (pdf)
    omslag
  • 123.
    Leifler, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Combining Technical and Human-Centered Strategies for Decision Support in Command and Control - The ComPlan Approach2008In: ISCRAM2008 Proceedings of the 5th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] F. Fiedrich and B. Van de Walle, 2008, p. 504-515Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ComPlan (A Combined, Collaborative Command and Control Planning tool) is an approach to providing knowledge-based decision support in the context of command and control. It combines technical research on automated planning tools with human-centered research on mission planning. At its core, ComPlan uses interconnected views of a planning situation to present and manipulate aspects of a scenario. By using domain knowledge flexibly, it presents immediate and directly visible feedback on constraint violations of a plan, facilitates mental simulation of events, and provides support for synchronization of concurrently working mission planners. The conceptual framework of ComPlan is grounded on three main principles from human-centered research on command and control: transparency, graceful regulation, and event-based feedback. As a result, ComPlan provides a model for applying a human-centered perspective on plan authoring tools for command and control, and a demonstration for how to apply that model in an integrated plan-authoring environment.

  • 124.
    Leifler, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    User-centric critiquing in command and control: the DKExpert and ComPlan approaches2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes two approaches for using critiquing as decision support for military mission planning. In our work, we have drawn from both human-centered research as well as results on decision support systems research for military mission planning when devising approaches for knowledge acquisition and decision support for mission planning.

    Our two approaches build on a common set of requirements which have been developed as the consequence of both literature analyses as well as interview studies. In short, these criteria state that critiquing systems should be developed with transparency, ease of use and integration in traditional work flow in mind. The use of these criteria is illustrated in two approaches to decision support in two different settings: a collaborative real-time war-gaming simulation and a planning tool for training mission commanders.

    Our first approach is demonstrated by the DKExpert system, in which end-users can create feedback mechanisms for their own needs when playing a two-sided war-game scenario in the DKE simulation environment. In DKExpert, users can choose to trigger feedback during the game by instructing a rule engine to recognize critical situations. Our second approach, ComPlan, builds on the insights on knowledge and planning representation gained from DKExpert and introduces an explicit representation of planning operations, thereby allowing for better analysis of planning operations and user-controlled feedback. ComPlan also demonstrates a design for critiquing support systems that respects the traditional work practice of mission planners while allowing for intelligent analysis of military plans. 

    List of papers
    1. Development of Critiquing Systems in Networked Organizations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Critiquing Systems in Networked Organizations
    2004 (English)In: Human Error, Safety and Systems Development, Springer US , 2004, p. 31-43Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, network organizations have been suggested as a solution for future crisis management and warfare. This will, however, have consequences for the development of decision support and critiquing systems. This paper suggests that there are special conditions that need to be taken into account when providing the means for decision-making in networked organizations. Hence, three research problems are suggested that need to be investigated in order to develop useful critiquing systems for future command and control systems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer US, 2004
    Series
    IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, ISSN 1868-4238 ; 152
    Keywords
    decision support, critiquing systems, crisis management
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-23805 (URN)10.1007/1-4020-8153-7_3 (DOI)3328 (Local ID)978-1-4020-8152-1 (ISBN)3328 (Archive number)3328 (OAI)
    Conference
    IFIP 18th World Computer Congress TC13/WC13.5 7th Working Conference on Human Error, Safety and Systems Development 22–27 August 2004 Toulouse, France
    Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2018-01-13
    2. Critique and Visualization as decision support for mass-casualty emergency management
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critique and Visualization as decision support for mass-casualty emergency management
    2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the Second International ISCRAM Conference, Brussels, Belgium: Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium , 2005, p. 155-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency management in highly dynamic situations consists of exploring options to solve a planning problem. This task can be supported through the use of visual cues that are based on domain knowledge of the current domain. We present an approach to use visualization of critical constraints in timelines and hierarchical views as decision support in mass-casualty emergency situations.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Brussels, Belgium: Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium, 2005
    Keywords
    Decision support, crisis management, visualization
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-33968 (URN)20133 (Local ID)9076971099 (ISBN)9789076971094 (ISBN)20133 (Archive number)20133 (OAI)
    Conference
    Second International ISCRAM Conference. Brussels, Belgium. April 18-20 2005.
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2018-01-13
    3. Simulation as a tool for problem detection in rescue operation planning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation as a tool for problem detection in rescue operation planning
    2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the Conference on Modeling and Simulation for Public Safety: SimSafe 2005, 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Management and response in the case of an emergency is a very demanding task. Rescue missiuns can involve numerous individuals and teams working together to save lives and property. The outcome of a rescue mission depends to a large extent on the responding units' ability to co-operate and the overall co-ordination of their efforts. This in turn makes it imponant to investigate how to support the decision makers in emergency situations.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102679 (URN)
    Conference
    Conference on Modeling and Simulation for Public Safety: SimSafe 2005, Linköping, Sweden, May 30, 2005
    Available from: 2013-12-18 Created: 2013-12-18 Last updated: 2014-01-21
    4. Combining Technical and Human-Centered Strategies for Decision Support in Command and Control - The ComPlan Approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining Technical and Human-Centered Strategies for Decision Support in Command and Control - The ComPlan Approach
    2008 (English)In: ISCRAM2008 Proceedings of the 5th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] F. Fiedrich and B. Van de Walle, 2008, p. 504-515Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ComPlan (A Combined, Collaborative Command and Control Planning tool) is an approach to providing knowledge-based decision support in the context of command and control. It combines technical research on automated planning tools with human-centered research on mission planning. At its core, ComPlan uses interconnected views of a planning situation to present and manipulate aspects of a scenario. By using domain knowledge flexibly, it presents immediate and directly visible feedback on constraint violations of a plan, facilitates mental simulation of events, and provides support for synchronization of concurrently working mission planners. The conceptual framework of ComPlan is grounded on three main principles from human-centered research on command and control: transparency, graceful regulation, and event-based feedback. As a result, ComPlan provides a model for applying a human-centered perspective on plan authoring tools for command and control, and a demonstration for how to apply that model in an integrated plan-authoring environment.

