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  • 101.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Song, Zhiyang
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, SE-601 17 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Meyerson, Björn A.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Linderoth, Bengt
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Therapy using implanted organic bioelectronics2015In: Science Advances, ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 1, no 4, article id e1500039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many drugs provide their therapeutic action only at specific sites in the body, but are administered in ways that cause the drug’s spread throughout the organism. This can lead to serious side effects. Local delivery from an implanted device may avoid these issues, especially if the delivery rate can be tuned according to the need of the patient. We turned to electronically and ionically conducting polymers to design a device that could be implanted and used for local electrically controlled delivery of therapeutics. The conducting polymers in our device allow electronic pulses to be transduced into biological signals, in the form of ionic and molecular fluxes, which provide a way of interfacing biology with electronics. Devices based on conducting polymers and polyelectrolytes have been demonstrated in controlled substance delivery to neural tissue, biosensing, and neural recording and stimulation. While providing proof of principle of bioelectronic integration, such demonstrations have been performed in vitro or in anesthetized animals. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of an implantable organic electronic delivery device for the treatment of neuropathic pain in an animal model. Devices were implanted onto the spinal cord of rats, and 2 days after implantation, local delivery of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was initiated. Highly localized delivery resulted in a significant decrease in pain response with low dosage and no observable side effects. This demonstration of organic bioelectronics-based therapy in awake animals illustrates a viable alternative to existing pain treatments, paving the way for future implantable bioelectronic therapeutics. Keywords

  • 102.
    Gabrielsson, Erik O.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simon, Daniel T.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Four-Diode Full-Wave Ionic Current Rectifier Based on Bipolar Membranes: Overcoming the Limit of Electrode Capacity2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 30, p. 5143-5147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full-wave rectification of ionic currents is obtained by constructing the typical four-diode bridge out of ion conducting bipolar membranes. Together with conjugated polymer electrodes addressed with alternating current, the bridge allows for generation of a controlled ionic direct current for extended periods of time without the production of toxic species or gas typically arising from electrode side-reactions.

  • 103.
    Abdollahi Sani, Negar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robertsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Philip
    De La Rue Plc, Overton, Hampshire, UK .
    Wang, Xin
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Svensson, Magnus
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Norberg, Petronella
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Marie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hesselbom, Hjalmar
    Hesselbom Innovation and Development HB, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Akesso, Laurent
    De La Rue Plc, Overton, Hampshire, UK .
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Goran
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    All-printed diode operating at 1.6 GHz2014In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, no 33, p. 11943-11948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed electronics are considered for wireless electronic tags and sensors within the future Internet-of-things (IoT) concept. As a consequence of the low charge carrier mobility of present printable organic and inorganic semiconductors, the operational frequency of printed rectifiers is not high enough to enable direct communication and powering between mobile phones and printed e-tags. Here, we report an all-printed diode operating up to 1.6 GHz. The device, based on two stacked layers of Si and NbSi2 particles, is manufactured on a flexible substrate at low temperature and in ambient atmosphere. The high charge carrier mobility of the Si microparticles allows device operation to occur in the charge injection-limited regime. The asymmetry of the oxide layers in the resulting device stack leads to rectification of tunneling current. Printed diodes were combined with antennas and electrochromic displays to form an all-printed e-tag. The harvested signal from a Global System for Mobile Communications mobile phone was used to update the display. Our findings demonstrate a new communication pathway for printed electronics within IoT applications.

  • 104.
    Bubnova, Olga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Zia Ullah
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Hui
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evans, Drew R
    University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes 5095, Australia.
    Fabretto, Manrico
    University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes 5095, Australia.
    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman
    University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes 5095, Australia.
    Dagnelund, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arlin, Jean-Baptiste
    Free University of Brussels, Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères, CP 206/1, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Geerts, Yves H.
    Free University of Brussels, Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères, CP 206/1, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Desbief, Simon
    University of Mons, Laboratoire de chimie des materiaux nouveaux, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons, Belgium.
    Breiby, Dag W.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Physics, Høgskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark.
    Lazzaroni, Roberto
    University of Mons, Laboratoire de chimie des materiaux nouveaux, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons, Belgium.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Murphy, Peter J.
    University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes 5095, Australia.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Corrigendum: Semi-metallic polymers2014In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 13, p. 662-662Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 105.
    Kergoat, Loig
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Piro, Benoit
    University of Paris Diderot, France .
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Minh-Chau Pham; Noel, Vincent
    University of Paris Diderot, France .
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Detection of Glutamate and Acetylcholine with Organic Electrochemical Transistors Based on Conducting Polymer/Platinum Nanoparticle Composites2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 32, p. 5658-5664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to open a new scope for organic electrochemical transistors based on PEDOT:PSS, a material blend known for its stability and reliability. These devices can leverage molecular electrocatalysis by incorporating small amounts of nano-catalyst during the transistor manufacturing (spin coating). This methodology is very simple to implement using the know-how of nanochemistry and results in efficient enzymatic activity transduction, in this case utilizing choline oxidase and glutamate oxidase.

  • 106.
    Fabiano, Simone
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of Gate Electrode Work-Function on Source Charge Injection in Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors2014In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 695-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic investigation of the contact resistance in electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) demonstrates a dependence of source charge injection versus gate electrode work function. This analysis reveals contact-limitations at the source metal-semiconductor interface and shows that the contact resistance increases as low work function metals are used as the gate electrode. These findings are attributed to the establishment of a built-in potential that is high enough to prevent the Fermi-level pinning at the metal-organic interface. This results in an unfavorable energetic alignment of the source electrode with the valence band of the organic semiconductor. Since the operating voltage in the electrolyte-gated devices is on the same order as the variation of the work functions, it is possible to tune the contact resistance over more than one order of magnitude by varying the gate metal.

  • 107.
    Campana, Alessandra
    et al.
    CNR-ISMN, Bologna, Italy; University of Bologna, Italy .
    Cramer, Tobias
    CNR-ISMN, Bologna, Italy.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Biscarini, Fabio
    CNR-ISMN, Bologna, Italy; University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy .
    Electrocardiographic recording with conformable organic electrochemical transistor fabricated on resorbable bioscaffold2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 23, p. 3874-3878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electrochemical transistors are fabricated on a poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) substrate. Fast and sensitive performance of the transistors allows recording of the electrocardiogram. The result paves the way for new types of bioelectronic interfaces with reduced invasiveness due to bioresorption and soft mechanical properties.

