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  • 101.
    Johansson, Siri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Lethagen, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Barns förmåga till fonemdiskrimination i åldern tre till fem år2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tal- och språkutvecklingen är beroende av kunskapen om vad som är språkligt relevant i en talström. Detta innebär förmågan att skilja mellan såväl fonem och segment som ord. Vid undersökning av språkförmågan hos ett barn är det viktigt att bedöma både språkperception och språkproduktion. Behovet av ökad kunskap om fonemdiskrimination hos barn i åldern tre till fem år samt behovet av ett småbarnsanpassat, auditivt diskriminationstest motiverar föreliggande studie.

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka tre- till femåringars förmåga till fonemdiskrimination av minimala par, utifrån de vanligaste paradigmatiska fonologiska förenklingsprocesserna hos barn. Totalt deltog 34 barn i åldrarna 3;2 – 4;10 år. Femtiofem minimala par presenterades för barnen, som ombads peka på benämnt målord.

    Resultaten indikerar att förmågan till fonemdiskrimination i den undersökta åldersgruppen är svag, då samtliga barn erhöll låga medelvärden för antal rätta svar. Högst medelvärde för antal rätta svar erhölls hos samtliga barn vid testning av distinktionen /s/ - /t/. Skillnaden i medelvärde för distinktionen /s/ - /t/ och övriga distinktioners medelvärden var statistiskt signifikant. De äldre barnen i stickprovet erhöll högre medelvärden inom samtliga fonemdistinktioner, men en signifikant skillnad mellan åldersgrupperna förekom endast för fonemdistinktionen /f/ - /p/. Resultaten diskuteras utifrån ordkunskap, ordpreferenser, fonemposition och bildmaterialets utformning.

    Studien har bidragit till ökad kunskap kring tre till femåringars förmåga att diskriminera mellan minimala par. En vidareutveckling av testmaterialet kan ge goda förutsättningar för fortsatt användande.

    Nyckelord: Fonologisk utveckling, fonemdiskrimination, minimala par.

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  • 102.
    Johansson, Veronica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Krstic, Simona
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kartläggning av Rösthandikappindex för personer med Parkinsons sjukdom2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Parkinsons sjukdom är en vanlig neurologisk sjukdom och den vanligaste motorikstörningen. Mer än 70 % av patienter med Parkinsons sjukdom rapporterar problem med röst och tal. Syftet med dennas studie var att undersöka hur personer med Parkinsons sjukdom upplever sin rösthälsa och jämföra detta med normaldata från tidigare studier. Även huruvida information om röstförändringar i samband med Parkinsons sjukdom nått deltagargruppen utreddes. Som undersökningsinstrument användes formuläret Rösthandikappindex (RHI), som ger ett subjektivt mått på rösthälsa. Utöver detta användes även ett frågeformulär för kompletterande information. Antalet deltagare var 34 personer med Parkinsons sjukdom, 22 kvinnor och 12 män. Medelåldern för samtliga deltagare var 69 år. Medelvärdet av RHI för samtliga deltagare var 27,3 poäng och medelvärdet för de som var över 65 år var 26,6. I jämförelse med tidigare studier var dessa värden signifikant högre. Från detta resultat drogs slutsatsen att Parkinsons sjukdom påverkar individens subjektiva upplevelse av den egna rösten. Dessutom skattade männen signifikant högre än kvinnorna, vilket kan tolkas som att männen upplever sina röstbesvär som värre än kvinnorna. Vidare fanns ett positivt signifikant samband mellan RHI-poäng och tid sedan diagnos, vilket innebär att ju längre de levt med diagnosen desto högre skattar de på RHI. Ett relativt lågt antal deltagare hade fått information om röstförändringar som kan ske i samband med Parkinsons sjukdom.

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    Kartläggning av Rösthandikappindex för personer med Parkinsons sjukdom
  • 103.
    Järåsen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Petersson, Joel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bedömning av utländsk brytning och förståelighet hos personer med svenska som andraspråk före och efter en kurs i svenskt uttal2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lot of research made on second language (L2) learning (Jesney, 2004). However the relationship between foreign accent, intelligibility and acoustics within pronunciation tutoring is quite an unresearched area (Thorén, 2008). The aim of the study was to analyze how a course in Swedish pronunciation affected foreign accent, intelligibility and acoustics among L2-learners of Swedish. A total of 41 people participated in the study: 16 L2-learners, 4 native Swedish speakers consisting a control group and 21 perceptual assessors with Swedish as native language. The L2-learners foreign accent and intelligibility were rated by the listeners before and after a course in Swedish pronunciation on an eight-point Likert-scale. The listeners also answered a questionnaire on factors potentially affecting the ratings. The acoustic measurements were made on ten words that were read aloud consisting of long and short allophones of five Swedish vowels. Formants, vowel duration and fundamental frequency were measured for the three closest and the three furthest from native pronunciation rated L2-learners.

    The results indicate that a class in Swedish pronunciation significantly decreased the L2-learners foreign accent. A strong correlation between the foreign accent and intelligibility ratings was found. Despite a strong correlation, no significant improvement concerning intelligibility could be established. The only factor that affected the intelligibility ratings were the assessor’s geographic affiliation. People from the western part of Sweden rated the intelligibility as less intelligible than raters from the eastern part of Sweden. The results from some of the acoustic measurements corresponded with the assessors ratings of foreign accent and intelligibility. The L2-learner rated as closest to native pronunciation was also the one with acousticly measured results close to the reference values regarding vowel duration (Elert, 1964; Gårding et al, 1974; Kügler, 2007; Thorén, i.d.) and fundamental frequency (Pegoraro Krook, 1988). The conclusion is that Swedish pronunciation tutoring should be focused on exercises that increase intelligibility because exercises that improve the foreign accent not necessarily increase the intelligibility.

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    Bedömning av utländsk brytning och förståelighet hos personer med svenska som andraspråk före och efter en kurs i svenskt uttal
  • 104.
    Karlhager, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Ström, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Utvärdering av kirurgisk behandling vid organiska stämbandsförändringar hos barn2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden surgical treatment of vocal fold lesions in children is fairly uncommon. At Falun hospital they have adapted a more generous attitude towards phonosurgery of children’s vocal folds. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate surgical treatment of organic vocal fold lesions in children and to assess the phonosurgical patient utility. The study was carried out at the Ear-, Nose- and Throat clinic, Falun hospital, Sweden. Based on case sheets, data was collected regarding the different vocal fold lesions that were surgically treated. The most frequent vocal fold abnormalities were vocal fold nodules, vocal fold cysts and sulcus/vergeture. Further on, assessment of pre- and postoperative voice recordings and stroboscopic examinations were carried out. The general tendency was that vocal fold closure and mucosal wave was estimated as normal or less abnormal following surgery in most patients. Postoperatively, hoarseness, breathiness and roughness were estimated to be significantly lower. For hyperfunction, only a tendency to lower occurrence was observed. The estimation of high pitch was similar pre- and postoperatively. A mail questionnaire showed that most patients/parents estimated a high degree of perceived voice related problems preoperatively. Most patients rated their own vocal function at the time of the study as highly functional. The majority were satisfied with the choice of undergoing surgical treatment. The conclusion was that surgical treatment may be a good option in organic vocal fold lesions in children.

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  • 105.
    Karlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nikkanen Johansson, Ronja
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Röst och kommunikation på förskola: Förskolepedagogers syn på ljudmiljöns påverkan på kommunikation och röst2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommunikation är ett sätt att överföra budskap mellan individer. Detta kan ske verbalt och icke-verbalt. För att kommunikationen ska fungera på ett tillfredsställande vis krävs ett samspel mellan samtalsparterna. I muntlig kommunikation finns det alltid faktorer som kan påverka överföringen negativt. Exempel på sådana är olika språkkunskap eller kulturell bakgrund samt höga ljudnivåer. Höga ljudnivåer kräver att förskolepedagoger använder en högre röststyrka. Då det hela tiden förekommer höga ljudnivåer på förskolor ställer det stora krav på pedagogernas röster. Med en ökad kunskap om rösten minskar riskerna att drabbas av en röststörning.

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att få kunskap om hur förskolpedagoger upplever ljudmiljöns påverkan på kommunikationen på förskolan. För att ta reda på detta har intervjuer och mätningar gjorts på två olika förskolor.

    Sex kvinnliga förskolepedagoger intervjuades. Intervjuerna genomfördes på två förskolor i områden med hög frekvens av flerspråkighet, för att få en inblick i hur kommunikationen mellan flerspråkiga barn och pedagog i en bullrig miljö ser ut. En tematisk analys av materialet gjordes och temana kunskap, miljö, ljudens påverkan samt strategier erhölls.

    Resultatet visar att det föreligger en bristande kunskap om röst hos de intervjuade förskolepedagogerna och att de inte har fått utbildning inom varken röst eller röstergonomi. De har en större kunskap kring hörsel och hyser större oro angående hörselfunktionen. Det uppges att den största bullerkällan på förskolorna är ljud från barnen. Bullernivåerna på de båda förskolorna varierade mellan 35 dBA och 95 dBA beroende på om rummet var tomt eller vilken aktivitet som utfördes.

    De höga ljudnivåerna gör det svårt för förskolpedagogerna att vara fokuserade och koncentrerade. De tycker vidare att en liknande påverkan kan ses hos barnen. Vad gäller kommunikationen med flerspråkiga barn uppger pedagogerna att det krävs mer tydlighet och koncentration för att förstå varandra än vid kommunikation med barn med svenska som modersmål. På förskolorna finns hjälpmedel som minskar bullernivåerna, men pedagogerna upplever att de stora barngrupperna har störst betydelse för de höga ljudnivåerna.

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  • 106.
    Karlsson, Elinor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Östling, Linnéa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jämförelse mellan Theory of Mind-förmåga och pragmatisk förmåga hos svenska barn i 4 och 5 års ålder2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Theory of mind involves the ability to take another person’s perspective in thought, emotions and intentions.  There is today a lack of instruments to assess children’s development of Theory of Mind (ToM) in Swedish. ToM is considered by many scientists to be the basis for development of pragmatic competence. The relationship between these two abilities is complex and not fully resolved. Both abilities are important components for the development of social skills.

