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  • 101.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ragn-Sells AB.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Expanding roles for the Swedish waste management sector in interorganizational resource management2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 124, p. 85-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several waste management (WM) professionals see an ongoing shift in the focus of the industry, from that of atransport and treatment sector to that of a more integrated sustainable service provision and material productionsector. To further develop such transitional ambitions, WM organizations are increasingly looking toward interorganizationalresource network concepts (such as the circular economy and industrial symbiosis) as models ofhow they would like to create new value together with their customers and partners.This article aims to take a step in addressing uncertainties behind such transitions by analyzing barriers forinter-organizational resource management and in turn uncovering some potential opportunities and risks ofnovel offerings from the WM sector. Obstacles for developing innovative inter-organizational resource networkshave been identified based on studies of implementing industrial symbiosis networks. Subsequently, managingexecutives from Swedish private and public WM organizations were interviewed regarding the sector’s capacityto overcome such barriers – opportunities and risks of providing new resource management services – and howtheir organizations might approach the role of actively facilitating more resource efficient regions.Eco-Industrial park management and contracting out holistic resource management are some areas in whichthe respondents see WM organizations offering new services. In relation to such approaches, various risks (e.g.being cut out of investment benefits, or unstable supply) and opportunities (e.g. new markets and enhancedsustainability profiles) were identified. Additionally, it was seen that WM companies would need to makesubstantial changes to their business approach, becoming less dependent on flows of mixed materials forexample, if they are to become even more central value chain actors. To strengthen such approaches, it was seenthat the sector will need to find methods to strategically build strong, long term partnerships, expand upon andtake advantage of available knowledge resources (i.e. best practice technologies and regional material flows),and explore new business models (i.e. stockpiling, park management, or waste minimization). Additionally,working with sector representatives to argue for a more balanced market conditions next to primary productionshould assist the viability of new offerings in the wider market.

  • 102.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Ragn-sells, Sweden.
    Kihl, Anders
    Ragn Sells AB.
    Driving forces and inhibitors of secondary stock extraction2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though it’s well known to mankind that our common resources are limited and that recycling is a key for a sustainable future; in reality we see few examples of true recycling where virgin raw material is substituted by waste. There are endless number of examples where waste is utilized to some extent without solving the core issue: reducing the need of extracting virgin raw materials. This article analyses some of the driving forces and inhibitors that explains why it’s so difficult establish secondary stock extraction although technology is available. The authors discuss and suggest possible ways for reducing the some of the main barriers.

  • 103.
    Ajdén, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Mechanics .
    Backlund, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Mechanics .
    Pilotmodeller till flygmekanisk simulator för JAS 39 Gripen2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    SAAB has for a long time used user controlled pilot models in ARES. ARES is a simulation tool used in the desktop environment for simulations and calculations of the JAS 39 Gripen fighter and other aircraft. ARES stands for ”Aircraft Rigid body Engineering Simulation”. To work with these pilot models has been both time-consuming and inefficient. In this master thesis, new pilot models are developed, where parameters are automatically generated, this will result in that the user doesn’t have to put a lot of work into adjusting the gains for different manoeuvres. This is called gain scheduling.

    To make this possible, simple models of the aircraft were created at different points in the envelope. These models were then used to calculate optimal controllers using LQ-control and pole placement techniques. These models and controllers were then implemented in Simulink. Simulink was then used to test the controllers before they were implemented in ARES.

    Control in all modes except roll attitude and speed by throttle are based on LQ-control in pitch-, roll- and yaw-angular velocity. And through these angular velocities the other angles are controlled by simple controllers, who is generating a reference in angular velocity. The roll attitude controller is based on direct pole placement based upon desired damping and undamped natural frequency, and the speed controller is based upon a model of throttle positions in trimmed states.

    The new pilot models are usable to control:

    • Roll rate
    • Roll attitude
    • Pitch rate
    • Pitch attitude
    • Angle of attack
    • Load factor
    • Yaw attitude
    • Course angle
    • Climb angle
    • Mach number
    • Climb rate

    These controllers can be combined so that the aircraft can perform desired maneuvers.

  • 104.
    Akanda, Md Mahmudul Alam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dzeko, Jasmin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Customers’ Perception on their Satisfaction about the Private Banks in a Developing Country: A perspective of Private Banks in Bangladesh2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Customers’ satisfaction is a decisive factor in the development process of business which has also an effective impact on contributing a country's GDP. Private banks have been emerged over the time in developing countries where customers’ satisfaction is the driven force of banking industry investigated in Bangladesh. In this study a conventional American Customer Satisfaction Index model has been used over Bangladesh to compare overall performance of banking industry. Customers’ satisfaction in Bangladesh has been measured from the different angle of customers’ perception based on their portfolio. This research has been designed on a quantitative approach followed by survey research method. Questionnaire was administered to collect data through objective list as well as physical interaction with the respondents from different locations in the capital city of Bangladesh named Dhaka. Collected data had been analyzed applying Partial Latent Square (PLS) software program. The study outcomes showed that the perceived quality is the main determinant factor on customer satisfaction towards banks in Bangladesh. It also revealed that significant relationship exists between customers’ satisfaction and customers’ loyalty. The revised model in 2016 represents the benchmark scores of customers’ satisfaction in Bangladesh lagged behind consecutively 18 and 13 scores than that of USA and Taiwan. Considering the study results, we summed the quality of service leads to satisfied customers in turns towards customers loyalty. Banks also can get competitive advantage by evaluating all classes of customers equally through providing superior services to them.

  • 105.
    Akay, Alpaslan
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; IZA, Sweden.
    Martinsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ralsmark, Hilda
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Relative concerns and sleep behavior2019In: Economics and Human Biology, ISSN 1570-677X, E-ISSN 1873-6130, Vol. 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the relationship between relative concerns with respect to income and the quantity and quality of sleep using a 6-year panel dataset on the sleep behavior of people in Germany. We find a substantial negative association between relative income and number of hours of sleep and satisfaction with sleep, i.e., sleep quality, whereas there is no particular association between absolute level of income and sleep quantity and quality. A 10-percent increase in the income of relevant others is associated with 6-8 min decrease in a persons weekly amount of sleep on average, yet this effect is particularly strong among the relatively deprived, i.e., upward comparers, as this group shows a corresponding decrease in sleeping time of 10-12 min/week. These findings are highly robust to several specification checks, including measures of relative concerns, reference group, income inequality, and local price differences. The heterogeneity analysis reveals that the relationship is mainly driven by people with relatively fewer working hours, a higher demand for household production and leisure activities, and lower physical health and well-being. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 106.
    Akouri, Elie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Styrmodeller, etiska utmaningar och migrationspolitiska dilemman: En kritisk fallstudie om den syriska flyktingsituationen i Libanon, etiska begränsningar och internationell inblandning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is characterized as a critical case study aimed to scrutinize the continuous situation regarding Syrian refugees in Lebanon from an ethical theoretical approach. Mainly, two specific theoretical models regarding ethics in migration and a theoretical standpoint regarding ethics in migration are presented as the theoretical and scientific framework. Arash Abizadeh’s two models, known as the state sovereignty model and the liberal model are implemented in order to understand and to pinpoint the course of the Lebanese situation. Additional, Joseph Carens’ theory concerning ethics in migration is implemented parallel with the two models, to enhance the analytical tools and to introduce a normative perspective. Regarding the empirical result, three distinct perspectives are utilized in order to cope with the situation on a fair and nuanced ground. The Syrian refugees themselves, international involvement and the Lebanese government are presented as the empirical pathways throughout this paper.

    Concluding results of this paper tends to pinpoint uncertainty and unawareness to be the key factors in explaining the actions of the Lebanese government. Based on the theoretical framework presented in this paper, there is an established tendency to conclude that Syrian refugees has not been treated accordingly to ethical concepts. Because of the distinct ideal differences between the two theoretical models, the results tend to be more evident. The Lebanese government has initially tended to affiliate itself with the liberal model. However, as time has progressed the government has acted accordingly to the state sovereignty model, with not acknowledging ethical limitations in its decision making. While remaining in the grasp of the state sovereignty model, the government and the civil society has begun lighting sparks in actions that have been taken. These actions tend to recognize ethical limitations, thus moving Lebanon towards the liberal model, but far from being completely implemented. In summary, Lebanon’s situation has brought it to a tendency to conduct temporary policies in an increasingly permanent situation.

  • 107.
    Akre, Linnea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Wiksten, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Change of organizational structure and replenishment processes for increased customer service and profitability2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This case study is based on Company XY's Paper division and aims to present a new organizational structure and best practices for the processes involved in replenishing. Furthermore, proposals for future actions to be executed by Company XY to increase the customer service and profitability will be proposed. The results of the study will be based on a thorough analysis done on the three mills' and eight sales offices' organizational structures and processes. The analysis has a supply chain management perspective with the aim of increasing the customer service and profitability of Company XY.

    Company XY is a world leader paper and board producing company with the Paper division having customers located worldwide and paper producing mills as well as board producing plants located in Europe. Company X and Company Y were two different companies that merged in 2005 which has led to there being three different virgin mills in the Company XY group. At the moment the three mills and eight sales offices all work in different ways and different systems which has led to sub-optimization of the resources available. To increase the customer service and profitability of the Paper division, which the mills and sales offices belong to, a project has started to increase agility, transparency and establish standardized processes.