  • 108.
    Faxälv, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Bolin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic control of platelet adhesion using conducting polymer microarrays2014In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 14, no 16, p. 3043-3049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We hereby report a method to fabricate addressable micropatterns of e-surfaces based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with the anion tosylate (PEDOT:Tos) to gain dynamic control over the spatial distribution of platelets in vitro. With thin film processing and microfabrication techniques, patterns down to 10 mu m were produced to enable active regulation of platelet adhesion at high spatial resolution. Upon electronic addressing, both reduced and oxidized surfaces were created within the same device. This surface modulation dictates the conformation and/or orientation, rather than the concentration, of surface proteins, thus indirectly regulating the adhesion of platelets. The reduced electrode supported platelet adhesion, whereas the oxidized counterpart inhibited adhesion. PEDOT:Tos electrode fabrication is compatible with most of the classical patterning techniques used in printing as well as in the electronics industry. The first types of tools promise ultra-low-cost production of low-resolution (greater than30 mu m) electrode patterns that may combine with traditional substrates and dishes used in a classical analysis setup. Platelets play a pronounced role in cardiovascular diseases and have become an important drug target in order to prevent thrombosis. This clinical path has in turn generated a need for platelet function tests to monitor and assess platelet drug efficacy. The spatial control of platelet adherence presented here could prove valuable for blood cell separation or biosensor microarrays, e.g. in diagnostic applications where platelet function is evaluated.

  • 109.
    Persson, Kristin M
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    Department of Printed Electronics, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    Department of Printed Electronics, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Konradsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic control over detachment of a self-doped water-soluble conjugated polyelectrolyte2014In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, no 21, p. 6257-6266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water-soluble conducting polymers are of interest to enable more versatile processing in aqueous media as well as to facilitate interactions with biomolecules. Here, we report a substituted poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) derivative (PEDOT-S:H) that is fully water-soluble and selfdoped. When electrochemically oxidizing a PEDOT-S:H thin film, the film detaches from the under-laying electrode. The oxidation of PEDOT-S:H starts with an initial phase of swelling followed by cracking before it finally disrupts and detaches from the electrode. We investigated the detachment mechanism and found that parameters such as the size, charge and concentration of ions in the electrolyte, the temperature and also the pH influence the characteristics of detachment. When oxidizing PEDOT-S:H, the positively charged polymer backbone is balanced by anions from the electrolyte solution and also by the sulphonate groups on the side chains (more self-doping). From our experiments, we conclude that detachment of the PEDOT-S:H film upon oxidation occurs in part due to swelling caused by an inflow of solvated anions and associated water, and in part due to rearrangements and strain within the film, caused by more self-doping. We believe that PEDOT-S:H detachment can be of interest in a number of different applications, including addressed and active control of the release of materials such as biomolecules and cell cultures.

  • 110.
    Abelow, Alexis
    et al.
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.
    Persson, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zharov, Ilya
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.
    Electroresponsive Nanoporous Membranes by Coating Anodized Alumina with Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophone) and Polypyrrole2014In: Macromolecular materials and engineering (Print), ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 299, no 2, p. 190-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically-active nanoporous membranes are prepared by coating the surface of anodized alumina with electroactive polymers using vapor phase polymerization with four combinations of conjugated polymers and doping ions: poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophone) and polypyrrole, FeCl3 and FeTs3. The permeability of the polymer-coated membranes is measured as a function of the applied electric potential. A reversible three-fold increase is found in molecular flux of a neutral dye for membranes in oxidized state compared to that in the reduced state. After analyzing various factors that may affect the molecular transport through these membranes, it is concluded that the observed behavior results mostly from swelling/deswelling of the polymers and from the confinement of the polymers inside the nanopores.

  • 111.
    Fabiano, Simone
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ferroelectric Polarization Induces Electric Double Layer Bistability in Electrolyte-Gated Field-Effect Transistors2014In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 438-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dense surface charges expressed by a ferroelectric polymeric thin film induce ion displacement within a polyelectrolyte layer and vice versa. This is because the density of dipoles along the surface of the ferroelectric thin film and its polarization switching time matches that of the (Helmholtz) electric double layers formed at the ferroelectric/polyelectrolyte and polyelectrolyte/semiconductor interfaces. This combination of materials allows for introducing hysteresis effects in the capacitance of an electric double layer capacitor. The latter is advantageously used to control the charge accumulation in the semiconductor channel of an organic field-effect transistor. The resulting memory transistors can be written at a gate voltage of around 7 V and read out at a drain voltage as low as 50 mV. The technological implication of this large. difference between write and read-out voltages lies in the non-destructive reading of this ferroelectric memory.

  • 112.
    Volkov, Anton
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Modeling of Charge Transport in Ion Bipolar Junction Transistors2014In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, no 23, p. 6999-7005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatiotemporal control of the complex chemical microenvironment is of great importance to many fields within life science. One way to facilitate such control is to construct delivery circuits, comprising arrays of dispensing outlets, for ions and charged biomolecules based on ionic transistors. This allows for addressability of ionic signals, which opens up for spatiotemporally controlled delivery in a highly complex manner. One class of ionic transistors, the ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs), is especially attractive for these applications because these transistors are functional at physiological conditions and have been employed to modulate the delivery of neurotransmitters to regulate signaling in neuronal cells. Further, the first integrated complementary ionic circuits were recently developed on the basis of these ionic transistors. However, a detailed understanding of the device physics of these transistors is still lacking and hampers further development of components and circuits. Here, we report on the modeling of IBJTs using Poissons and Nernst-Planck equations and the finite element method. A two-dimensional model of the device is employed that successfully reproduces the main characteristics of the measurement data. On the basis of the detailed concentration and potential profiles provided by the model, the different modes of operation of the transistor are analyzed as well as the transitions between the different modes. The model correctly predicts the measured threshold voltage, which is explained in terms of membrane potentials. All in all, the results provide the basis for a detailed understanding of IBJT operation. This new knowledge is employed to discuss potential improvements of ion bipolar junction transistors in terms of miniaturization and device parameters.