        The purpose of this study was to compare 4 and 5-year olds ToM-ability measured with a Swedish version of Wellman and Liu’s ToM-scale, Sally Anne and Social Emotional Test with estimated pragmatic competence measured with the Children’s Communication Checklist (CCC). To make this possible the study also aims to translate and evaluate a Swedish version of Wellman and Liu’s ToM-scale. In the study 39 children in the age of 4 and 5 years old participated (20 4-year olds and 19 5-year olds).     The present study can point to the relationship between the ToM1 ability false belief and pragmatic abilities, as well as different abilities related to pragmatics (conversational rapport, use of discourse context and prosody). Correlation between prosody and other measures of ToM1 abilities was also observed. The result can be linked to previous research on the relationship between pragmatics and ToM. ToM and pragmatic are two abilities that are linked to each other. But as the result is not entirely conclusive, they may also shed more light to the complexity of these abilities and their relationship.      The result of the evaluation of Wellman and Liu’s ToM-scale shows that most of the children got a result pattern that agreed with the hypothesis of a gradual acquisition of ToM-abilties. However, Swedish 4 year olds did to a greater extent passed questions in a pattern that was not compatible with the gradual acquisition claim than American children did in a previous study. One reason for this result may be cultural differences. More research is needed on a larger selection of subjects and a wider range of age groups before any conclusions can be drawn. However, the translated scale can be used in a qualitative way, to examine which aspects of a ToM a child comprehends.

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    Jämförelse mellan Theory of Mind- förmåga och pragmatisk förmåga hos svenska barn i 4 och 5 års ålder
  • 107.
    Keranović, Amela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Stengård, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Fonologiska och kognitiva förmågor hos barn: en jämförelse mellan barn med cochleaimplantat och/eller hörapparat och normalhörande barn2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study was to examine potential differences in phonological and cognitive abilities between children with cochlear implants (CI) and/or hearing aids (HA) and hearing children in the ages five to seven years. The study compared results from eleven to 44 children with normal hearing with eight to 25 children with CI/HA from four different studies. The material consisted of a test of output phonology, a test of phonological representations, TOWRE and five subtests in SIPS. All of the results were analyzed quantitatively and the test of output phonology was also analyzed qualitatively. The results indicated that children with CI/HA in general performed poorer than the hearing children on tests of phonological ability and phonological working memory, but they performed on a par with hearing children on tests of complex and visuospatial working memory. The conclusions that may be drawn are that the children with CI/HA, as a group, exhibited poorer phonological ability on several of tests of phonological ability than the children with normal hearing. When analyzed according to age the children with CI/HA exhibited significantly lower phonological production skills in the group consisting of five year old children, but not in the groups consisting of six and seven year old children. Regarding cognitive ability the children with CI/HA exhibited poorer phonological working memory capacity compared to the children with normal hearing, but regarding complex and visuospatial working memory they exhibited abilities on a par with the children with normal hearing

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    Magisteruppsats Logopedprogrammet Keranovic och Stengård
  • 108.
    Kobli, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Taleman, Ann-Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Språkförmågor hos barn som deltar i läsfrämjande aktivitet2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a school for children from 6-9 years in a small town in the southeast of Sweden, is areading activity program in progress since 8 years. The original purpose of this program wasto enhance the student’s reading interest. All of the students read at least one book a week andthen they review the book in front of the class.

    The purpose of the present study was to examine vocabulary, word retrieving, narrative skillsand grammatical abilities in children in this school. The objectives were to investigate if thechosen language abilities in these children were different compared to normative data andearlier studies in children at comparable ages. Furthermore, the aim was to study if narrative skills correlated with vocabulary, word retrieving and grammatical ability.

    The examination was carried out by testing 65 students in the school regarding the chosenlanguage abilities. The results showed that these students had better vocabulary compared to American normative data and earlier Swedish studies. In narratives they produced stories inchronological order and they included a large amount of information. Narrative abilitiescorrelated with receptive vocabulary, word retrieving and grammatical abilities.

    It was concluded that reading promoting activities may have affected these student’s languageabilities in a positive way.

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  • 109.
    Kofoed Brandt, Signe
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Barnröstens förändring under dagen i en anpassad röstinspelning och spontantal: En experimentell studie av perceptuella och akustiska parametrar2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A controlled recording in a studio is the basis of all voice treatment. However, this controlled way of recording voice patients' voices can be questioned. The voice use may be different in a natural environment. In children noise related voice problems are investigated in a study about voice and its development (BUG – Child voice and noise). Children are exposed daily to high background noise at day-care centers. The aim of this study was to see how representative a controlled voice recording of children repeating short sentences is compared to their voice use in spontaneous speech in a natural environment. Furthermore, it was to examine changes over the day in perceptual and acoustic terms. Eleven five-year-old children were recorded three times during a day at day-care. The speech material consisted of sentences containing at least three words selected from the spontaneous speech, times three. The recordings were randomized and analyzed acoustically and evaluated perceptually by listeners naïve to the material. The results were compared to measures on the adapted sentences for the same children. No significant differences were found in the recordings during the day in the spontaneous speech, neither acoustically nor perceptually. Furthermore the statistic calculations indicate that the adapted sentences are representative of spontaneous speech according to measures of fundamental frequency and perturbation excluding the morning recordings and perceptually only for hyperfunction and for hoarseness but only at lunchtime. The other perceptual parameters were not representative at all. For the voices in the present study acoustic measures were more stable.

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  • 110.
    Krögerström, Sanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Liljebäck, Anna-Maja
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Wuotila Isaksson, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kartläggning av barnlogopedisk intervention i dagens Sverige2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det saknas en nutida nationell kartläggning av barnlogopedisk intervention. Tidigare studier har undersökt specifika enheter eller granskat interventionen historiskt. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att utifrån en enkät besvarad av kliniskt aktiva logopeder kartlägga det barnlogopediska behandlingsläget i dagens Sverige. Målet var att kunna beskriva interventionens karaktär samt vilka metoder och material som används. Enkäten bestod av 30 frågor och riktade sig till logopeder som för tillfället var verksamma inom det barnlogopediska fältet, exklusive barnhabilitering. Totalt deltog 57 personer i studien och samtliga var kvinnor.

    Svensk barnlogopedi överensstämmer med rekommendationer i litteraturen gällande exempelvis genomsnittlig längd på behandlingsperioder och -kontakter, medan antalet individuella besök per vecka ligger under den frekvens som i forskning har visat sig vara effektiv. Indirekt intervention tillämpas av majoriteten, men huvudfokus ligger överlag på individuell direkt behandling. Litteraturen är inte enig vad gäller effektiviteten hos någon av de olika interventionsformerna. Av deltagarna använder 70 % evidensbaserade metoder och material i någon utsträckning. Mer studier av behandlingseffekt behövs inom flertalet interventionsområden för att stärka evidensen. Praxis och Metafon är de vanligast tillämpade behandlingsmaterialen, tillsammans med egenhändigt tillverkat material samt spel och bilder.

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    Kartläggning av barnlogopedisk intervention i dagens Sverige
  • 111.
    Kvarnryd, Erica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pettersson, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Logopedinsatser vid afasi: arbete med omgivningsfaktorer med fokus på närstående2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Afasi, en förvärvad språkstörning som påverkar kommunikationsförmågan, kan följa som sekundärt symtom till hjärnskada, exempelvis stroke. Störningar i kommunikationsförmågan kan påverka delaktigheten. Tidigare forskning har uppmärksammat arbetet med omgivningsfaktorer vid afasi och påtalat att det behövs utökad kartläggning. Syftet med studien är att ge en bild av hur logopeder upplever arbete med omgivningsfaktorer vid afasi med särskilt fokus på arbetet med närstående. Datainsamlingsmetod var fokusdiskussioner där logopeder (n=6), i Sydostsverige, från tre olika verksamheter deltog. I studien framkom att logopederna eftersöker tydligare struktur, rutiner och metoder i arbetet med såväl närstående som med alternativa kommunikationslösningar. De största skillnaderna mellan det akuta skedet och de senare rehabiliteringsskedena tycks vara längd av kontaktperiod med patient och närstående och som följd av det olika fokus i behandling samt olika möjligheter till närståendekontakt. Hur mycket de närstående involveras i rehabiliteringen verkar bero dels på logopedens arbetssätt, dels på närståendes engagemang. Studien är enbart baserad på logopedernas upplevelse av arbete med omgivningsfaktorer. Ett utvecklingsområde kan vara implementering och utvärdering av metoder i kliniskt arbete. Tidigare forskning har belyst närståendes behov av information, men det tycks vara mindre beforskat hur logopeder bör involvera närstående i olika skeden av rehabiliteringsprocessen.

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    Logopedinsatser vid afasi: arbete med omgivningsfaktorer med fokus på närstående
  • 112.
    Kyrö, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Nilsson, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Tidig utveckling av referentiell kommunikation hos svenska barn 2;6, 3;0 samt 3;7 år gamla2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Referential communication is a part of Theory of Mind. The ability begins developing among children in preschool age. Referential communication signifies functional communication between the speaker and the listener. The speaker is responsible for contributing with enough information for the listener to understand and the listener is responsible for identifying if the speaker has contributed with enough information. Science has tried mapping when different Theory of Mind abilities develop and their relationship with language abilities.

           The purpose of the present study was to examine the development of referential communication and its relationship to other Theory of Mind abilities and language among Swedish children 2;6, 3;0 and 3;7 years old. The relationship between referential communication and demographic factors such as number of siblings, gender and caretakers’ occupation was also examined.

           A total of 34 children participated, of whom 14 were girls and 20 boys. The mean age and the standard deviation among the participating children was 2;6 (1,3), 3;0 (0,6) and 3;7 (0,5) years. Referential communication was examined with a newly developed test (Mimmi-testet) that was translated into Swedish by the authors of the present study. Other Theory of Mind abilities and language comprehension was examined with age-appropriate test materials. Information about the children’s language development and demographic factors was collected from the caretakers using a questionnaire.