    The study is of both a qualitative and quantitative character and is based on a literature study, observations, data and interviews conducted at Company XY. Processes regarding replenishing, information and forecasting at Company XY have been identified as areas where there is room for improvement. Problem areas of the organizational structure that Company XY have today have been identified.

    Company XY is recommended to adopt a hybrid virtual organizational structure to enable them to reach their goals of being agile, transparent and standardized. This structure will enable Company XY to utilize the knowledge of sales offices to be responsive while still having the central units macro view to enable visibility and therefore be able to divide the resources in a better manner than today. This structure, since it demands common practices, will make Company XY work according to standardized processes which in turn has the effect of reducing misalignment and duplication of work.

    It is concluded that a centralized unit will be responsible for generating standardized reports to be distributed to mill and sales offices before 2020. After the implementation of SAP this will no longer be part of the central unit's tasks since it will be done by the system, this will decrease the information sharing issues present today. Furthermore, it is concluded that this central unit will be responsible for the allocation distribution therefore preventing the sub optimization of allocation distributions. Moreover, it is suggested that all mills work with allocations to enable more reliable production cycles.

    Through standardizing the processes so that all the sales offices correct the forecasts on a weekly basis the forecast deviation average can be decreased to 2,45% from 4.98% therefore decreasing the wrongly produced products or non-produced products worth 23 239 042 € a year.

    It is recommended that the replenishing of service stocks should be done by the sales offices. Suggested effects will be stock out costs to be lowered by 26 686 € a year.

    By adopting the suggested structure and change of processes it is believed that Company XY can become more agile, transparent and standardized leading them to increase their profitability and customer service. 

  • 108.
    Akter, Halima
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linkoping university.
    Abonty, Sabera
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linkoping university.
    A Quanlitative Study on Timebank: Understanding the impact of drivers/barriers and personal values on commitment2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Understanding how coherently commitment and basic human values shaping and affecting timebank, one of the popular peer-to-peer exchange system. With time banking, a person with own skill set can trade hours of work for equal hours for another member using hours for paying or being paid for services.

    Thesis aim: Understanding the impact of drivers/barriers and personal values and how these are connected to the commitment

    Methodology A quantitative study with forty-seven timebanks across three different country – USA, New Zealand and India. Survey were conducted to collect data and later SPSS has been used for analyzation

    Findings: Values play significant role to shape commitment to timebank and commitment and personal values has relationship with drivers and barriers of participation in timebank.

  • 109.
    Al Farra, Hussni
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Acceptance Tests – FAT & SAT: An Empirical Case Study of Utility Poles2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this project is to devise improved quality acceptance procedures to examine quality characteristics of utility poles at the factory of the supplier (FAT) and on-site upon receipt by the customer (SAT). To that end, the thesis draws upon available standards, literature, and industry practices regarding wood, fiberglass and steel poles. As far as the design of the research, a single case study of a major power company was chosen. Then, a data collection plan was developed in order to build upon the existing knowledge found in the literature, and upon the data that can be collected from three of the Company’s suppliers, in addition to the Technical Research Institute of Sweden (SP). Documents’ analysis, interviews, observations, and a survey were the tools of that plan. It was found that criteria, inspection and test methods of wood poles are all sufficiently covered in the standards and the literature; for wood is the most commonly used material for utility poles. Next, in coverage of research, are the steel poles; while there is currently no standard that covers fiberglass utility poles. Indeed, quality characteristics, criteria, and acceptance procedures can altogether form parts of a sustainable solution, as long as the quality is managed as a process whether at the Company’s end or at the fabrication sites; that is especially true if there is some form of backward partnership between the Company and its suppliers.

  • 110.
    Al Taie, Salwan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    The 2003 war on Iraq: Purposes and Motivations, An Analytical View2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Iraqi war represents a form of coercive diplomacy between words and war in the enforcement of international norms and is considered as a new and old notion at the same time. This holds true ever since the days of the Desert Storm: the war waged to liberate Kuwait. This mechanism was launched in 1990 under the title of the war to liberate Iraq or the punitive war, the core idea of which would correspond to the purposes and motivations of the 2003 war. This study begins with a review of the literature, both for background information and for the identification of variables of the events and factors in this issue. This war is analysed in relation to the US objectives in the region when it comes to maintaining its interests, ensuring security for its allies and dominating the whole region.

    This study investigates the controversy surrounding the case of 2003 war on Iraq, which is embodied in the plural reasons for the war. The situation in Iraq is of course still a subject for debate, as the country has experienced a stalemate for some years now. The study focuses on one chosen central research question; What was the real reason behind that war? The methodological triangulation approach adopted is about using different research methods to complement one another, in order for the findings to have validity and credibility. Relying upon conceptual analysis, critical review of relevant literature and concepts, political discourses analysis and also on primary data in the form of interviews with Iraqi elite experts of intelligence service and weapons experts, including the former top administrators who are linked to this issue, this thesis provides both facts and opinions which could be used as qualitative data. The aim of the variegated sources and material used for this study is to exemplify contending perspectives on the subject under study.

    The findings of this study suggest that since the war lacks a strong moral base, it remains suspicious as a legitimate policy instrument to solve the problematic issue in Iraq. While the war came about during the reign of the Republicans and the foreign policy then adopted, as this study demonstrates, the repercussions are severe to this day. Coercive diplomacy can ultimately lead the region into enormous chaos, which may have dire consequences for the whole region, not only within Iraq.

  • 111.
    Alander, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Nylin, Adam
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Feasibility study for producing and using biogas in Chisinau, Moldova2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More and more people live in cities, cities that both present opportunities, in terms of potential sustainable growth and challenges, for example regarding insufficient infrastructure and waste management. There are several examples on initiatives to make cities reach their sustainability potential; one is to turn municipal organic waste, MOW, and sewage sludge into biogas and use it to produce electricity and/or heat or to upgrade it to biomethane and use it as a fuel in for example public transport or feed it to a gas grid.

    This study has focused on the potential and feasibility of producing and using biogas/biomethane as well as the remains from the production process, called digestate, in Chisinau, the capital of Moldova. For the most feasible options an indication of the environmental improvement and economic performance was also estimated. The study included biogas produced from municipal organic waste, sewage sludge and methane collected at landfills. For the areas of use, electricity or heat produced from biogas was included as well as using biomethane in public transport or feeding it to the gas grid and to use the digestate as biofertilizer. Since multiple factors needs to be considered in order to adequately assess the potential and feasibility a multi-criteria approach was used for developing a framework based on an early assessment tool for biomethane solutions in the urban context.

    In summary it is indicated that there are good conditions for biogas production in Chisinau with biogas production from sewage sludge being included in the ongoing rehabilitation of the largest wastewater facility and methane collection from the largest landfill historically being part of the operations and planned (although not confirmed) to soon be part of these again. However, the largest potential is for municipal organic waste where the main impediments relates to financial issues and to some extent legislation that indirectly favour short term landfilling. When investigating the possible use of the digestate as biofertilizer the outlooks are considerably less promising than for the supply side. Despite the fact that the law explicitly allows the use of digestate (both from MOW and sewage sludge) the lack of knowledge within the farmer community result in a low or non-existent customer demand. Regarding the possible use of biogas/biomethane it was concluded that electricity production is the most feasible option and heat generation placing as the second most feasible. Feeding the gas to the grid appears more difficult and the least likely option is for the biogas to be used within public transport. Overall it is in general technically possible to use the gas in terms of infrastructure and there is some demand, especially for electricity and heat. The biggest inhibitory factors are rather institutional since biogas in general is overlooked or not prioritized in the strategies leading to a shortcoming in economical instruments or funds and to some extent in the legislation.

    This thesis is complemented by an executive summary with the same name, both in English and translated to Romanian.

  • 112.
    Alanne, K.
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning, P.O. Box 1100, 02015 TKK, Finland.
    Salo, A.
    Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Systems Analysis Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 1100, 02015 TKK, Finland.
    Saari, A.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Construction Economics and Management, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 2100, 02015 TKK, Finland.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Multi-criteria evaluation of residential energy supply systems2007In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 39, no 12, p. 1218-1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider the selection of a residential energy supply system as a multi-criteria decision-making problem, which involves both financial and environmental issues. Specifically, we compare micro-CHP (micro-cogeneration) heating with traditional heating systems through an evaluation that accounts for: (i) the decision-makers' subjective preferences, (ii) uncertainties in the performance of micro-CHP heating systems (which are partly caused by the lack of long-term operational experiences) and (iii) the context-dependency of life-cycle costs and environmental burdens of heating systems. Motivated by these considerations, we employ the PAIRS multi-criteria decision-making methodology that captures incomplete information by way of interval-valued parameters and provides support for sensitivity analyses, too. Our comparative analysis of alternative heating systems suggests that micro-CHP is a reasonable alternative to traditional systems, particularly from the environmental point of view. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 113.
    Alayón González, Claudia Juliana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Research Trends in Quality Management over the years 2010-20112012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In current globalized and highly demanding markets, Quality does not constitute any more a competitive advantage for organizations. Instead, Quality represents a basic market entry requirement for organizations indistinguishable from the country or economic sector they belong to.