  • 113.
    Toss, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Suspene, Clement
    University of Paris Diderot, France .
    Piro, Benoit
    University of Paris Diderot, France .
    Yassar, Abderrahim
    Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kergoat, Loig
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pham, Minh-Chau
    University of Paris Diderot, France .
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the mode of operation in electrolyte-gated thin film transistors based on different substituted polythiophenes2014In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 15, no 10, p. 2420-2427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFT), gated through an aqueous electrolyte, have extensively been studied as sensors in various applications. These water-gated devices are known to work both as electrochemical (Organic ElectroChemical Transistor - OECT) and field-effect (Organic Field-Effect Transistor - OFET) devices. To properly model and predict the response of water-gated OTFT sensors it is important to distinguish between the mechanism, field-effect or electrochemical, by which the transistor is modulated and thus how the gate signal can be affected by the analyte. In this present study we explore three organic polymer semiconductors, poly-(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT), poly-(3-carboxypentyl-thiphene) (P3CPT) and a co-polymer P3HT-co-poly-(3-ethoxypentanoic acid-thiophene) (monomer ratio 1:6, P3HT-COOH15) in water-gated OTFT structures. We report a set of transistor characteristics, including standard output parameters, impedance spectroscopy and current transients, to investigate the origin of the mode of operation in these water-gated OTFTs. Impedance characteristics, including both frequency and voltage dependence, were recorded for capacitor stacks corresponding to the gate/electrolyte/semiconductor/source structure. It is shown that P3HT as well as P3HT-COOH15 both can function as semiconductors in water gated OTFT devices operating in field-effect mode. P3CPT on the other hand shows typical signs of electrochemical mode of operation. The -COOH side group has been suggested as a possible anchoring site for biorecognition elements in EGOFET sensors, rendering P3HT-COOH15 a possible candidate for such applications.

  • 114.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Babu Kollipara, Suresh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Organic electrochemical transistors for signal amplification in fast scan cyclic voltammetry2014In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 195, p. 651-656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical method commonly used in neuroscience for spatiotemporal measurement of the concentration of dopamine and other electroactive species. Since FSCV involves wide bandwidth measurements of low currents, the technique is normally very sensitive to electrical noise and is typically performed inside a Faraday cage. In order to reduce the electrical noise and to enable measurements in an unshielded environment, we take use of an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) to amplify the FSCV signals. OECTs based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) were microfabricated and characterized. A patterned 10 mu m gold microelectrode was used as the sensing electrode and the FSCV signal was amplified by the OECT. With this approach, successful measurements of dopamine concentrations in the 10 mu m range were performed in a completely unshielded measurement setup. Our results demonstrate how OECTs can successfully be used in an on-site amplification application to characterize biochemical signals, thus open up new trails for flexible multifunctional organic bioelectronics systems.

  • 115.
    Liu, Jiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Organic Reprogrammable Circuits Based on Electrochemically-Formed Diodes2014In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 6, no 15, p. 13266-13270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To simplify the integration of organic electronics, we demonstrate a method for constructing reprogrammable circuits based on organic diodes. The organic p‐n junction diodes consisting of an organic polymers poly[2‐methoxy‐5‐(2‐ethylhexyloxy)‐1,4‐phenylenevinylene and an electrolyte were formed by electrochemical doping at 70 °C, and stabilized at ‐30 °C. The reversible electrochemical reaction allows for the in‐situ change of the polarity of the organic p‐n junction. By forming diodes with different polarity at different locations, several circuits can be created, such as, logic gates, voltage limiter and AC/DC converter. The as‐made circuitry can be erased and turned into circuitry with other functionality. For example, the diodes of an AND gate can be re‐programmed to form an OR gate. The reprogrammable circuits contain merely two core layers, electrodes and active material, which is promising for large‐area and fully‐printed reconfigurable circuits with facile fabrication.

  • 116.
    Fabiano, Simone
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Weverberghs, Eric
    University of Mons-UMONS, Belgium.
    Gerbaux, Pascal
    University of Mons-UMONS, Belgium.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Poly(ethylene imine) impurities induce n-doping reaction in organic (semi)conductors2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 34, p. 6000-6006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile impurities contained in polyethyleneimine (PEI), and identified as ethyleneimine dimers and trimers, are reported. These N-based molecules show a strong reducing character, as demonstrated by the change in electrical conductivity of organic (semi) conductors exposed to the PEI vapor. The results prove that electron transfer rather than a dipole effect at the electrode interface is the origin of the work-function modification by the PEI-based layers.

  • 117.
    Gabrielsson, Erik O.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polyphosphonium-Based Ion Bipolar Junction Transistors2014In: Biomicrofluidics, ISSN 1932-1058, E-ISSN 1932-1058, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 064116-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancements in the field of electronics during the past few decades have inspired the use of transistors in a diversity of research fields, including biology and medicine. However, signals in living organisms are not only carried by electrons, but also through fluxes of ions and biomolecules. Thus, in order to implement the transistor functionality to control biological signals, devices that can modulate currents of ions and biomolecules, i.e. ionic transistors and diodes, are needed. One successful approach for modulation of ionic currents is to use oppositely charged ion-selective membranes to form so called ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs). Unfortunately, overall IBJT device performance has been hindered due to the typical low mobility of ions, large geometries of the ion bipolar junction materials, and the possibility of electric field enhanced (EFE) water dissociation in the junction. Here, we introduce a novel polyphosphonium-based anion-selective material into npn-type IBJTs. The new material does not show EFE water dissociation and therefore allows for a reduction of junction length down to 2 μm, which significantly improves the switching performance of the ion transistor to 2 s. The presented improvement in speed as well the simplified design will be useful for future development of advanced iontronic circuits employing IBJTs, for example addressable drug-delivery devices.

  • 118.
    Gomez-Carretero, Salvador
    et al.
    Dep. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Kristin M
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Libberton, Benjamin
    Dep. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Dep. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rhen, Mikael
    Dep. of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Dep. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salmonella Biofilm Modulation with Electrically Conducting Polymers2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofilms are ubiquitous in many human activities, constituting a threat or an advantage depending on the context of application. It is therefore of great interest to obtain new materials to study and control how biofilms are formed. Here, heparin and DBS (dodecylbenzenesulfonate) are incorporated as counter-ions to the PEDOT (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) backbone, forming conducting polymer thin-films. Polymer synthesis is based on electrodeposition, allowing for the adjustment, during fabrication, of properties like charge and hydrophobicity, important in bacterial adhesion. The electrochemical redox state of the polymer is of fundamental importance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium biofilm modulation. Oxidized composites show increased levels of biofilm growth compared to reduced and pristine polymer films. As a result, biofilm formation is modulated by the application of a low electric voltage. Moreover, biofilm morphology and topology are affected by both the electrochemical redox state and the incorporated counter-ion, making these materials a useful tool in biofilm engineering.