    Keywords
    Decision support, mixed-initiative planning, critiquing, cognitive systems engineering
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-42584 (URN)66339 (Local ID)66339 (Archive number)66339 (OAI)
    Conference
    5th International ISCRAM Conference, May 4-7, Washington, DC, USA
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
  • 125.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Model for Document Processing in Semantic Desktop Systems2008In: Proceedings of the I-KNOW '08, the International Conference on Knowledge Management, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a significant gap between the services provided by dedicated information systems and general desktop systems for document communication and preparation. This situation is a serious knowledge-management problem, which often results in information loss, poor communication, and confusion among users. Semantic desktops promise to bring knowledge-based services to common desktop applications and, ultimately, to support knowledge management by adding advanced functionality to familiar computing environments. By custom tailoring these systems to different application domains, it is possible to provide dedicated services that assist users in combining document handling and communication with structured workflow processes and the services provided by dedicated systems. This paper presents a model for developing custom-tailored document processing for semantic-desktop systems. Our approach has been applied to the domain of military command and control, which as based on highly-structured document-driven processes. Key Words: semantic desktop, document-driven processes, semantic documents, planning

  • 126.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    A Research Agenda for Critiquing in Military Decision-Making2004In: Swedish-American Workshop on Simulation and modeling,2004, 2004, p. 11-20Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 127.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis tools in the study of distributed decision-making: a meta-study of command and control research2012In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 157-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of distributed decision making in professional teams and their performance comes in part from studies in which researchers gather and process information about the communications and actions of teams. In many cases, the data sets available for analysis are large, unwieldy and require methods for exploratory and dynamic management of data. In this paper, we report the results of interviewing eight researchers on their work process when conducting such analyses and their use of support tools in this process. Our aim with the study was to gain an understanding of their workflow when studying distributed decision making in teams, and specifically how automated pattern extraction tools could be of use in their work. Based on an analysis of the interviews, we elicited three issues of concern related to the use of support tools in analysis: focusing on a subset of data to study, drawing conclusionsfrom data and understanding tool limitations. Together, these three issues point to two observations regarding tool use that are of specific relevance to the design of intelligent support tools based on pattern extraction: open-endedness and transparency.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 128.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automated text-based analysis for decision-making research2012In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 129-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a study on constructing and evaluating a support tool for the extraction of patterns in distributed decision -making processes, based on design criteria elicited from a study on the work process involved in studying such decision-making. Specifically, we devised and evaluated an analysis tool for C2 researchers who study simulated decision-making scenarios for command teams. The analysis tool used text clustering as an underlying pattern extraction technique and was evaluated together with C2 researchers in a workshop to establish whether the design criteria were valid and the approach taken with the analysis tool was sound. Design criteria elicited from an earlier study with researchers (open-endedness and transparency) were highly consistent with the results from the workshop. Specifically, evaluation results indicate that successful deployment of advanced analysis tools requires that tools can treat multiple data sources and offer rich opportunities for manipulation and interaction (open-endedness) and careful design of visual presentations and explanations of the techniques used (transparency). Finally, the results point to the high relevance and promise of using text clustering as a support for analysis of C2 data.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT02