    Being conscious of the importance of Quality for all type of organizations, the purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the identification and better understanding of current trends in academic research on Quality Management. By analyzing a sample of 612 academic papers collected from five international Quality journals and two QMOD international conferences over 2010 and 2011, the author will study and reflect on the current trends of global academic research related to Quality Management.

    Literature review was used as research methodology for the thesis. Academic papers were categorized, classified and analyzed in order to identify current research trends on Quality Management.

    This work provides a snapshot of the current research trends on Quality Management. It benefits the educational sector, researchers, industry and practitioners by presenting an overview of the current research needs as well as potential future research topics.

    As a result of this study, five main trending research topics on Quality Management were identified: management systems standards, total quality management, service quality, customer related processes after delivering product/service and excellence models.

    China, India, USA, Sweden and UK were identified as the countries that have published the highest number of academic papers in international Quality journals during the studied period. Additionally, it was found a marked predominance of academic research on Quality Management towards the service sector.

    These results and the answers to five proposed research questions were discussed and solved in this report.

  • 114.
    Albahari, Alberto
    et al.
    Universidad de Malaga, Spain.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos
    Universidad de Malaga, Spain.
    Science and Technology Parks: A study of value creation for park tenants2019In: Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, E-ISSN 1573-7047, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 1256-1272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on Science and Technology Parks (STPs) is growing rapidly and, despite the positive impact of STPs on firms found by many studies, it remains unclear how STPs create value for tenants. In this paper, we study the STP supply side through a case study in a Swedish region. We identify two components of the business support provided by parks: a configuration-oriented component, and a process-oriented component. The former refers to the static design of the business support, and the latter to the active, hands-on support provided by parks’ management. Both components must be planned carefully in order to deliver value to tenants. We also discuss some implications for policy and managers.

  • 115.
    Albertini, Gianni
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Scienze dei Materiali e della Terra, Universita, Ancona, Italy.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Manescu, Adrian
    Instituto di Scienze Fisiche, Universita, Ancona, Italy.
    Ponzetti, Araldo
    NUOVA M.A.I.P SpA, Viale Cavalotti n 30, Jesi, Italy.
    Neutron Diffraction Measurement of Residual Stress in a centrifugal Bowl of Duplex Steel2001In: Journal of Neutron Research, ISSN 1023-8166, E-ISSN 1477-2655, Vol. 9, p. 305-312Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Albertsson, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Attar, Housam
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Små företag och offentlig upphandling2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The law involving public procurement specifies that suppliers cannot be discriminated against on size, background, financial resources etc. Through a thorough literature review we found variables that were problematic for SME´s in an international context, that we wanted to further investigate within a Swedish context. Based on our investigation it can be concluded that some of the variables identified have a greater impact than others. Furthermore, our investigation showed that several variables affect the smallest companies to a greater degree than the larger companies. Finally, our survey also showed that barriers differ depending on the companies' level of participation in the procurement process.

  • 117.
    Albinsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Försäkring och terrorism2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    I Europa samt i vår övriga omvärld har hotet från terrorister under de senaste åren ökat. Därför är det av betydelse att försäkringsskydd finns att tillgå när eller om vi drabbas av terroristers våldshandlingar, för att åtminstone mildra vårt ekonomiska lidande. I denna masteruppsats får läsaren bland annat bekanta sig med vilka försäkringsmöjligheter som de större försäkringsgivarna har att erbjuda privatpersoner samt företag, avseende skada som har orsakats av terrorism. I uppsatsen behandlas försäkringar där skydd mot terrorism undantas helt eller till vissa delar. Detta gör det betydelsefullt att analysera i vilken utsträckning försäkringsbolag har rätt att undanta terrorrisker samt vilket rörelseutrymme försäkringsbolag har beträffande att inte uppställa undantag för nämnda risker. Vidare framförs resonemang om hur samhället påverkas av att försäkringsskydd, i vissa fall, saknas på området samt hur rimligt det är att försäkringsbranschen saknar en gemensam definition av terrorism.

    Terrorism kan ibland klassificeras som krigsliknande händelse. I uppsatsen behandlas därför också frågor om hur klassificeringen teoretiskt sett kan komma att påverka försäkringsersättningen vid ett eventuellt terrorscenario.

  • 118.
    Alder, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Peterson, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Enhanced knowledge utilization for increased project efficiency: A study of knowledge management in a project environment at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the prevailing uncertain and ever-changing business environment knowledge has become the single certain source for sustainable competitive advantage. Learning from past mistakes and avoiding reinventing the wheel are crucial tasks and no organization can today afford not to look for ways to make the best use of its knowledge. With Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB (SIT) being an actor in a complex and high-technology industry managing and leveraging the organization’s knowledge becomes essential. It came to the authors’ attention that the project manager department (GL) within the gas division of SIT experienced a need for improved processes for managing and utilizing the organization’s knowledge-base.

    On the first of January 2010 Siemens carried out a major reorganization, which affected SIT and the GL department by merging two previously separate departments of project managers into one unit. With efforts underway to harmonize the two department’s former working methods the situation implies timeliness for conducting a study on how to improve the company’s knowledge management initiative. This master thesis hence evolved to focus on examining and point out the improvement opportunities that exist with regards to knowledge sharing between projects, and between projects and the organization, and how tools and processes should be designed to collect, preserve, disseminate and reuse experiences, knowledge and lessons learned within a project-based organization in the best possible way.

    The research approach of the study was of a qualitative character including interviews with the 16 project managers of GL and other key employees both at SIT and at Siemens Oil & Gas division’s new CS and IP business units. Combined with meeting participation and observations of the project managers in their daily operations an increased understanding of the current situation at SIT and GL emerged; an understanding needed to identify the reasons and factors affecting the low degree of retention and utilization of the organization’s knowledge-base; an understanding leading up to the development of a model highlighting the important aspects for successful knowledge management initiatives, and how these aspects correlate.

    In order to improve the knowledge utilization a continuous lessons learned gathering throughout the project life-cycle needs to be implemented. This is primarily achieved through collecting lessons learned at the regular project meetings together with special lessons learned workshops. The collection and reutilization of knowledge hence needs to be integrated with the project management process. Improving the different forums available for knowledge sharing is also needed to enable an increased level of transformation of human capital into structural capital; augmenting the organization’s knowledge-base. Providing forums for knowledge sharing together with a visualized management support through actions, feedback and the introduction of a culture aimed at organizational learning further enhance the retention and utilization of the organization’s knowledge-base.

    Although the approach of this study is based on a case study of the SIT organization the conclusions are regarded to be of value for other project-based organizations and thus rending the conclusions to be generalized and used within other lines of business. The generic conclusion of this study is that in order to implement a successful knowledge management initiative all factors of the model need to be considered and attended too.

  • 119.
    Aldin, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Luna Case within Bergman & Beving Tools: Changes in Logistics Management2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies conducting business in multiple marketing channels need logistics and IT solutions that support their wide array of strategy and operations. Those, and other firms, do not solely rely on new concepts but also on continuously developing their businesses in the interaction between marketing and logistics. This case study will show on these aspects - how marketing and logistics may be integrated in such a channel environment by continuously developing the business as well as through new approaches in information technology - electronic commerce.

    The Luna case Within Bergman & Beving Tools illustrates the development of a medium sized distributor from catalogue based firm to flow co-ordinator in a group constellation, a change from a single steady going to a multiple requirement demanding marketing channel. Luna is a transaction intensive distributor of tools and machinery equipment with long experience in logistics and information technology. The company is guarantor for assortment quality, fast and reliable logistics through sophisticated IT solutions as well as value added competence in its trade relations with dealers and end customers. Independent dealers and end customers are found in Nordic industrial, construction, engineering, administration and consumer sectors. Bergman & Beving Tools is parent company to seven distributors of which Luna is the largest.

    To start with, this case describes the background development of the business in the fields of marketing, logistics and information technology until 1993. The second part between 1993 and 2001 describes how the marketing agenda has changed, how electronic commerce has been used to develop the business and changes in logistics, both on operational and strategic levels. As a whole the case describes changes in logistics management and how that has interacted with market development.

  • 120.
    Aldin, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The strategic interplay between logistics and market development: and the influence of electronic commerce2002Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this study is to describe and analyze how logistics and market development interplay. In order to do this the research topics are to analyze what the requirements on logistics are from a changing marketing strategy, as expansion or changed customer focus, and how logistics may support continued market development. This is particularly interesting when the business environment is changing. Within the research topics Internet-based electronic commerce is given attention, firstly as a marketing channel sensitive to business changes and secondly as an integrated part of marketing and logistics development. In all parts of the study, the choice of processes, structures and organizations of logistics have been in focus, here labelled logistics.

    The study consists of three parts and a cover. The cover synthesizes and summarizes the parts - one case study and two journal papers. The case study is a study over time of a medium-sized Swedish distributor selling tools and machinery to Nordic industrial sectors and the Baltic States. The distributor has gone through a change in marketing strategy and implemented an electronic commerce portal, which makes it interesting to study. In the journal papers the research topics are further elaborated and analyzed. The first journal paper focuses on the requirements, and the second paper on the contributions created, even though they overlap. In both parts electronic commerce has been considered an important element. In-depth interviews have been performed in the main case study object but also in two other distributors concerning electronic commerce possibilities.