  • 119.
    Persson, Kristin M
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lönnqvist, Susanna Lönnqvist
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Department of Printed Electronics, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Kratz, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Selective Detachment of Human Primary Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts Using an Addressable Conjugated Polymer Matrix2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers have been used in several applications for electronic control of cell cultures over the last years. We have shown detachment of human endothelial cells using a thin film of a self-doped water-soluble conjugated polymer. Upon electrochemical oxidation, the film swells, cracks and finally detaches taking cells cultured on top along with it. The polymer can be patterned using standard photolithography. The detachment only occurs above a threshold potential of +0.7 V and this fact has been used to create a simple actively addressed matrix, based on a resistor network placed in an encapsulated back plane. The matrix has individually detachable pixels. In this paper we have evaluated detachment of human primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts using PEDOT-S:H. In addition, we have studied effects of serum proteins, added as nutrients to the cell culture medium, on the detachment properties. It was found that at prolonged incubation times protein adhesion effectively stopped the detachment. Using shorter incubation times before detachment, both keratinocytes and fibroblasts can be detached using a regular planar device as well as the matrix device for selective detachment. Spatial control of detachment could be of use when selecting cells for clonal expansion and in order to obtain a homogeneous starting population of cells aimed for tissue engineering purposes.

  • 120.
    Fabiano, Simone
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Usta, Hakan
    Polyera Corp, IL 60077 USA; Abdullah Gul University, Turkey.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Facchetti, Antonio
    Polyera Corp, IL 60077 USA.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Selective Remanent Ambipolar Charge Transport in Polymeric Field-Effect Transistors For High-Performance Logic Circuits Fabricated in Ambient2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 44, p. 7438-7443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 121.
    Bubnova, Olga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Hui
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evans, Drew R.
    University of S Australia, Australia .
    Fabretto, Manrico
    University of S Australia, Australia .
    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman
    University of S Australia, Australia .
    Dagnelund, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arlin, Jean-Baptiste
    University of Libre Brussels, Belgium .
    Geerts, Yves H.
    University of Libre Brussels, Belgium .
    Desbief, Simon
    University of Mons, Belgium .
    Breiby, Dag W.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, Norway .
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark .
    Lazzaroni, Roberto
    University of Mons, Belgium .
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Murphy, Peter J.
    University of S Australia, Australia .
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Semi-metallic polymers2014In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 190-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymers are lightweight, flexible, solution-processable materials that are promising for low-cost printed electronics as well as for mass-produced and large-area applications. Previous studies demonstrated that they can possess insulating, semiconducting or metallic properties; here we report that polymers can also be semi-metallic. Semi-metals, exemplified by bismuth, graphite and telluride alloys, have no energy bandgap and a very low density of states at the Fermi level. Furthermore, they typically have a higher Seebeck coefficient and lower thermal conductivities compared with metals, thus being suitable for thermoelectric applications. We measure the thermoelectric properties of various poly( 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) samples, and observe a marked increase in the Seebeck coefficient when the electrical conductivity is enhanced through molecular organization. This initiates the transition from a Fermi glass to a semi-metal. The high Seebeck value, the metallic conductivity at room temperature and the absence of unpaired electron spins makes polymer semi-metals attractive for thermoelectrics and spintronics.

  • 122.
    Laiho, Ari
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tran Nguyen, Ha
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Sinno, Hiam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dubois, Philippe
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Coulembier, Olivier
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Amphiphilic Poly(3-hexylthiophene)-Based Semiconducting Copolymers for Printing of Polyelectrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors2013In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 4548-4557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyelectrolytes are promising electronically insulating layers for low-voltage organic field effect transistors. However, the polyelectrolyte–semiconductor interface is difficult to manufacture due to challenges in wettability. We introduce an amphiphilic semiconducting copolymer which, when spread as a thin film, can change its surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic upon exposure to water. This peculiar wettability is exploited in the fabrication of polyelectrolyte-gated field-effect transistors operating below 0.5 V. The prepared amphiphilic semiconducting copolymer is based on a hydrophobic regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) covalently linked to a hydrophilic poly(sulfonated)-based random block. Such a copolymer is obtained in a three-step strategy combining Grignard metathesis (GRIM), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) processes, and a postmodification method. The structure of the diblock copolymer was characterized using FT-IR, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC).

  • 123.
    Sinno, Hiam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nguyen, Ha Tran
    University of Mons-UMONS, Belgium.
    Hägerström, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindell, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Coulembier, Olivier
    University of Mons-UMONS, Belgium.
    Dubois, Philippe
    University of Mons-UMONS, Belgium.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Amphiphilic semiconducting copolymer as compatibility layer for printing polyelectrolyte-gated OFETs2013In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 790-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a method for inkjet-printing an organic semiconductor layer on top of the electrolyte insulator layer in polyelectrolyte-gated OFETs by using a surface modification treatment to overcome the underlying wettability problem at this interface. The method includes depositing an amphiphilic diblock copolymer (P3HT-b-PDMAEMA). This material is designed to have one set of blocks that mimics the hydrophobic properties of the semiconductor (poly(3-hexylthiophene) or P3HT), while the other set of blocks include polar components that improve adhesion to the polyelectrolyte insulator. Contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm formation of the desired surface modification film. Successful inkjet printing of a smooth semiconductor layer allows us to manufacture complete transistor structures that exhibit low-voltage operation in the range of 1 V.