  • 129.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Domain-specific knowledge management in a Semantic Desktop2009In: Proceedings of I-KNOW '09 9th International Conference on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Technologies / [ed] Klaus Tochtermann, 2009, p. 360-365Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semantic Desktops hold promise to provide intelligent information-management environments that can respond to users’ needs. A critical requirement for creating such environments is that the underlying ontology reflects the context of work properly. For specialized work domains where people deal with rich information sources in a context-specific manner, there may be a significant amount of domain-specific information available in text documents, emails and other domain-dependent data sources. We propose that this can be exploited to great effect in a Semantic Desktop to provide much more effective knowledge management. In this paper, we present extensions to an existing semantic desktop through content- and structure-based information extraction, domain-specific ontological extensions as well as visualization of semantic entities. Our extensions are justified by needs in strategic decision making, where domain-specific, well-structured knowledge is available in documents and communications but scattered across the desktop. The consistent and efficient use of these resources by a group of co-workers is critical to success. With a domain-aware semantic desktop, we argue that decision makers will have a much better chance of successful sense making in strategic decision making.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 130.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Message classification as a basis for studying command and control communication: an evaluation of machine learning approaches2012In: Journal of Intelligent Information Systems, ISSN 0925-9902, E-ISSN 1573-7675, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 299-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In military command and control, success relies on being able to perform key functions such as communicating intent. Most staff functions are carried out using standard means of text communication. Exactly how members of staff perform their duties, who they communicate with and how, and how they could perform better, is an area of active research. In command and control research, there is not yet a single model which explains all actions undertaken by members of staff well enough to prescribe a set of procedures for how to perform functions in command and control. In this context, we have studied whether automated classification approaches can be applied to textual communication to assist researchers who study command teams and analyze their actions. Specifically, we report the results from evaluating machine leaning with respect to two metrics of classification performance: (1) the precision of finding a known transition between two activities in a work process, and (2) the precision of classifying messages similarly to human researchers that search for critical episodes in a workflow. The results indicate that classification based on text only provides higher precision results with respect to both metrics when compared to other machine learning approaches, and that the precision of classifying messages using text-based classification in already classified datasets was approximately 50%. We present the implications that these results have for the design of support systems based on machine learning, and outline how to practically use text classification for analyzing team communications by demonstrating a specific prototype support tool for workflow analysis.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT02
  • 131.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jenvald, Johan
    VSL Research Labs, Linköpings, Sweden.
    Critique and Visualization as decision support for mass-casualty emergency management2005In: Proceedings of the Second International ISCRAM Conference, Brussels, Belgium: Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium , 2005, p. 155-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency management in highly dynamic situations consists of exploring options to solve a planning problem. This task can be supported through the use of visual cues that are based on domain knowledge of the current domain. We present an approach to use visualization of critical constraints in timelines and hierarchical views as decision support in mass-casualty emergency situations.

  • 132.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jenvald, Johan
    Visuell Systemteknik i Linköping AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Simulation as a tool for problem detection in rescue operation planning2005In: Proceedings of the Conference on Modeling and Simulation for Public Safety: SimSafe 2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Management and response in the case of an emergency is a very demanding task. Rescue missiuns can involve numerous individuals and teams working together to save lives and property. The outcome of a rescue mission depends to a large extent on the responding units' ability to co-operate and the overall co-ordination of their efforts. This in turn makes it imponant to investigate how to support the decision makers in emergency situations.

  • 133.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Mats
    National Defence College, Sweden.
    Rigas, Georgios
    National Defence College, Sweden.
    Development of Critiquing Systems in Networked Organizations2004In: Human Error, Safety and Systems Development, Springer US , 2004, p. 31-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, network organizations have been suggested as a solution for future crisis management and warfare. This will, however, have consequences for the development of decision support and critiquing systems. This paper suggests that there are special conditions that need to be taken into account when providing the means for decision-making in networked organizations. Hence, three research problems are suggested that need to be investigated in order to develop useful critiquing systems for future command and control systems.