     The case study describes the development of the case considering changes in marketing, logistics and electronic commerce strategy. It shows how the case company goes through a strategic change that involves expansion, the use of electronic commerce and changed logistics processes, structures and organizations. In journal paper one the market channel possibilities are analyzed for the case and how these require changes in logistics. It is concluded that with an increased environmental insecurity the need of strategic flexibility increases in new marketing channels and as a consequence the need for a centralized logistics organization. In journal paper two is the electronic commerce support for market and logistics development analyzed for three different distributors. It is concluded that electronic commerce efforts need to start at an activity level, but constantly widen the scope. A stepwise approach is outlined that combines market repositioning and logistics refinement. Support for how electronic commerce contributes to market and logistics development is found.

    This study supports previous research that claims that organizational integration between logistics and marketing is important. In a changing business environment organizational issues become the main focus in logistics. The need for centralized responsibility to tackle new and changing market requirements is outlined as essential in combination with a greater amount of internal collaboration through informal communication. In this study, the organization of logistics has been argued to have a decisive impact on the ability to find the best strategies that integrate logistics and marketing. Therefore organizational issues precede process and structural change. Electronic commerce and structural change become parts of a strategy to adapt to a continuously changing business.

    Electronic commerce, logistics process, organizational and structural development contribute to marketing development in different ways by combining cost, service and flexibility in logistics. The stepwise approach signals that to come further with electronic commerce, different lines of action in logistics are needed, such as process streamlining to create better co-ordination and customer service or structural change to further expand the market. Accordingly, different logistics strategies are adaptable to different marketing strategies. However, a centralized logistics organization is argued to be a pre-requisite to become strategic flexible for new marketing strategies and being able to create the necessary interplay between marketing and logistics.

    List of papers
    1. The Luna Case within Bergman & Beving Tools: Changes in Logistics Management
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Luna Case within Bergman & Beving Tools: Changes in Logistics Management
    2002 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies conducting business in multiple marketing channels need logistics and IT solutions that support their wide array of strategy and operations. Those, and other firms, do not solely rely on new concepts but also on continuously developing their businesses in the interaction between marketing and logistics. This case study will show on these aspects - how marketing and logistics may be integrated in such a channel environment by continuously developing the business as well as through new approaches in information technology - electronic commerce.

    The Luna case Within Bergman & Beving Tools illustrates the development of a medium sized distributor from catalogue based firm to flow co-ordinator in a group constellation, a change from a single steady going to a multiple requirement demanding marketing channel. Luna is a transaction intensive distributor of tools and machinery equipment with long experience in logistics and information technology. The company is guarantor for assortment quality, fast and reliable logistics through sophisticated IT solutions as well as value added competence in its trade relations with dealers and end customers. Independent dealers and end customers are found in Nordic industrial, construction, engineering, administration and consumer sectors. Bergman & Beving Tools is parent company to seven distributors of which Luna is the largest.

    To start with, this case describes the background development of the business in the fields of marketing, logistics and information technology until 1993. The second part between 1993 and 2001 describes how the marketing agenda has changed, how electronic commerce has been used to develop the business and changes in logistics, both on operational and strategic levels. As a whole the case describes changes in logistics management and how that has interacted with market development.

    Publisher
    p. 53
    Series
    IMIE Working Paper, ISSN 1403-4638 ; 2
    National Category
    Transport Systems and Logistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99897 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-10-23 Created: 2013-10-23 Last updated: 2013-10-23
    2. Electronic commerce, marketing channels and logistics platforms - a wholesaler perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic commerce, marketing channels and logistics platforms - a wholesaler perspective
    2003 (English)In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 144, no 2, p. 270-279Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic commerce may impose new demands which the supply chain has to react to, while at the same time being an enabler of effective marketing and logistics. This paper describes alternative strategies for wholesalers conducting electronic commerce and how logistics may support the development of marketing channels and improve flexibility. Related issues with logistics implications are the decisions whether or not to use multiple channels and if intermediaries should totally bypass dealers, or rather collaborate by letting them manage the marketing relations and bypass them logistically. The concept of “logistics platforms” is discussed, based on empirical findings. Empirically the base is a case study of an intermediary with extensive use of business-to-business electronic commerce in a supply chain with independent dealers. The paper compares theoretical aspects with findings from the case and gives some indications of the potential of electronic commerce and logistics platforms.

    Keywords
    Supply chain management, Marketing channels, Logistics platform, Electronic commerce, Flexibility
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-46748 (URN)10.1016/S0377-2217(02)00393-4 (DOI)000178990600005 ()
    Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    3. Business development with electronic commerce: refinement and repositioning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business development with electronic commerce: refinement and repositioning
    2004 (English)In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 44-62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic commerce enables business development for marketing channel intermediaries and strengthens their existing operations and strategic management. This research shows that electronic commerce provides stepwise business development refinement and repositioning in the form of process change and increased customer service. Based on marketing and logistics literature, a business development model with three developmental phases is proposed in this paper. The findings are based on the electronic commerce development of three intermediaries providing industrial products and services in the northern European market. Refinement is achieved through a focus on activities for internal efficiency, and through changing processes for increased integration, shorter time and lower costs. Repositioning involves extended focus on service improvements, image and customer tailored services. It is found that electronic commerce has not radically reshaped and developed the role of marketing channel intermediaries. Instead, it has strengthened existing business. Future electronic commerce efforts need to be viewed in a business wide development context, including structural change and reaching new segments or markets, to utilise fully the development potential of electronic commerce.

    Keywords
    Electronic commerce, Marketing, Logistics, Business Development, Channel Flow, Scandinavia
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-22198 (URN)10.1108/14637150410518329 (DOI)1353 (Local ID)1353 (Archive number)1353 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13
  • 121.
    Aldin, Niklas
    et al.
    Intentia Switzerland AG, Zug, Switzerland.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Anders
    Saab Aircraft, Linköping, Sweden.
    Business development with electronic commerce: refinement and repositioning2004In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 44-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic commerce enables business development for marketing channel intermediaries and strengthens their existing operations and strategic management. This research shows that electronic commerce provides stepwise business development refinement and repositioning in the form of process change and increased customer service. Based on marketing and logistics literature, a business development model with three developmental phases is proposed in this paper. The findings are based on the electronic commerce development of three intermediaries providing industrial products and services in the northern European market. Refinement is achieved through a focus on activities for internal efficiency, and through changing processes for increased integration, shorter time and lower costs. Repositioning involves extended focus on service improvements, image and customer tailored services. It is found that electronic commerce has not radically reshaped and developed the role of marketing channel intermediaries. Instead, it has strengthened existing business. Future electronic commerce efforts need to be viewed in a business wide development context, including structural change and reaching new segments or markets, to utilise fully the development potential of electronic commerce.

  • 122.
    Aldin, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stahre, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic commerce, marketing channels and logistics platforms - a wholesaler perspective2003In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 144, no 2, p. 270-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic commerce may impose new demands which the supply chain has to react to, while at the same time being an enabler of effective marketing and logistics. This paper describes alternative strategies for wholesalers conducting electronic commerce and how logistics may support the development of marketing channels and improve flexibility. Related issues with logistics implications are the decisions whether or not to use multiple channels and if intermediaries should totally bypass dealers, or rather collaborate by letting them manage the marketing relations and bypass them logistically. The concept of “logistics platforms” is discussed, based on empirical findings. Empirically the base is a case study of an intermediary with extensive use of business-to-business electronic commerce in a supply chain with independent dealers. The paper compares theoretical aspects with findings from the case and gives some indications of the potential of electronic commerce and logistics platforms.

  • 123.
    Aldén, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hantering av digitala verktygsmodeller: En studie av hur 3D-modeller av monteringsverktyg ska lagras, struktureras och geopositioneras på Scania CV AB inom Chassimontering2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing product complexity and usage of digital methods has made more and more companies realize the usefulness of good systems for Product Lifecycle Management and Product Data Management to handle their product through its lifecycle. The idea behind PLM solutions is to make sure that everybody has access to the last updated data at all times. This is achieved through central vaults for storage of data and the possibility to structure and manage the data. At Scania, Spectra and Enovia are used to structure and store all the product data. In recent years Digital Test Assembly (DTA) has been used along physical test assembly at the department of chassis production. DTA is used to simulate the ability to assemble new products before production starts.

    At the department for test assembly a need has been identified for better management of 3D models for tools. Mainly a need for better availability of the models has been identified since the models are used to simulate access for tools during assembly. The master thesis will study a future usage of Spectra and Enovia, in the production department, in order for better management of the increased amount of 3D models that today are stored in the computers of the process engineers.   

    Two methods to import the 3D models, which are delivered from Scania's subcontractors, into Enovia have been developed. Since it is the process engineers that manage the investments of tools today they should also perform the imports to Enovia. A structure for the tools was made in Spectra, the PLM-system at Scania. The structure was built according to the assembly sequence at the production of chassis. A study of how the models of tools should be geometrically positioned in the digital environment was also performed.

    The study showed that the production unit of chassis assembly should implement Enovia for storage of models and also look into the possibilities to structure and geometrically position the models using Spectra. In order for the models to be geometrically positioned correctly the data system needs to be further developed to also handle tools instead of only products.