  • 124.
    Sinno, Hiam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kergoat, Loig
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bias stress effect in inverters based on polyelectrolyte-gated organic field effect transistors2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolonged gate bias application causes undesirable operational instabilities in organic transistors involving threshold voltage shift and drain current degradation; an effect known as bias stress. In this paper, we report how this instability is manifested in inverter circuits based on polyelectrolytegated p-type organic field effect transistors (EGOFETs) operating at low voltage. We find that bias stress causes a significant, but recoverable, shift in inverter switching threshold voltage. Measurements with two different polyelectrolytes reveal significant differences in the stressing and recovery behaviour, which is ascribed to the distinct nature of the ion conductive groups in the polyelectrolyte. Moreover, we report a large influence of illumination on the recovery process for one of the polyelectrolytes but not for the other, which demonstrates the need to characterize bias stress behavior for each new materials combination.

  • 125.
    Sinno, Hiam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bias stress effect in polyelectrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A main factor contributing to bias stress instability in organic transistors is charge trapping of mobile carriers near the gate insulator-semiconductor interface into localized electronic states. In this paper, we study the bias stress behavior in low-voltage (p-type) polyelectrolyte-gated organic field effect transistors (EGOFETs) at various temperatures. Stressing and recovery in these EGOFETs are found to occur six orders of magntiude faster than typical bias stress/recovery reported for dielectric-gated OFETs. The mechanism proposed for EGOFETs involves an electron transfer reaction between water and the charged semiconductor channel that promotes the creation of extra protons diffusing into the polyelectrolyte.

  • 126.
    Suspéne, Clément
    et al.
    Univ. Paris Diderot, Paris, France.
    Piro, Benoit
    Univ. Paris Diderot, Paris, France.
    Reisberg, Steeve
    Univ. Paris Diderot, Paris, France.
    Pham, Minh-Chau
    Univ. Paris Diderot, Paris, France.
    Toss, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yassar, Abderrahim
    LPICM, France.
    Horrowitz, Gilles
    LPICM, France.
    Copolythiophene-based water-gated organic field-effect transistors for biosensing2013In: Journal of Materials Chemistry B, ISSN 2050-750X, Vol. 1, no 15, p. 2090-2097Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the sensing of proteins using water-gated organic field-effect transistors. As a proof-of-concept, streptavidin and avidin were used, with a biotinylated polymer as the active sensing material. The latter is a copolythiophene modified to graft biotin by peptidic coupling. After characterization of its structure, it was integrated as the channel material into transistors and its interactions with several proteins were investigated. Non-specific interactions were reduced when the polymer surface was pretreated with 1-octanol. In this case, human serum albumin had no effect on the transistor characteristics whereas avidin and streptavidin led to a decrease of the drain current.

  • 127.
    Liu, Jiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Double-Gate Light-Emitting Electrochemical Transistor: Confining the Organic p-n Junction2013In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 135, no 33, p. 12224-12227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In conventional light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs), an off-centered p-n junction is one of the major drawbacks, as it leads to exciton quenching at one of the charge-injecting electrodes and results in performance instability. To combat this problem, we have developed a new device configuration, the double-gate light-emitting electrochemical transistor (DG-LECT), in which the location of the light-emitting p-n junction can be precisely defined via the position of the two gate terminals. Based on a planar LEC structure, two gate electrodes made from an electrochemically active conducting polymer are employed to predefine the p- and n-doped area of the light-emitting polymer. Thus, a p-n junction is formed in between the p-doped and n-doped regions. We demonstrate a homogeneous and centered p-n junction as well as other predefined junction patterns in these DG-LECT devices. Additionally, we report an electrical model that explains the operation of the DG-LECTs. The DG-LECT device provides a new tool to study the fundamental physics of LECs, as it dissects the key working process of LEC into decoupled p-doping, n-doping, and electroluminescence.

  • 128.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Kawahara, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Acreo AB, Sweden .
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fast-switching all-printed organic electrochemical transistors2013In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 1276-1280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Symmetric and fast (∼5 ms) on-to-off and off-to-on drain current switching characteristics have been obtained in screen printed organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) including PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonic acid)) as the active transistor channel material. Improvement of the drain current switching characteristics is made possible by including a carbon conductor layer on top of PEDOT:PSS at the drain electrode that is in direct contact with both the channel and the electrolyte of the OECT. This carbon conductor layer suppresses the effects from a reduction front that is generated in these PEDOT:PSS-based OECTs. In the off-state of these devices this reduction front slowly migrate laterally into the PEDOT:PSS drain electrode, which make off-to-on switching slow. The OECT including carbon electrodes was manufactured using only standard printing process steps and may pave the way for fully integrated organic electronic systems that operate at low voltages for applications such as logic circuits, sensors and active matrix addressed displays.

  • 129.
    Kawahara, Jun
    et al.
    Department of Printed Electronics, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrköping.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Department of Printed Electronics, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrköping.
    Katoh, Kazuya
    R&D Strategy Department, Lintec Corporation, Saitama, Japan.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fast-switching printed organic electrochemical transistors including electronic vias through plastic and paper substrates2013In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 60, no 6, p. 2052-2056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel vertical architecture for all-printed organic electrochemical transistors, based on poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate), realized on flexible substrates, is reported. The transistors are manufactured along both faces of plastic or paper substrates and via connections are realized using laser ablation or simple punch through using a pin. Successful modulation of the electric current that flows between the two sides of the substrate is achieved using electrolyte-gating and electrochemical modulation of the electronic charge transport of the bulk of the transistor channel. In addition to this, the transistors are exhibiting fast switching and high ON/OFF current ratios.

  • 130.
    Kawahara, Jun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Acreo AB, Sweden and Lintec Corporation, Japan.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Katoh, Kazuya
    Lintec Corporation, Japan.
    Nakata, Yasukazu
    Lintec Corporation, Japan.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Marie
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Goran
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Flexible active matrix addressed displays manufactured by printing and coating techniques2013In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 265-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A flexible electrochromic active matrix addressed display, including 8 × 8 pixels, is demonstrated by using solution processing based on standard printing and coating manufacturing techniques. Each organic electrochromic display (OECD) pixel and its corresponding organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) are located on different sides of the flexible PET substrate. Electronic vias generated through the plastic substrate connects each OECD pixel with one addressing OECT. When comparing this display with actively addressed OECDs with all its components located on the same side, the present approach based on this electronic via substrate provides an enhanced pixel resolution and a relatively more simplified manufacturing process.