           The results indicate that referential communication starts developing among Swedish children between the ages 3;0 and 3;7 years. Referential communication appears to correlate with language comprehension. No correlation between referential communication and language development estimated by caretakers, number of siblings, gender and caretakers’ occupation could be detected in this study.

           According to the results, the development of referential communication is facilitated if the ability to understand that other people’s desires and beliefs can differ from one’s own already exists. It’s hard to determine if the children have been helped by good language comprehension when testing referential communication, but the results implies that the understanding of Theory of Mind is the deciding factor for a better result regarding referential communication. If referential communication is to be included in the Theory of Mind Scale in the future, the ability should be placed after the tasks Diverse Desire and Diverse Belief.

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  • 113.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Hilton Sand, Susanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Korttidsminne och ordavkodning hos döva och hörande2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med korttidsminne menas förmågan att hålla något i minnet i ett par sekunder. Denna kapacitet har tidigare satts till 7±2 enheter hos hörande individer. Motsvarande kapacitet hos döva har visat sig ligga på en något lägre nivå, 4±1 enheter. Hur många enheter en person kan hålla i minnet har ansetts bero på fonologisk förmåga. En bra fonologisk förmåga kan i sin tur kopplas till en bra ordavkodningsförmåga. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka huruvida det finns en koppling mellan korttidsminneskapacitet och ordavkodningsförmåga. Då resultaten jämförts mellan dessa två förmågor, finns tendenser till högre samband hos döva individer än hos hörande.

    I studien har korttidsminneskapaciteten testats med hjälp av spanntest i form av bokstäver/siffror som har presenterats framlänges/baklänges och med skrift/video. Resultatet visade på 6±1.5 enheter för hörande och 5±1.5 för döva. Tidigare studier har även diskuterat vilken typ av presentationssätt som lämpar sig bäst för spanntest då det gäller jämföranden mellan hörande och döva. Vissa har använt sig av talade respektive tecknade siffror och bokstäver medan andra har presenterat stimuli i skrift. En hypotes ställdes om presentationssätt gynnar prestationen på korttidsminnestest, med antagandet om att hörande bör gynnas vid auditiv presentation. Föreliggande studies resultat visade att båda grupperna presterade bättre med stimuli presenterat på tal/tecken, men att framför allt döva gynnades, vilket motbevisar denna hypotes.

    Slutligen testades även ordavkodningsförmågan, både fonologisk och ortografisk, hos de båda grupperna. Hypotesen var att båda grupperna borde prestera någorlunda lika vid ortografisk ordavkodning men att de döva borde prestera på en lägre nivå vid fonologisk ordavkodning. Resultatet bekräftar denna hypotes.

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    Korttidsminne och ordavkodning hos döva och hörande
  • 114.
    Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Wiman, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Voice onset time hos svenska förskolebarn: Ett utvecklingsperspektiv2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Voice onset time (VOT) är en akustisk tidsparameter som speglar den talmotoriska kontrollen. VOT anses vara det mest tillförlitliga akustiska tecknet på om en klusil är tonande eller tonlös.

    Syfte: att undersöka och jämföra VOT hos barn i åldrarna 3, 4 och 5 år samt jämföra med tidigare publicerade svenska vuxenvärden.

    Metod: 83 barn (51 flickor; 32 pojkar) ljudinspelades vid produktion av minimala par för de svenska klusilerna.

    Resultat: medelvärden för VOT minskade genomgående med åldern. Signifikanta skillnader erhölls mellan 3- och 5-åringarna för ljuden /t k b g/ samt gällande användandet av förton för tonande klusiler. Jämförelser med vuxenvärden visade att vuxna i högre utsträckning hade förton för de tonande ljuden och kortare VOT för de tonlösa ljuden än de, i föreliggande studie, deltagande barnen. Inga signifikanta könsskillnader påträffades.

    Resultaten av föreliggande studie kan användas som referensmaterial vid bedömning av barn med talmotoriska störningar.

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  • 115.
    Le, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fattah Hosseini, Mahtab
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Variabilitet i voice onset time: En studie av svenska femåringars initiala klusilproduktioner2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Voice onset time (VOT) är en akustisk tidsparameter som återspeglar den talmotoriska samordningen. VOT betraktas även vara det mest tillförlitliga sättet att särskilja mellan tonande och tonlösa klusiler.

    VOT hos barn har tidigare studerats i logopediuppsatser vid Linköpings universitet (Lundeborg et al., 2012; Larsson & Wiman, 2011). I dessa arbeten har dock inga upprepade mätningar gjorts, varför det föreligger behov att fastställa hur konsistent barns VOT är. Denna studie syftar till att undersöka hur konsistent klusilproduktionen är hos svenska barn i femårsåldern, samt utreda förekomsten av eventuella könskillnader.

    I studien medverkade 31 barn, 13 flickor och 18 pojkar där medelåldern var 5:6 år. Barnen fick benämna bilder av minimala par med klusilord tre gånger. Samtliga testningar ljudinspelades. Inspelningarna analyserades därefter.

    Resultaten visade att barnen var förhållandevis konsekventa i VOT-värden vid de flesta klusilproduktionerna, variabilitet förekom mellan specifika klusilproduktionsomgångar. Bland de barn som hade förton vid produktionen av tonande klusiler noterades variabilitet i såväl förekomst som värde. Inga statistiskt signifikanta könsskillnader noterades.

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    Variabilitet i VOT
  • 116.
    Lepikkö, Katri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Lundqvist, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    En longitudinell studie av kognitiva och språkliga förmågor hos barn med cochleaimplantat: fokus på fonologiska förmågor, arbetsminne, läsförmåga och receptivt lexikon2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Cochleaimplantat (CI) är ett hörseltekniskt hjälpmedel som under de senaste 20 åren givit personer med grav hörselnedsättning/dövhet möjligheten att uppfatta ljud och utveckla talkommunikation. De språk- och talfärdigheter som personer med CI tillägnar sig uppvisar dock stora individuella variationer. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka utvecklingen av kognitiva och språkliga förmågor efter ett års tid hos barn med CI. De förmågor som undersöktes var fonologiska färdigheter, kapaciteten i tre arbetsminneskomponenter, den mekaniska delen av läsning, läsförståelse samt receptivt lexikon. Åtta barn med CI i åldrarna 7;8-13;4 år deltog i studien. För att undersöka huruvida skillnaderna i resultaten mellan år 2007 och år 2008 var signifikanta hos barnen med CI användes beroende t-test. Resultaten visade att utvecklingstrenden för barnen med CI var tydligast inom sensorisk-perceptuell förmåga samt tillfällig fonologisk lagring, visuo-spatialt arbetsminne, komplext arbetsminne, tillfällig fonologisk lagring beträffande antal konsonanter korrekt samt den mekaniska delen av läsning. Slutsatserna i föreliggande studie är att en genomgående utvecklingstrend finns hos alla barn med CI och att barnen är en heterogen grupp beträffande utveckling av kognitiva och språkliga förmågor. En nyanserad bild av varje individs förmågor krävs för att till exempel kunna planera undervisning och stödjande insatser. En rättvis bild av ett barns språkliga och kognitiva förmågor är endast möjlig om flera delförmågor inom varje språklig och kognitiv aspekt testas.

     

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  • 117.
    Lindahl, Rebecka
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Oskarsson, Anna-Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Action Naming Test (ANT): Översättning och normering för vuxna i en svensk population2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In case of brain damage the naming ability of verbs and nouns can be differently affected. Since there is no test of verb naming available in Swedish, the aim of this study was to translate and establish normative data for Action Naming Test (ANT). Further, the intention was to compare the results with respect to age, gender, educational and cognitive level.

    The words in ANT were translated from English to Swedish through back translation and 120 healthy participants, aged 20-83 years, were tested. To be able to study factors possible influence on the results, information about education was also collected and the participants were tested with Irregularly Spelled Words (ISW) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) Block Design.

    The result showed that age, education and cognition had a significant influence on the ANT results. Young participants performed better, as well as participants with high educational and cognitive level. Considerations should be taken that the adaptations to the Swedish language are incompletely, but since the result is based on a large sample it can be used to test verb naming in patients with brain damage.

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  • 118.
    Lindskog, Siri
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Reparationsstrategier i uppgiftsorienterad interaktion mellan personer med hörselnedsättning och deras anhöriga2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study deals with task-oriented conversations between a person with hearing loss and a relative or friend. The purpose was to investigate how the participants in the task-oriented context co-construct understanding, and to focus on different kind of repair strategies that the participants may use to make the hearing loss relevant in the conversation. The method used was Conversation Analysis (CA). The material consisted of eight videotaped task-oriented conversations between a person with hearing loss and their significant other. Altogether eight persons participated in the study – four of them had a hearing loss and the other four had normal hearing. The essay also presents a summary of previous research on communication involving persons with hearing loss. The occurrence and usage of repair strategies was brought to focus as this was of particular interest for this study. It was revealed that quantitative measures of these phenomena previously have been the most commonly used method. The analysis demonstrated that the participants used several different types of repair initiatives during the studied sequences. The categorization was based upon these repair initiatives. The different initiatives were primarily classified according to the manner in whish they specified the nature of the repairable. The study pointed out that the underlying phenomena that were addressed in these sequences were of a complex and various nature. It was proposed that this might demonstrate a need to complement the approaches made earlier in this area with a more qualitative one.