    To improve the development process and lessen the waste of time and money the department of chassis and Scania as a whole need to improve the communication between the production unit and the development unit. Communication will improve the exchange of knowledge and resources between the units. The personnel at Scania also need to make higher demands on the material they get from subcontractors. Scania needs to get digital 3D material from their subcontractors as well in order to reach the vision of a more digital way of doing things.

  • 124.
    Aldén, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Linnéa, Andersson
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Konsumenters betalningsvilja för Kravmärkningen: En analys av faktorer som påverkar konsumenters betalningsvilja av utvalda livsmedelsvaror2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ecolabel Krav exists to promote organic food production. The label has existed for a long time and has grown to be a well-recognized brand. How well the label works to influence consumption is something worth investigate more closely. Since the ecolabeled food are generally more expensive to produce, and thus get a higher market price, consumers must have a desire to pay the higher price. The purpose of this thesis is to examine whether the willingness to pay actually exists among students. The included theories are income elasticity, price elasticity, external effects and nudging. These together with previous research have discussed the factors concerning consumers behavior. A survey has also been conducted to examine students knowledge concerning the ecolabel Krav, and to test their willingness to pay for selected conventional and Krav labelled groceries. In addition to the survey, information has been collected through an email correspondence with the store manager at Maxi ICA Stormarknad Linköping to get information about possible strategies the grocery store use.

    The study shows that consumers are well informed about the existence of Krav as an ecolabel, but the knowledge is poor regarding the work Krav is performing and the purpose of it. We have generally observed that there are fewer individuals choosing the ecolabel Krav over conventional, the result differs between groceries. We have observed several connections regarding the factor income, the higher income ranges seem to be a synonym with the highest willingness to pay for Bregott. For the eggs, we cannot see any clear connection between the higher income ranges and the higher willingness to pay. Another factor that has high impact on the willingness to pay is the price, when a bigger price difference between conventional and Krav groceries exist, this results in a connection that more individuals chose the conventional option. Individual preferences of ecolabels show that a certain awareness exist, but that there is a difference in awareness and action. Which previous research strengthens. Preferences does not determine consumption in all cases, instead price seems to be the deciding factor. This can be based on the selected population which are students.

  • 125.
    Aldén, Paulina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Behrens, Mia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Uppköpt!: En inblick i integrationsfasen på ett förvärvat bolag - "Quick and Dirty"2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Acquisitions are a popular strategy among companies around the world, even though almost 70 % of all acquisitions fail. Earlier research has pointed at the integration phase as the most critical process for the success of the acquisition. Regardless of whether an acquired company is absorbed or preserved, most researchers agree that the top management team of the acquired company has a significant role for the merged organization and should therefore be involved in the integration process. Despite this, researchers have mainly focused on discussing acquisitions from the buyers’ perspective and not from the acquired company.

    Aim: The purpose is to describe how the top management team of an acquired company, internally manage the acquisitions integration phase.

    Methodology: The study has an inductive approach and is based on a single case study of the acquired company Sunne Software. To achieve the purpose of the study, the approach is qualitative and eight semi-structured interviews have been conducted with the top management team of Sunne Software. Because this specific group has been studied in its natural environment through a “Quick and Dirty” fieldwork, resulting in detailed descriptions of the case, the design of the study is therefore ethnographically inspired.

    Conclusion: The result of this study shows that the management of the integration phase from the acquired company’s perspective, can be considered to be circular; all parts of the integration phase are simultaneously managed. Based on the empirical data from Sunne Software, the three main parts of the integration phase have been identified as conservation, change and adaptation. The top management team has managed these parts by maintaining their identity, through clear communication and by implementing various adaptations according to the new objective.

  • 126.
    Alenvret, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evaldsson, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Creating customer value through knowledge integration: How internal stakeholders can be involved in the product development process2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing globalisation of the market is followed by increased competition between organisations. Therefore it becomes more important to create products with high customer value. To be able to create customer value, deep understanding of the customers’ needs must be obtained by employees, shared between them and transformed into products. Further consequences of globalisation are increasing differences between customers’ needs, which results in demand for customisable and flexible products.The purpose of this study was to analyse how organisations can create more customer value through increased knowledge integration. The focus was on how knowledge that already resides within a globally dispersed organisation can be integrated during the product development process.This study showed that customer value is created throughout the product development process by integrating the knowledge held by R&D and internal stakeholders. Different types of value are created at different phases in the product development process. One important finding is that different parts of the augmented value are created throughout the entire product development process. Since employees obtain different knowledge depending on which customer they interact with, it is important to utilise knowledge from a large number of employees with different roles and in different countries. Hence, the significance of knowledge integration must be disseminated and understood across the organisation. After completing the product development process additional customer value is created by the internal stakeholders’ who sell and implement the product, but it is during the product development process that the basis for their value creation is established.Knowledge needs to be integrated in a formalised, repeatable way, so that the R&D department can ensure that the right product is developed at the right time. Integration means that the tacit knowledge that resides within one employee is codified into an explicit form that can be exploited by more employees. Therefore, four steps must be performed and repeated iteratively to create and spread knowledge throughout the organisation. The first step includes communication by exchanging tacit knowledge. The second step entails documenting the knowledge, and the third step involves combining the knowledge residing in the organisations into one common knowledge system. The final step includes distributing the knowledge so that it recievess wide attention within the organisation. Several factors that have a negative impact on these four steps, and knowledge integration, need to be countered somehow. However, it was found that there are several mechanisms that facilitate knowledge integration, and most often the presence of several mechanisms at the same time had a better effect.

  • 127.
    Alexandersson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bevisbördan avseende skakrav vid offentlig upphandling2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen sammanställer och analyserar de praktiska följderna av bevisbördans placering avseende skakrav inom ramen för offentlig upphandling. I ett större perspektiv syftar uppsatsen till att kunna användas som ett inlägg i debatten avseende skakravens användning vid offentlig upphandling i Sverige.

    Användingen av skakrav är vanligt förekommande vid offentlig upphandling i Sverige. Begreppet "skakrav" avser ett absolut krav avseende en viss egenskap hos anbudsgivaren och/eller föremålet för upphandlingen. Den egenskap som skakravet avser är avgörande för att säkerställa leveransen av föremålet för upphandlingen.

    Frågan om bevisbördans placering får extra stor vikt i en situation där det, till följd av oklara faktiska förhållanden, finns en osäkerhet avseende hur gällande rätt ska tillämpas. Om en part i ett mål har bevisbördan innebär detta att om parten inte kan visa på omständigheter som uppfyller de beviskrav som uppställs, anses inte heller det tvistiga faktumet föreligga. Risken för att en omständighet inte har bevisats tillskrivs med andra ord av den part som har bevisbördan.

    En leverantör som lämnar anbud vid en offentlig upphandling anger att samtliga skakrav är uppfyllda. I normalfallet är också detta meddelande tillräcklig bevisning för att bevisbördan avseende anbudsgivarens skakravsuppfyllelse ska övergå till beställaren. Detta faktum får ett flertal praktiska konsekvenser. Uppsatsens frågeställning syftar till att identifiera och analysera följderna av angivet faktum.

    När skakravsuppfyllelse bevisas genom ett enkelt meddelande i avlämnat anbud föreligger det en risk för att anbud från anbudsgivare som inte uppfyller alla skakrav ändå tilldelas upphandlingskontrakt. Detta är möjligt eftersom en beställare i normalfallet varken har skyldighet eller möjlighet att kontrollera en anbudsgivares faktiska skakravsuppfyllnad. En undersökning av den faktiska skakravsuppfyllnaden eller omfattande krav på att särskilda bevis avseende skakravsuppfyllnaden ska bifogas anbudet kan strida mot de grundläggande principerna för offentlig upphandling.

    En ytterligare följd av rådande rättsläge är att beställaren är till viss del utelämnad till anbudsgivarnas "goda omdöme". Med gott omdöme menas att en leverantör antas avstå från att lämna anbud när denne vet med sig att han inte uppfyller samtliga uppställda skakrav. En annan möjlig följd av att ett vinnande anbud inte i praktiken uppfyller samtliga skakrav är att tilldelningsbeslutet kan bli föremål för överprövning och/eller att syftet med upphandlingen inte uppnås till sin helhet.

    Uppsatsförfattarens anger vissa förslag på lösningar för att minska de friktioner som användingen av skakrav kan ge. Beställaren skulle bland annat kunna ges större möjligheter att begära bevis avseende anbudsgivarnas skakravsuppfyllnad. Ett annat förslag är helt enkelt att minska användningen av skakrav vid offentlig upphandling.

  • 128.
    Alexandersson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Rosenquist, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Samförståelse inom mjukvaruutveckling: Visioner, utvecklare och brukskvaliteter2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi vill med den här uppsatsen undersöka om brukskvaliteter kan vara ett stöd vid mjukvaruutveckling, med fokus på dess kommunikativa egenskaper och hur de kan bidra till skapandet av samförståelse. Empirin för studien är hämtat från UIQ Technology i Ronneby som utvecklar en plattform för ”smart phones” och har ett starkt fokus på användbarhet.