  • 134.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Rigas, Georgios
    KVI Försvarshögskolan.
    Persson, Mats
    KVI Försvarshögskolan.
    Developing critiquing systems for network organizations.2004In: IFIP 13.5 Working Conference on Human Error, Safety and Systems Development,2004, Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Verlag , 2004, p. 10-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 135.
    Lind, Leili
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berglund, Aseel
    Saab Aerosystems, Linköping.
    Berglund, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bång, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hägglund, Sture
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effortless data capture for ambient e-services with digital pen and paper technology2010In: Designing Solution-Based Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing: New Issues and Trends / [ed] Fransisco Milton Mendes Neto, Pedro Fernandes Ribeiro Neto, Information Science Publishing/IGI Global , 2010, p. 24-43Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to counteract the digital divide and to enable the society to reach all its citizens with various kinds of e-services, there is a need to develop access methods and terminal technologies suited also for groups with weak access to the Internet, not the least elderly and people needing care in their homes. In this chapter, the authors will describe technologies for using digital pen and paper as data input media for e-services and computing applications, refer a number of applications together with studies and evaluations of their usability, and finally comment upon future prospects for integrating digital pen and paper as an effortless technique for data capture, especially in order to counteract and diminish the digital divide. The use of digital pen and paper technologies is exemplified with applications demonstrating its appropriateness in home care for elderly, for free-form recording of data on paper such as maps, and as a remote control for a TV set or other electronic appliances with rich functionality in the home.

  • 136.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    KTH Royal Institute Technology.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    University of So Denmark.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations2012In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 45, p. 455-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 137.
    Maijala, Markus
    et al.
    Medieteknik, Södertörns högskola.
    Nygard, Stefan
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The stone age trail: A mobile outdoors computer game for nature experience2010In: The virtual: interaction: a conference 2007 / [ed] Hernwall, P., Huddinge: School of Communication, Media and IT, Södertörn University , 2010, p. 30-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology can assist people as they pursue different kinds of nature experience. Some systems developed have been made for learning, social activities, and leisure. Our aim is to explore how to make use of the theoretical frameworks of embodied interaction and technology as experience in the design and reflection process of creating an interactive system that have the potential to augment visitorsᅵ experience of Tyresta national park. Design activities included contextual inquiries, sketching, prototyping and user testing. Two handheld computers and physical information boards were used in the prototype of a mobile outdoors game. The theoretical frameworks were used to set design objectives that could guide the design. When designing for nature experience we argue that one should design for an activity. The designed system should also be open for diverse ways of usage.

  • 138.
    Manker, Jon
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kommunikation, medier och IT, Medieteknik.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prototyping in game design: Externalization and internalization of game ideas2011In: HCI 2011: Health, Wealth & Happiness: The 25th BCS Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK, July 4-8, 2011., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prototyping is a well-studied activity for interaction designers, but its role in computer game design is relatively unexplored. The aim of this study is to shed light on prototyping in game design. Interviews were conducted with 27 game designers. The empirical data was structured using qualitative content analysis and analysed using the design version of The Activity Checklist. The analysis indicated that six categories of the checklist were significant for the data obtained. Thesecategories are presented in relation to the data. The roles of externalization and internalization are specifically highlighted.

  • 139.
    McGee, Kevin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    A Touch of the Future: Contact-Expressive Devices2004In: IEEE Multimedia, ISSN 1070-986X, E-ISSN 1941-0166, Vol. 11, no 1Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of including contact expressions in different kinds of devices is discussed. The technical development of sensor-motor systems, tactile interfaces, and contact-expressive devices that embody and understand affect are also discussed. The existing attempts to describe human contact tend to be attempts to create general descriptive taxonomies. The development of semiotic models of imagery has helped in designing visual interfaces.