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  • 119.
    Lindstrom, Fredric
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sodersten, Maria
    Karolinska Institute.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Ternstrom, Sten
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Observations of the Relationship Between Noise Exposure and Preschool Teacher Voice Usage in Day-Care Center Environments2011In: JOURNAL OF VOICE, ISSN 0892-1997, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 166-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the relationship between noise exposure and vocal behavior (the Lombard effect) is well established, actual vocal behavior in the workplace is still relatively unexamined. The first purpose of this study was to investigate correlations between noise level and both voice level and voice average fundamental frequency (F-0) for a population of preschool teachers in their normal workplace. The second purpose was to study the vocal behavior of each teacher to investigate whether individual vocal behaviors or certain patterns could be identified. Voice and noise data were obtained for female preschool teachers (n = 13) in their workplace, using wearable measurement equipment. Correlations between noise level and voice level, and between voice level and F-0, were calculated for each participant and ranged from 0.07 to 0.87 for voice level and from 0.11 to 0.78 for F-0. The large spread of the correlation coefficients indicates that the teachers react individually to the noise exposure. For example, some teachers increase their voice-to-noise level ratio when the noise is reduced, whereas others do not.

  • 120.
    Lindström, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Sepehri Rad, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Emotionellt och psykosocialt välbefinnande hos barn med läpp-käk-gomspalt och barn med språkstörning.: Ett föräldraperspektiv.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and children with specific language impairment (SLI) may be affected emotionally and psychosocially by their disorders. Thus, it is important to investigate the psychosocial risk factors that these children are exposed to. The aim of this study was to examine how parents assess the emotional and psychosocial well-being of children with CLP and children with SLI, and if the two parental groups differ in their assessments using the standardized instrument Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Participants in the study were the parents of ten children with unilateral and bilateral CLP between ages 6;7-9;0 (mean age 7;5) and the parents of 13 children between ages 6;4-8;8 (mean age 7;3) who are attending preschools and schools for children with SLI. These parents were asked to complete the questionnaires CBCL and Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ).

     

    The children with CLP had lower scores than the children with SLI in all domains of the CBCL, indicating that these children with CLP had better emotional and psychosocial well-being. The scores in the domains "withdrawn" and "delinquent behaviour" were significantly lower for the group of children with CLP who also had lower total mean scores of CBCL compared to the standardization group. The children with SLI had significantly higher mean scores for all domains compared to this group, indicating that these children with SLI were more emotionally and psychosocially affected than the other groups. Correlations between CBCL and CHQ were found for the children with CLP and the children with SLI.

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  • 121.
    Littorin, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holmén, Clara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    SVenskt Artikulations- och NasalitetsTEst, SVANTE– en normering och bedömning av svenska 10-åringars tal2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SVenskt Artikulations- och NasalitetsTEst, SVANTE, är ett perceptuellt test avsett för bedömning av artikulation och nasalitet hos individer med talavvikelser relaterade till strukturella och/eller funktionella avvikelser i munhåla och svalg. 

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att göra en normering av SVANTE i åldersgruppen 10 år. Syftet var även att undersöka hur typiskt utvecklade 10-åriga barn, utan några strukturella eller funktionella avvikelser i munhåla och svalg, presterar avseende artikulation och nasalitet. I normeringsgruppen ingick 30 barn: 16 flickor och 14 pojkar. Medelåldern var 9:6 år. En bedömning av barnens förståelighet, velofarynxfunktion, artikulation, klang samt förekomst av nasalitet gjordes.

    Normeringen visar att barn i 10-årsåldern har god förståelighet och velofarynxfunktion. Resultatet tyder även på att barn i 10-årsåldern har få artikulations-, nasalitets- och klangavvikelser.

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    SVANTE, normering och bedömning av 10-åriga svenska barn
  • 122.
    Loskog, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Hurtig, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Hur många bilar finns det i Sverige?: En studie om hur vuxna med utvecklingsstörning gissar2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that the average of guesses made by a group of people, on a question based on general knowledge, often is better than the single guess alone. This has been shown possible to apply on a single individual by producing multiple guesses. One study shows that individuals with low working memory spans benefit more from this phenomenon than individuals with a higher memory span.

    The aim of our study is to investigate whether these theories can be applied on a group of adults with an intellectual disability. In this study there were 34 participants, 17 subjects in a trial group and 17 subjects in a gender- and chronological age matched control group. A guessing test with questions based on world facts was used. We also conducted tests to investigate mental age, language comprehension and two different domains of working memory.

    The results show that both our trial group and control group benefits from taking the average of their guesses, although we have seen that this kind of test is difficult to apply on a group with intellectual disability. During the test situation individuals in the trial prove a certain understanding of the numerals, but the given guess does not always reflect this understanding. Also, their guesses are scattered, both within - and across individuals.

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  • 123. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Lundeborg Hammarström, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Oral Motor Function, Voice, Speech and Language in Children with Tonsillar Hypertrophy in Relation to Surgical Outcome2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was two-fold: first, to evaluate four different functional aspects of the speech and language spectrum; oral-motor function, voice, /s/-articulation and phonology in preschool children with tonsillar hypertrophy before and after surgical treatment. The second aim was to investigate weather the outcome of surgery was equal for two surgical techniques; tonsillectomy or tonsillotomy combined with adenoidectomy when necessary. In all included publications (I-IV), 67 children on waiting list for tonsil surgery and randomized to either tonsillectomy (33) or tonsillotomy (34) participated. The children were assessed and audio-recorded within a month before surgery and six months postoperatively. Results were compared to age-matched control groups.

    In the first study, oral motor function was assessed using the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening, NOT-S, consisting of a structured interview and a clinical examination. Before surgery, the children in the study group differed in all domains of the structured interview in comparison to age-matched controls and in the clinical examination regarding the parameters deviant lip position and trouble nose-breathing. Postoperatively oral motor functions were normalized in both surgical groups and no differences to age matched controls were observed. In study two, recordings of three sustained vowels (/α , u, i/) and 14 words elicited by picture naming were analysed both perceptually and acoustically. Compared to the controls, significant differences were found in the study group preoperatively with higher ratings on Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) for the voice quality parameters “hyponasality” and “compressed/throaty” and also lower for pitch. Significantly higher values on all studied perturbation measures (jitter, shimmer and Noise to Harmonics Ratio) were found. Regarding center frequencies of formants, the study groups had lower F3 values for /u / and also lower F2 and F3 for / i / compared to age-matched controls. After surgery there were no significant differences between the perceptual ratings of voice quality of the two surgical groups and there were no significant differences between the children in the surgical groups and the corresponding controls. The acoustic analyses showed a decrease in all the measures of perturbation for the study group after surgery with a slight difference between the two surgical groups. The children in the tonsillotomy group had higher shimmer value for /u/ and higher NHR for /α/. In comparison to the older controls significantly higher values were found an all perturbation measures and the difference seen regarding formant frequencies for the /i/-sound in comparison to controls still remained. The significantly lower third formant (F3) of the /u/-sound also remained. When comparing pre- versus postoperative results for the surgical group as a whole, a decrease was found on all perturbation measures postoperatively, however the differences were not statistically significant. A significant increase was found in formant 3 for /α/ and /u/ was found.

    The material used in the third study were speech samples containing the /s/-sound and elicited by picture naming and sentence repetition. Before surgery the study group was rated to have more indistinct /s/-sounds than agematched controls. The acoustic analyses showed that the study group had lower spectral peak values for the /s/-sound than controls. After surgery the operated children’s /s/-production did not differ perceptually from the older controls, neither as a whole group nor when divided according to surgical methods. Regarding the acoustic analyses however, the study groups differed from the age-matched control group showing that noise duration was longer and the peak location higher in the study groups.

    In study four, a Swedish phonology test was performed and transcribed phonetically. The transcription of each child was analyzed in terms of phonological processes and categorized into one of six developmental stages according to the model developed by Nettelbladt (1983) and adapted by Sahlén, Reuterskiold-Wagner, Nettelbladt & Radeborg (1999). A majority of the children in the study group (62.7 %) showed a slowed phonological development preoperatively (developmental stages 0-4), compared to the age-matched control group. Postoperatively the children in both surgical groups had improved their phonological skills. However, they were still behind in comparison to age-matched controls and the difference was even larger than before surgery.

    The results of this thesis project have clinical relevance for both speech and language pathologists (SLP’s) and ear-nose and throat-surgeons (ENT-surgeons). SLP’s must be aware of the potential impact of tonsillar hypertrophy on oral-motor function and the speech and language spectrum to be able to help affected children adequately and ENT- surgeons should include oral motor and speech and language problems as additional indications for tonsillar surgery.

    List of papers
    1. Oral motor dysfunction in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy-effects of surgery
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oral motor dysfunction in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy-effects of surgery
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    2009 (English)In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 111-116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is associated with a wide range of problems. The enlargement causes obstructive symptoms and affects different functions such as chewing, swallowing, articulation, and voice. The objective of this study was to assess oral motor function in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy using Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S) before and 6 months after surgery consisting of adenoidectomy combined with total or partial tonsil removal. A total of 67 children were assigned to either tonsillectomy (n=33) or partial tonsillectomy, 'tonsillotomy' (n=34); 76 controls were assessed with NOT-S and divided into a younger and older age group to match pre- and post-operated children. Most children in the study groups had oral motor problems prior to surgery including snoring, open mouth position, drooling, masticatory, and swallowing problems. Post-surgery oral motor function was equal to controls. Improvement was independent of surgery method.

    Keywords
    Adenotonsillar hypertrophy; children; NOT-S; oral motor function; tonsil surgery
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51583 (URN)10.1080/14015430903066937 (DOI)19565403 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-11-09 Created: 2009-11-09 Last updated: 2017-12-12
    2. Acoustic and perceptual aspects of vocal function in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy —effects of surgery
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustic and perceptual aspects of vocal function in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy —effects of surgery
    2012 (English)In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 480-487Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate outcome of two types of tonsil surgery (tonsillectomy+adenoidectomy or tonsillotomy +adenoidectomy) on vocal function perceptually and acoustically.

    Study Design: Sixty-seven children, aged 50-65 months, on waiting list for tonsil surgery were randomized to tonsillectomy (n=33) or tonsillotomy (n=34). Fifty-seven age and gender matched healthy pre-school children were controls. Twenty-eight of them, aged 48-59 months, served as control group before surgery, and 29, aged 60-71 months, after surgery

    Methods: Before surgery and six months postoperatively, the children were recorded producing three sustained vowels (/A, u, i/) and 14 words. The control groups were recorded only once.