    I denna uppsats beskriver vi deras arbete som två nivåer. Först ut är Vision vilket representerar dem som tar in kundens krav och skapar, eller formulerar, en vision utefter dessa. Därefter förs denna formulering ner till Utförande som står för dem som skapar den faktiska produkten. För att kunna ta reda på om brukskvaliteter kan fungera som ett stöd i deras verksamhet har vi först undersökt vilket synsätt de har på kommunikation i respektive område med hjälp av paradigmatisk analys. Därefter tar vi reda på vilka olika kommunikationskanaler de använder sig av idag samt vilka typer av kommunikationsverktyg som förekommer. Vi upplever att en tydlig designmetodik är nödvändig vid den här typen av arbete, och att brukskvaliteter skulle kunna fungera som ett stöd i detta fall.

    I vårt resultat ser vi hur det öppna synsättet på kommunikation inom organisationen hjälper till att skapa en god bas för att kunna skapa samförståelse och vi ser även att man försökt strukturera sin kommunikation på ett sätt som utnyttjar kommunikationskanalerna på ett så bra sätt som möjligt. Man inför begrepp som har samma innebörd för båda sidor och genom dessa kan man förstå varandra på ett snabbare och enklare sätt. Vi tror att ett införande av begrepp även för design skulle kunna hjälpa att förmedla tankar och visioner kring dessa. Genom att göra detta kan man även bidra till samförståelse inom organisationen.

  • 129.
    Alexandersson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Möbelsnickeri.
    Parkettläggning: med massivträ som utgångspunkt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about furniture parquetry and various techniques. Parquetry can be describe as wooden, 2-dimensional patterns used to garnish furniture and other products. It is manufactured in thin veneer layer and applied to the surface. By using thin veneer we are able to minimize stresses in the material, which results in tight joints. In Europe, furniture parquetry is traditionally created by wood veneer pieces that has been formed and joined into a pattern. There are also other proven techniques developed during different stages in history and in different places in the world.

    In my thesis I describe some of those established techniques and some of my experiments in the subject. The report is based on literature studies, observations of movie clips, interviews and empirical practical studies. I have compared different techniques to see in what ways it is possible to rationalize the production of furniture parquetry. At the same time I wanted to try and develop a method that makes it possible to create parquetry patterns containing round shapes. In this way I hope to contribute to the development and modernization in the area. 

  • 130.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Differences in Situational Awareness and How to Manage Them in Development of Complex Systems2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What’s up, Doc? Situational awareness (SA) is about being aware of what is going on. Already when a complex system is developed there is an opportunity to help a future user of the system to form a better SA. Let us make the best out of this opportunity! When assessing SA, differences in SA will sometimes appear. This dissertation is about SA, and how to manage differences in SA in development of complex systems. This topic is highly valid for development of a variety of complex systems, although most examples in this dissertation are from the aviation domain.

    Framed by state of the art literature, suggestions are made on theoretical improvements of SA theory, with a focus on differences. The difference between what you are required to be aware of and what you are aware of is suggested as a SA-indicator. Also, the difference between what you are aware of and what you think you are aware of is suggested as another SA-indicator. Further, differences within a team such as variations in degree of agreement could be used for team SA assessment.

    Also, the term situation management (SM) is suggested, with a proposed wider meaning than SA, including SA and every part of the perception action cycle, the management of mental resources, and external means of managing the situation. SM is a suitable term when developing complex systems due to the focus on the situation and how that could be managed, instead of only focusing on what is perceived by an individual or team.

    Assessing differences in SA and to differentiate between various types of differences are recognised as important prerequisites to effectively manage differences in SA in development of complex systems. Several assessment techniques are reviewed and especially advantages and disadvantages of the use of eye movements for SA assessment are described. With reference to the literature as well as to the appended papers differences in SA due to a) design alternatives, b) roles in the design-use process, c) context, and d) level of analysis, are described. Differences in SA are suggested to be regarded as both quantitative (i.e. high or low SA) and qualitative (e.g. various aspects of a situation are regarded).

    Approaches such as, SM, on-line evaluation of SA, simulator based design, as well as measuring and analysing SA on multiple levels simultaneously, are suggested as means to manage differences in SA in the development of complex systems.

    List of papers
    1. Improvement of tactical situation awareness with colour-coded horizontal-situation displays in combat aircraft
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of tactical situation awareness with colour-coded horizontal-situation displays in combat aircraft
    Show others...
    1999 (English)In: Displays (Guildford), ISSN 0141-9382, E-ISSN 1872-7387, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 171-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the multi-role combat aircraft Gripen, the monochrome head-down displays in the cockpit are to be upgraded in colour. In the present study, the effects of colour-coded displays on visual search and situation awareness (SA) were studied in a real-time simulation of an air-to-air mission with test pilots as subjects. Gripen's monochrome colour scheme was compared to two chromatic (dichrome, polychrome) colour schemes. A 3×2×2 factorial within subjects design was used; the three colour schemes each with two different background conditions (simple and complex) and two different symbol configurations. The pilot had two tasks during the simulation: (1) to track a manoeuvring aircraft within specified limits by using the head-up display (HUD), and (2) to detect the appearance of a priority target on the head-down horizontal-situation display (HSD). Deviations in flight path angle and reaction times for target detection were recorded. After the test runs, the pilot answered questions and ranked the colour schemes in different respects. The pilot also rated them for SA using a subjective rating technique on cognitive compatibility (CC-SART). The results show that colour is advantageous in comparison to the monochrome display: The ranks on situation awareness and preference ratings were higher for the chromatic schemes, and with the complex background, the reaction times were significantly lower for the polychrome colour code. In summary, the results indicate that colour can improve tactical SA in combat aircraft.

    Keywords
    Human factors, Aviation, Moving map cockpit displays, Horizontal-situation displays, Electronic maps, Colour coding
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12751 (URN)10.1016/S0141-9382(99)00022-0 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Pilots’ understanding of situational awareness
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pilots’ understanding of situational awareness
    2000 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, 2000, p. 172-181Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12752 (URN)
    Conference
    10th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, Linköping, Sweden, 21-23 August 2000
    Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2015-03-02Bibliographically approved
    3. Mode monitoring and call-outs: An eye-tracking study of 2-crew automated flight deck operations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mode monitoring and call-outs: An eye-tracking study of 2-crew automated flight deck operations
    2006 (English)In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 263-275 Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Mode awareness has been suggested as a critical factor in safe operations of automated aircraft. This study investigated mode awareness by measuring eye point of gaze of both pilots during simulated commercial flights, while recording call-outs and tracking aircraft performance. The results of this study show that the compliance to manufacturer or air carrier procedures regarding mode monitoring and call-outs was very low. However, this did not seem to have a negative effect on the flight path or safety during our observations. Crews exhibited a proliferation of strategies to keep track of status and behavior of the automation, often with little reliance on the flight mode annunciations of the primary flight display. The data confirm the limitations of current flight mode annunciator designs, and suggest that mode awareness is a more complex phenomenon than what can be captured by measuring eye point of gaze and communication alone.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2006
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12753 (URN)10.1207/s15327108ijap1603_2 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Effect of task complexity and decision maker separation on shared situational awareness in command and control in network centric warfare
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of task complexity and decision maker separation on shared situational awareness in command and control in network centric warfare
    2007 (English)In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12754 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2018-08-01Bibliographically approved
    5. Individual differences in visual behaviour in simulated flight
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual differences in visual behaviour in simulated flight
    2002 (English)In: Proceedings of IS &T/SPIE's 14th Annual Symposium: Vol. 4662. Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VII, 2002, p. 494-502Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12755 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2009-02-12Bibliographically approved
    6. Business process reengineering in the automotive area by simulator-based design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business process reengineering in the automotive area by simulator-based design
    2007 (English)In: Simulation and Modeling: Current Technologies and Applications / [ed] Asim Abdel Rahman El Sheikh, Abid Al Ajeeli, Evon M. O. Abu-Taieh, Hershey, PA, USA: IGI-Global Inc. , 2007, 1, p. 337-358Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The science of simulation and modeling (SM) strives to showcase the highest possible level of reality in order to determine the conditions necessary for optimal performance. SM is a multifaceted and complex field due to the numerous applications involved, particularly since SM applications range from nuclear reaction to supermarket queuing. Simulation and Modeling: Current Technologies and Applications includes examinations of current issues related to simulation such as: Web-based simulation, virtual reality, augmented reality, and artificial intelligence. This book combines different methods, views, theories, and applications of simulations into one volume, and offers insight into the computer science aspect of simulation and modeling while integrating the business practices of SM.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hershey, PA, USA: IGI-Global Inc., 2007 Edition: 1
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12756 (URN)978-15-9904-198-8 (ISBN)159-90-4198-7 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2013-06-28Bibliographically approved
  • 131.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Individual differences in visual behaviour in simulated flight2002In: Proceedings of IS &T/SPIE's 14th Annual Symposium: Vol. 4662. Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VII, 2002, p. 494-502Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 132.
    Alfredson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, J.
    Effect of task complexity and decision maker separation on shared situational awareness in command and control in network centric warfare2007In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 133.
    Alfredson, Jens
    et al.
    SAAB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gonzaga Trabasso, Luis
    Aeronautics Institute of Technology, Brazil.
    Schminder, Jörg
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Granlund, Rego
    Research Institutes of Sweden SICS East, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gårdhagen, Roland
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    DESIGN OF A DISTRIBUTED HUMAN FACTORS LABORATORY FOR FUTURE AIRSYSTEMS2018In: ICAS congress proceeding, International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences , 2018, article id ICAS2018_0305Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a rationale for structuring a distributed human factors laboratory for future air systems. The distributed herein refers to two aspects: content and geographic. As for content, the laboratory is structured in two levels, namely, individual, and team. As for geographic, the laboratory infrastructure is distributed in three physically separate facilities, namely, Department of Computer and Information Science (IDA) and Department of Management and Engineering (IEI) from Linköping University – Sweden and the Competence Center in Manufacturing from the Aeronautics Institute of Technology (ITA) – Brazil.

  • 134.
    Alfredson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pilots’ understanding of situational awareness2000In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, 2000, p. 172-181Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 135.
    Algulin, Astrid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Johansson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Basel II ur ett konkurrensperspektiv: En studie i nischbankernas ställning på den svenska bankmarknaden2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The competition level on the Swedish bank market has increased after an extended deregulation in the 1990s, much due to niche players entering the market, competing with the large players on the field. In February 2007, a new regulation, Basel II, regulating the level of capital a bank must keep in relation to its risks taken, was implemented. The regulation allows banks to use different methods to calculate this capital requirement, methods that cost different amounts to implement and maintain. As a result of this, many smaller banks will have difficulties in implementing more advanced methods since the costs associated with these are too high for a smaller bank to handle. Different methods will also result in different capital requirements for different banks.

    The purpose of this study is to describe the expected effect the introduction of Basel II will have on the positions of the niche banks on the Swedish bank market. To be able to fulfil this purpose, a qualitative study has been made, where interviews have been held with nine niche banks and two large ones. People from The Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority, The Swedish Banker’s Association, The Swedish Competition Authority and KPMG Financial Services have also been interviewed to receive a better view of the competitive effects of Basel II.

    The study has shown that the aspects of Basel II that will effect the competition on the market are the implementation and maintenance costs that come with the regulation, and the fact that banks are allowed to use different methods to calculate the capital requirements for credit risks, with an increased risk-based pricing differentiation as a result. Niche banks have a possibility to keep and strengthen their positions on the market if they adjust their activities in relation to the new conditions Basel II involves.

    Moreover, this study has shown advantages in being a niche actor, regardless of size, over being a small actor. Banks that compete for customers with lower risks will have advantages due to Basel II if being large, or a bank working within one area and therefore has a possibility to be large in this specific area. Niche players that choose to compete in areas involving high risk customers do not need the same volumes since the margins in these areas are expected to rise, but the banks need to limit their activity to specific business areas to be able to keep using less costly methods to calculate the capital requirements without loosing in competitive strength as a result of this.

  • 136.
    Ali Rashed, Chra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Mouyiasis, George
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Negative Unintended Consequences of Innovation- a case study regarding innovation and sustainability: The new Extended Value Creation Mechanism for Global Sustainability, the SNE SFI GS-framework2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is often related to positive outcomes for the majority to enjoy that enhances welfare and facilitates everyday activities. In different fields of study (economics, management, sociology, history and science and technology) it is becoming a field of magnitude (Malerba and Brusoni, 2007). Fagerberg and Verspagen (2009) discuss the emerging interest of innovation in the field of social science. Although the interest within the subject of innovation is high, very little research has been done regarding the aim to contribute to the design innovation policy, developed by scholars studying the field of innovation. One often so neglected study within innovation is in the field of negative unintended consequences of innovation (NUCoI) (Sveiby et al, 2012). One main contributor of innovative activities is organizational operations leading to value for end customers. While firms often have the aim to create value with innovation for the greater benefit in society, sometimes these value-creating mechanisms may create unintended negative consequences in addition to the positive effects. While innovations are increasing in rapidness and numbers of output produced, the effects on society and the natural environment needs to be highlighted. With assumptions regarding vague CSR implementation in corporations (Newell, 2005), this research tries to grasp understanding on how NUCoI is perceived from the managerial perspective in organizations regarding their stakeholder viewpoint. As a starting point, the authors use Charlie Chaplin’s famous quote “More than machinery, we need humanity” from the movie “The Great Dictator” indicating the importance of caring for various stakes.

    Purpose: The aim of this research is to highlight the new field of study in social science; Negative unintended consequences of innovation (NUCoI) in relation to the societal natural environment (society and the natural environment). The research contributes to the existing frameworks on organizational value creation mechanisms in innovation policy to incorporate the aspect of negative consequences of innovation (NCoI), in terms of sustainability to highlight the importance of secondary stakeholders.

    Results: The new Extended Value Creation Mechanism for Global Sustainability, the Societal-Natural-Environment Stakeholder Framework of Innovation and Global Sustainability framework (SNE SFI GS-framework), aims to contribute in the long-term perspective for research in innovation policy by highlighting one aspect of a field of the often so neglected societal natural environment perspective, when competing rivalry becomes too fierce. The framework highlights the importance of secondary stakeholders, where primary stakeholders may act as a “link” between the organization and secondary stakeholders. Additionally, the authors suggest going to basic practices regarding sustainability with valuating the natural resources for a prospering sustainable society. The aspects in the research include stakeholder-theory, value-creation in terms of the societal natural environment, and innovation as a field of social science, negative consequences and organizational sense-making.

  • 137.
    Alimadadi, Majid
    et al.
    Department of Natural Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Lindström, Stefan B
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kulachenko, Artem
    Department of Solid Mechanics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Role of microstructures in the compression response of three-dimensional foam-formed wood fiber networks2018In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 14, p. 8945-8955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-porosity, three-dimensional wood fiber networks made by foam forming present experimentally accessible instances of hierarchically structured, athermal fiber networks. We investigate the large deformation compression behavior of these networks using fiber-resolved finite element analyses to elucidate the role of microstructures in the mechanical response to compression. Three-dimensional network structures are acquired using micro-computed tomography and subsequent skeletonization into a Euclidean graph representation. By using a fitting procedure to the geometrical graph data, weare able to identify nine independent statistical parameters needed for the regeneration of artificial networks with the observed statistics. The compression response of these artificially generated networks and the physical network is then investigated using implicit finite element analysis. A direct comparison of the simulation results from the reconstructed and artificial network reveals remarkable differences already in the elastic region. These can neither be fully explained by density scaling, the size effect nor the boundary conditions. The only factor which provides the consistent explanation of the observed difference is the density and fiber orientation nonuniformities; these contribute to strain-localization so that the network becomes more compliant than expected for statistically uniform microstructures. We also demonstrate that the experimentally manifested strain-stiffening of such networks is due to development of new inter-fiber contacts during compression.

  • 138.
    Alin, Gustaf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thornell, Benjamin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The individual Controller role: And how the role is affected by increased information and complex report relations2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research of the controller role is extensive and has been studied in several sectors, whichprovides a wide range of definitions of the controller role. These definitions have contributed to an ambiguous controller role in regards to what work assignments are most important and to whom the controller should report. This thesis aims to provide an in-depth understanding of the controller role based on work assignments within a decentralised organisation working with complex financial products. This thesis also contributes to an understanding of how controllers perceive that their role is affected by their work with handling information and their report relations. This has generated three research questions: What role does the controller have in a Swedish universal bank based on work assignments? What are the eventual differences in the controller role depending on department in the organisation? How do the controllers perceive that their role is affected by their work with handling information and by their report relations? Delimitation was made to analyse controllers at various levels in Handelsbanken. In order to create an understanding of the controller role in this context, an abductive approach as been used in order to combine existing theories with empirical findings. Based on a qualitative approach, triangulation was chosen to combine assembled empirical data with semi- structured interviews. The result of this study implies that controllers mainly lean towards the role as a Business partner as they work as a support function to provide local or higher managers with relevant analysis for decision-making. Based on work processes with information, the controllers lean towards an Analyst and Coach as they generally handle all business related information. From this case study, controllers in decentralised organisations possess the role as a Specialist as they  are  situated in separate departments with a clear focus. Results also show that more automated work assignments due to technological development do not increase the controllers’ opportunity to dedicate more time on analysis. Instead, increased information flows require controllers to allocate resources towards assembling information. In terms of report relations, close adherence towards the local managers does not affect the controller’s objective reporting to higher management and the controller can arguably bemore independent within their report relations than what is described by literature.

  • 139. Alkaisee, Rasha
    et al.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of Layer Removal Methods in Residual Stress Profiling of a Shot Peened Steel using X-ray Diffraction2014In: Residual Stresses IX, 2014, Vol. 996, p. 175-180Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Alkelin, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Annie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Key Audit Matters som ett resultat av revisorns bedömning: En kvantitativ studie om Key Audit Matters i svenska börsbolag2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background The financial crisis contributed to a discussion of client-specific information in the auditor´s report, as many considered that the auditors had not done enough to warn about significant risks in the audited companies. Since December 2016, ISA 701 will apply to the audit of listed companies. The standard adresses with Key Audit Matters and aims to enhance the communicative value of the auditor´s report. Key Audit Matters will be communicated in the audit report and are the matters that, according to the auditor's professional judgement, were the most significant in the audit of the financial statements of the current period.

    Purpose The purpose of the study is to investigate whether there are any relationships between the Key Audit Matters that the auditor chose to communicate in the audit report and different client-specific factors.

    Method The study is based on a deductive and an eclectic approach. A cross- sectional design is used in order to investigate Key Audit Matters at a given time. The study is quantitative and the empirical data consists of archival data.