  • 140.
    McGee, Kevin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enactive Cognitive Science. Part 2: Methods, Insights, and Potential2006In: Constructivist Foundations, ISSN 1782-348X, E-ISSN 1782-348X, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 73-82Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 141.
    McGee, Kevin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gifting Technologies2004In: First Monday, ISSN 1396-0466, E-ISSN 1396-0466, Vol. 9, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    File–sharing has become very popular in recent years, but for many this has become synonymous with file–getting. However, there is strong evidence to suggest that people have strong giving (or gifting) needs. This evidence suggests an opportunity for the development of gifting technologies — and it also suggests an important research question and challenge: what needs and concerns do gifters have and what technologies can be developed to help them? In this paper, we discuss the existing literature on gifting, report on an initial study of gifting in an online sharing community, and suggest some ways the study results can inform future research into gifting desires — as well as the design of specific gifting technologies.

  • 142.
    Mettler, T.
    et al.
    University of St Gallen.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Understanding business intelligence in the context of healthcare2009In: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 254-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In todays fast changing healthcare sector, decision makers are facing a growing demand for both clinical and administrative information in order to comply with legal and customer-specific requirements. The use of business intelligence (BI) is seen as a possible solution to this actual challenge. As the existing research about BI is primarily focused on the industrial sector, it is the aim of this contribution to translate and adapt the current findings for the healthcare context. For this purpose, different definitions of BI are examined and condensed in a framework. Furthermore, the sector-specific preconditions for the effective use and future role of BI are discussed.

  • 143.
    Mettler, Tobias
    et al.
    SAP Research Centre St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    The need of a multi-actor perspective to understand expectations from virtual presence: managing elderly homecare informatics2011In: Informatics for Health and Social Care, ISSN 1753-8157, E-ISSN 1753-8165, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 220-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Different studies have analysed a wide range of use cases and scenarios for using IT-based services in homecare settings for elderly people. In most instances, the impact of such services has been studied using a one-dimensional approach, either focusing on the benefits for the patient or health service provider. Purpose. The objective of this contribution is to explore a model for identifying and understanding outcomes of IT-based homecare services from a multi-actor perspective. Methods. In order to better understand the state of the art in homecare informatics, we conducted a literature review. We use experiences from previous research in the area of informatics to develop the proposed model. Results. The proposed model consists of four core activities identify involved actors, understand consequences, clarify contingencies, take corrective actions, and one additional activity brainstorming IT use. Conclusion. The primary goal of innovating organisations, processes and services in homecare informatics today, is to offer continued care, better decision support both to practitioners and patients, as well as effective distribution of resources. A multi-actor analysis perspective is needed to understand utility determination for the involved stakeholders.

  • 144. Morin, Magnus
    et al.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Jenvald, Johan
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Simulating Influenza Outbreaks in Local Communities2005In: BioMedSim,2005, 2005, p. 17-23Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 145.
    Nordfeldt, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Hanberger, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Malm, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Development of a PC-based diabetes simulator in collaboration with teenagers with Type 1 diabetes2007In: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, ISSN 1520-9156, E-ISSN 1557-8593, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 17-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The main aim of this study was to develop and test in a pilot study a PC-based interactive diabetes simulator prototype as a part of future Internet-based support systems for young teenagers and their families. A second aim was to gain experience in user-centered design (UCD) methods applied to such subjects. Methods: Using UCD methods, a computer scientist participated in iterative user group sessions involving teenagers with Type 1 diabetes 13-17 years old and parents. Input was transformed into a requirements specification by the computer scientist and advisors. This was followed by gradual prototype development based on a previously developed mathematical core. Individual test sessions were followed by a pilot study with five subjects testing a prototype. The process was evaluated by registration of flow and content of input and opinions from expert advisors. Results: It was initially difficult to motivate teenagers to participate. User group discussion topics ranged from concrete to more academic matters. The issue of a simulator created active discussions among parents and teenagers. A large amount of input was generated from discussions among the teenagers. Individual test runs generated useful input. A pilot study suggested that the gradually elaborated software was functional. Conclusions: A PC-based diabetes simulator may create substantial interest among teenagers and parents, and the prototype seems worthy of further development and studies. UCD methods may generate significant input for computer support system design work and contribute to a functional design. Teenager involvement in design work may require time, patience, and flexibility. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  • 146.
    Ogolla, Juliana Anyango
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Usability Evaluation: Tasks Susceptible to Concurrent Think-Aloud Protocol2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Think-aloud protocol is a usability testing method whereby the participant running the usability test on an interface, thinks aloud as a way of giving feedback of the task he/she is performing on the given interface. It is one of the most researched on usability testing methods. It has attracted both praises and criticisms based on the effects it has on the participants or the tests at hand. A recently done study that used simple tasks, aimed at finding out the difference between using think-aloud protocol and not using think-aloud protocol. The study concluded that no notable differences were evident on the number of fixations and the amount of screen areas viewed when using think-aloud protocol and when not using think-aloud protocol.As an extension and follow-up of the recently done study, this study focused on finding the type of tasks that the concurrent think-aloud protocol has effects on. The tasks were chosen based on the information scent concept and eye-tracking methodology was used in collecting the necessary results.The study that involved twenty participants, resulted to some effects of the concurrent think-aloud protocol being noted on the low-scent tasks but not on high-scent tasks. It therefore goes ahead to conclude the tasks onto which concurrent think-aloud protocol would be more effective and the tasks that would be executed more effectively through other usability testing methods other than concurrent think-aloud protocol.