    Three trained speech and language pathologists performed the perceptual analysis using Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) for eight voice quality parameters. Acoustic analysis from sustained vowels included average fundamental frequency, jitter percent, shimmer percent, noise-to-harmonic ratio and the centre frequencies of formants 1-3

    Results: Before surgery the children were rated to have more hyponasality and compressed/throaty voice (p<0,05) and  lower mean pitch (p<0,01) in comparison to the control group. They also had higher perturbation measures and lower frequencies of the second and third formant. After surgery there were no differences perceptually. Perturbation measures decreased but were still higher compared to the control group’s, p<0, 05. Differences in formant frequencies for /i/ and /u/ remained. No differences were found between the two surgical methods.

    Conclusion: Voice quality is affected perceptually and acoustically by adenotonsillar hypertrophy. After surgery the voice is perceptually normalized but acoustic differences remain. Outcome was equal for both surgical methods.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2012
    Keywords
    Voice quality; children; perceptual and acoustic analyses; tonsil surgery
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61240 (URN)10.1016/j.jvoice.2010.11.003 (DOI)000305961500018 ()978-91-7393-333-9 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2010-11-08 Created: 2010-11-08 Last updated: 2018-07-03Bibliographically approved
    3. Influence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on /s/-articulation in children-effects of surgery
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on /s/-articulation in children-effects of surgery
    2011 (English)In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 100-108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Tonsillar hypertrophy is common in young children and affects several aspects of the speech such as distortions of the dento-alveolar consonants. The study objective was to assess s-articulation, perceptually and acoustically in children with tonsillar hypertrophy and compare effects of two types of surgery, total tonsillectomy and tonsillotomy. Sixty-seven children, 50-65 months, on waiting list for surgery, were randomized to tonsillectomy or tonsillotomy. The speech material was collected pre-operatively and six months post-operatively.  Two groups of age-matched children were controls. /S/-articulation was affected acoustically with lower spectral peak locations and perceptually with less distinct /s/-production before surgery, in comparison to controls.  After surgery /s/-articulation was normalized perceptually, but acoustic differences remained. No significant differences between surgical methods were found.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Informa Healthcare, 2011
    Keywords
    child, s-articulation, adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy, perceptual and acoustic evaluations
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61244 (URN)10.3109/14015439.2010.531047 (DOI)000295479900002 ()
    Available from: 2010-11-08 Created: 2010-11-08 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Phonological development in children with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phonological development in children with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing
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    2009 (English)In: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 751-61Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy with obstructive sleep disordered breathing (OSDB) is known to affect oral-motor function, behaviour, and academic performance. Adeno-tonsillectomy is the most frequently performed operation in children, with total tonsillectomy (TE) being more common than partial resection, 'tonsillotomy' (TT). In the present study 67 children, aged 50-65 months, with OSBD were randomized to TE or TT. The children's phonology was assessed pre-operatively and 6 months post-operatively. Two groups of children served as controls. Phonology was affected in 62.7% of OSBD children before surgery, compared to 34% in the control group (p < .001). Also, OSBD children had more severe phonological deficits than the controls (p < .001). Phonology improved 6 months equally after both surgeries. Despite improvement post-operatively, the gap to the controls increased. Other functional aspects, such as oral motor function, were normalized regardless of surgical method--TE or TT. The impact of OSBD should be considered as one contributing factor in phonological impairment.

    Keywords
    Child, phonological disorders, obstructive sleep-disordered breathing, tonsil surgery
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51582 (URN)10.3109/02699200903144770 (DOI)19883185 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-11-09 Created: 2009-11-09 Last updated: 2017-12-12
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    Oral Motor Function, Voice, Speech and Language in Children with Tonsillar Hypertrophy in Relation to Surgical Outcome
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  • 124.
    Lundeborg Hammarström, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Influence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on /s/-articulation in children-effects of surgery2011In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 100-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tonsillar hypertrophy is common in young children and affects several aspects of the speech such as distortions of the dento-alveolar consonants. The study objective was to assess s-articulation, perceptually and acoustically in children with tonsillar hypertrophy and compare effects of two types of surgery, total tonsillectomy and tonsillotomy. Sixty-seven children, 50-65 months, on waiting list for surgery, were randomized to tonsillectomy or tonsillotomy. The speech material was collected pre-operatively and six months post-operatively.  Two groups of age-matched children were controls. /S/-articulation was affected acoustically with lower spectral peak locations and perceptually with less distinct /s/-production before surgery, in comparison to controls.  After surgery /s/-articulation was normalized perceptually, but acoustic differences remained. No significant differences between surgical methods were found.

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  • 125.
    Lundeborg Hammarström, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Acoustic and perceptual aspects of vocal function in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy —effects of surgery2012In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 480-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate outcome of two types of tonsil surgery (tonsillectomy+adenoidectomy or tonsillotomy +adenoidectomy) on vocal function perceptually and acoustically.

    Study Design: Sixty-seven children, aged 50-65 months, on waiting list for tonsil surgery were randomized to tonsillectomy (n=33) or tonsillotomy (n=34). Fifty-seven age and gender matched healthy pre-school children were controls. Twenty-eight of them, aged 48-59 months, served as control group before surgery, and 29, aged 60-71 months, after surgery

    Methods: Before surgery and six months postoperatively, the children were recorded producing three sustained vowels (/A, u, i/) and 14 words. The control groups were recorded only once.

    Three trained speech and language pathologists performed the perceptual analysis using Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) for eight voice quality parameters. Acoustic analysis from sustained vowels included average fundamental frequency, jitter percent, shimmer percent, noise-to-harmonic ratio and the centre frequencies of formants 1-3

    Results: Before surgery the children were rated to have more hyponasality and compressed/throaty voice (p<0,05) and  lower mean pitch (p<0,01) in comparison to the control group. They also had higher perturbation measures and lower frequencies of the second and third formant. After surgery there were no differences perceptually. Perturbation measures decreased but were still higher compared to the control group’s, p<0, 05. Differences in formant frequencies for /i/ and /u/ remained. No differences were found between the two surgical methods.

    Conclusion: Voice quality is affected perceptually and acoustically by adenotonsillar hypertrophy. After surgery the voice is perceptually normalized but acoustic differences remain. Outcome was equal for both surgical methods.

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  • 126.
    Lundeborg Hammarström, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wiman, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Voice onset time in Swedish children and adults2012In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 117-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Voice onset time (VOT) is a temporal acoustic parameter, which reflects the timing of speech motor control. The objective of the work was to obtain normative VOT data in Swedish children. Thus, 150 children aged 8-11 years old and 36 adults were audio-recorded when producing the plosives in minimal pairs. Measures were made using waveforms and spectro-grams. Results show that Swedish children developed adult-like VOT values between 9 and 10 years. By the age of 10 years prevoicing was also found to be completely adultlike in length. The results indicate that all Swedish adults do not produce voiced plosives with prevoicing. No evident gender differences were found. The obtained VOT values can be used as normative data when assessing children with speech and language disorders.

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  • 127.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Different techniques of pediatric tonsil surgery - Effects on oral motor function, speech and language behavior and quality of life2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 128.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Treatment with a combination of intra-oral sensory stimulation and electropalatography in a child with severe developmental dyspraxia2007In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 71-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the use of a combination of intra-oral sensory stimulation and electropalatography (EPG) in the treatment of a case with severe developmental verbal dyspraxia. A multiple-baseline design was used. The treatment duration was 11 months and started when the subject was 5 years old. The efficacy of the treatment was assessed by calculations of percentage of correctly articulated words, percentage of consonants correct, percentage of phonemes correct and percentage of words correct. Intelligibility assessments were conducted by both naïve and expert listeners. The experts also assessed visual deviances in articulatory gestures from video recordings. Qualitative analysis of EPG data was made. The subject's speech was significantly improved by the treatment in all aspects. The results and their generalization to other cases of developmental verbal dyspraxia are discussed.

  • 129.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Graf, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Oral motor dysfunction in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy-effects of surgery2009In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 111-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is associated with a wide range of problems. The enlargement causes obstructive symptoms and affects different functions such as chewing, swallowing, articulation, and voice. The objective of this study was to assess oral motor function in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy using Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S) before and 6 months after surgery consisting of adenoidectomy combined with total or partial tonsil removal. A total of 67 children were assigned to either tonsillectomy (n=33) or partial tonsillectomy, 'tonsillotomy' (n=34); 76 controls were assessed with NOT-S and divided into a younger and older age group to match pre- and post-operated children. Most children in the study groups had oral motor problems prior to surgery including snoring, open mouth position, drooling, masticatory, and swallowing problems. Post-surgery oral motor function was equal to controls. Improvement was independent of surgery method.

  • 130.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Phonological development in children with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing2009In: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 751-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy with obstructive sleep disordered breathing (OSDB) is known to affect oral-motor function, behaviour, and academic performance. Adeno-tonsillectomy is the most frequently performed operation in children, with total tonsillectomy (TE) being more common than partial resection, 'tonsillotomy' (TT). In the present study 67 children, aged 50-65 months, with OSBD were randomized to TE or TT. The children's phonology was assessed pre-operatively and 6 months post-operatively. Two groups of children served as controls. Phonology was affected in 62.7% of OSBD children before surgery, compared to 34% in the control group (p < .001). Also, OSBD children had more severe phonological deficits than the controls (p < .001). Phonology improved 6 months equally after both surgeries. Despite improvement post-operatively, the gap to the controls increased. Other functional aspects, such as oral motor function, were normalized regardless of surgical method--TE or TT. The impact of OSBD should be considered as one contributing factor in phonological impairment.

  • 131.
    LundeborgHammarström, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Effects of tonsil surgery on speech and oral motor function2008In: The 12th Congress of the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics association,2008, 2008, p. 119-119Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Large tonsils decrease the upper airways and cause oral breathing in children. If oral breathing persists, it leads to muscular and postural alterations, which, in turn cause dentoskeletal changes. In Sweden 6% of all children, have tonsil surgery performed. The indications are usually recurrent tonsillitis or severe snoring and/or sleep apneoa. Oral motor dysfunction including swallowing problems , disordered speech and aberrant dentofacial growth are less recognized problems as indications for treatment. We report results from a project aiming at comparing oral motor function and speech in children trated with two different surgical methods, tonsillectomy (TE) and partial tonsil resection, tonsillotomy (TT). 67 children aged 4-5 years old on ordinary waiting list for tonsil surgery were randomized to either TE or TT. They were assessed with the Swedish version of Nordic Orofacial Test (NOT-S) and a Swedish phonological test. A voice recording was also made. The assessment was repeated 6 months after surgery. The results were compared to a control group without tonsil problems. No significant differences were found between the children operated with TE or TT. Both groups performed significantly better on the oral motor test at the postoperative assessment, and voice quality had improved. However, compared to the control group, the children with enlarged tonsils had a delay in phonological development, preoperatively that remained at the 6-month postoperative control   

  • 132.
    Lundgren, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Sigheim, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Barn med språkstörning interagerar med olika samtalspartners: En samtalsanalytisk studie2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Language impairment affects the ability to communicate. Children with languageimpairment have difficulties in using language in interaction to various degrees, and the contributions of the conversational partner are of great importance. The use of languagein interaction can be analysed by means of conversation analysis. The purpose of thepresent study was to study interaction of a group of pre-school children with language impairment with four different conversational partners. These were a peer with languag eimpairment, a peer with typical language development, a pre-school teacher and a parent. This study also intended to analyze the conversations in terms of similarities and differences between the participation frameworks. In all, 12 conversations were analyzedby using conversation analysis. A number of phenomena of interest were identified. The frequency of occurence of some of these phenomena was calculated to complement the qualitative analysis. The results show a number of phenomena occurring where mutualunderstanding is present and when it is limited. These phenomena are sequencing in theform of initiative-response and question-answer, back-channelling, development of conversational topic, breakdown, non-sequencing, topic drift, repair, clarification requestand confirmation. The results also demonstrate differences in the conversations betweenthe participation frameworks with reference to the frequency and the distinction of thephenomena. The greatest differences are found between child-child and adult-childconversations. The pre-school teacher and the parents ask more questions and use more clarification requests and confirmations than the children with language impairment. The development of conversational topics is more distinct in child-adult conversations. The development of conversational topics also occurs to some extent in conversations between two children with language impaiment. In conversations between a child withlanguage impairment and a child with typical language development this phenomenon isgenerally indistinct. Utterances lacking topical coherence in relation to each other areonly distinctly occuring in conversations between two children with language impairment. The pre-school teacher and the parents all perform more distinct other repairsthan the children with language impairment.

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  • 133.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wass, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lunds universitet, Institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Asker-Arnason, Lena
    Lunds universitet, Institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper.
    Ibertsson, Tina
    Lunds universitet, Institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cognitive development, reading and prosodic skills in children with cochlear implants.2009In: Scandinavian journal of psychology, ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 463-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes some of the results of studies in our laboratory exploring the development of cognitive, reading and prosodic skills in children with cochlear implantation (CI). The children with CI performed at significantly lower levels than the hearing comparison group on the majority of cognitive tests, despite showing levels of nonverbal ability. The differences between children with CI and hearing children were most pronounced on tasks with relatively high phonological processing demands, but they were not limited to phonological processing. Impairment of receptive and productive prosody was also evident in children with CI. Despite these difficulties, 75% of the children with CI reached a level of reading skill comparable to that of hearing children. The results are discussed with respect to compensation strategies in reading.

  • 134.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Wass, Malin
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Uhlén, Inger
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Asker-Arnason, Lena
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Ibertsson, Tina
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology.
    Development of cognitive and reading skills in deaf children with CIs2011In: Cochlear Implants International, ISSN 1467-0100, E-ISSN 1754-7628, Vol. 12, no Suppl 1, p. 98-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 135.
    Löfstedt, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Nilsson, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Övergående eller bestående?: En uppföljningsstudie av 15-18åringar med språkstörning i förskoleåldern2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about how language improves over the years is important when working with pre-school children with language impairment. It is also essential to know how the language impairment affects the children regarding academic outcome as well as self image and their own opinion concerning their language ability.

    The aim of the present study was to describe how teenagers with a history of language impairment during pre-school-age performed on different linguistic parameters such as complex verbal working memory, novel word learning, narration and comprehension of inferential meaning compared to gender and age matched controls. In addition to language examination a questionnaire was used with questions concerning language ability and school performance. Thirteen persons between 15 and 18 years old, with a history of language impairment during pre-school, participated in the study. Their results were compared to 13 age- and gender-matched controls.

    Significant differences between the language impaired group and the controls were found in two areas; comprehension of inferential meaning and academic outcome.

    This indicates that language impairment persist in some ways even if the characteristics may change from childhood to adolescence.

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  • 136.
    Lööf, Maja
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Prembäck, Maja
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Anpassning av strokeinformation i grupp till personer med afasi: En kvalitativ studie på en strokeenhet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På strokeenheten, Universitetssjukhuset i Linköping, ges strokeinformation till patienter och närstående i grupp. Gruppinformationen hålls en gång i veckan av personal som arbetar på strokeenheten. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka om denna gruppinformation var anpassad för personer med afasi. Vidare var syftet att genom en litteraturstudie undersöka hur en strokeinformation i grupp bäst anpassas för personer med afasi och sedan jämföra denna kunskap med strokeinformationen. Genom observation och fokusgruppsintervju med berörd personal undersöktes upplägg av strokeinfomationen samt personalens erfarenheter, åsikter och tankar kring afasi och afasi-vänlig kommunikation. Resultatet visade att det finns förbättringsområden gällande framförallt designen av den powerpointpresentation som används samt beträffande användning av afasi-vänlig kommunikation vid informationstillfället. Tidsbrist och kunskapsluckor identifierades som de två största orsakerna till personalens agerande och powerpointpresentationens utformande. Även svårigheterna med att anpassa strokeinformationen till den heterogena grupp som informationen riktar sig till visade sig vara en bidragande faktor till informationstillfällets utformning. De tankar som personalen i dagsläget har kring strategier i afasi-vänlig kommunikation är baserade på egen erfarenhet. Dessa stämmer till stor del överens med vad litteraturen förespråkar men problematiken ligger i att överföra dessa tankar till handling. Slutsatsen är att det finns förbättringsmöjligheter inom flera områden för att strokeinformationen ska bli afasianpassad men för att kunna genomföra anpassningen behövs framförallt mer kunskap och utbildning hos personalen.

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  • 137.
    Lööf, Maja
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Erika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Uttalsträning i svenska för tre personer med thai som förstaspråk: En single subject design-studie2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Three native Thai speakers with Swedish as their second language have received special training in Swedish pronunciation in the current single-subject design study. The aim of the current study was therefore to devise and implement a set of pronunciation training exercises, divided into suprasegmental and segmental modules. The aim was also to examine how suprasegmental and segmental changes in pronunciation affected the intelligibility of the pronunciation. The pronunciation training consisted of 14 training sessions during a five-week period. The exercises were divided into two modules, one with focus on suprasegmental aspects (B1) and one with focus on segmental aspects (B2). The suprasegmental module included acquainting subjects with the syllabic structure of the Swedish language as well as training of the Swedish language stress pattern. The segmental module contained training of consonant clusters, the Swedish speech sound [ɧ] and /r/. At the end of each session the participants were asked to repeat 50 words chosen before the start of the study. These words constituted the measuring points of the study and were analyzed according to the participants' ability to produce suprasegmental and segmental aspects correctly. The suprasegmental aspects were assessed according to fixed criteria and the segmental aspects were rated by means of Percentage Phonemes Correct (PPC). After completion of the final training session, three independent listeners estimated intelligibility to determine if relationship existed between these and the chosen assessment tools. Single words were selected in order to compare their criteria-based and PPC-ratings with acoustic correlates. The results of the present study indicate that a relationship can be observed between specific pronunciation training with focus on segmental aspects and improved pronunciation in terms of segmental and suprasegmental aspects. The pronunciation training with suprasegmental focus indicated the same conclusion. Further, a relationship can be seen between the judgment of the segmental aspects based on the measuring points' PPC-rating and the ratings of intelligibility. The intelligibility improved when the PPC increased. The focus of pronunciation training should be to achieve good intelligibility (Pennington, 1996; Levis, 2005); therefore it is suggested that segmental aspects should be included in pronunciation training for native Thai speakers when learning Swedish as a second language. No similar relations have been discovered between the suprasegmental aspects and intelligibility, which, however, may be due to limitations in the design of the study. Therefore suprasegmental aspects should not be neglected in pronunciation training.

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    Uttalsträning i svenska för tre personer med thai som förstaspråk
  • 138.
    Malmenholt, Ann
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Lohmander, Anette
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS): a survey of knowledge and experience of Swedish Speech-Language Pathologists2012In: / [ed] Alice Lee & Fiona Gibbon, Cork University College, 2012, p. 143-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) are seen by many speech and language pathologists (SLPs) in Sweden. It is commonly believed that these patients are difficult to diagnose and treat due to the absence of a validated list of diagnostic features (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2007) and lack of evidence for a wide range of treatment approaches reported (Morgan & Vogel, 2009). Speech-language pathologists’ perspectives on assessment of CAS have been studied by Forrest (2003). She asked SLPs about which three characteristics they thought were crucial for diagnosing CAS. The diversity of SLPs view on CAS diagnostic markers was documented. Not less than 50 different characteristics were listed, making inconsistent productions the most frequently noted feature (14.1%).  Experience and knowledge about the typical symptoms of CAS among Swedish SLPs would be a valuable first step towards a common routine for diagnosis of this group of patients in Sweden. Aim: The aim of this paper was to perform a survey among Swedish clinical SLPs regarding symptoms, praxis for clinical diagnosis and description of patients with CAS. Methods & Procedures: A web-based questionnaire was sent to Swedish SLPs working with pre- and primary school-aged children asking 25 questions about the clinicians background, years of clinical experience, skills of assessment and intervention, estimation of own competence and opinion about need for further education concerning this particular group. The SLPs were asked to estimate the prevalence for CAS based on their own clinical experience.Outcomes & Results: One hundred-seventy-five clinical SLPs with varying experience responded, which equals a response rate of 60%. About half of them usually diagnosed CAS. In the rating of typical symptoms of CAS 85% suggested inconsistent errors as the core feature of the disorder, 82% noticed difficulties with automaticity and 71% difficulties with sequence maintenance. In 88 % of answers children with CAS were considered to make slow progress in treatment and 80% estimated that these children typically had persisting difficulties and constraints even in primary school. There was a wide range of estimated prevalence figures for CAS from less than 1% to around 50%. Almost all SLPs who answered the questionnaire reported a need for further education about CAS.Conclusions: Although Swedish SLPs rated their own knowledge about CAS as insufficient, the rating of the key classification criterion for the disorder was high, as was the view that these children make slow progress in treatment. Estimation of prevalence for CAS was highly diverse, reflecting the difficulties with the broad definition and large variation within this disorder. The collected data of the Swedish clinical SLPs experience and knowledge about CAS revealed an important consensus on the core diagnostic features but also a vagueness regarding best treatment. This reflects the current knowledge in this field and will be taken into account in continuing work towards a common and evidence based practice.

    References

    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Childhood Apraxia of Speech [Position Statement] 2007. Available from www.asha.org/policy.)

    Forrest, K. (2003). Diagnostic criteria of developmental apraxia of speech used by clinical speech-language pathologists. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12, 376–380.

    Morgan & Vogel. Cochrane review of treatment for childhood apraxia of speech. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2009 Mar;45(1):103-10.)

  • 139.
    Martikainen, Petra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Jasmine
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Utprövning och prosodisk analys av ord- och nonordsrepetition på en grupp barn med typisk utveckling2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has confirmed that the ability to repeat non-words has a close connection to a child’s language acquisition (Adams & Gathercole, 2000; Gray, 2003; Sahlén, Reuterskiöld-Wagner, Nettelbladt & Radeborg, 1999). It is also known that a repetition task is aided if the word is well known to the child (Roy & Chiat, 2004; Sahlén, m.fl., 1999). A relatively under-investigated area is that of the influence of prosodic variables on repetition of words and non-words.

    In the current study, 44 Swedish children between the ages of four and six years with typical language development were tested regarding word- and non-word repetition abilities. The words and non-words were matched based on stress, tonal word accent and number of syllables. Segmental as well as supra segmental variables were analyzed.

    The children performed better on the word repetition task than on the non-word repetition task, based on all accounts of segmental variables. Vowels were easier to repeat than consonants, but appeared to be developing to the same extent. There was no difference in performance relating to manipulation of supra segmental variables.. Children between the ages of five and six achieved better results than the younger children regarding both segmental and supra segmental aspects. Correlations between all segmental variables were observed, as well as between segmental and supra segmental variables. The authors discuss whether or not supra segmental variables could be another strong indicator for language impairments. No gender differences could be observed. Stress had strong correlations with other supra segmental aspects as well as with segmental variables, and seems to be an important ability to analyze The results also revealed that the prosodic ability is not connected to whether the word to be repeated is previously known. 

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  • 140.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    A comparison of studio recordings and recordings of spontaneous speech: assessments of voice quality in pre-school children2011In: Pan European Voice Conference (PEVOC9), Marseille, France / [ed] Antoine Giovanni & Nathalie Henrich, Marseille, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A well controlled recording in a studio is the basis for voice rehabilitation. However, this laboratory like recording method can be questioned since voice use in a natural environment may be quite different. In children’s natural environment high background noise levels are common and an important factor contributing to voice problems. The noise exposure often occurs in day-care centers with the children themselves as the primary noise source (McAllister, Granqvist, Sjölander, Sundberg 2009). The aim of the present study was to compare perceptual evaluations of voice quality from a controlled recording to recordings of spontaneous speech in children’s natural environment in a day-care setting. Ten five-year-old children were recorded three times during a day at the day-care. The controlled speech material consisted of repeated sentences. Matching sentences were selected from the spontaneous speech. All sentences were repeated times three. The recordings were randomized and analyzed acoustically and evaluated perceptually by three expert listeners. Statistic analyses of all recordings showed that the laboratory sentences represent spontaneous speech characteristics regarding degree of hoarseness (r=.52) and to a lesser extent also for breathiness (r=. 401). For boys a correlation was found only for the parameter breathiness (r=.539) and for girls only for hoarseness (r=.648).  

     

    References

    McAllister, A., Granqvist, S. Sjölander, P. Sundberg, J. (2009). Child voice and noise: A pilot study of the effect of a day at the day-care on ten children’s voice quality according to perceptual evaluation. J Voice, Sep;23(5):587-93.

  • 141.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Intra oral stereognosis in children with persistent speech problems2008In: Internationa Conference on Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association,2008, Istanbul: Anadolu University , 2008, p. 142-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Background Intra-oral sensory function is a complex perception and difficult to assess clinically. On the other hand, it seems important to establish intra-oral sensory function in order to give appropriate advice regarding therapy in children with speech problems. The tactile sensibility of the anterior portion of the tongue has been suggested to be particularly important (Grossman & Hattis, 1967; Williams & LaPoint, 1971; Calhoun et al, 1992). The stereognosis test assesses the ability to identify an object primarily by sensory surface receptors. In an earlier case study of a child with persistent speech difficulties intra oral sensory stimulation produced good results regarding speech intelligibility (Lundeborg Hammarström & McAllister 2007). Thus, could a low result on a test of intra oral stereognosis serve as a diagnostic marker suggesting treatment including intra oral sensory stimulation? The aim of the present study was to investigate intra oral stereognosis in children with persistent speech problems. Method Twenty children with persistent speech problems including childhood apraxia of speech - CAS, twelve girls and eight boys, were tested using a set of four shapes in two sizes based on Calhoun et al, (1992) to assess intra oral stereognosis. Results were compared to a previous study of intra oral stereognosis in typically developed children (Norström & Sjöberg 2003). Statistical analyses to assess significance will be provided. Results The children with CAS showed lower results on both the large and small shapes as compared to the typically developed children. Discussion The relevance of intra oral sensory function in relation to choice of therapy will be discussed. References Calhoun KH, Gibson B, Hartley L, Minton J, Hokanson JA. (1992) Age-related changes in intra oral sensation. Laryngoscope, 102, 109-116. Grossman R C. (1967). Methods of determining oral tactile experience. In J F Bosma ed. Oral sensation and perception. Charles C Thomas, publisher, Springfield, Illinois, USA, 161-181. Lundeborg Hammarström, I., McAllister, A. (2007). Treatment outcome using intra-oral sensory stimulation and EPG in a 6 year old child with persistent speech difficulties. Log Phon Vocol, 32 (2):71 Norström H, Sjöberg P. (2003). Intraoral stereognosi hos 4:0 - 5:5 åriga barn med normal talutveckling. Masters thesis in Speech and Language Pathology, Karolinska Institue. Williams WN, LaPoint LL. (1971). Intra-oral recognition of geometric forms by normal subjects. Perc Mot Skills, 32, 419-426.  

  • 142.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Treatment of oral dysfunction2012In: 5th International Conference on Ectodermal Dysplasia: Care and Clinical Trials / [ed] Prof. Dr. Holm Schneider, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The orofacial area is central for several vital functions in man such as breathing and eating.  The orofacial area also acts as the basis for social interaction, emotional communication, facial expression and speech communication. Normal orofacial sensorimotor development is necessary for these functions to develop and mature in the child, hence orofacial dysfunction may be severely disabling. In the oral cavity, saliva lubricates the hard and soft tissues. Lack of saliva impairs speech clarity, chewing and swallowing, taste and voice quality. The complexity of these functions means that several clinical professionals, such as dentists, gastroenterologists, ENT specialists, phoniatricians or laryngologists, and speech and language pathologists, are needed to address the problems. Through a multiprofessional Nordic cooperation an assessment instrument for orofacial functions was developed, the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening, NOT-S. In a previous study 46 individuals with Ectodermal Dysplasia was investigated using NOT-S. The most frequently recorded dysfunctions were in the domains chewing and swallowing (82.6%), dryness of the mouth (45.7%) and speech (43.5%). Also hoarseness, a parameter that was added to the test, was found in 32.6% of individuals with ED.

     

    The treatment alternatives for these problems include above mentioned specialists and a number of different treatment options, such as surgery to improve anatomical conditions, subscribing artificial saliva to lubricate oral mucosa, sensorimotor training to improve chewing and swallowing or speech and language therapy to address problems with speech production or voice quality.

  • 143.
    McAllister, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Bergendal, Birgitta
    Kompetenscenter, Odontologiska Institutionen, Jönköping.
    Sjögreen, Lotta
    Mun-H-Center, Folktandvården, Västra Götalandsregionen.
    Applications and results using the Nordic Orofacial Test–Screening protocol2011In: / [ed] Professor Göran Koch, Jönköping, Jönköping: Swedish Dental Association and the Swedish Dental Society , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Orofacial function includes a multitude of actions, some of them vital, such as breathing, chewing and swallowing, and also acts as the basis for social interaction in terms of speech, emotional communication, facial expression and appearance. Impaired orofacial function is a common feature in many inherited disorders or may be acquired as a consequence of disease and trauma. The Nordic Orofacial Test–Screening (NOT-S) is a comprehensive method for screening of orofacial function developed by a Scandinavian network of dentists and speech and language pathologists. NOT-S comprises evaluation of twelwe domains of orofacial function. They are assessed from a structured interview and a clinical examination with a picture manual illustrating the different tasks in the examination. A method study of 120 individuals with chronic disease or disability compared to 60 healthy controls showed good intra- and interexaminer agreement. The aim was to present current applications and results from publications on the use of NOT-S.

    Materials and Methods: Beside the method study published in 2007 to date four studies has been published. One was a study in individuals with Parkinson´s disease (n=15), two were studies in individuals with rare disorders; Ectodermal dysplasia (n=46), and Prader-Willi Syndrome (n=45), and one was a study evaluating surgical treatment in children with tonsillar hyperthophy (n=67). In order o visualize to what degree the domains of orofacial function are affected in different conditions, connected plots were made from the mean NOT-S scores for the twelwe domains of NOT-S, here called dysfunction profiles.

    Results: The groups with different diagnoses showed specific dysfunction profiles indicating patterns of domains with impaired orofacial function. The use of NOT-S to assess orofacial function before and after surgery in children with tonsillar hypertrophy showed that the method can also be used to evaluate interventions.

    Conclusions: Screening with NOT-S proved to be a quick and reliable way of assessing orofacial function. NOT-S discriminated between groups with different diagnoses and also in evaluation of treatment. The results indicate that NOT-S has good reliability and discriminant validity.

  • 144.
    McAllister, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Brandt, Signe Kofoed
    Habilitation Services, Kullbergska Hospital, Katrineholm, Sweden.
    A Comparison of Recordings of Sentences and Spontaneous Speech: Perceptual and Acoustic Measures in Preschool Children's Voices.2012In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 13-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-controlled recording in a studio is fundamental in most voice rehabilitation. However, this laboratory like recording method has been questioned because voice use in a natural environment may be quite different. In children's natural environment, high background noise levels are common and are an important factor contributing to voice problems. The primary noise source in day-care centers is the children themselves. The aim of the present study was to compare perceptual evaluations of voice quality and acoustic measures from a controlled recording with recordings of spontaneous speech in children's natural environment in a day-care setting. Eleven 5-year-old children were recorded three times during a day at the day care. The controlled speech material consisted of repeated sentences. Matching sentences were selected from the spontaneous speech. All sentences were repeated three times. Recordings were randomized and analyzed acoustically and perceptually. Statistic analyses showed that fundamental frequency was significantly higher in spontaneous speech (P<0.01) as was hyperfunction (P<0.001). The only characteristic the controlled sentences shared with spontaneous speech was degree of hoarseness (Spearman's rho=0.564). When data for boys and girls were analyzed separately, a correlation was found for the parameter breathiness (rho=0.551) for boys, and for girls the correlation for hoarseness remained (rho=0.752). Regarding acoustic data, none of the measures correlated across recording conditions for the whole group.

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  • 145.
    McAllister, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Ferreira, Janna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    LundeborgHammarström, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johannesson, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sandström, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Berglind, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Learning in the tutorial group – a challenge between freedom and control2011In: The Third International Conference on Problem Based Learning in Speech Language Pathology and Audiology / [ed] Tara Whitehill & Susan Bridges, Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In order to improve and clarify the demands within tutorial groups in the speech and language pathology (SLP) and physiotherapy (PT) programs a joint study was conducted exploring problem areas in the tutorial groups.

    The aim was to investigate and further develop the requirements for a passing grade in the tutorial group. A long term goal was that the results could form a base for future changes regarding instructions and requirements in tutorial groups.

    Methodology:  Focus-group interviews were used to collect data. Three different groups were interviewed, two consisting of tutors from the SLP and PT programs and one consisting of last year student tutors from the SLP-program.  This data was also augmented by individual interviews of four SLP-students and five PT-students on different levels in the education.  A semi structured interview guide was used.  The interviews were analyzed using content analyses.

    Results: The analyses revealed three important themes for work in tutorial groups: Responsibility, Time and Support. Within these themes, several categories were also identified. Responsibility: Within this theme the main category was the importance of balance between individual and institutional responsibility. The students, the tutorial group, the tutor and the program all need to assume their part of the responsibility in order to clarify requirements. Time: Here different aspects of time management and work in the tutorial group were identified. These categories also related to aspects of support and continuous or lifelong learning. Support: Within this theme different support functions were identified such as documents, activities and personnel resources in the tutorial groups.  No suggestions were made in the interviews regarding the requirements for a passing grade in the tutorial groups. 

    Discussion/Conclusion: The main finding was the delicate balance between institutional control and the students own responsibility for the work within the tutorial groups.  An increased control decreases the students’ motivation to assume responsibility for their own learning. Also, study programs should adapt requirements in tutorial groups depending on years in the education.  Different support functions need to be closely coupled to tutorial work in order to have the intended effect.   

  • 146.
    McAllister, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Granqvist, Svante
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Sjölander, Peta
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Sundberg, Johan
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Child Voice and Noise: A Pilot Study of Noise in Day Cares and the Effects on 10 Children's Voice Quality According to Perceptual Evaluation2009In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, ISSN 0892-1997, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 587-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation was to study children's exposure to background noise at the ears during a normal day at the day care center and also to relate this to a perceptual evaluation of voice quality. Ten children, from three day care centers, with no history of hearing and speech problems or frequent infections were selected as subjects. A binaural recording technique was used with two microphones placed on both sides of the subject's head, at equal distance from the mouth. A portable digital audio tape (DAT) recorder (Sony TCD-D 100, Stockholm, Sweden) was attached to the subject's waist. Three recordings were made for each child during the day. Each recording was calibrated and started with three repetitions of three sentences containing only sonorants. The recording technique allowed separate analyses of the background noise level and of the sound pressure level (SPL) of each subjects' own voice. Results showed a mean background noise level for the three day care centers at 82.6dBA Leq, ranging from 81.5 to 83.6dBA Leq. Day care center no. 2 had the highest mean value and also the highest value at any separate recording session with a mean background noise level of 85.4dBA Leq during the noontime recordings. Perceptual evaluation showed that the children attending this day care center also received higher values on the following voice characteristics: hoarseness, breathiness, and hyperfunction. Girls increased their loudness level during the day, whereas for boys no such change could be observed.

     

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  • 147.
    McAllister, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Sjölander, Peta
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    Children's Voice and Voice Disorders2013In: Seminars in Speech and Language, ISSN 0734-0478, E-ISSN 1098-9056, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the differences between children's voices and adult voices. We give an overview of the anatomy in the head and neck and specifically the anatomy of the respiratory system and the larynx. We also describe the development of children's voices including different physiological measures and voice quality. The development and consequences for voice production and voice quality are addressed and related to gender differences in the growing child. We also discuss the prevalence of voice problems and hoarseness in children. Environmental and other factors contributing to voice problems in children are described, and finally, issues related to intervention and evidence-based practice are discussed.

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  • 148.
    Moritz, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Persson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Symbollek, sensomotorik och joller: en studie av två barn i åldrarna 10 respektive 14 månader2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Redan i spädbarnsålder använder sig barnet av symboler i leken, det vill säga symbollek. Samtidigt som sensomotoriken hos det lilla barnet utvecklas så börjar barnet ge ifrån sig ljud, joller, som sedan blir mer och mer likt den vuxne människans tal. Utifrån uppgifter grundat på Piagets kognitiva utvecklingsteori undersöktes tre komponenter; symbollek, sensomotorik samt joller. Deltagarna var två spädbarn i åldrarna 10 respektive 14 månader, en pojke och en flicka. Syftet med denna studie var att göra en beskrivning av dessa två spädbarn där symbolleken, sensomotoriken och jollret var i fokus.

    Metoden gick ut på att göra en filminspelning per barn där barnen fick utföra uppgifter som prövar kognitiva operationer som utvecklas under spädbarnsåren. Därefter transkriberades det inspelade materialet. Analysen av interaktion i leken genomfördes genom djupanalys med inspiration av Communication Codes Scheme, analysen av de kognitiva operationerna gjordes utifrån Piagets utvecklingsteori och jolleranalysen utifrån Ollers jollerstadier.

    Studiens resultat visar att det finns skillnader utvecklingsmässigt mellan ett barn i 10 månaders ålder och ett barn i 14 månaders ålder inom samtliga områden, vilket även litteraturen stödjer. 

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  • 149.
    Munktell, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Nordenlöw Svantesson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Användandet av skratt vid interaktion hos en person med afasi2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Personer med afasi får sin språkförmåga nedsatt på flera olika sätt vilket kan försvåra för dem att delta i samtal. De kan då använda sig av olika strategier för att hantera dessa problem. En sådan strategi är skratt. Denna uppsats syftar till att studera hur personer med afasi använder sig av skratt vid vardaglig interaktion. Föreliggande studie har utgått från videofilmer där en kvinna med afasi interagerar med olika personer i olika miljöer. Samtalen har transkriberats och analyserats enligt principer från Conversation Analysis. Studien har identifierat tre typer av situationer då kvinnan använder sig av skratt: skratt vid anomi, skratt vid genans samt skratt vid skämt. Det har visat sig att hon skrattar dels för att kompensera svårigheter med tal men även vid helt vanliga humoristiska situationer som vilken person som helst. Många av de tillfällen där Maja skrattar ignoreras eller får inte ett skratt som respons.

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    Användandet av skratt vid interaktion hos en person med afasi
  • 150.
    Müller, Susanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Pettersson, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University.
    Flicka eller pojke? Pojke eller flicka?: Perceptuell lyssnarbedömning av små barns könstillhörighet och röstegenskaper2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie behandlar ämnet barnröst ur ett könsperspektiv. Syftet med studien är att undersöka om det vid lyssnarbedömningar av ljudinspelade standardiserade fraser är möjligt att identifiera könstillhörighet hos barn i åldrarna 3;0-4:0 år. Fyra logopeder med lång erfarenhet inom röstlogopedi skattade rösterna beträffande kvalitet. En perceptuell lyssnarbedömning genomfördes med logopedstudenter vilka identifierade könstillhörighet korrekt i 55% av röstinspelningarna. Fördelat på kön var identifieringen av pojkarna något säkrare (60%) jämfört med flickorna (57%). Inget tydligt samband mellan skattad osäkerhet/säkerhet och angivet svar upptäcktes. Ett visst samband mellan röstkvalitet och bedömning av könstillhörighet påvisas i föreliggande studie. Det är dock svårt att att uttala sig om resultatet är generaliserbart.

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  • rtf