    Conclusion There are relationships between the auditor's choice of Key Audit Matters and client-specific factors such as industry affiliation, size, profitability and debt/equity ratio. The relationships suggest that Key Audit Matters are not always “unique” to the audited company, even though it is the purpose of the standard.

  • 141.
    Alkhalil, Mohamad
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Effect of eWOM on consumers purchasing decision making process2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People in the past were trying to get information through libraries, magazines or marketing agencies that were created specifically to attract consumers. In the age of the Internet people have been able to communicate with each other around the world after it was one-way communication in the pre-Internet age. Two-way communication has led to the creation of a product purchase website that encourages people to share and publish their views. Today, people looking for the best and most satisfying purchase option that makes multiple alternatives available. Online reviews can increase or decrease the life of these alternatives in the decision-making process. Due to the importance of online reviews in a person's decision, this study aims to investigate and evaluate how and whether online reviews affect the person's decision-making process. The problem is mainly about people's opinion of online reviews, and why they use them, the impact of the electronic word of mouth versus the word of mouth, to what extent online reviews are used to make potential decisions for consumers. In order to obtain the results of the study, focus group were conducted with four of semi-structured interviews.  In order to obtain the results of the study, interviews were conducted with the focus group as well as a number of semi-structured interviews. The results showed the dominance of online reviews of a person's decision. Study participants believe that it is good to rely on online reviews to obtain information, while at the same time believing that these reviews do not affect the final outcome but can affect the details of the product or service to be purchased.

  • 142.
    Alkmyr, Pierre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlström, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att arbeta agilt med icke-agila krav: En studie om den offentliga upphandlingens påverkan på ett agilt IS-projekts kravhantering med den offentliga sektorn som kontext2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has the goal of becoming best in the world of utilizing the possibilities created by digitalization to create an effective public sector and an easier everyday life for individuals and companies. During 2017, Sweden spent roughly 59 billion Swedish crowns on digitalization with help of external actors. Although these billions of Swedish crowns are spent, the country’s development pace is slower than other European countries. The Swedish authority Riksrevisionen has conducted an audit where they have identified that IT-projects often runs over budget and states that the public sector must streamline its use and procurement of IT. IT-projects have shown a trend of budget overruns and not meeting deadlines, not only in the public sector. In an attempt to turn the trend, the agile philosophy and different agile project models was formed. The agile approach has overall had a positive effect on IT-project and has been embraced in the private sector to a larger degree than the public sector.

    We see cooperation between external supplier and the actor procuring information systems as well as the streamlining of IT-projects as a critical aspect of the Swedish digitalization. Since the agile approach has shown positive effects of IT-projects, this study has aimed to examine what prerequisites are present in the public sector for running projects in accordance of the agile philosophy. The procurement process and how it affects these prerequisites has received a lot of focus since the procurement law (SFS: 2016:1145) in Sweden implicates that the requirement specification, created by the contracting actor, is difficult to change.

    In our case study, we have examined an implementation project in the public sector, led by an information system supplier in the private sector. We gathered qualitative data by interviewing employees of the supplier, involved in the project, effectively applying a supplier perspective to map perceived challenges in delivering information systems to the public sector. From the qualitative data we concluded that the procurement process has led to (1) difficulties with changing the requirement specification and proving fulfilment of requirements, (2) communication challenges between the customer and the supplier regarding requirements and (3) experienced lack of comprehension of requirements by the customer. Some organizational characteristics for the public sector have also been identified as a possible cause of communication challenges. The agile philosophy advocates close collaboration with stakeholders and expects changes to the requirement specification throughout the project. The conclusion is thus that the procurement process, in the studied project, has affected the prerequisites to run a project with an agile approach in a negative way. 

  • 143.
    Allard, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Bauer, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    The possible effects of the blue economy on gender equality in the Republic of Seychelles2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to ensure the Earth’s future prosperity and welfare gender inequalities need to be tackled and our marine environment needs to be safeguarded. In this thesis we therefore evaluate the possible effects of a blue economy on gender equality in the Republic of Seychelles. Using a qualitative methodology, we have conducted 21 semi-structured interviews with a total of 35 respondents. These including people working at grassroots level, in non-governmental organisations and within the governmental bodies in Seychelles. In order to assist the collection and analysis of the data, we developed a theoretical model portraying in what ways the blue economy can affect gender equality in the country via three main components; maritime sustainability, technological innovation and new market and job opportunities. The empirical results demonstrate that the blue economy framework through these three components can affect gender equality, both in the short and long-term. If proven to be inclusive and implemented in the correct way, our findings portray that the blue economy will offer many opportunities. This affecting gender equality in diverse ways, with our main results showing that the concept will (i) help single mothers through factors such as increasing food security, water quality and new job opportunities; (ii) encouraging women to enter into more technological and/or male dominated fields; (iii) motivating boys to remain in school or help dropouts to venture into more practical fields.

  • 144.
    Allard, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Takman, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    An Empirical Assessment of the N-Shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to combat global warming and climate change issues and facilitate economic prosperity in the same time, it is important to understand the possible tradeoffs between economic growth and environmental degradation. In this thesis, we evaluate the hypothesis of an N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Using panel data analysis, we investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions, GDP per capita, renewable energy consumption, technological development, trade, and institutional quality for 74 countries over the period of 1994 to 2012. We find (i) evidence for the Nshaped EKC when using pooled OLS regressions for all income groups but upper-middleincome countries; (ii) heterogeneous results regarding the N-shaped EKC across income groups and quantiles when using quantile regressions; and (iii) a clear and consistent negative relationship between renewable energy and CO2 emissions, indicating the importance of promoting greener energy to combat climate change.

  • 145.
    Allard, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Takman, Johanna
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst, Sweden.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve: an empirical evaluation using a panel quantile regression approach2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 5848-5861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) using panel quantile regression analysis. We investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions and GDP per capita for 74 countries over the period of 1994-2012. We include additional explanatory variables, such as renewable energy consumption, technological development, trade, and institutional quality. We find evidence for the N-shaped EKC in all income groups, except for the upper-middle-income countries. Heterogeneous characteristics are, however, observed over the N-shaped EKC. Finally, we find a negative relationship between renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions, which highlights the importance of promoting greener energy in order to combat global warming.

  • 146.
    Allen, John
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Scania CV AB.
    A Method for Reducing Ash Volume in Wall-Flow Diesel Particulate Filters: Water Injection as a Service Tool to Improve Fuel Consumption and Particulate Filter Service Life2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 147.
    Allmandinger, Jörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergquist, Tommy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Privatekonomi och finansiella tjänster: Hur klarar privatpersoner sig i den finansiella djungeln?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The financial market and its services have become more complex during the years. The supply of diverse products, like different types of funds and stocks has steadily increased. Today there are plenty of different trade platforms for stocks and funds. Simultaneously as the supply of complex products is increasing, more responsibility is being placed on the individual, which can be seen in the Swedish premium pension. This assumes that the consumer is well informed and makes the right decisions. The consumer can choose between obtaining help from counseling, or handling the investments alone.

    Aim: The aim of this thesis is to examine consumers’ motives behind choices of financial services and investment decisions, and to analyze the relation between choice of financial services and goals for saving.

    Implementation: Seventeen interviews have been conducted with employees at the Linköping University. The selected group consists of teachers with different positions.

    Result: The writers conclude that the consumers fall short, regarding financial services. They lack knowledge and enough information. The result is that consumers cannot utilize these services in an optimal way. The choices of financial services are not always related to the goals of saving.

  • 148.
    Alm Grundström, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Developments in Topology Optimization in the ADDMAN Project2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document gives an account of some of the work done so far on topology optimization (TO) in the ADDMAN project. As well as the mathematical formulations and implementations details, short discussions are presented on some of the nuances of the different formulations and how they should be used efficiently

  • 149.
    Alm Grundström, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics.
    Topology Optimization for Additive Manufacturing Considering Stress and Anisotropy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a particularly useful manufacturing method for components designed using topology optimization (TO) since it allows for a greater part complexity than any traditional manufacturing method. However, the AM process potentially leads to anisotropic material properties due to the layer-by-layer buildup of parts and the fast and directional cooling. For Ti6Al4V tensile specimens built using electron beam melting (EBM), it has been observed that flat built specimens show superior strength and elastic moduli compared to top built specimens. Designs with the loading direction parallel to the build layers are therefore expected to show greater reliability.

    In this thesis a procedure is developed to optimize the AM build orientation considering anisotropic elastic material properties. A transversely isotropic material model is used to represent the in-plane and out-of-plane characteristics of AM produced parts. Two additional design variables are added to the TO formulation in order to control the orientation of the material using a coordinate transformation. Sensitivity analysis for the material direction variables is conducted for compliance as well as maximum von-Mises stress using a -norm stress aggregation function.

    The procedures for the AM build orientation optimization and stress constraints are implemented in the finite element software TRINITAS and evaluated using a number of examples in 2D and 3D. It is found that the procedure works well for compliance as well as stress but that a combination of these may lead to convergence issues due to contradicting optimal material orientations. An evaluation of the -norm stress aggregation function showed that a single global stress measure in combination with a stress correction procedure works well for most problems given that the mesh is refined enough to resolve the stresses accurately.  

  • 150.
    Alm Grundström, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Trinitas Topology Optimization Tutorial Document2018Report (Other academic)
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