  • 131.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polyphosphonium-based bipolar membranes for rectification of ionic currents2013In: Biomicrofluidics, ISSN 1932-1058, E-ISSN 1932-1058, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 064117-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bipolar membranes (BMs) have interesting applications within the field of bioelectronics, as they may be used to create non-linear ionic components (e. g., ion diodes and transistors), thereby extending the functionality of, otherwise linear, electrophoretic drug delivery devices. However, BM based diodes suffer from a number of limitations, such as narrow voltage operation range and/or high hysteresis. In this work, we circumvent these problems by using a novel polyphosphonium-based BM, which is shown to exhibit improved diode characteristics. We believe that this new type of BM diode will be useful for creating complex addressable ionic circuits for delivery of charged biomolecules.

  • 132.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden .
    Kawahara, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Printed passive matrix addressed electrochromic displays2013In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 3371-3378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible displays are attracting considerable attention as a visual interface for applications such as in electronic papers and paper electronics. Passive or active matrix-addressing of individual pixels require display elements that include proper signal addressability, which is typically provided by non-linear device characteristics or by incorporating transistors into each pixel, respectively. Including such additional devices into each pixel element make manufacturing of flexible displays using adequate printing techniques very hard or even impossible. Here, we report all-printed passive matrix-addressed electrochromic displays (PMAD) that can be manufactured using standard printing tools. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) serves as the conducting and electrochromic pixel electrodes and carbon paste is used as the pixel counter electrodes. These electrodes sandwich self-assembled layers of a polyelectrolyte that are confined to desired pixel areas via surface energy patterning. The particular choice of materials results in a desired current vs. voltage threshold that enables addressability in electronic cross-point matrices. The resulting PMAD, built up from a robust architecture including only few different materials, operates at less than 3 V, exhibits high color switch contrast without any cross-talk promises for high-volume and low-cost production of flexible displays using reel-to-reel printing tools on plastic foils and on paper.

  • 133.
    Kawahara, Jun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden and Lintec Corporation, Japan.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Wang, Xin
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reconfigurable sticker label electronics manufactured from nanofibrillated cellulose-based self-adhesive organic electronic materials2013In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, no 11, p. 3061-3069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low voltage operated electrochemical devices can be produced from electrically conducting polymers and polyelectrolytes. Here, we report how such polymers and polyelectrolytes can be cast together with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) derived from wood. The resulting films, which carry ionic or electronic functionalities, are all-organic, disposable, light-weight, flexible, self-adhesive, elastic and self-supporting. The mechanical and self-adhesive properties of the films enable simple and flexible electronic systems by assembling the films into various kinds of components using a "cut and stick" method. Additionally, the self-adhesive surfaces provide a new concept that not only allows for simplified system integration of printed electronic components, but also allows for a unique possibility to detach and reconfigure one or several subcomponents by a "peel and stick" method to create yet another device configuration. This is demonstrated by a stack of two films that first served as the electrolyte layer and the pixel electrode of an electrochromic display, which then was detached from each other and transferred to another configuration, thus becoming the electrolyte and gate electrode of an electrochemical transistor. Further, smart pixels, consisting of the combination of one electrochromic pixel and one electrochemical transistor, have successfully been manufactured with the NFC-hybridized materials. The concept of system reconfiguration was further explored by that a pixel electrode charged to its colored state could be detached and then integrated on top of a transistor channel. This resulted in spontaneous discharging and associated current modulation of the transistor channel without applying any additional gate voltage. Our peel and stick approach promises for novel reconfigurable electronic devices, e. g. in sensor, label and security applications.

  • 134.
    Kergoat, Loig
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Piro, Benoît
    Université Paris Diderot, France.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Horowitz, Gilles
    Université Paris Diderot, France.
    Pham, Minh-Chau
    Université Paris Diderot, France.
    Advances in organic transistor-based biosensors: from organic electrochemical transistors to electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors.2012In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 402, no 5, p. 1813-1826Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronics have, over the past two decades, developed into an exciting area of research and technology to replace classic inorganic semiconductors. Organic photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, and thin-film transistors are already well developed and are currently being commercialized for a variety of applications. More recently, organic transistors have found new applications in the field of biosensors. The progress made in this direction is the topic of this review. Various configurations are presented, with their detection principle, and illustrated by examples from the literature.

  • 135.
    Xuan, Yu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandberg, Mats
    ACREO AB, Norrköping.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An all-polymer-air PEDOT battery2012In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 632-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass-produced organic electronics for internet-of-things, point of care diagnostics, smart labels and more suggest development of a “green” and recyclable electronics. One of the greatest challenges in achieving such a technology platform is to establish low-cost batteries that are metal-free. Here, we demonstrate a thin all polymer-air battery where the anode and cathode are based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Polyethyleneimine (PEI) is combined with the PEDOT electrode to ensure air stability of its neutral or rather “low oxidized” form at the anode, while PEDOT is in its oxidized state at the cathode. The difference in the oxidation level between the two PEDOT electrodes produces an open circuit voltage of about 0.5 V. Upon discharge, PEI is consumed at the PEDOT anode, while O2 reacts with the PEDOT cathode; thus demonstrating the first all-polymer-air battery.

  • 136.
    Wang, Xiaodong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Platt, Duncan
    Acreo AB.
    Nordlinder, Staffan
    WebShape AB.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An all-printed wireless humidity sensor label2012In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 166-167, p. 556-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed electronics promise various kinds of sensor circuit labels, for applications in distributed sensing and monitoring, which can be manufactured using traditional printing tools at very low cost. Elevated humidity levels or water leakages cause tremendous costs in our society, such as in construction industries and in transportations. Distributed monitoring and remote sensing of the humidity level inside walls of buildings and packages is therefore desired and urgently needed. Here, we report a wireless humidity sensor label that is manufactured using screen-printing and dry-phase patterning. The sensor label includes a planar antenna, a tuning capacitor and a printed sensor-capacitor head. Through electromagnetic coupling between a reader and the printed sensor label, changes in humidity level were remotely detected and read-out as a shift of the resonant frequency. The manufacturing process of the humidity sensor label is fully compatible with inexpensive, reel-to-reel processing technologies, thus enabling low cost production.