    Download full text (pdf)
    juliana_thesis_final
  • 147.
    Olve, Nils-Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Locating ICT's benefits in elderly care2005In: Medical informatics and the Internet in medicine (Print), ISSN 1463-9238, E-ISSN 1464-5238, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 297-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of information and communication technology (ICT) is indirect and depends on redesign of practices and structures also outside health care. Improvements will only be realized if all parties involved can coordinate their efforts to take advantage of new technology. A 'package' of changed work practices and structures extending across organizational boundaries needs to be designed and implemented. This is very different from the common conception of introducing new ICT tools. Calls for 'evaluation of benefits' before new ICT systems are introduced need to recognize this complexity. This article investigates how analysis and economic evaluations can be used to improve decision-making when new applications are proposed. This is done by drawing parallels with experiences from other industries. We conclude that the entire 'change package' should be analysed for its consequences on the well-being of care recipients, and the requirements it presents for capital investments and changed labour inputs, in particular changed competence needs. Some concepts and structures are suggested for such evaluations. © 2005 Taylor & Francis.

  • 148. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Persson, Per-Arne
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bringing power and knowledge together: information systems design for autonomy and control in command work2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    THIS THESIS PRESENTS an empirical ethnographic study that has been conducted as fieldwork within army command organizations, leading to a qualitative analysis of data. The title of the thesis captures the contents of both command work and research, both domains being affected by new technologies during a period of drastic changes in the military institution. The overriding research question was why efforts to implement modern information technology are so slow, costly, and why the contribution from the output as regards higher control efficiency is so uncertain. Two cases will be described and analysed. One is a meeting and the other is the development of a computer artefact. Based on these two cases, the study suggests that social value and not only rational control efficiency defines what is applied, both in the development process and in practice. Knowledge and power, expertise and authority, represented by experts and formal leaders have to be brought together if the work is to be efficient. Both knowledge from research and information technology will be rejected, if considered irrelevant. I have called this applying a rationality of practice.

    From the case analysis it can be said that command work is not ordinary managerial work. Rather, it is a kind of design work, dynamic and hard to define and control. Command work is knowledge-intensive; it designs and produces symbols. Therefore it is very flexible and involves interpretation and negotiation of both its content and products. The most important symbol is the Army, which must be visible and credible, built from real components.

    Command work is pragmatic and opportunistic, conducted by experts in the modern military command structure who transform the operational environment, and control it through controlling actions. In that respect autonomy, a prerequisite to meet evolving events—frictions—and power become core issues, interchangeable goals and means for flexible social control, in cybernetic terms variety. Key concepts are social value, function and visibility. Actors must be visible in the command work, and make work visible. Consequently, when designing control tools, such as information systems, the design challenge is to reconcile dynamic and pragmatic demands for power, autonomy and control with demands for stability. Such an organization becomes a viable system, one that can survive, because there is no conflict between its mind and physical resources. In operational terms, this means having freedom of action. The prerequisite to achieve this is one perspective on knowledge and information and that information systems match the needs growing from within the work because work builds the organization.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 149.
    Persson, Per-Arne
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Nyce, James
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Command and control: A biased combination?2000In: The Human in Command: Exploring the Modern Military Experience / [ed] Carol McCann and Ross Pigeau, New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers , 2000, p. 201-216Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although technology has come a long way in assisting the resolution of some of the conflicts, inevitably human conflict requires human intervention. This book aims to explore and understand the implications of this human intervention and the ways that science can make it more effective