  • 137.
    Kergoat, Loig
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Piro, Benoît
    Université Paris Diderot, France.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pham, Minh-Chau
    Université Paris Diderot, France.
    Yassar, Abderrahim
    Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France.
    Horowitz, Gilles
    Université Paris Diderot, France.
    DNA detection with a water-gated organic field-effect transistor2012In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A DNA sensor based on a water-gated organic field-effect transistor is described. The semiconductor is poly [3-(5-carboxypentyl)thiophene-2,5-diyl] onto which DNA probes are covalently grafted via NHS/EDC chemistry. Clear changes in the output characteristic of the device are observed upon DNA immobilization and after DNA hybridization. Experimental data point out the importance of the electrolyte Debye length that can screen negative DNA charges and impede transduction. For this reason, deionized water was used in order to increase the Debye length up to several hundreds of nanometers. In this case, a decrease in the off current was observed upon hybridization, whereas no significant change occurred when using saline solutions.

  • 138.
    Tzamalis, Georgios
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics.
    Andersson, Mats
    Chalmers.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrochemical control of amplified spontaneous emission in conjugated polymers2012In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 954-958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method of electrochemically tuning the threshold intensity of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of a semiconducting polymer thin film. This can be achieved in close contact with a conducting polymer electrode (PEDOT:PSS), if the latter is electrochemically tuned to an optically transparent redox state for the emitted wavelength of interest. This electrical switch between ASE and fluorescence hints that a new route to achieve electrically pumped laser is by combining an electrochemical device with a lasing conjugated polymer.

  • 139.
    Kawahara, Jun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Acreo AB.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improving the color switch contrast in PEDOT:PSS-based electrochromic displays2012In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 469-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) chemically doped with poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) is a material system commonly used as a conductive and transparent coating in several important electronic applications. The material is also electrochemically active and exhibits electrochromic (EC) properties making it suitable as the active element in EC display applications. In this work uniformly coated PEDOT:PSS layers were used both as the pixel electrode and as the counter electrode in EC display components. The pixel and counter electrodes were separated by a whitish opaque and water-based polyelectrolyte and the thicknesses of the two EC layers were varied independently in order to optimize the color contrast of the display element. A color contrast (ΔE, CIE Lab color space) exceeding 40 was obtained with maintained relatively short switching time at an operational voltage less than 2 V.

  • 140.
    Gabrielsson, Erik O.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ion diode logics for pH control2012In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 12, no 14, p. 2507-2513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic control over the generation, transport, and delivery of ions is useful in order to regulate reactions, functions, and processes in various chemical and biological systems. Different kinds of ion diodes and transistors that exhibit non-linear current versus voltage characteristics have been explored to generate chemical gradients and signals. Bipolar membranes (BMs) exhibit both ion current rectification and water splitting and are thus suitable as ion diodes for the regulation of pH. To date, fast switching ion diodes have been difficult to realize due to accumulation of ions inside the device structure at forward bias – charges that take a long time to deplete at reverse bias. Water splitting occurs at elevated reverse voltage bias and is a feature that renders high ion current rectification impossible. This makes integration of ion diodes in circuits difficult. Here, we report three different designs of micro-fabricated ion bipolar membrane diodes (IBMDs). The first two designs consist of single BM configurations, and are capable of either splitting water or providing high current rectification. In the third design, water-splitting BMs and a highly-rectifying BM are connected in series, thus suppressing accumulation of ions. The resulting IBMD shows less hysteresis, faster off-switching, and also a high ion current rectification ratio as compared to the single BM devices. Further, the IBMD was integrated in a diode-based AND gate, which is capable of controlling delivery of hydroxide ions into a receiving reservoir.

  • 141.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Logic gates based on ion transistors2012In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 3, no 871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise control over processing, transport and delivery of ionic and molecular signals is of great importance in numerous fields of life sciences. Integrated circuits based on ion transistors would be one approach to route and dispense complex chemical signal patterns to achieve such control. To date several types of ion transistors have been reported; however, only individual devices have so far been presented and most of them are not functional at physiological salt concentrations. Here we report integrated chemical logic gates based on ion bipolar junction transistors. Inverters and NAND gates of both npn type and complementary type are demonstrated. We find that complementary ion gates have higher gain and lower power consumption, as compared with the single transistor-type gates, which imitates the advantages of complementary logics found in conventional electronics. Ion inverters and NAND gates lay the groundwork for further development of solid-state chemical delivery circuits.

  • 142.
    Malti, Abdellah
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics.
    Low-voltage ambipolar polyelectrolyte-gated organic thin film transistors2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 100, no 18, p. 183302-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic transistors that use polyelectrolytes as gate insulators can be driven at very low voltages (andlt;1 V). The low operating voltage is possible thanks to the formation of electric double layers upon polarization, which generates large electric fields at the critical interfaces in the device structure. In this work, we use a semiconducting blend (of a high electron affinity polymer and a low ionization potential one) in conjunction with a solid polyelectrolyte insulator to fabricate low-voltage ambipolar organic transistors. For both n- and p-channel operation, we use a polycation with readily mobile-yet large enough to limit bulk doping of the semiconductor-counterions.

  • 143.
    Cotrone, Serafina
    et al.
    Università di Bari “Aldo Moro”.
    Ambrico, Marianna
    CNR-IMIP.
    Toss, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Angione, M. Daniela
    Università di Bari “Aldo Moro”.
    Magliulo, Maria
    Università di Bari “Aldo Moro”.
    Mallardi, Antonia
    CNR-IPCF.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palazzo, Gerardo
    Università di Bari “Aldo Moro”.
    Horowitz, Gilles
    University Paris Diderot.
    Ligonzo, Teresa
    Università di Bari “Aldo Moro”.
    Torsi, Luisa
    Università di Bari “Aldo Moro”.
    Phospholipid film in electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors2012In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 638-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A totally innovative electrolyte-gated field effect transistor, embedding a phospholipid film at the interface between the organic semiconductor and the gating solution, is described. The electronic properties of OFETs including a phospholipid film are studied in both pure water and in an electrolyte solution and compared to those of an OFET with the organic semiconductor directly in contact with the gating solution. In addition, to investigate the role of the lipid layers in the charge polarization process and quantify the field-effect mobility, impedance spectroscopy was employed. The results indicate that the integration of the biological film minimizes the penetration of ions into the organic semiconductor thus leading to a capacitive operational mode as opposed to an electrochemical one. The OFETs operate at low voltages with a field-effect mobility in the 10−3 cm2 V−1 s−1 range and an on/off current ratio of 103. This achievement opens perspectives to the development of FET biosensors potentially capable to operate in direct contact with physiological fluids.