  • 150. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Information Technology for Non-Profit Organisations: Extended Participatory Design of an Information System for Trade Union Shop Stewards2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The conditions for the third, non-profit sector, such as grassroots organisations and trade unions, have changed dramatically in recent years, due to prevailing social trends. Non-profit organisations have been seen as early adopters of information technology, but the area is, at the same time, largely unattended by scientific research. Meanwhile, the field of information systems development is, to an increasing extent, recognising the importance of user involvement in the design process. Nevertheless, participatory development approaches, such as Participatory Design are not suited to the context of entire organisations, and new, networked organisational structures, such as those of non-profit organisations. This reasoning also applies to the theoretical framework of Activity Theory, whose potential benefits for systems development have been acclaimed but less often tried in practice.

    This thesis aims, first, at extending Participatory Design to use in large, particularly non-profit organisations. This aim is partly achieved by integrating Participatory Design with an Argumentative Design approach and with the application of Activity Theory modified for an organisational context. The purpose is to obtain reasoning about and foreseeing the consequences of different design solutions. Second, the thesis aims at exploring information technology needs, solutions, and consequences in non-profit organisations, in trade unions in particular. The case under study is the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO) and the design of an information system for its 250 000 shop stewards.

    The thesis is based on six related studies complemented with data from work in a local design group working according to the principles of Participatory Design. The first study was aimed at investigating and comparing trade union management’s view of the new technology and the actual needs of shop stewards. The second study investigated the situation, tasks and problems of shop stewards, as a pre-requisite for finding information technology needs. The third study merged the previous findings into an argumentative design of an information systems design proposal. The fourth study collected the voices from secondary user groups in the organisation, and presented an Activity theoretical analysis of the union organisation and a modified design proposal in the form of a prototype. The fifth study presented an Activity theoretical framework, modified for organisational application, and used it for producing hypotheses on possible shop steward tasks and organisational consequences of the implementation of the information system. The sixth paper was aimed at the initial testing of the hypotheses, through the evaluation of information technology facilities in one of the individual union affiliations. The complementary data was used to propose further modifications of the integrated Participatory, Argumentative, and Activity Theory design approach.

    The major contributions of the study are, first, a modified Participatory Design approach to be applied at three levels; in general as a way of overcoming experienced difficulties with the original approach, in the context of entire, large organisations, and in the specific non-profit organisation context. The second contribution is generated knowledge in the new research area of information technology in the non-profit, trade union context, where for instance the presented prototype can be seen as a source of inspiration. Future research directions include further development and formalisation of the integrated Participatory Design approach, as well as actual consequences of implementing information technology in non-profit organisations and trade unions.

    List of papers
    1. From 'the good work' to 'the good life': a Perspective on Labor Union Visions Regarding Information Technology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>From 'the good work' to 'the good life': a Perspective on Labor Union Visions Regarding Information Technology
    1998 (English)In: Proceedings of the Participatory Design Conference, 1998, p. 137-145Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13484 (URN)
    Available from: 2002-10-17 Created: 2002-10-17 Last updated: 2015-08-19
    2. How do Shop Stewards Perceive their Situation and Tasks?: Preconditions for Support of Union Work
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do Shop Stewards Perceive their Situation and Tasks?: Preconditions for Support of Union Work
    2001 (English)In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 569-599Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When unions worldwide confront a decline in density and power,pressure increases on shop stewards. They occupy a positiondesribed s demanding, which involves striking a balance betweenconciliation and tough negotiation, between ordinary work andunion work, and feelings of isolation from members. If shopstewards already experien a demanding work situation, and parallelto this the overall union conditions become aggravated, a nextstep would be to find out in what ways their situation can befacilitated. This article is based on data desribing recentexperiences of Swedish shop stewards, and it compares theirsituation to that desribed in the international research literature.It is found that the basic components of union work remain stable,in spite of rent labour relations changes and national differences.However, lees than half of the reported problems were relatedto direct contact with the employer. Shop stewards generalyexperience a situation characterized by inherent conflict andwide-ranging tasks, resulting in high demands on their skillsand in role overload. On the other hand, the results indicatedifferences with regard to the ulnion affilation, age, experienceand gender. En the eyes of union members the shop stew ardslargely emb ody the ui on organizati on. Therefore, they shouldreeive increased attention when dealing with the problems ofunions. Measures to facilitate their work can include training,supportive networks and access to adequate information technology,and can further be targeted with regard to age/experience andgender.