  • 144.
    Wang, Xiaodong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Laiho, Ari
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Remanent polarization in a cryptand-polyanion bilayer implemented in an organic field effect transistor2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 100, no 2, p. 023305-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the possibility to maintain an electric polarization in an organic bilayer via ion trapping, i.e., without any external bias. In the cryptand-polyanion bilayer, ions of specific size can be strongly coordinated with organic macrocyclic molecules. Cations move from the polyanion layer to the cryptand layer upon applying a bias and are trapped in this layer. As a result, the voltage dependence of the polarization displays a hysteresis. The bilayer is then advantageously used as an electronic insulating layer in an organic field effect transistor. The ions trapping and de-trapping can be followed by the amplitude of the threshold voltage (V(th)) shift as well as its temporal evolution.

  • 145.
    Blaudeck, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Acreo AB, Sweden .
    Sandberg, Mats
    Acreo AB, Sweden .
    Heinz, Sebastian
    Technical University of Chemnitz, Germany .
    Laiho, Ari
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Jiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baumann, Reinhard R.
    Technical University of Chemnitz, Germany Fraunhofer Institute Elect Nanosyst ENAS, Germany .
    Simplified Large-Area Manufacturing of Organic Electrochemical Transistors Combining Printing and a Self-Aligning Laser Ablation Step2012In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 22, no 14, p. 2939-2948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hybrid manufacturing approach for organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) on flexible substrates is reported. The technology is based on conventional and digital printing (screen and inkjet printing), laser processing, and post-press technologies. A careful selection of the conductive, dielectric, and semiconductor materials with respect to their optical properties enables a self-aligning pattern formation which results in a significant reduction of the usual registration problems during manufacturing. For the prototype OECTs, based on this technology, on/off ratios up to 600 and switching times of 100 milliseconds at gate voltages in the range of 1 V were obtained.

  • 146.
    Liu, Jiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spatial Control of p-n Junction in an Organic Light-Emitting Electrochemical Transistor2012In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 134, no 2, p. 901-904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-voltage-operating organic electrochemical light-emitting cells (LECs) and transistors (OECTs) can be realized in robust device architectures, thus enabling easy manufacturing of light sources using printing tools. In an LEC, the p-n junction, located within the organic semiconductor channel, constitutes the active light-emitting element. It is established and fixated through electrochemical p- and n-doping, which are governed by charge injection from the anode and cathode, respectively. In an OECT, the electrochemical doping level along the organic semiconducting channel is controlled via the gate electrode. Here we report the merger of these two devices: the light-emitting electrochemical transistor, in which the location of the emitting p-n junction and the current level between the anode and cathode are modulated via a gate electrode. Light emission occurs at 4 V, and the emission zone can be repeatedly moved back and forth within an interelectrode gap of 500 mu m by application of a 4 V gate bias. In transistor operation, the estimated on/off ratio ranges from 10 to 100 with a gate threshold voltage of -2.3 V and transconductance value between 1.4 and 3 mu S. This device structure opens for new experiments tunable light sources and LECs with added electronic functionality.

  • 147.
    Tu, Deyu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kergoat, Loïg
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Norrköping Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Norrköping Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Norrköping Sweden.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Transient analysis of electrolyte-gated organic field effect transistors2012In: SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8478: Organic Field-Effect Transistors XI / [ed] Zhenan Bao; Iain McCulloch, 2012, Vol. 8478, p. 84780L-1-84780L-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A terminal charge and capacitance model is developed for transient behavior simulation of electrolyte-gated organic field effect transistors (EGOFETs). Based on the Ward-Dutton partition scheme, the charge and capacitance model is derived from our drain current model reported previously. The transient drain current is expressed as the sum of the initial drain current and the charging current, which is written as the product of the partial differential of the terminal charges with respect to the terminal voltages and the differential of the terminal voltages upon time. The validity for this model is verified by experimental measurements.

  • 148.
    Bubnova, Olga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tuning the Thermoelectric Properties of Conducting Polymers in an Electrochemical Transistor2012In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 134, no 40, p. 16456-16459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While organic field-effect transistors allow the investigation of interfacial charge transport at the semiconductor-dielectric interface, an electrochemical transistor truly modifies the oxidation level and conductivity throughout the bulk of an organic semiconductor. In this work, the thermoelectric properties of the bulk of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) -poly(styrene sulfonate) were controlled electrically by varying the gate voltage. In light of the growing interest in conducting polymers as thermoelectric generators, this method provides an easy tool to study the physics behind the thermoelectric properties and to optimize polymer thermoelectrics.

  • 149.
    Kergoat, Loig
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    Thin Film Elect AB, Sweden .
    Piro, Benoit
    University of Paris Diderot Sorbonne Paris Cite, France .
    Chau Pham, Minh
    University of Paris Diderot Sorbonne Paris Cite, France .
    Horowitz, Gilles
    Ecole Polytech, France .
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tuning the threshold voltage in electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors2012In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, no 22, p. 8394-8399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-voltage organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) promise for low power consumption logic circuits. To enhance the efficiency of the logic circuits, the control of the threshold voltage of the transistors are based on is crucial. We report the systematic control of the threshold voltage of electrolyte-gated OFETs by using various gate metals. The influence of the work function of the metal is investigated in metal-electrolyte-organic semiconductor diodes and electrolyte-gated OFETs. A good correlation is found between the flat-band potential and the threshold voltage. The possibility to tune the threshold voltage over half the potential range applied and to obtain depletion-like (positive threshold voltage) and enhancement (negative threshold voltage) transistors is of great interest when integrating these transistors in logic circuits. The combination of a depletion-like and enhancement transistor leads to a clear improvement of the noise margins in depleted-load unipolar inverters.

  • 150.
    Tu, Deyu
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kergoat, Loig
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Static Model for Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors2011In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 58, no 10, p. 3574-3582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a dc model to simulate the static performance of electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors. The channel current is expressed as charge drift transport under electric field. The charges accumulated in the channel are considered being contributed fromvoltage-dependent electric-doublelayer capacitance. The voltage-dependent contact effect and short-channel effect are also taken into account in this model. A straightforward and efficient methodology is presented to extract the model parameters. The versatility of this model is discussed as well. The model is verified by the good agreement between simulation and experimental data.

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