    Keywords
    labour relations, shop stewards, trade unions, union membership
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13485 (URN)10.1177/0143831X01224006 (DOI)
    Available from: 2002-10-17 Created: 2002-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    3. Organisational Policy and Shop-floor Requests in Design: Visualisation of the Argumentation Behind an Information System for the Swedish Trade Union Movement
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organisational Policy and Shop-floor Requests in Design: Visualisation of the Argumentation Behind an Information System for the Swedish Trade Union Movement
    2001 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0905-0167, E-ISSN 1901-0990, Vol. 13, p. 115-133Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Design Rationale is an approach to the design of information systems which highlights the underlying argumentative reasoning and documentation of design decisions. The Argumentative Design (ArD) method extends Design Rationale to address organisational problem identification and the formulation of needs to be supported by the system. In this study, ArD was further modified and then applied in the early phase of the design of an information system for shop stewards in the Swedish trade union movement. The application of ArD revealed that both similarities and significant discrepancies existed between top-management information technology strategies and shop-floor needs, and that the strategies involve fundamental power-relation issues in terms of centralisation versus decentralisation and individualism versus collectivism. It is suggested that ArD can be of general benefit in early design phases by eliciting fundamental organisational issues and by illustrating what impact chosen information technology solutions may have on organisations. The study is of value for other unions wishing to learn from the Swedish experience and the modified ArD approach can also be used in other contexts where several interest groups are to be satisfied by a system.

    Keywords
    Design Rationale, Argumentative Design, trade unions, information systems
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13486 (URN)
    Available from: 2002-10-17 Created: 2002-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    4. From Utopia to DLK: Management of External Voices in Large Participatory Design Projects
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Utopia to DLK: Management of External Voices in Large Participatory Design Projects
    2000 (English)In: Proceedings of the Participatory Design Conference, 2000, p. 156-165Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to extend Participatory design in order to apply it in heterogeneous user groups and large projects of strategic importance for organizations. This study displays an approach to capturing and including relevant external design voices using data from the design of an information system aimed to support the day-to-day tasks of Swedish shop stewards. It was found that shop stewards often use an operative voice, middle level union ombudsmen an organizational voice, and union federation management an ideological one when relating to information technology. An Activity theory analysis showed that the union organization stands at a crossroads, and that the choice of information technology will directly influence the future direction to be taken. It is argued that all parties in a design process must therefore be heard, in order to arrive at system solutions that are actually implemented, used and administrated.

    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13487 (URN)0966781813 (ISBN)
    Conference
    6th Biennial Participatory Design Conference 2000, November 28 - December 1, 2000, New York, USA
    Available from: 2002-10-17 Created: 2002-10-17 Last updated: 2015-08-19
    5. Using Activity Theory in system development for entire organisations: the case of the Swedish Trade Union Confederation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Activity Theory in system development for entire organisations: the case of the Swedish Trade Union Confederation
    2002 (English)In: International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, ISSN 1465-6612, Vol. 2, no 3-4, p. 308-328Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Activity Theory has, in recent years, been criticised for not paying enough attention to the notion of individual versus collective subjects. It has also been pointed out that even though the Activity theoretical framework can beneficially be used in the development of information systems, actual attempts to apply it to concrete projects are only occasional. This study explores the use of Activity Theory in an organisational context where the subject is of marked collective nature, in an information systems development project for the Swedish National Trade Union Confederation (LO). Both implications of the study as regards the specific trade union application, and more general implications of applying Activity Theory to studies of entire organisations and for system development, are discussed.

    Keywords
    Activity Theory, organisational change, information systems development, trade unions
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13488 (URN)
    Available from: 2002-10-17 Created: 2002-10-17 Last updated: 2015-09-02
    6. Anticipated and Actual Consequences of Implementing Information Technology in a Large Third Sector Organisation: the Case of a Trade Union Confederation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anticipated and Actual Consequences of Implementing Information Technology in a Large Third Sector Organisation: the Case of a Trade Union Confederation
    2002 (English)In: 18th European Group for Organizational Studies Colloquium, Barcelona, 2002Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13489 (URN)
    Available from: 2002-10-17 Created: 2002-10-17 Last updated: 2015-08-19
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
12345 101 - 150 of 216
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf