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  • 101.
    Kindesjö, Viktoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Nordqvist, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Energirenovering av flerbostadshus från miljonprogrammet genom LCC-optimering: En fallstudie av två byggnader i Linköping, Sverige2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The content of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is increasing resulting in climate change and efforts to stop the negative trend need to be intensified. The energy use in the Swedish residential and service sector constitutes 40 % of the total energy use of 378 TWh in the country. Nationally there is a target to reduce the energy use per heated area with 20 % to 2020 and 50 % to 2050. Energy renovation of buildings from the Million Programme is foreseen to be able to contribute to achieving the targets owing to the large building stock and energy efficiency potential. In the master thesis cost optimal energy renovation strategies are investigated for two multi-family buildings in Linkoping built during the Million Programme, one with an unheated attic and one with a heated attic. The thesis is carried out by using life-cycle cost optimisation (LCC-optimisation) by utilising the software OPERA-MILP, developed at Linkoping University. The aim of the thesis is to obtain the energy renovation strategy that is optimal from an LCC-perspective and to investigate the energy reduction and LCC. Optimal energy renovation strategies are also investigated for energy renovation to levels of the Energy Classes of the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning in Sweden and the stricter limits for nearly zero-energy buildings (NZEB) that will likely come into force in 2021. Greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use are also investigated for the different cases with the purpose of putting energy renovation in relation to climate impact. Local environmental factors are used for district heating while electricity is assigned values based on the Nordic electricity mix and Nordic marginal electricity respectively. The current LCC and annual energy use is 2 945 kSEK and 133 MWh for the building with an unheated attic and 3 511 kSEK and 162 MWh for the building with a heated attic. The result shows that LCC can be reduced by approximately 70 kSEK and 90 kSEK respectively. The optimal solution constitutes of a window change from windows with U=3,0 W/m2°C to windows with U=1,5 W/m2°C and results in a reduction of the energy use by 13 % and 15 % respectively. LCC increases with 240 kSEK for the building with unheated attic and decreases with 18 kSEK for the other building when Energy Class D is reached. Energy Class C is attained through an increase in LCC by 300 – 590 kSEK and Energy Class B through an increase by 1610 – 1800 kSEK. It is not possible to reach Energy Class A or the future requirements for NZEB (55 kWh/m2Aheated) with the energy renovation measures that are implemented in OPERA-MILP. The largest energy reduction that can be attained is approximately 60 %. The most cost optimal insulation measure is additional insulation of the attic floor/pitched roof followed by additional insulation of the ground concrete slab. It was shown to be more cost efficient to change to windows with U=1,5 W/m2°C in combination with additional insulation compared to changing to windows with better energy performance. For greater energy savings additional insulation on the inside of the external wall is applied, while insulation on the outside of the external wall is never cost optimal. To reach Energy Class B installation of HRV is required which gives a large increase in cost. Less extensive energy renovation is needed to reach the energy classes for the building with heated attic compared to the building with unheated attic. The annual use of primary energy in the reference case is 22 MWh for the building with an unheated attic and 26 MWh for the building with a heated attic. The emissions of greenhouse gases are 18 tonnes CO2e and 22 tonnes CO2e per year respectively when the emission factor of the Nordic electricity mix is applied and 20 tonnes CO2e and 25 tonnes CO2e respectively when the Nordic marginal electricity is applied. The yearly primary energy use can be reduced with up to 7 MWh through energy renovation. When the energy renovation leads to an increase in electricity use the primary energy can however increase with up to 12 MWh. The yearly greenhouse gas emissions can be decreased with up to 14 tonnes CO2e. When Nordic marginal electricity is applied to estimate the emissions of greenhouse gases for an energy renovation strategy that leads to an increase in electricity use the result is less beneficial from a climate perspective compared to when Nordic electricity mix is applied.

  • 102.
    Kullmann, Felix
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Economic and Environmental Analysis of Excess Heat at Pulp Mills2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    European industries have realized that a reduction of primary energy usage is not only a European requirement but can also be of great economic interest. Especially both energy and resource intensive industries like the pulp and paper industry will benefit. Industrial excess heat as a by-product of industrial processes needing energy has a great potential to be a key factor in reducing primary energy usage. Both excess heat utilization and heat integration are potential ways for Kraft pulp mills to increase their energy efficiency, to decrease their primary energy use and thus green-house gas emission, and to support the pulp and paper industry to achieve sustainability goals and meet EU regulations. This thesis examines the total excess heat potential in the Swedish Kraft pulp industry through pinch analysis and optimization on a modelled average Swedish Kraft pulp mill (FRAM). Different excess heat recovery technologies (EHRTs) are identified based on their applicability and are evaluated regarding their environmental and economic benefits for the Swedish pulp industry by using the energy price and carbon scenarios tool (ENPAC tool). An excess heat potential in the Swedish Kraft pulp mill industry of 2,03 TWh at 60°C, and 3,53 TWh at 25°C is found in this study. Heat delivery to the district heating network (DH), cooling delivery to the district cooling network (DC), electricity generation with a condensing turbine (CT), phase-change material engine (PCM) and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) are identified as suitable excess heat recovery technologies for Swedish Kraft pulp mills. A payback time calculation in this study found the condensing turbine as the EHRT to be of highest economic benefit in 2018 (less than 3 years). With predicted future energy prices of the years 2030, 2040 and 2050 all considered recovery technologies become economically feasible (payback time of less than 3 years). The CT and combinations of CT with DH and DC are furthermore the recovery technologies with the highest CO2 savings of 100.000 t/a in 2018. All in all, this study suggests investing in a CT, or combinations of it with DH and DC, to create the greatest economic and environmental benefits in 2018. With future price changes on the energy market and an uncertain future energy demand an investment in combinations of recovery technologies generating both heat, cooling and electricity is found to be the most sustainable choice.

  • 103.
    Kumari, Poonam
    et al.
    School of Physics, Shoolini University, Solan, HP, India .
    Rai, Radheshyam
    School of Physics, Shoolini University, Solan, HP, India .
    Kholkin, Anderi L.
    Department of glass and ceramics, Aveiro University, Portugal.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Study of Ca doping on A- site on the structural and physical properties of BLTMNZ ceramics2014In: Advanced Materials Letters, ISSN 0976-3961, E-ISSN 0976-397X, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 255-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ferroelectric Ca doped (Ba0.9575La0.04X0.0025) (Ti0.815Mn0.0025Nb0.0025Zr0.18)0.99O3 was prepared by a high-temperature solid state reaction technique. For the understanding of the electrical and dielectric property, the relation between the crystal structures, electrical transition and ferroelectric transitions with increasing temperature (–160 to 35°C) have been analyzed. X-ray diffraction analysis of the powders suggests the formation of a single-phase material with monoclinic structure. Capacitance and tanδ of the specimens were measured in the temperature range from -160 to 35°Cat frequencies 1 kHz – 1 MHz. Detailed studies of dielectric and electrical properties indicate that the Curie temperature shifted to higher temperature with the increase in frequency. Moreover, the dielectric maxima dropped down rapidly initially and the dielectric peaks became extremely broad. The AC conductivity increases with increase in frequency. The low value of activation energy obtained for the ceramic samples could be attributed to the influence of electronic contribution to the conductivity.

  • 104.
    Larsson, Emelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Lydell, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Livscykelanalys och livscykelkostnadsanalys av nyckelfärdiga flerbostadshus: En jämförelse mellan betong- och träkonstruktion2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The residential sector accounts for more than a third of the energy use in Sweden. To reduce the energy use of buildings is a necessity in order to meet future regulationof maximum allowable energy, but also important to reduce the impact on global warming. Another complexity arising in Sweden is the shortage of accommodation. Municipal housing corporations face the challenge of constructing residences fast, cheap and with concern of environmental effects in order to reduce the shortage of accommodation. One way of assessing two of the three aspects of sustainability when looking at future construction of residential buildings is to carry out a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and a Life Cycle Cost Assessment (LCCA). An LCA can indicate what kind of environmental impact a product causes over its lifetime and the LCC allows for assessing what types of costs are associated with the product.

    For the municipal housing corporation Stångåstaden AB the shortage of accommodation is a reality and their mindset is sustainable construction of residences. This study was conducted upon request from Stångåstaden who wanted a comparative LCA and LCCA between two prefabricated multi-residential buildings that are available to them through a framework agreement. The first building has a concrete foundation and the second one is made of wood. The houses are planned to be placed at the outskirts of Linköping, Sweden. The focus of this study has been to comparatively assess the environmental impact from the different life cycle phases and the economic costs of the two buildings during a time period of 50 years. Moreover, the thesis also analyze the optimal retrofit strategy for the buildings in order to find the optimal (lowest) life cycle cost. Furthermore, the current literature has conveyed relatively few studies that combine both LCA and LCC methodology for house types that are common in most towns.

    The result from the LCA indicated that the house with concrete construction had a little less impact in six of the seven studied environmental impact categories compared to the house made of wood. The result differed slightly when the input data were changed. Regarding the LCCA the house made of wood was roughly 20 % more expensive than its concrete counterpart. Changing the input data revealed no difference in the result. With an interest rate of 7,5 % no retrofits were profitable for either building, however reducing the interest rate to half its original value made it cost optimal to increase the floor insulation for the house made of wood.

    More studies should be conducted to be able to draw general conclusions regarding which construction material that is the most sustainable. This thesis is based on two specific and real cases. The same result could possibly not be expected from other studies comparing buildings with concrete and wood construction.

  • 105.
    Larsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Comparison of the thermal comfort and ventilation effectiveness in an office room with three different ventilation supply devices: a measurement study2018In: Proceedings of14th International Conference of Roomvent & Ventilation, Aalto University , 2018, p. 187-192Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People spend a significant part of their time in an indoor environment, whether at home, school or workplace. The aim of this paper is to experimentally study the ventilation effectiveness (mean age of air, MAA) and thermal comfort (PMV and PPD) of three different ventilation supply devices, i.e., mixing supply device (MSD), displacement supply device (DSD) and wall confluent jet supply device (WCJSD) in an office room.

    This paper is based on analysis from full-scale measurements performed in a laboratory at University of Gävle. The size of the room corresponds to a typical office module for one person. The test room has dimensions of 4.2 x 3.0 x 2.4 m with a volume of 31.24 m3, with the size of the room corresponding to a typical office. Different heat sources are used to simulate the office environment, which corresponds to 31.75 W/m2.

    The PMV and PPD are comparable to MSD, WCJSD and DSD as it turns out that MSD has poorer comfort than DSD and WCJSD. DSD and WCJSD have more or less the same thermal comfort performance. When comparing the local mean age of air (MAA) for the studied supply devices, the air is significantly much younger for the DSD and WCJSD than for MSD.  

  • 106.
    Larsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Division of Energy and Production Systems, Department of Technology, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden; Department of Built Environment, Royal Institute of Technology, Gävle, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Division of Energy and Production Systems, Department of Technology, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Sandberg, M
    Department of Built Environment, Royal Institute of Technology, Gävle, Sweden.
    Thermal analysis of super insulated windows (numerical and experimental investigations)1999In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 121-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Windows are crucial for people's experience of the indoor climate, especially in the Nordic countries with cold climate and short days during the winter. This paper reports the first results from an ongoing research project focused on an improved integration of windows with the indoor air climate and people's perception of the windows. The thermal performance of a well-insulated window has been investigated both numerically and experimentally in a full scale test room. The window under consideration is a low-emissive triple-glazing window with two closed spaces filled with the inert gas krypton. An oxidised metal with low emissivity factor coats one pane in each space. Experimental and numerical investigations on the thermal performance of the window have been conducted for different winter cases. Temperature data obtained by direct temperature measurement using thermocouples and through numerical analysis are presented. The heat transfer through a window construction depends on three mechanisms i.e., conduction, convection and radiation. In this paper the convection-conducting mechanisms have been closely investigated. The numerical predictions agree well with the results from the measurements.

  • 107.
    Lawrence, Akvile
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics on electricity saving in energy-intensive industry2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 240, p. 499-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study looked at the extent to which firm characteristics such as total firm capital affect electricity saving in energy-intensive industry in Sweden from 2007 to 2015. Specifically, the most influential variables for systematic variation in electricity saving in the energy-intensive companies participating in Sweden’s voluntary programme for improving energy efficiency in energy-intensive industry (the PFE) were studied by analysing monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics. Monetary investment and payback time influenced electricity savings during the PFE more than firm characteristics, with monetary investment being most influential. Nevertheless, the total systematic variation in firm characteristics may account for ∼16% of the systematic variation in electricity saving, where ∼74% (32 of 43) of the studied firm characteristics seemed to merit further investigation and where ∼49% (21 of 43) of firm characteristics appeared most influential. The most influential firm characteristics were total firm capital, stock turnover ratio, machinery, short-term liabilities per turnover ratio and goodwill. The overall results showed that firm characteristics can influence a firm’s energy-saving activities and indicated a tendency for more energy savings in companies that were financially weaker or had done less work to improve energy efficiency prior to the PFE.

  • 108.
    Lawrence, Akvile
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of firm characteristics and energy management for improving energy efficiency in the pulp and paper industry2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 153, p. 825-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish pulp and paper industry (PPI) must increase energy efficiency to remain competitive on the global market, which has experienced entries from countries with cheaper energy and raw material supplies. Interactions among variables for energy use, production, energy management, electricity price and firm characteristics (FC), in different types of mills, i.e., pulp, paper and integrated mills, in Sweden from 2006 to 2015 indicate that correlations among the studied variables were different in different types of mills. This difference between types of mills seemed to originate partly from varying accessibility to production residue that could be used for energy. For all types of mills, variation of electricity prices did not correlate significantly with energy efficiency during the study period. The studied FC were firms age, number of employees, number of companies in company group, net sales and profit for the year. Energy efficiency was more affected by the variables characterizing energy and production compared to the variables representing FC. This study also suggested presence of possible discrepancies between FC that were perceived as barriers to energy management towards energy efficiency, according to previous studies, and what was shown by the data combining variables representing energy use, production and FC. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 109.
    Lawrence, Akvile
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Elias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Drivers, barriers and success factors for energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 223, p. 67-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has revealed the existence of an energy-efficiency gap – the difference between optimal and actual energy end-use, suggesting that energy efficiency can be improved. Energy management (EnM) is a means for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, due to various barriers, the full potential of EnM is not realised. Several studies have addressed drivers and barriers to energy efficiency but few to EnM. This study aims to identify EnM practices, the most important perceived drivers and barriers for EnM, and relations among them in the energy-intensive Swedish pulp and paper industry (PPI), which has the longest experience internationally of practising EnM systems, and has worked according to the standards since 2004. Our results show that, altogether, the PPI works regularly and continuously with EnM, with a clear division of responsibilities. The highest maturity for EnM practices was for energy policy, followed by organization, investments, and performance measurement. The study also shows that communication between middle management and operations personnel has potential for improvement. The most important categories of drivers were economic, whereas for barriers they were organizational. Nevertheless, knowledge-related barriers and drivers were amongst the most important, suggesting that the absorptive capacity for energy issues could be improved.

  • 110.
    Lawrence, Akvile
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andrei, Mariana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Specific Energy Consumption/Use (SEC) in Energy Management for Improving Energy Efficiency in Industry: Meaning, Usage and Differences2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although several research studies have adopted specific energy consumption (SEC) as an indicator of the progress of improved energy efficiency, publications are scarce on critical assessments when using SEC. Given the increasing importance of monitoring improved industrial energy efficiency and the rising popularity of SEC as an energy key performance indicator (e-KPI), an in-depth analysis and problematization on the pros and cons of using SEC would appear to be needed. The aim of this article is to analyse SEC critically in relation to industrial energy efficiency. By using SEC in the pulp and paper industry as an example, the results of this exploratory study show that although SEC is often used as an e-KPI in industry, the comparison is not always straightforward. Challenges emanate from a lack of information about how SEC is calculated. It is likely that SEC is an optimal e-KPI within the same study, when all deployed SECs are calculated in the same way, and with the same underlying assumptions. However, before comparing SEC with other studies, it is recommended that the assumptions on which calculations are based should be scrutinized in order to ensure the validity of the comparisons. The paper remains an important contribution in addition to the available handbooks.

  • 111.
    Lawrence, Akvile
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Drivers, Barriers, and Success Factors for Improving Energy Management in the Pulp and Paper Industry2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 6, article id 1851Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful energy management is a way to achieve energy efficiency in the pulp and paper industry (PPI), which is important for assuring energy supply security, for increasing economic competitiveness, and for mitigating greenhouse gases. However, research shows that although energy use within PPI can be reduced by 5.5-19.4% per year, some of this by energy management practices, energy management is not always implemented. Why is this so? What are the barriers to, and drivers of implementation? How can the barriers be overcome? A systematic review of barriers and drivers in energy management in the PPI within peer-reviewed scientific articles suggests that the world-wide events that affect energy supply, volatility, and use seemingly also affect the number and frequency of research articles on energy management in the PPI. The perception of energy management in the PPI seems to be dominated by the understanding that it can mostly be achieved through technological improvements aiming to improve energy efficiency. The main driver of energy management was shown to be economic conditions: high and unstable energy prices, followed by drivers such as the need to remain internationally competitive, collaboration and energy management systems. Meanwhile, examples of the most important barriers are technical risks, lack of access to capital, lack of time and other priorities, and slim organization. The success factors for enhancing drivers and overcoming barriers were continuous energy accounting, energy-related collaboration, energy-efficiency programmes, and benchmarking. Altogether, success factors for energy management for improved energy efficiency could be summarized in the 4M frameworkthe 4M for energy efficiency: mind, measure, monitor, and managethat could be used as the energy management memory-tool that could lead to improved energy efficiency in other sectors as well.

  • 112.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    CHP or biofuel production in Europe?2012In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 20, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the opportunity to invest in combined heat and power (CHP) plants and second-generation biofuel production plants in Europe is investigated. To determine the number and type of production plants, a mixed integer linear model is used, based on minimization of the total cost of the whole supply chain. Different policy scenarios are studied with varying values of carbon cost and biofuel support. The study focuses on the type of technology to invest in and the CO2 emission substitution potential, at constant energy prices. The CHP plants and the biofuel production plants are competing for the same feedstock (forest biomass), which is available in limited quantities. The results show that CHP plants are preferred over biofuel production plants at high carbon costs (over 50 EUR/tCO2) and low biofuel support (below 10 EUR/GJ), whereas more biofuel production plants would be set up at high biofuel support (over 15 EUR/GJ), irrespective of the carbon cost. Regarding the CO2 emission substitution potential, the highest potential can be reached at a high carbon cost and low biofuel support. It is concluded that there is a potential conflict of interest between policies promoting increased use of biofuels, and policies aiming at decreased CO2 emissions.

  • 113.
    Leurent, Martin
    et al.
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Jasserand, Frederic
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Locatelli, Giorgio
    University of Leeds, England.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rama, Miika
    VTT Technical Research Centre Finland, Finland.
    Trianni, Andrea
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Driving forces and obstacles to nuclear cogeneration in Europe: Lessons learnt from Finland2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 107, p. 138-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear power plants generate electricity and a large amount of waste heat which is valuable for cogeneration. District heating (DH) is a suitable technology to decarbonize the European heat sector. By contrast with most of nuclear non-electric applications, nuclear district heating (NDH) has already been implemented in Europe, thus providing us with some valuable empirical insights. This paper investigates the forces and obstacles to nuclear cogeneration by looking at the Loviisa 3 NDH project in Finland. The key forces are energy efficiency, decarbonization of the heat sector, operational competitiveness of future nuclear technologies, and synergies with renewable energies. The key obstacles are split incentives, electricity prices volatility, inexpediency of business models and regulatory frameworks, electioneering of local authorities and pessimist expectations with regards to project financing. Policy makers should recognize nuclear plants alongside other utilities generating large amounts of wasted heat. International cooperation programs involving both nuclear and heat stakeholders should be encouraged. EU28 Member States wanting to promote nuclear cogeneration may consider providing support for the electricity generated by high-efficiency plants.

  • 114.
    Lidberg, T.
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Dalarna University, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Myhren, J. A.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Olofsson, T.
    Dalarna University, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Comparing different building energy efficiency refurbishment packages performed within different district heating systems2017In: 8TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLIED ENERGY (ICAE2016), ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2017, Vol. 105, p. 1719-1724Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the differences in primary energy (PE) use of a multi-family building refurbished with different refurbishment packages situated in different district heating systems (DHS). Four models of typical DHS are defined to represent the Swedish DH sector. The refurbishment packages are chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency of a representative multi-family building in Sweden. The study was made from a broad system perspective, including valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in PE savings for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of DHS. Also, the package giving the lowest specific energy use per m(2) was not the one which saved the most PE. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 115.
    Lidberg, T.
    et al.
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Myhren, J. A.
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    Olofsson, T.
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden; Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Environmental impact of energy refurbishment of buildings within different district heating systems2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, p. 231-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The refurbishment of existing buildings is often considered a way to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions in the building stock. This study analyses the primary energy and CO2 impact of refurbishing a multi-family house with different refurbishment packages, given various district heating systems. Four models of typical district heating systems were defined to represent the Swedish district heating sector. The refurbishment packages were chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency and indoor climate of a multi-family house. The study was made from a system perspective, including the valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in primary energy use for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of district heating system. While the packages with heat pumps had the lowest final energy use per m(2) of floor area, air heat recovery proved to reduce primary energy use and emissions of CO2-equivalents more, independent of the type of district heating system, as it leads to a smaller increase in electricity use. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 116.
    Lima, Celson
    et al.
    CTS, Uninova, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Martins, João F
    CTS, Uninova, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Barata, José
    CTS, Uninova, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Ribeiro, Luis
    CTS, Uninova, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Cândido, Gonçalo
    CTS, Uninova, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Towards a service based infrastructure to improve efficiency into energy systems: The NEMO&CODED quest2010In: 10th IFAC Workshop on Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (2010) / [ed] Leitao, Paulo; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo; Barata, Jose, International Federation of Automatic Control , 2010, Vol. 10, p. 162-167Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is absolutely one of the greatest challenges of our days. The whole chain of actors involved in the generation, distribution, and consumption of energy are not only concerned but also acting towards a more rational and efficient use of energy. Additionally, the use of renewable energy sources also reflects the seriousness of the subject and helps to set up the current landscape on this matter. This is the rationale driving the NEMO&CODED (NEMO) project, which targets the development of a software infrastructure, based on web services and semantic resources aiming to provide the appropriate support to manage energy-related devices (e.g. renewable energy sources, smart meters, etc.) considering an environment where energy is generated, stored, distributed, and consumed in a rational and environmentally correct way. This shall be attained through the comprehensive implementation and instantiation of computational intelligence at resource level and the development of mechanisms that enable the seamless, and online, control/monitoring of aggregations of resources. This paper discusses the NEMO project, namely its vision, goals, preliminary software architecture, evaluation and assessment scenarios, and also points out the further work (research, design, and implementation) to be performed.

  • 117.
    Lindkvist, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biogas production plants; existing classifications and proposed categories2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 174, p. 1588-1597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of biogas from anaerobic digestion has the potential to be part of the transition to a renewable based energy system. However, diverse classifications may obstruct knowledge sharing within and between countries, thus potentially hindering development of biogas solutions, as part of an environmentally sustainable renewable based energy system. The aim of this study is to present an approach to categorize biogas production plants and to investigate and compare some country-specific classifications of biogas production plants. The study shows that there are differences between the country specific classifications studied, both in the terminology and in the underlying descriptions when the terminology is the same. It is also shown that the biogas plants studied do not fit into all of the in-depth country specific European classifications studied. A Framework for Categorization that includes seven categories is proposed. When the biogas plants studied are inserted into the framework, similarities between different plants are shown. These similarities are not found when using the existing European biogas plant classifications. It has also been shown that only three of the proposed categories are included in any of the four in-depth European classifications studied. The Framework, developed in this study, shows the complexity of common categories for biogas production plants, and it is an attempt towards finding a common classification for biogas plants. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-10-30 14:44
  • 118.
    Lindkvist, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Region Östergötland. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    System Analysis of Biogas Production: Part II Application in Food Industry Systems2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production from organic by-products is a way to recover energy and nutrients. However, biogas production is not the only possible conversion alternative for these by-products, and hence there is interest in studying how organic by-products are treated today and which alternatives for conversion are the most resource efficient from a systems perspective. This paper investigates if biogas production is a resource efficient alternative, compared to business as usual, to treat food industry by-products, and if so, under what circumstances. Five different cases of food industries were studied, all with different prerequisites. For all cases, three different scenarios were analysed. The first scenario is the business as usual (Scenario BAU), where the by-products currently are either incinerated, used as animal feed or compost. The second and third scenarios are potential biogas scenarios where biogas is either used as vehicle fuel (Scenario Vehicle) or to produce heat and power (Scenario CHP). All scenarios, and consequently, all cases have been analysed from three different perspectives: Economy, energy, and environment. The environmental perspective was divided into Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP), and Eutrophication Potential (EP). The results show, in almost all the systems, that it would be more resource efficient to change the treatment method from Scenario BAU to one of the biogas scenarios. This paper concludes that both the perspective in focus and the case at hand are vital for deciding whether biogas production is the best option to treat industrial organic by-products. The results suggest that the food industry should not be the only actor involved in deciding how to treat its by-products.

  • 119.
    Lindkvist, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Region Östergötland. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Systems Analysis of Biogas ProductionPart I Research Design2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 5, article id 926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Striving towards a resource efficient society requires an adjustment of energy systems towards renewable options. It is also of high importance to make use of products and materials to a higher degree. Biogas production has the potential to recover nutrients and energy from organic by-products, as well as to substitute fossil fuels in the energy system. Resource efficiency relates to the economic, energy and environmental performance of the system studied. A comprehensive research design for assessment of the resource efficiency of biogas production systems is described in this paper. The research design includes the following parts: identification of cases, defining scenarios, system development, evaluation perspectives and systems analysis. The analysis is performed from three perspectives; economy, energy and environment.

  • 120.
    Liu, Linn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A systematic approach for major renovation of residential buildings2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, buildings are responsible for about 40 % of total energy use and about 10 % of total CO2 emissions Today more than 60 % of existing Swedish residential buildings are over 40 years old and are in need of major renovation. In addition, 15 % of all multi-family buildings and 27 % of all single-family houses were built before 1945. The increased energy use and threat from CO2 emissions of the building sector create a need for energy efficiency. The important role that renovation of residential buildings will play in reducing the total energy used by the Swedish building sector as well as in reducing primary energy use and CO2 emissions on both the national and global levels has been the impetus for the studies included in this thesis.

    The aim of the current research is to develop a methodology from a system perspective which can be used to analyze the energy use, optimal life cycle cost (LCC), energy efficiency measure (EEM) package, indoor environment, CO2 emissions, and primary energy use of a building or a community during major renovation. The developed methodology accomplished at three different levels, i.e. building level, cluster level and district level. The methodology considers both energy efficiency and economic viability during building renovation and will also play an important role in overall urban planning. The studied buildings include both non-listed and listed residential buildings and the tools used include building energy simulation (BES), survey, technical measurements, LCC optimization and building categorization.

    The results show that the combination of BES, technical measurements and surveys provides a holistic approach for evaluation of energy use and indoor environment of the studied residential buildings. The results from the current study also show that the 2020 energy target, i.e., reduction of energy use by 20 %, for the building sector can be achieved by all the studied building types and that the total LCC of these buildings are below the cost-optimal point. In comparison, the 2050 energy target, i.e., reduction of energy use by 50 %, for the building sector may be achieved by the non-listed buildings, but when the constraints relevant to listed buildings are added the cost-optimality changes as some EEMs in direct conflict with the building’s heritage value may not be implemented.

    The investigation of primary energy use and CO2 emissions by the residential buildings show that the higher the energy saving, the lower the primary energy use becomes, and vice versa. With the same energy saving, the heating system with higher primary energy factor results in higher primary energy use. From a CO2 emissions point of view, EEM packages proposed to help buildings connected to a CHP based district heating system, to reduce the energy use or LCC are not consistently effective. Since these EEM packages will reduce district heating demand, the electricity produced in the CHP plant will also decrease. When the biomass is considered a limited resource, measures such as investment in a biofuel boiler are not favourable from the CO2 emissions point of view. The current study has also shown that combining building categorization method and LCC optimization method will help the community to reduce its energy use, primary energy use and CO2 emissions in a systematic and strategic way.

    List of papers
    1. Comprehensive investigation on energy retrofits in eleven multi-family buildings in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comprehensive investigation on energy retrofits in eleven multi-family buildings in Sweden
    2014 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 84, p. 704-715Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Rapidly growing energy use in the building sector is considered a serious problem by both the European Union (EU) and Sweden. Reducing energy demand in the building sector is important for Sweden in order to reach national energy goals for reduced energy use and CO2 emissions in the future. This project aims to find energy efficiency potential in multifamily buildings in the Gävleborg region, which is a cold climate region in Sweden. Measurements and simulations have been made on eleven multifamily buildings from the whole region. The results include different energy efficiency measure packages, profitability analysis of individual measures and packages, and primary energy use analysis. The paper also includes CO2 emissions reduction analysis based on different methods. The project shows that the multifamily buildings in the Gävleborg region have good potential to reduce their energy use by more than 50%, which in turn will contribute to 43% primary energy reduction and 48% CO2 emissions reduction.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111051 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.08.044 (DOI)000345182000070 ()
    Available from: 2014-10-06 Created: 2014-10-06 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Evaluating indoor environment of a retrofitted multi-family building with improved energy performance in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating indoor environment of a retrofitted multi-family building with improved energy performance in Sweden
    2015 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 102, p. 32-44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector within both the EU and Sweden accounts for about 40% of total energy use. It is therefore important to introduce energy efficiency measures in this sector in order to meet the national implementation of the Building Performance Directive. Retrofits that result in improved energy performance are important in order to meet national energy targets, but the impact on the indoor environment has to be considered. Properly chosen energy efficiency measures may affect the indoor environment positively. One retrofitted multi-family building, located in the city of Linkoping, Sweden, was chosen as the study object. The building represents a common type of construction in Sweden. This study presents an evaluation of both the indoor environment and energy use of the retrofitted building in comparison with a similar non-retrofitted building from the same area. The results show that the building has potential to reach a 39% reduction of space heating demand. The indoor environment has been improved compared to the non-retrofitted building. Adding external blinds from 15 May to 15 September between 10am-12pm on the east side and 12pm-3pm on the west side seems to be the best option for improving the indoor climate during summer. (c) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Multi-family building; Retrofit; Building energy simulation; Energy use; Indoor environment
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120720 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.05.021 (DOI)000358458100003 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    3. A Method to Assess the Potential for and Consequences of Energy Retrofits in Swedish Historic Buildings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Method to Assess the Potential for and Consequences of Energy Retrofits in Swedish Historic Buildings
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, ISSN 1756-7505, E-ISSN 1756-7513, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 150-166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish research project Potential and Policies for Energy Efficiency in Swedish Historic Buildings aims to investigate the interdependency between political energy targets and effects on the built heritage. The first part of this paper presents an iterative and interactive method to assess the potential for and consequences of improving the energy performance in a stock of historic buildings. Key elements in the method are: categorisation of the building stock, identifying targets, assessment of measures, and life-cycle cost optimisation. In the second part of the paper, the method is applied to a typical Swedish building. The selected case study shows how the method allows for an interaction between the quantitative assessment of the techno-economic optimisation and the qualitative assessment of vulnerability and other risks. Through a multidisciplinary dialogue and iteration it is possible to arrive at a solution that best balances energy conservation and building conservation in a given decision context.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Maney Publishing, 2014
    Keywords
    cultural significance; energy efficiency; heritage values; historic buildings; life-cycle cost
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109231 (URN)10.1179/1756750514Z.00000000055 (DOI)000338773000006 ()
    Available from: 2014-08-12 Created: 2014-08-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    4. LCC assessments and environmental impacts on the energy renovation of a multi-family building from the 1890s
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>LCC assessments and environmental impacts on the energy renovation of a multi-family building from the 1890s
    2016 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 133, p. 823-833Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The 2020 and 2050 energy targets increase requirements on energy performance in the building stock, thus affecting both listed and non-listed buildings. It is important to select appropriate and cost-optimal energy efficiency measures, using e.g. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) optimization. The aim of this paper is to find cost-optimal packages of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) as well as to explore the effects of specific predesigned energy target values for a listed Swedish multi-family building from the 1890s. The purpose is also to show the effects on energy use, LCC, primary energy use and CO2 emissions of different energy targets, discount rates, electricity prices and geographic locations. The results show that separate energy targets could be an effective way to simplify the implementation for listed buildings. Furthermore, a cost-optimal package of EEMs is more sensitive to changes in discount rate than in electricity price. The energy renovation has impact on the primary energy use and CO2 emissions. The lower the discount rate is, the more EEMs will be implemented and the easier the national energy targets may be achieved. A higher electricity price also leads to more EEMs being implemented but at the same time higher running costs. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2016
    Keywords
    LCC assessments; Environmental impacts; Energy efficiency measures package; Listed/non-listed building; Renovation; Energy targets
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133507 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.10.040 (DOI)000389087300072 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2016-12-30 Created: 2016-12-29 Last updated: 2017-11-29
  • 121.
    Liu, Linn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Comprehensive investigation on energy retrofits in eleven multi-family buildings in Sweden2014In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 84, p. 704-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapidly growing energy use in the building sector is considered a serious problem by both the European Union (EU) and Sweden. Reducing energy demand in the building sector is important for Sweden in order to reach national energy goals for reduced energy use and CO2 emissions in the future. This project aims to find energy efficiency potential in multifamily buildings in the Gävleborg region, which is a cold climate region in Sweden. Measurements and simulations have been made on eleven multifamily buildings from the whole region. The results include different energy efficiency measure packages, profitability analysis of individual measures and packages, and primary energy use analysis. The paper also includes CO2 emissions reduction analysis based on different methods. The project shows that the multifamily buildings in the Gävleborg region have good potential to reduce their energy use by more than 50%, which in turn will contribute to 43% primary energy reduction and 48% CO2 emissions reduction.

  • 122.
    Liu, Linn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    LCC assessments and environmental impacts on the energy renovation of a multi-family building from the 1890s2016In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 133, p. 823-833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2020 and 2050 energy targets increase requirements on energy performance in the building stock, thus affecting both listed and non-listed buildings. It is important to select appropriate and cost-optimal energy efficiency measures, using e.g. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) optimization. The aim of this paper is to find cost-optimal packages of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) as well as to explore the effects of specific predesigned energy target values for a listed Swedish multi-family building from the 1890s. The purpose is also to show the effects on energy use, LCC, primary energy use and CO2 emissions of different energy targets, discount rates, electricity prices and geographic locations. The results show that separate energy targets could be an effective way to simplify the implementation for listed buildings. Furthermore, a cost-optimal package of EEMs is more sensitive to changes in discount rate than in electricity price. The energy renovation has impact on the primary energy use and CO2 emissions. The lower the discount rate is, the more EEMs will be implemented and the easier the national energy targets may be achieved. A higher electricity price also leads to more EEMs being implemented but at the same time higher running costs. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 123.
    Ljungstedt, Hanna
    et al.
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Daniella
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karltorp, Kersti
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Options for increased use and refining of biomass: the case of energy-intensive industry in Sweden2011In: Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, May 8–13, Linköping, Sweden, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2011, p. 17-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Events in recent decades have placed climate change at the top of the political agenda. In Sweden,energy-intensive industries are responsible for a large proportion of greenhouse gas emissions and their ability toswitch to renewable energy sources could contribute to the transition to a decarbonised economy. Thisinterdisciplinary study has its starting point in three energy-intensive industries’ opportunities to take part in thedevelopment towards increased refining and use of biomass. The study includes the pulp and paper industry, theiron and steel industry and the oil refining industry, each exemplified by a case company. It can be concludedthat there are several technological options in each industry. On the other hand, implementing one option forincreased use of biomass in each case company could demand up to 34% of the estimated increase in Swedishbiomass supply, in 2020. Additionally, in a longer time perspective none of the case companies believes that theamount of biomass in the Swedish industrial energy system have the possibility to increase significantly in the future.

  • 124.
    Lund, Rasmus
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Socioeconomic potential for introducing large-scale heat pumps in district heating in Denmark2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 139, p. 219-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Denmark has a national political goal of a 100% renewable energy supply in 2050. This requires a comprehensive transition of the energy system. For some decades, district heating in Denmark has been contributing to high fuel efficiency as well as to the integration of the electricity and heating sectors. Large-scale compression heat pumps would improve the integration between the district heating and power sectors by utilising the fluctuations in the supply from wind power, solar photo voltaic and other sources. Previous studies indicate that the introduction of heat pumps in Denmark will have a positive impact on the total costs for energy supply in the transition towards 100% renewable energy. In this paper, this is further investigated to assess the feasibility of heat pumps in the Danish energy system. The assessment is made by applying two different energy system analysis tools, named EnergyPLAN and MODEST. The comparison and discussion of these tools is a secondary purpose of the study. In general, the results show a potential for introducing heat pumps in Denmark between 2 and 4 GW-thermal power and a total potential benefit around 100 M(sic)/year in 2025. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 125.
    Magnusson, Dick
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Between municipal and regional planning: The development of regional district heating systems in Stockholm from 1978 to 20102011In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 319-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating (DH) is an important part of the Swedish energy system and one of the most important climate measures at the municipal level. The Swedish planning system gives a large amount of power to municipalities, thus leaving the regional level weak. Despite this, the DH systems in Stockholm have developed into regional systems; how has this development occurred and what made it possible? Regional and municipal strategies concerning DH and energy from 1978 to 2010 have been studied through Regional plans and comprehensive plans. The conclusions show that the municipal DH systems have grown and become interconnected, thus fulfilling one of the most important regional strategies: to expand and interconnect the systems to be able to build combined heat and power plants. This is not entirely due to the regional strategies, however; the local importance of the system, economic reasons and supply security are other explanations. The study shows that regional importance generally has grown, and thus also the regional focus on DH. As environmental and climate issues have risen on the agenda, the importance of DH from the municipal perspective has become more evident, as well as a shift from supply orientation to more focus on energy efficiency.

  • 126.
    Magnusson, Dick
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Swedish district heating sector: a system in stagnation: current and future trends in the district heating sector2015In: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping University , 2015, p. 187-215Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Mardan, Nawzad
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Combining simulation and optimization for improved decision support on energy efficiency in industry2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial production systems in general are very complex and there is a need for decision support regarding management of the daily production as well as regarding investments to increase energy efficiency and to decrease environmental effects and overall costs. Simulation of industrial production as well as energy systems optimization may be used in such complex decision-making situations.

    The simulation tool is most powerful when used for design and analysis of complex production processes. This tool can give very detailed information about how the system operates, for example, information about the  disturbances that occur in the system, such as lack of raw materials, blockages or stoppages on a production line. Furthermore, it can also be used to identify bottlenecks to indicate where work in process, material, and information are being delayed.

    The energy systems optimization tool can provide the company management additional information for the type of investment studied. The tool is able to obtain more basic data for decision-making and thus also additional information for the production-related investment being studied. The use of the energy systems optimization tool as investment decision support when considering strategic investments for an industry with complex interactions between different production units seems greatly needed. If not adopted and used, the industry may face a risk of costly reinvestments.

    Although these decision-making tools individually give good results, the possibility to use them in combination increases the reliability of the results, enhances the possibility to find optimal solutions, promises improved analyses, and a better basis for decisions in industry. The energy systems optimization tool can be used to find the optimal result and the simulation tool can be used to find out whether the solution from the optimization tool is possible to run at the site.

    In this thesis, the discrete event simulation and energy systems optimization tools have been combined. Three Swedish industrial case studies are included: The new foundry at Volvo Powertrain in Skövde, Arla Foods dairy in Linköping and the SKF foundry in Katrineholm. Results from these cases show possibilities to decrease energy use and idling, to increase production, to combine existing and new production equipment and to decrease loss of  products.

    For an existing industrial system, it is always preferable to start with the optimization tool reMIND rather than the simulation tool – since it takes less time to build the optimization model and obtain results than it does to build the corresponding simulation modeling. While, for a non-existent system, it is in general a good idea to use both the simulation and the optimization tool reMIND simultaneously, because there are many uncertain data that are difficult to estimate, by using only one of them. An iterative working process may follow where both tools are used.

    There is a need for future work to further develop structured working processes and to improve the model to e.g. take production related support processes into account. To adapt the results in industries, improve the user friendliness of the tool and the understanding of the underlying modeling developments of the optimization tool reMIND will be necessary.

    List of papers
    1. Benefits of integration of energy systems optimization and discrete event simulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Benefits of integration of energy systems optimization and discrete event simulation
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increases in energy prices in recent years and the threat of global warming, closely related to energy use, energy issues have been brought to the fore worldwide. Furthermore, due to increased globalisation,  industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies to reduce their costs. Energy efficiency is therefore an essential task for the future as it has a significant impact on both the environment and business  profits. Different means exist to accomplish a reduction in energy costs, for example, investments in energy efficiency and load shaping. To analyse the results of such changes and provide support when choosing between different measures, different modelling tools can be used. This paper describes Energy Systems Optimisation (ESO) and Discrete Event Simulation (DES) tools and illustrates how an ESO tool and a DES tool can be applied in combination using two simplified case studies. The focus will be on the interactivity analyses between methods and how they provide the user with additional information regarding energy efficiency measures. In the first case, results from the ESO model are simulated to investigate whether the results can be applied in reality. In the second case, the results from the DES model from three different investment alternatives are used as input data to the ESO model to investigate which alternative gives the maximum process utilisation, lowest environmental impact and lowest system costs. Using these tools together improves overall process utilisation and helps provide the analysis with more information than if the tools are used separately.

    Keywords
    Energy efficiency; Integration; Optimisation; Simulation
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84642 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-10-16 Created: 2012-10-16 Last updated: 2012-10-16Bibliographically approved
    2. Combining optimisation and simulation in an energy systems analysis of a Swedish iron foundry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining optimisation and simulation in an energy systems analysis of a Swedish iron foundry
    2012 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 410-419Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To face global competition, and also reduce environmental and climate impact, industry-wide changes are needed, especially regarding energy use, which is closely related to global warming. Energy efficiency is therefore an essential task for the future as it has a significant impact on both business profits and the environment. For the analysis of possible changes in industrial production processes, and to choose what changes should be made, various modelling tools can be used as a decision support. This paper uses two types of energy analysis tool: Discrete Event Simulation (DES) and Energy Systems Optimisation (ESO). The aim of this study is to describe how a DES and an ESO tool can be combined. A comprehensive five-step approach is proposed for reducing system costs and making a more robust production system. A case study representing a new investment in part of a Swedish iron foundry is also included to illustrate the method's use. The method described in this paper is based on the use of the DES program QUEST and the ESO tool reMIND. The method combination itself is generic, i.e. other similar programs can be used as well with some adjustments and adaptations.

    The results from the case study show that when different boundary conditions are used the result obtained from the simulation tools is not optimum, in other words, the result shows only a feasible solution and not the best way to run the factory. It is therefore important to use the optimisation tool in such cases in order to obtain the optimum operating strategy. By using the optimisation tool a substantial amount of resources can be saved. The results also show that the combination of optimisation and simulation tools is useful to provide very detailed information about how the system works and to predict system behaviour as well as to minimise the system cost.

    Keywords
    Energy efficiency; Integration; Optimisation; Simulation
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84636 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2012.06.014 (DOI)000308259300040 ()
    Note

    funding agencies|Swedish Energy Agency (SEA)||

    Available from: 2012-10-16 Created: 2012-10-16 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    3. Industrial decision-making for energy efficiency – combining optimization and simulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial decision-making for energy efficiency – combining optimization and simulation
    2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been a worldwide focus on the issue of energy because of increased energy prices and the threat of increasing global warming. Furthermore, industries are facing greater competition as a result of increasing globalisation, which is forcing companies to reduce their expenses. Reducing the use of energy is therefore an essential task for the future as it has a positive impact on both the environment and the profits of any business. Reductions in energy demand can be accomplished by different means, such as investments in energy-efficient processes or load management. Analytical tools may be used to support the decision-making process, when choosing between a number of measures, and analysing the results can help to choose which changes should be made.

    This paper studies two types of energy analysis tool: energy systems optimisation (ESO) and discrete event simulation (DES). The aim of this paper is to describe a method where a DES and an ESO tool are combined in order to study the potential energy and resource reduction in complex industrial energy systems. A case study representing a part of a dairy is also included to illustrate the use of the method. The system modelled includes a process where the durability or longevity of milk increases from a few days to 28 days by using steam injection.

    The results from the case study show that the dairy has much higher potential production capacity than realised today. This also means that there is a potential to reduce the operation hours from a three-shift to a two-shift operation to meet the existing weekly demand. The analysis also shows that there are large potential reductions in both energy and other resources. The largest potential reductions are primarily from electricity and water. The combination of tools increases the reliability of the analysis and facilitates decision making in an industrial site.

    Keywords
    Energy efficiency, Integration, Optimisation, Simulation
    National Category
    Energy Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71877 (URN)978-86-6055-016-5 (ISBN)
    Conference
    24rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, Novi Sad, Serbia, 4-7 July 2011
    Available from: 2011-11-09 Created: 2011-11-09 Last updated: 2013-02-27
    4. Optimization as investment decision supportin a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry: a move beyond traditional energy auditing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization as investment decision supportin a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry: a move beyond traditional energy auditing
    2009 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 433-440Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry’s investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces – which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2009
    Keywords
    Energy efficiency, Foundry industry, Investment decision support, Optimization
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12514 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.08.012 (DOI)000263490400005 ()
    Note

    Original publication: Patrik Thollander, Nawzad Mardan and Magnus Karlsson, Optimization as investment decision supportin a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry: a move beyond traditional energy auditing, 2009, Applied Energy, (86), 4, 433-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.08.012. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/

    Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    5. Using simulation for more sustainable production systems: methodologies and case studies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using simulation for more sustainable production systems: methodologies and case studies
    2009 (English)In: International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, ISSN 1939-7038, E-ISSN 1939-7046, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 111-122Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The increased competition in the global market-place is forcing industrial manufacturers to develop their production systems by increasing flexibility, improving quality and lowering production costs. With the help of simulation techniques, the understanding of manufacturing systems can be enhanced and alternative solutions can be tested. Simulation has, therefore, played an important role in industrial development in recent years. At the same time, energy-related costs have been neglected by Swedish industry due to historically low energy costs in Sweden, in comparison with such costs in other European countries. The developments in the energy market, with uncertainty concerning future prices, have increased the need for energy efficiency. The research described in this paper focuses on methodologies developed to enhance the efficient analyses of energy systems in manufacturing plants by using discrete event simulation. The focus is on electricity use. The paper briefly presents the main features of the methodologies and describes the results from four case studies carried out in the Swedish foundry industry. The methodology improves efficiency by identifying those processes that are important, the activities that must be undertaken and the types of analyses that can be undertaken.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2009
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84638 (URN)10.1080/19397030902960994 (DOI)
    Note

    Special Issue: Selected Papers from FAIM 2008, the 18th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing.

    Available from: 2012-10-16 Created: 2012-10-16 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    6. Timing and sizing of investments in industrial processes– the use of an optimization tool
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Timing and sizing of investments in industrial processes– the use of an optimization tool
    2011 (English)In: ECOS 2010 Volume IV (Power plants and Industrial processes): Proceedings of ECOS 2010 Conference in Lausanne / [ed] Daniel Favrat, MER Francois Maréchal, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investments of different kinds are vital for industries to stay competitive. However, there are several issues that need to be considered before investing, e.g. the timing and size of the investment. In this paper a methodology is presented for analysing investments form the point of view of optimal size and timing. The energy systems optimization tool reMIND is used as the basis of the modelling, and has been used in several industrial energy systems studies for various purposes. reMIND is based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and has been further developed to consider investments of different kinds. The different constraints needed to model the investment properly are presented together with the variables included in the objective function. A simple case study is also included to illustrate how the method is used. The results from the case study show that the timing and size of the different investments change, depending on the size of the proposed increase in production rate.

    Keywords
    Energy efficiency, Investments, MILP, Optimization
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Energy Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71876 (URN)145630318X (ISBN)9781456303181 (ISBN)
    Conference
    23rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, 14-17 June, in Lausanne, Switzerland
    Available from: 2011-11-09 Created: 2011-11-09 Last updated: 2017-10-16
    7. Considering start-ups and shutdowns using an optimization tool: including a dairy production planning case study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Considering start-ups and shutdowns using an optimization tool: including a dairy production planning case study
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many different aspects a production-planning model has to be able to handle to make a model adequate for the purpose. One aspect is the handling of start-ups and shutdowns for different processes. The production plan is likely to be changed when considering, for example, a cost connected to the start-up and/or shutdown of processes. Besides costs associated with start-ups and shutdowns, waste may be produced during the start-up and shutdown. However, there is also the possibility of carrying out soft start-ups and shutdowns or limiting the number of start-ups and shutdowns. Thus, start-ups and shutdowns have to be handled in an adequate way in models to produce reliable and accurate results. In optimisation tools, this may be dealt with by introducing certain constraints, including integers. In this paper, the implementation of alternative ways to consider start-ups and shutdowns are presented. This is done in the energy system optimisation tool reMIND, which deals with Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problems. The purpose of this paper is to show four alternatives to consider start-ups and shutdowns in optimisation models. This involves, in total, almost 50 constraints. Also, a simple dairy case study is included in the paper to visualise the effect of implementing the different alternatives to shutdowns.

    Keywords
    MILP, optimisation, production planning, start-up, shutdown
    National Category
    Energy Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84639 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-10-16 Created: 2012-10-16 Last updated: 2012-10-16Bibliographically approved
  • 128.
    Mardan, Nawzad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Solding, Petter
    Swerea SWECAST AB, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Benefits of integration of energy systems optimization and discrete event simulationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increases in energy prices in recent years and the threat of global warming, closely related to energy use, energy issues have been brought to the fore worldwide. Furthermore, due to increased globalisation,  industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies to reduce their costs. Energy efficiency is therefore an essential task for the future as it has a significant impact on both the environment and business  profits. Different means exist to accomplish a reduction in energy costs, for example, investments in energy efficiency and load shaping. To analyse the results of such changes and provide support when choosing between different measures, different modelling tools can be used. This paper describes Energy Systems Optimisation (ESO) and Discrete Event Simulation (DES) tools and illustrates how an ESO tool and a DES tool can be applied in combination using two simplified case studies. The focus will be on the interactivity analyses between methods and how they provide the user with additional information regarding energy efficiency measures. In the first case, results from the ESO model are simulated to investigate whether the results can be applied in reality. In the second case, the results from the DES model from three different investment alternatives are used as input data to the ESO model to investigate which alternative gives the maximum process utilisation, lowest environmental impact and lowest system costs. Using these tools together improves overall process utilisation and helps provide the analysis with more information than if the tools are used separately.

  • 129.
    Mardan, Nawzad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klahr, Roger
    Swerea SWECAST AB, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Combining optimisation and simulation in an energy systems analysis of a Swedish iron foundry2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 410-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To face global competition, and also reduce environmental and climate impact, industry-wide changes are needed, especially regarding energy use, which is closely related to global warming. Energy efficiency is therefore an essential task for the future as it has a significant impact on both business profits and the environment. For the analysis of possible changes in industrial production processes, and to choose what changes should be made, various modelling tools can be used as a decision support. This paper uses two types of energy analysis tool: Discrete Event Simulation (DES) and Energy Systems Optimisation (ESO). The aim of this study is to describe how a DES and an ESO tool can be combined. A comprehensive five-step approach is proposed for reducing system costs and making a more robust production system. A case study representing a new investment in part of a Swedish iron foundry is also included to illustrate the method's use. The method described in this paper is based on the use of the DES program QUEST and the ESO tool reMIND. The method combination itself is generic, i.e. other similar programs can be used as well with some adjustments and adaptations.

    The results from the case study show that when different boundary conditions are used the result obtained from the simulation tools is not optimum, in other words, the result shows only a feasible solution and not the best way to run the factory. It is therefore important to use the optimisation tool in such cases in order to obtain the optimum operating strategy. By using the optimisation tool a substantial amount of resources can be saved. The results also show that the combination of optimisation and simulation tools is useful to provide very detailed information about how the system works and to predict system behaviour as well as to minimise the system cost.

  • 130.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fonseca, Jorge
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Quantifying the environmental performance of integrated bioethanol and biogas production2014In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 6, p. 109-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the production of biofuels continues to expand worldwide, criticism about, e.g. the energy output versus input and the competition with food has been questioned. However, biofuels have the possibility to be optimized in order to improve the environmental performance. This could be accomplished through the use of concepts from industrial symbiosis. This paper provides a quantification of the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis in the biofuel industry through integration of biogas and ethanol processes using a life cycle approach. Results show that although increasing integration is assumed to produce environmental benefits, not all impact categories have achieved this and the results depend upon the allocation methods, energy system and assumptions chosen.

  • 131.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fonseca, Jorge
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Who gets the benefits?: An approach for assessing the environmentalperformance of industrial symbiosis2012In: Greening of Industry Network: Support your future today! Turning environmental challenges into business opportunities, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally assumed that industrial symbiosis creates economic and environmental benefits for all firmsinvolved, though only a few quantifications have been produced in the literature. An approach to quantifyenvironmental performance of industrial symbiosis using life cycle assessment has been provided,outlining the choice of functional unit, system boundaries, impact assessment and allocation as well as thedistribution of benefits among firms in the symbiotic activity. The implications of such an approach maybe beneficial for the industrial symbiosis and life cycle assessment communities and provide informationcrucial for taxes, subsidies, business relations, marketing and other issues related to the environmentalperformance of firms in the industrial symbiosis network.

  • 132.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inducing large-scale diffusion of innovation: An integrated actor- and system-level approach2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order for the innovation process to be successful, not only do innovations need to be developed and reached the market, but, once they are available for users, they have to spread on a large scale. In the innovation literature, a complete explanation is lacking of why some innovations reach a phase of large-scale diffusion faster than others, including both actor- and system-level components. For instance, what drives and hinders adopters to decide to adopt the innovation on the actor and system levels, and how adopters who participate in the largescale diffusion handle the adoption process and the implementation of the innovation, are questions still unanswered. As a consequence, it remains unclear how the large-scale diffusion process can be facilitated and speeded up.

    This thesis addresses these issues by studying the case of renewable electricity (RE) innovations. After decades of technology development and improvements, RE innovations are now mature enough to be bought off-the-shelf by individuals and organizations. Yet, the pace of their large-scale diffusion is still too slow for countries to reach their RE generation targets and to limit global warming.

    Through qualitative and quantitative methods including 59 semi-structured interviews with adopters, project developers and experts in Sweden, France and Germany as well as a survey sent to the whole population of RE adopters in Sweden, an adopter perspective is taken in order to explore the adoption dynamics shaping large-scale diffusion of innovation. More specifically, the thesis identifies the drivers and challenges of adoption during large-scale diffusion and their impact on adoption decisions and strategies. The outcome of this work is presented in a compiling synthesis and six appended papers.

    Findings show that adopters are heterogeneous with regard to their characteristics, as well as to the drivers, challenges and strategies that affect their adoption processes. Depending on their perceptions, some adopters are more influenced by drivers and challenges than others and, as a consequence, adopters base their adoption decisions on different motives and follow different strategies to implement the innovation.

    Moreover, the results suggest that the dynamics that occur during the large-scale diffusion process does not only come from the actor level and the level of the system where the largescale diffusion takes place, but also from parallel systems, which are related to adopters and their contexts, including both the social networks and the industries they primarily belong. This makes adopters the central drivers of the innovation diffusion process and this distinguishes the dynamics of large-scale diffusion from the dynamics of innovation development and early diffusion, in which the innovation is the central component.

    Based on the findings about the adoption dynamics shaping large-scale diffusion, the thesis raises the need to consider large-scale diffusion as part of a new system, different from the innovation system and that acknowledges the specificities of this process. A tentative model accounting for the central role of adopters and for the interactions between adopters, the diffusion system and parallel systems is introduced.

    Finally, the implications of these findings for policy makers and managers are put forward. In particular, there is a need for policies acknowledging adopters’ heterogeneity as well as the new challenges of large-scale diffusion. Strategies developed by adopters can be a source of inspiration for policy-makers, who can for instance promote the use of intermediaries, of adopters’ task environment and networks, as well as the formation of coalitions among adopters.

    List of papers
    1. Who invests in renewable electricity production?: Empirical evidence and suggestions for further research
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who invests in renewable electricity production?: Empirical evidence and suggestions for further research
    2013 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 56, p. 568-581Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming energy systems to fulfill the needs of a low-carbon economy requires large investments in renewable electricity production (RES-E). Recent literature underlines the need to take a closer look at the composition of the RES-E investor group in order to understand the motives and investment processes of different types of investors. However, existing energy policies generally consider RES-E investments made on a regional or national level, and target investors who evaluate their RES-E investments according to least-cost high-profit criteria. We present empirical evidence to show that RES-E investments are made by a heterogeneous group of investors, that a variety of investors exist and that their formation varies among the different types of renewable sources. This has direct implications for our understanding of the investment process in RES-E and for the study of motives and driving forces of RES-E investors. We introduce a multi-dimensional framework for analyzing differences between categories of investors, which not only considers to the standard economic dimension which is predominant in the contemporary energy literature, but also considers the entrepreneurship, innovation-adoption and institutional dimensions. The framework emphasizes the influence of four main investor-related factors on the investment process which should be studied in future research: motives, background, resources and personal characteristics.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keywords
    Energy policy, Renewable electricity production, Tradable Green Certificate, Investor types, Investments, RES-E
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89587 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2013.01.038 (DOI)000317158400054 ()
    Projects
    NYEL - Nya investerare i förnybar elproduktion
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Note

    Highlights

    ► The RES-E investor group is heterogeneous. ► Investors with no traditional background within electricity production make the majority of RES-E investments in Sweden. ► Different types of RES-E investors invest in different renewables. ► A standard economic perspective is not sufficient to understand emerging RES-E investors. ► Motives, background, resources and personal characteristics of RES-E investors matter.

    Available from: 2013-02-27 Created: 2013-02-27 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Investments in renewable electricity production: The importance of policy revisited
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investments in renewable electricity production: The importance of policy revisited
    2016 (English)In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 88, p. 307-316Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Finding ways to encourage investments in renewable electricity production is crucial to reach a transition to a sustainable energy system. While in the energy policy literature, investments are usually explained by economic or regulatory policies, recent studies have suggested that some investors are boundedly rational and may respond differently to policies. In this paper, a framework is proposed to make a more complete analysis of the institutional demands influencing emerging investors in renewable electricity production. Based on 35 cases, both formal and informal demands were identified and their impact on emerging investors behavior was analyzed. Results show that besides formal institutional demands, emerging investors were influenced by their task environment and by various informal demands which originated in investors collective and internal contexts. However, different investors were affected by different institutional demands. They also responded in different ways to the same demands; while some perceived a specific demand as imposing, others regarded it as inducing. These findings provide a better understanding of the institutional forces affecting emerging investors in renewable electricity. The paper suggests new policies to handle the heterogeneity of investors and opens up for a new panorama of informal policy channels, where network effects can be utilized to trigger emerging investors decisions. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2016
    Keywords
    Renewable electricity production; Policies; Institutional demands; Investments; Heterogeneity; Sweden
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125141 (URN)10.1016/j.renene.2015.11.045 (DOI)000368563900029 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agencys AES programme [33685-1]

    Available from: 2016-02-15 Created: 2016-02-15 Last updated: 2017-11-30
    3. System- and actor-level challenges for diffusion of renewable electricity technologies: an international comparison
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>System- and actor-level challenges for diffusion of renewable electricity technologies: an international comparison
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 128, no SI, p. 105-115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract It has become increasingly clear that a transition to low-carbon energy systems, including a widespread diffusion of renewable energy technologies (RETs), is necessary for the world to handle the challenges of climate change. Previous innovation system oriented research has identified barriers to development and early-stage diffusion of RETs, but more research is needed to understand what kind of institutional frameworks and governance tools are needed to achieve effective large-scale diffusion at a stage when technologies are commercially available and new demand-side actors become involved. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to identify the main challenges faced by adopters of renewable electricity technologies under different institutional frameworks as well as their strategies for overcoming them. Results based on a qualitative multiple case study of 28 adopters in France and in Sweden show that adopters were faced with system-level challenges, such as market-structure obstacles and lack of institutional routines, as well as actor-level challenges, such as lack of resources or behavioral characteristics. The study also highlights the difference between blocking and restraining challenges and proposes that barriers are better thought of as challenges that can be overcome. It shows the importance for policy makers to consider not only system-level diffusion challenges, but also to understand actor-level contexts, including the behaviors of adopters who contribute to the transition. A further understanding how new entrants have managed to overcome existing challenges may provide new policy tools to facilitate the adoption for new adopters, for instance by encouraging the use of networks or by supplying specific information to potential adopters who lack it.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Diffusion, Challenges, Renewable energy technology, System-level, Actor-level, Policy
    National Category
    Environmental Management Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Environmental Biotechnology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128256 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.09.048 (DOI)000378568800009 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies.The funding support of the Swedish Energy Agency (Grant 33685-1 Project New investors in renewable electricity production) is gratefully acknowledged.

    Available from: 2016-05-24 Created: 2016-05-24 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
    4. The impact of systemic factors on the deployment of cooperative projects within renewable electricity production - An international comparison
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of systemic factors on the deployment of cooperative projects within renewable electricity production - An international comparison
    2016 (English)In: Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, Vol. 65, p. 478-488Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    While cooperative organizations created with the aim to initiate, develop, and operate renewable electricity (RE) projects have received attention for their roles in the transition to a sustainable energy system, the disparities in the number of RE cooperative projects among countries suggest that institutional contexts may have an impact on their deployment. In order to systematically identify the systemic factors that impact their deployment, we use an established framework, considering the strengths and weaknesses in market structure, infrastructures, institutions, interactions, and capabilities. We compare the deployment context in Germany, France, and Sweden in order to understand which systemic factors have an impact and how they affect RE cooperative projects. Based on a review of the literature and qualitative interviews with experts in RE cooperatives, it appears that, although RE cooperative projects share some obstacles with most new entrants of RE, they are particularly exposed to a lack of financial insfrastructure, a lack of knowledge and interactions, and problems related to a lack of regulatory frameworks facilitating their deployment. Results also show that systemic factors are complementary and dependent on each other; lowering one barrier lowers other barriers, and some obstacles strengthen other obstacles. Drawing on the comparison among Germany, France, and Sweden, we highlight some interesting practices that could be used in the coordination and alignment of systemic conditions for the deployment of RE cooperative projects.

    Keywords
    Systemic obstacles; Renewable electricity; Energy transition; RE cooperatives; Energy policy; Europe
    National Category
    Environmental Management Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Business Administration Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131014 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2016.07.026 (DOI)000383293800034 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 40642-1
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Energy Agency [40642-1]

    Available from: 2016-09-05 Created: 2016-09-05 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
    5. Intermediary-user collaboration during the innovation implementation process
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intermediary-user collaboration during the innovation implementation process
    2017 (English)In: Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, ISSN 0953-7325, E-ISSN 1465-3990, Vol. 29, no 7, p. 735-749Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The innovation process is characterized by obstacles faced both by innovation suppliers during development and by users during implementation. Although the literature has underscored the importance of collaboration, how this process occurs during implementation remains understudied. In this study, a cross-case analysis of implementation processes showed that intermediary-user collaborations are characterized by different ways of matching users' demands with intermediaries' services, different formal and informal governance mechanisms, and different implementation outcomes. We propose that these characteristics are due to the specificities of implementation and to the particularities of the intermediary-user relationship. Additionally, there are particularities of the intermediary-user collaborations that both facilitate implementation and create risks for its outcomes. We suggest that the link between the implementation outcome and the collaboration process affects user satisfaction, further investments in the technology, and learning. We conclude by drawing implications of the particularities of intermediary-user collaboration and implementation for theory, managers and further research.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2017
    Keywords
    Collaboration, intermediaries, users, implementation; innovation
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Economics and Business Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131016 (URN)10.1080/09537325.2016.1231299 (DOI)000403427400004 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 40642-1
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Energy Agency within the frame of the Strategic Energy System Research programme [40642-1]

    Available from: 2016-09-05 Created: 2016-09-05 Last updated: 2018-01-10
    6. Motives to adopt renewable energy technologies: evidence from Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motives to adopt renewable energy technologies: evidence from Sweden
    2017 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 106, p. 547-559Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion of renewable energy technologies (RETs) has to speed up for countries to reach their, often ambitious, targets for renewable energy generation. This requires a large number of actors to adopt RETs. Policies will most likely be needed to induce adoption, but there is limited knowledge about what motivates RET adoption. The purpose of this paper is to complement and expand the available evidence regarding motives to adopt RETs through a survey to over 600 non-traditional RET adopters in Sweden. The main finding of the study is that although environmental concerns, technology interest, access to a base resource and prospects to make money are important motives in general, RET adopters is a heterogeneous group with regard to motives: there are many different motives to adopt RETs, adopters differ in how large importance they attach to the same motive and each adopter can have several different motives to adopt. There are also differences in motives between RETs (especially wind power vs. solar power) and between adopter categories (especially IPPs vs. individuals and diversified companies). This implies that a variety of policy instruments might be needed to induce further adoption of a variety of RETs by a variety of adopter categories.

    Keywords
    Renewable energy, motive, adoption, diffusion, investment
    National Category
    Business Administration Energy Engineering Energy Systems Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131034 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2017.04.016 (DOI)000402343600052 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies:Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency [33685-1]

    Previous status of this publication was manuscript

    Available from: 2016-09-06 Created: 2016-09-06 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
  • 133.
    Milic, Vlatko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekelöw, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Evaluation of energy renovation strategies for 12 historic building types using LCC optimization2019In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 197, p. 156-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The life cycle cost (LCC) optimization is a vital method when performing building energy renovation. The present paper provides an evaluation of cost-optimal energy renovation strategies for historic buildings using LCC optimization software OPERA-MILP. The evaluation is performed based on preset targets depending on LCC (LCC optimum) and energy use (decrease by 50%), where the environmental performance is also addressed. Twelve building types, which are typical of the historic building stock in Visby, Sweden, are used as the study object. The results show possible decreases of 12-38% in LCC when targeting LCC optimum. When targeting a 50% decrease in energy use, the LCC is decreased in 21 of 26 cases compared to before energy renovation. Cost-efficient EEMs on the building envelope are characterized by low renovation costs and additional insulation of building components with poor thermal properties. Furthermore, the environmental performance from the energy renovations is highly dependent on the chosen energy system boundary. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 134.
    Milić, Vlatko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Energy Renovation of an Historic Town Using Life Cycle Cost Optimization: An Assessment of Primary Energy Use and CO2 Emissions2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Historic buildings, buildings built before 1945, represent a third of the total building stock in Sweden. While implementing energy efficiency measures (EEMs) on historic buildings it is important to consider heritage values. This thesis aims to investigate impacts on primary energy use and CO2 emissions while using life cycle cost (LCC) optimization on historic buildings in three studied cases: reference case with no implemented EEMs (case 1), lowest possible LCC (case 2) and a decrease by 50% in energy use (case 3). As a case study 920 historic buildings divided into twelve typical buildings (6 wood buildings, 1w-6w, and 6 stone buildings, 1s-6s) in the downtown area of Visby, Sweden, are used. Within the scope of the thesis, how to achieve the most profitable EEMs and how the profitability of energy renovation varies between the typical buildings in the studied cases will be analyzed also.

    An interdisciplinary method is applied in the thesis that considers both heritage values and energy savings. However, the keystone of the thesis is the use of the program Optimal Energy Retrofit Advisory-Mixed Integer Linear Programming (OPERA-MILP), which is a part of the interdisciplinary method. With the use of OPERA-MILP, the cost-optimal energy renovation strategy is obtained for a building. The program takes into account all energy-related investment costs, as well as the investment and operation costs for the heating system, during a set time period.

    The results show unique packages of EEMs for each of the twelve typical buildings with a potential to lower the total LCC by between 4-11% in the building stock and simultaneously decrease the energy use by more than 50%. The thesis also shows a possible decrease in primary energy use from 24%-57%. The CO2 emissions vary significantly depending on what assumptions are made related to electricity production and biomass use; the results show increases up to 224% in CO2 emissions but also decreases up to 85%. All typical buildings are economically viable to energy renovate. The LCC savings are between 1.4-11.8 SEK with a life cycle set to 50 years for every annually saved kWh, except for case 3 where cost is incurred for every annually saved kWh, 10.0-17.2 SEK, for a number of the typical buildings.

  • 135.
    Mirata, Murat
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gundberg, Andreas
    Lantmännen Agroetanol AB, Norrköping.
    Industrial symbiosis and biofuels industry: Business value and organisational factors within cases of ethanol and biogas production2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) involves collaborations among diverse, and predominantly local and re- gional, actors that create additional economic and environmental value through by-product ex- changes, utility and service sharing, and joint innovations. While the importance of IS for the de- velopment of biofuels is commonly recognised hypothetically, this study aims at advancing under- standing of the actual contribution provided in two real life examples–one focusing on grain-based ethanol production and the other focusing on biogas production in a co-digestion unit. Moreover, this study highlights the importance of organisational factors that help shape, and explain relevant organizational and inter-organizational behaviour relevant for emergence and development of suc- cessful symbiotic partnerships – here referred to as “social determinants”.

    Studied cases provide clear insights on multiple business and environmental benefits of IS. Reduc- ing input and operational costs, increasing material and energy productivity, creatively improving access to substrate with improved social acceptance, reducing exposure to market volatilities, and providing improved environmental performance–with market differentiation advantages–are among key impacts observed. Moreover, IS strategies are also found to enable creation of new mar- kets, assist the evolution towards more complex bio-refineries, and help with recognising biofuel industry as an integral part of sustainable resource use at a wider societal level.

    With regards to organisational determinants of synergistic partnerships, the findings of the study reinforce the importance of organisational proximity, alignment of strategic objectives and organi- sational cultures, intensity and quality of communication, inter-organisational knowledge exchange and learning, formulation of effective and efficient governance mechanisms, trust building, and level of support from different public governance bodies. While the organisational proximity pro- vided by common ownership and being part of the same organisational field assists synergy devel- opment in initial phases, as the parties accumulate relevant capabilities, they are able to move to- wards more complex and more rewarding partnerships. The findings also emphasise that with dedi- cated support from governance bodies, particularly at the local and regional levels, development of knowledge-, relational- and mobilisation capacities for IS can be enhanced, and these can catalyse accelerated development of synergistic relations benefiting both the biofuel industry and the wider society. 

  • 136.
    Molin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Increasing photovoltaic power supply self-consumption by on-site batteries for a large flat-roof industrial premise2013In: Proceedings of the 28th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (EU PVSEC), 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    PV electricity is booming world-wide and grid parity can be found in many countries. Nonetheless, animportant factor that still usually affects the economy of the PV project is the value of the power produced. Selfconsumptionis important in Sweden and on other markets where the bought electricity is higher valued than the soldelectricity. For many large roof tops, on-site batteries can be used as a measure for increasing self-consumption. Inthe present study, the logistics terminal owned by DB Schenker in Jönköping, Sweden, where a 20 kWp pilot plantwas installed in 2011, has been analyzed. The main focus is on the increasing self-consumption with batteries forelectric lifters. The results show that the self-consumption rate can increase 12 % (from 66 to 78 %) by using thepresent batteries for the electric lifters in the case-study, based on PV supply power (1 MWp) similar to the electricload capacity (1 MW). This enables 120 MWh per year more self-consumption out of annual 1000 MWh solar PVproduction. The conclusion for the Swedish case is that it is economically feasible to install battery inverters for onsitebatteries.

  • 137.
    Molin, Elin
    et al.
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden; PPAM Solkraft AB, Sweden.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Malardalen Univ, Sweden.
    Molin, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. PPAM Solkraft AB, Sweden.
    Waeckelgard, Ewa
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    Experimental Yield Study of Bifacial PV Modules in Nordic Conditions2018In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 1457-1463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on the first full-year field study in Sweden using bifacial photovoltaic modules. The two test sites are located on flat roofs with a low albedo of 0.05 in Linkoping (58 degrees N) and were studied fromDecember 2016 to November 2017. Site 1 has monofacial and bifacial modules with a 40 degrees tilt facing south, which is optimal for annual energy yield for monofacial modules at this location. Site 2 has monofacial 40 degrees tilt south-facing modules and bifacial vertical east-west orientated modules. The annual bifacial energy gain (BGE) was5% at site 1 and1% at site 2 for albedo 0.05. The difference in power temperature coefficients between bifacial and monofacial modules was estimated to influence BG(E) by + 0.4 and + 0.1 percentage points on site 1 and 2, respectively. A higher albedo could be investigated on a sunny day with fresh snow for the bifacial east-west modules. The specific yield was 7.57 kWh/kW(p), which was a yield increase of 48% compared with tar paper at similar solar conditions.

  • 138.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Systematic Literature Review of Methods for Improved Utilisation of the Non-Energy Benefits of Industrial Energy Efficiency2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 3241Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improvements in industrial energy efficiency demonstrated various additional effects beyond pure energy savings and energy cost savings. Observed on many levels, these additional effects, often denoted as non-energy benefits, constitute a diverse collection, for instance, effects related to firms production or improvements in the work environment and the external environment. Previous studies showed the potential of including quantified and monetised non-energy benefits in energy efficiency investments. However, there seems to be a lack of methodological overview, including all the steps from observation to monetisation and inclusion in investments. This study systematically reviews the academic literature on non-energy benefits relating to methods for observation, measuring, quantification, and monetisation of the benefits. The most commonly applied research design was a case study approach, in which data on non-energy benefits were collected by conducting interviews. Furthermore, the primary methods used to enable quantification and monetisation of observed non-energy benefits were based on classifications, indexes in relation to the energy savings, or frameworks. Calculation methods, databased tools, classification frameworks, and ranking were applied to evaluate the benefits potential in relation to energy efficiency investments. Based on a synthesis of the review findings, this article contributes a novel scheme for improved utilisation of the non-energy benefits of industrial energy efficiency.

  • 139.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Linking energy efficiency measures in industrial compressed air systems with non-energy benefits - A review2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 89, p. 72-87Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compressed air is widely used in supporting industrial manufacturing processes due to its cleanness, practicality and ease of use. However, the efficiency of compressed air systems is often very low. Typically, for compressed air-driven tools only 10-15% of the energy input is utilised as useful work. Despite these recognised inefficiencies, and even though energy efficiency measures for compressed air systems normally offer several opportunities for energy savings and energy cost savings, generally, less attention has been given to the energy use and energy costs incurred in compressed air systems. Industrial energy efficiency measures might also yield additional effects, beyond the energy savings, which are denoted as non-energy benefits. This study reviews the existing base of scientific knowledge on energy efficiency in compressed air systems combined with the perspective of non-energy benefits. Even though some measures were mentioned more frequent than others, the results revealed significant variation in which measures could be undertaken to improve energy efficiency in compressed air systems. However, few publications employ a comprehensive approach by examining the entire compressed air system. Furthermore, few publications have addressed the possible additional benefits to be gained from energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems. This study provides a compilation of the various energy efficiency measures reported in the reviewed scientific literature that can be undertaken in order to improve energy efficiency in compressed air systems. It also provides a comprehensive take on the measures, including a systems perspective, by categorising them in respect to where in the compressed air system they can be undertaken. This paper suggests that energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems, and related non-energy benefits, should be studied on a specific measure level to fully understand and acknowledge their effects on the energy use of a compressed air system and possible additional effects, i.e. non-energy benefits.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-03-19 14:14
  • 140.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Non-Energy Benefits of Industrial Energy Efficiency: Roles and Potentials2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate and environmental targets place significant requirements on energy efficiency and improved industrial energy efficiency is viewed as one of the most important means of reducing CO2 emissions and mitigating climate change. Even though efforts have been undertaken to improve energy efficiency there is still the potential for further improvements to be made. The potential is a result of that proposed energy efficiency improvement measures are not implemented, even if judged as cost-effective.

    Besides improving energy efficiency, the implementation of energy efficiency improvements in industrial firms can generate additional beneficial effects: so-called non-energy benefits. Examples of non-energy benefits are: improved productivity, lower operation and maintenance costs, a better work environment, decreased waste and fewer external effects, such as lower emissions. This thesis has investigated the roles and potential of non-energy benefits in decisions on energy efficiency improvements from three perspectives: energy efficiency measures, energy efficiency investments and energy management activities.

    The results of the studies presented in this thesis demonstrated that different types of non-energy benefits were observed in various areas within industrial firms due to the energy efficiency measures, energy efficiency investments and energy management activities they have implemented. Studying energy efficiency measures and investments revealed that implementing one single energy efficiency measure or investment can generate several non-energy benefits. The studies also uncovered a relationship between the non-energy benefits, i.e. chain reactions of primary, secondary and further effects, in which one benefit can generate other types of benefits. Consequently, some non-energy benefits were observed immediately after the implementation of energy efficiency measures, direct effects, while others were perceived later on, indirect effects. Furthermore, extending the perspective by including energy management activities led to the recognition of novel non-energy benefits.

    The results of this thesis demonstrated that non-energy benefits were seldom acknowledged in decisions on energy efficiency improvements. However, the non-energy benefits’ character, diversity and relations among them enabled opportunities for the non-energy benefits to be included in decisions on energy efficiency in various ways. For instance, based on the results of these studies, monetised non-energy benefits could be included in investment calculations contributing to cost-effectiveness, while certain effects that are difficult to measure and quantify could be utilised qualitatively in investment evaluations as extra arguments, or, if important to the firm, as objectives for making the investment. Hence, depending on their type, non-energy benefits seemed to have different roles in decisions on industrial energy efficiency improvements.

    This thesis contributed with a comprehensive approach by investigating energy efficiency improvements and the related non-energy benefits through three perspectives. By combining the results from each perspective, the view on industrial firms’ decisions on energy efficiency improvements was widened. In this thesis it is concluded that the potential of non-energy benefits in decision-making on industrial energy efficiency improvements lies in the utilisation of all types of non-energy benefits and to consider all the roles that non-energy benefits may have. By utilising knowledge on non-energy benefits along with their roles observed in relation to previous implementations of energy efficiency improvements, non-energy benefits can impact decisions on new implementations.

    List of papers
    1. Including non-energy benefits in investment calculations in industry - empirical findings from Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Including non-energy benefits in investment calculations in industry - empirical findings from Sweden
    2014 (English)In: ECEEE Industrial Summer Study, 2014: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, 2014, p. 711-719Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The threat of increased global warming accentuates the need for reducing anthropogenic emissions of GHG (Green House Gases). Improved energy efficiency in industry represents one of the most important means of reducing this threat. Furthermore, improved energy efficiency and cutting energy costs may be key factors for individual enterprises’ long term survival and success because of increased environmental legislation and rise of energy prices. Despite the fact that extensive potentials for improved energy efficiency exists in industry, a large part remains unexploited explained by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The research on barriers is well-developed and regards the non-investment of cost-effective technical measures that improve energy efficiency. In these studies, the actual investment decision is the analysing variable. However, if one extends the system boundary, there are indications that not only the actual reduction of energy cost but also other potential benefits should be taken into account in energy-efficiency investments. Including such factors, named non-energy benefits (NEBs), in the investment calculation mean the investment may have a considerably shorter pay-back period. The aim of this paper is to study if NEBs are considered and measured in energy-efficiency related investments in Swedish industry, and to study factors inhibiting the inclusion of NEBs in investment calculations. Results of this study indicate that NEBs seems to exist in the Swedish industrial companies participating in this study, but only few of the mentioned NEBs were included in investment calculations, explained by among other factors, the hidden cost of monetizing the NEB.

    Series
    Industrial Summer Study proceedings, ISSN 2001-7979, E-ISSN 2001-7987 ; 2014
    Keywords
    non-energy benefits (NEBs), investment decision-making, barriers, energy efficiency investments, multiple-energy benefits
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110580 (URN)9789198048247 (ISBN)9789198048254 (ISBN)
    Conference
    ECEEE 2014, Industrial Summer Study: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, June 2-5, 2014, Arnhem, The Netherlands
    Projects
    Välgrundade energirelaterade investeringsbeslut - hur, och på vilka grunder kan energi bli en strategisk fråga för svensk industri
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Note

    Finansierat av Energimyndigheten och Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Linköpings universitet. 

    Available from: 2014-09-15 Created: 2014-09-15 Last updated: 2019-04-11Bibliographically approved
    2. How do firms consider non-energy benefits? Empirical findings on energy-efficiency investments in Swedish industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do firms consider non-energy benefits? Empirical findings on energy-efficiency investments in Swedish industry
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 113, p. 472-482Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When industrial firms invest in energy efficiency, the effect may go beyond energy cost savings and produce additional non-energy benefits as well. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding experiences in non-energy benefits and the extent to which these are acknowledged by industry. This study attempts to explore firms perspectives on non-energy benefits of industrial energy-efficiency investments and if and how non-energy benefits are considered in the investment process. Moreover, this study also explores investment motives and critical aspects of adopting energy-efficiency investments. Based on a questionnaire and interviews with representatives of Swedish industrial firms, the results indicate that energy efficiency seems to be an important issue for the firms, but profitability and payoff appear to be the most important factors for adopting an investment, implying that it is often difficult to meet the payoff requirements with energy cost savings alone. In the meantime, various non-energy benefits are observed, but there seems to be a lack of knowledge of how these should be quantified and monetised. To facilitate such an assessment of non-energy benefits and to include them in the investment analysis, a measurement framework is provided. It is concluded that including non-energy benefits in the investment analysis can contribute to a framing of energy-efficiency investments that can meet the firms requirements for profitability assessment, which can further enhance opportunities for energy-efficiency investments in industry. Thus, the study contributes with new insights into the energy-efficiency investment process and the extent to which non-energy benefits are considered, along with the methods for measuring them.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2016
    Keywords
    Energy efficiency; Investments; Non-energy benefits; Explorative study; Investment decisions
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126262 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.11.070 (DOI)000370993200046 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency; Department of Management and Engineering at Linkoping University

    Available from: 2016-03-21 Created: 2016-03-21 Last updated: 2019-04-11
    3. Linking energy efficiency measures in industrial compressed air systems with non-energy benefits - A review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linking energy efficiency measures in industrial compressed air systems with non-energy benefits - A review
    2018 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 89, p. 72-87Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Compressed air is widely used in supporting industrial manufacturing processes due to its cleanness, practicality and ease of use. However, the efficiency of compressed air systems is often very low. Typically, for compressed air-driven tools only 10-15% of the energy input is utilised as useful work. Despite these recognised inefficiencies, and even though energy efficiency measures for compressed air systems normally offer several opportunities for energy savings and energy cost savings, generally, less attention has been given to the energy use and energy costs incurred in compressed air systems. Industrial energy efficiency measures might also yield additional effects, beyond the energy savings, which are denoted as non-energy benefits. This study reviews the existing base of scientific knowledge on energy efficiency in compressed air systems combined with the perspective of non-energy benefits. Even though some measures were mentioned more frequent than others, the results revealed significant variation in which measures could be undertaken to improve energy efficiency in compressed air systems. However, few publications employ a comprehensive approach by examining the entire compressed air system. Furthermore, few publications have addressed the possible additional benefits to be gained from energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems. This study provides a compilation of the various energy efficiency measures reported in the reviewed scientific literature that can be undertaken in order to improve energy efficiency in compressed air systems. It also provides a comprehensive take on the measures, including a systems perspective, by categorising them in respect to where in the compressed air system they can be undertaken. This paper suggests that energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems, and related non-energy benefits, should be studied on a specific measure level to fully understand and acknowledge their effects on the energy use of a compressed air system and possible additional effects, i.e. non-energy benefits.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
    Keywords
    Energy efficiency; Compressed air systems; Energy efficiency measures; Non-energy benefits; Industry; Systematic literature review
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147901 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2018.02.018 (DOI)000430853300008 ()
    Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2019-04-11
    4. Implementation of energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems: barriers, drivers and non-energy benefits
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementation of energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems: barriers, drivers and non-energy benefits
    2018 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1281-1302Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Increased global competition and resource scarcity drives industrial companies to cut costs. Energy can be a significant component of such cuts, particularly for energy-intensive companies. Improving energy efficiency in industry is complex, as it pertains to various energy-using processes that are heavily intertwined. One such process is the compressed air system (CAS), which is used in most industrial companies worldwide. Since energy efficiency improvement measures for various types of energy-using processes differ, technology-specific measures might encounter different barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency. The same applies to the non-energy benefits (NEBs) related to energy efficiency improvement measures; since measures vary between various energy-using processes, the perceived NEBs might be different as well. The aim of this paper is to study the barriers to, drivers for and NEBs of CAS energy efficiency improvement measures from the perspectives of three actors. Carried out as an interview study combined with a questionnaire, the paper merges the perspectives of users, audit experts and suppliers of CASs. The results showed that the major barriers are related to the investment, or are of an organisational character, and that organisational and economic factors seemed to be important for making positive decisions on energy efficiency investments and measures in CASs. Major NEBs for CASs include productivity gains and the avoidance of capital expenditures. The results of this study also address the importance of having a comprehensive approach to recognise additional effects of energy efficiency improvements in CASs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SPRINGER, 2018
    Keywords
    Compressed air systems; Industrial energy efficiency; Barriers; Drivers; Energy efficiency measures; Non-energy benefits
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148368 (URN)10.1007/s12053-018-9647-3 (DOI)000432748200014 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European Commission within the European Regional Development Fund; Linkoping University

    Available from: 2018-06-15 Created: 2018-06-15 Last updated: 2019-04-11
    5. Energy management in Swedish pulp and paper industry: benchmarking and non-energy benefits
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy management in Swedish pulp and paper industry: benchmarking and non-energy benefits
    2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing industry has a large energy efficiency potential, yet to be utilized, known as the energy efficiency gap. This gap exists due to barriers that hinder industrial companies from making energy efficiency investments. Research also shows that the gap is even larger if energy management practices are included as well. One type of energy management practice for industrial companies is energy performance benchmarking, which deals with several organisational applications. For example, energy performance benchmarking can be used to compare a company’s degree of energy efficiency to its peers. A benchmarking approach can also be adopted on different levels of aggregation, including sector, site, and process level. Furthermore, continuous work with energy management also entails additional benefits beyond the energy effects, known as non-energy benefits. In an energy management context, these benefits might for instance be organisational or informational in nature. The aim of this paper is to study these aspects of energy management – benchmarking and non-energy benefits – within the Swedish pulp and paper industry.

    These aspects of energy management have not, to the authors’ knowledge, been extensively investigated. The adopted method for data collection is a mixed method approach, where a questionnaire was sent to all operating pulp and paper mills in Sweden, and semi-structured interviews were carried out at six mills. The findings in this study show that the most common benchmarking method in the Swedish pulp and paper mills is external benchmarking within a company group. The benchmarking method with the highest perceived value for a mill’s energy management, however, is historical benchmarking of energy use. Furthermore, the pulp and paper mills have perceived a number of non-energy benefits from energy management practices, where top management’s interest in energy efficiency issues increasing more than expected was perceived as the most substantial.

    Keywords
    energy management, non-energy benefits (NEBs), benchmarking, pulp and paper industry, energy performance benchmarking
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156296 (URN)
    Conference
    ECEEE Industrial Summer Study – Leading the low-carbon transition, Berlin, June 11-13
    Available from: 2019-04-11 Created: 2019-04-11 Last updated: 2019-04-18Bibliographically approved
    6. A Systematic Literature Review of Methods for Improved Utilisation of the Non-Energy Benefits of Industrial Energy Efficiency
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Systematic Literature Review of Methods for Improved Utilisation of the Non-Energy Benefits of Industrial Energy Efficiency
    2018 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 3241Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Improvements in industrial energy efficiency demonstrated various additional effects beyond pure energy savings and energy cost savings. Observed on many levels, these additional effects, often denoted as non-energy benefits, constitute a diverse collection, for instance, effects related to firms production or improvements in the work environment and the external environment. Previous studies showed the potential of including quantified and monetised non-energy benefits in energy efficiency investments. However, there seems to be a lack of methodological overview, including all the steps from observation to monetisation and inclusion in investments. This study systematically reviews the academic literature on non-energy benefits relating to methods for observation, measuring, quantification, and monetisation of the benefits. The most commonly applied research design was a case study approach, in which data on non-energy benefits were collected by conducting interviews. Furthermore, the primary methods used to enable quantification and monetisation of observed non-energy benefits were based on classifications, indexes in relation to the energy savings, or frameworks. Calculation methods, databased tools, classification frameworks, and ranking were applied to evaluate the benefits potential in relation to energy efficiency investments. Based on a synthesis of the review findings, this article contributes a novel scheme for improved utilisation of the non-energy benefits of industrial energy efficiency.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2018
    Keywords
    energy efficiency; energy efficiency measures; non-energy benefits; industry; systematic literature review; investment decisions
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154122 (URN)10.3390/en11123241 (DOI)000455358300002 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European Commission within the European Regional Development Fund; Linkoping University [20201478]

    Available from: 2019-01-29 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2019-04-11
  • 141.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Non-Energy Benefits of Industrial Energy Efficiency: Investments and Measures2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved industrial energy efficiency is viewed as an important means in the reduction of CO2 emissions and climate change mitigation. Various energy efficiency measures for improving energy efficiency exists, but even evaluated as cost-effective, there seems to be a difference between the energy efficiency measures that theoretically could be undertaken and which measures that actually are realised. On the other hand, industrial energy efficiency measures might yield extra effects, denoted as non-energy benefits, beyond the actual energy savings or energy cost savings.

    Based on interviews and a questionnaire, results showed that the Swedish industrial firms studied had observed various non-energy benefits. However, few of the non-energy benefits observed were translated into monetary values and included in investment calculations. Results indicated that this non-inclusion could be explained by lack on information on how to measure and monetise the benefits, but even if not translated into monetary values, some of the non-energy benefits were sometimes used qualitatively in investment decisions. The utilisation of the benefits seemed to depend on the type and the level of quantifiability among the perceived benefits.

    This thesis has also explored energy efficiency measures and non-energy benefits for a specific industrial energy-using process – compressed air. A literature review on energy efficiency in relation to compressed air systems revealed a large variation in which measures that could be undertaken to improve energy efficiency. However, few publications applied a comprehensive perspective including the entire compressed air system. Few non-energy benefits of specific energy efficiency measures for compressed air systems were identified, but the study provided insights into how non-energy benefits should be studied. This thesis suggests that energy efficiency and non-energy benefits in compressed air systems should be studied on specific measure level to enable the observation of their effects. However, the studies also addressed the importance of having a systems perspective; the whole system should be regarded to understand the effects of energy efficiency measures and related non-energy benefits.

    List of papers
    1. Including non-energy benefits in investment calculations in industry - empirical findings from Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Including non-energy benefits in investment calculations in industry - empirical findings from Sweden
    2014 (English)In: ECEEE Industrial Summer Study, 2014: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, 2014, p. 711-719Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The threat of increased global warming accentuates the need for reducing anthropogenic emissions of GHG (Green House Gases). Improved energy efficiency in industry represents one of the most important means of reducing this threat. Furthermore, improved energy efficiency and cutting energy costs may be key factors for individual enterprises’ long term survival and success because of increased environmental legislation and rise of energy prices. Despite the fact that extensive potentials for improved energy efficiency exists in industry, a large part remains unexploited explained by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The research on barriers is well-developed and regards the non-investment of cost-effective technical measures that improve energy efficiency. In these studies, the actual investment decision is the analysing variable. However, if one extends the system boundary, there are indications that not only the actual reduction of energy cost but also other potential benefits should be taken into account in energy-efficiency investments. Including such factors, named non-energy benefits (NEBs), in the investment calculation mean the investment may have a considerably shorter pay-back period. The aim of this paper is to study if NEBs are considered and measured in energy-efficiency related investments in Swedish industry, and to study factors inhibiting the inclusion of NEBs in investment calculations. Results of this study indicate that NEBs seems to exist in the Swedish industrial companies participating in this study, but only few of the mentioned NEBs were included in investment calculations, explained by among other factors, the hidden cost of monetizing the NEB.

    Series
    Industrial Summer Study proceedings, ISSN 2001-7979, E-ISSN 2001-7987 ; 2014
    Keywords
    non-energy benefits (NEBs), investment decision-making, barriers, energy efficiency investments, multiple-energy benefits
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110580 (URN)9789198048247 (ISBN)9789198048254 (ISBN)
    Conference
    ECEEE 2014, Industrial Summer Study: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, June 2-5, 2014, Arnhem, The Netherlands
    Projects
    Välgrundade energirelaterade investeringsbeslut - hur, och på vilka grunder kan energi bli en strategisk fråga för svensk industri
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Note

    Finansierat av Energimyndigheten och Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Linköpings universitet. 

    Available from: 2014-09-15 Created: 2014-09-15 Last updated: 2019-04-11Bibliographically approved
    2. How do firms consider non-energy benefits? Empirical findings on energy-efficiency investments in Swedish industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do firms consider non-energy benefits? Empirical findings on energy-efficiency investments in Swedish industry
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 113, p. 472-482Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When industrial firms invest in energy efficiency, the effect may go beyond energy cost savings and produce additional non-energy benefits as well. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding experiences in non-energy benefits and the extent to which these are acknowledged by industry. This study attempts to explore firms perspectives on non-energy benefits of industrial energy-efficiency investments and if and how non-energy benefits are considered in the investment process. Moreover, this study also explores investment motives and critical aspects of adopting energy-efficiency investments. Based on a questionnaire and interviews with representatives of Swedish industrial firms, the results indicate that energy efficiency seems to be an important issue for the firms, but profitability and payoff appear to be the most important factors for adopting an investment, implying that it is often difficult to meet the payoff requirements with energy cost savings alone. In the meantime, various non-energy benefits are observed, but there seems to be a lack of knowledge of how these should be quantified and monetised. To facilitate such an assessment of non-energy benefits and to include them in the investment analysis, a measurement framework is provided. It is concluded that including non-energy benefits in the investment analysis can contribute to a framing of energy-efficiency investments that can meet the firms requirements for profitability assessment, which can further enhance opportunities for energy-efficiency investments in industry. Thus, the study contributes with new insights into the energy-efficiency investment process and the extent to which non-energy benefits are considered, along with the methods for measuring them.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2016
    Keywords
    Energy efficiency; Investments; Non-energy benefits; Explorative study; Investment decisions
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126262 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.11.070 (DOI)000370993200046 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency; Department of Management and Engineering at Linkoping University

    Available from: 2016-03-21 Created: 2016-03-21 Last updated: 2019-04-11
  • 142.
    Nehler, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Elias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy management in Swedish pulp and paper industry: benchmarking and non-energy benefits2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing industry has a large energy efficiency potential, yet to be utilized, known as the energy efficiency gap. This gap exists due to barriers that hinder industrial companies from making energy efficiency investments. Research also shows that the gap is even larger if energy management practices are included as well. One type of energy management practice for industrial companies is energy performance benchmarking, which deals with several organisational applications. For example, energy performance benchmarking can be used to compare a company’s degree of energy efficiency to its peers. A benchmarking approach can also be adopted on different levels of aggregation, including sector, site, and process level. Furthermore, continuous work with energy management also entails additional benefits beyond the energy effects, known as non-energy benefits. In an energy management context, these benefits might for instance be organisational or informational in nature. The aim of this paper is to study these aspects of energy management – benchmarking and non-energy benefits – within the Swedish pulp and paper industry.

    These aspects of energy management have not, to the authors’ knowledge, been extensively investigated. The adopted method for data collection is a mixed method approach, where a questionnaire was sent to all operating pulp and paper mills in Sweden, and semi-structured interviews were carried out at six mills. The findings in this study show that the most common benchmarking method in the Swedish pulp and paper mills is external benchmarking within a company group. The benchmarking method with the highest perceived value for a mill’s energy management, however, is historical benchmarking of energy use. Furthermore, the pulp and paper mills have perceived a number of non-energy benefits from energy management practices, where top management’s interest in energy efficiency issues increasing more than expected was perceived as the most substantial.

  • 143.
    Nehler, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Parra, Ricardo
    Consultora Crowsnest, Chile.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Implementation of energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems: barriers, drivers and non-energy benefits2018In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1281-1302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased global competition and resource scarcity drives industrial companies to cut costs. Energy can be a significant component of such cuts, particularly for energy-intensive companies. Improving energy efficiency in industry is complex, as it pertains to various energy-using processes that are heavily intertwined. One such process is the compressed air system (CAS), which is used in most industrial companies worldwide. Since energy efficiency improvement measures for various types of energy-using processes differ, technology-specific measures might encounter different barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency. The same applies to the non-energy benefits (NEBs) related to energy efficiency improvement measures; since measures vary between various energy-using processes, the perceived NEBs might be different as well. The aim of this paper is to study the barriers to, drivers for and NEBs of CAS energy efficiency improvement measures from the perspectives of three actors. Carried out as an interview study combined with a questionnaire, the paper merges the perspectives of users, audit experts and suppliers of CASs. The results showed that the major barriers are related to the investment, or are of an organisational character, and that organisational and economic factors seemed to be important for making positive decisions on energy efficiency investments and measures in CASs. Major NEBs for CASs include productivity gains and the avoidance of capital expenditures. The results of this study also address the importance of having a comprehensive approach to recognise additional effects of energy efficiency improvements in CASs.

  • 144.
    Nehler, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlgren, Maja
    Energimyndigheten, Sweden.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Including non-energy benefits in investment calculations in industry - empirical findings from Sweden2014In: ECEEE Industrial Summer Study, 2014: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, 2014, p. 711-719Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The threat of increased global warming accentuates the need for reducing anthropogenic emissions of GHG (Green House Gases). Improved energy efficiency in industry represents one of the most important means of reducing this threat. Furthermore, improved energy efficiency and cutting energy costs may be key factors for individual enterprises’ long term survival and success because of increased environmental legislation and rise of energy prices. Despite the fact that extensive potentials for improved energy efficiency exists in industry, a large part remains unexploited explained by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The research on barriers is well-developed and regards the non-investment of cost-effective technical measures that improve energy efficiency. In these studies, the actual investment decision is the analysing variable. However, if one extends the system boundary, there are indications that not only the actual reduction of energy cost but also other potential benefits should be taken into account in energy-efficiency investments. Including such factors, named non-energy benefits (NEBs), in the investment calculation mean the investment may have a considerably shorter pay-back period. The aim of this paper is to study if NEBs are considered and measured in energy-efficiency related investments in Swedish industry, and to study factors inhibiting the inclusion of NEBs in investment calculations. Results of this study indicate that NEBs seems to exist in the Swedish industrial companies participating in this study, but only few of the mentioned NEBs were included in investment calculations, explained by among other factors, the hidden cost of monetizing the NEB.

  • 145.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Orsholm, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Skräp är bara skräp om du skräpar ned: En fallstudie om att skapa ett användarvänligt avfallssystem och att kommunicera avfallsminimering och återvinning i Ebbepark, Linköping2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development is a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. However, today’s use of resources is higher than what earth can sustain and therefore the linear economy, where resources become waste right after usage, needs to evolve into a more circular one, an economy that uses and reuses resources in a more efficient way. To enable a development into a more circular economy, it’s important to design products that can be repaired, reused and recycled. Both the steps before and after waste arise are of importance. In upstream management the focus is on design and manufacturing of products and in downstream management the focus is on waste management methods.

    This master thesis studies the future urban district, Ebbepark, which is under development in Linköping, Sweden. The thesis studies the role of communication, design and visualization to minimize the environmental impact from waste management in an urban area with a mix of housing and offices. It is studied how the waste system can be designed to facilitate for its users to make the right decisions and how to reach out with messages and information about waste and consumption. The focus of the work lies on finding strategies to develop the waste management according to the waste hierarchy introduced by the European Union. A literature review was conducted laying the ground for the study. Interviews were held with people with knowledge and experience of waste management. A web survey was done with office workers in Linköping to find out their experiences regarding the waste system and consumption in the office environment and at home. Psychology and behavioral economics were studied to ascertain how human behavior can be altered.

    Important factors when it comes to waste are ease and information. To be able to leave your waste close to home is important and many would appreciate if recycling bins were included in their homes, which the housing enterprises should consider. In a densified district, lack of space is extra obvious and space for waste is seldom prioritized. According to Swedish law, commercial and domestic waste need to be treated separately, which means that a lot of space is required in Ebbepark to handle waste from households and offices. A great part of the commercial waste can however be thrown away at the same places as the domestic waste in Ebbepark. With services collecting office paper, a proposed collaboration regarding packaging material and access to the pneumatic waste system, only 1-4 % of the office waste remains and must be treated separately.

    The social impact people feel can be used in the waste system to improve human behavior. Collection sites that for example are light and open and located at places where people move, contribute to the social norm and increase the feeling of safety. The system information should be simple and straightforward and pictures and colour coordination can facilitate. At the same time people must have the right conditions to make sustainable choices. Strategies should be built on peoples experienced obstacles and advantages. Information and communication should be designed after their conditions and nudge them in the right direction. The housing enterprises have a responsibility to make sure there is a range of services that prevent waste and reuse products. Plastic is a material with great environmental impact in downstream management, partly because of the release of fossil carbon dioxide when incinerated, why actions to reduce the use of plastic material and increase the recycling is needed. Future studies should investigate how larger lifestyle changes can be achieved and how the municipal waste monopoly and the producer responsibility should be designed in the future to favor circular solutions.

  • 146.
    Nilsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Samuelsson, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energitjänst för efterfrågeflexibilitet: Som leder till en effektivare elnätsanvändning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The load in the electricity grid fluctuates during the day and between seasons. As a distribution system operator (DSO), an uneven load profile leads to increased transmission losses and unnecessary high costs for subscribing power from the feeding grid. Efficiency measures and a more even power consumption by the end-users, could therefore lead to that a DSO can achieve lower costs for power-subscription from the feeding grid and transmission losses, but also implies a lowered cap of total revenues. As a step towards implementing the EU energy efficiency directive, the Energy Markets Inspectorate (Ei) have developed two economic incentives which enables for DSOs to profit economically from cost reductions related to transmission losses and feeding grid.

    For this reason the electricity suppliers Storuman Energi and Affärsverken Energi sees a possibility to offer a load shift-service to low voltage DSOs using the flexibility in the demand of electrically heated households. The aim of this study is therefore to demonstrate how a service such as this one can be valued in the Swedish electricity market. The task at hand was examined by conducting a survey of the values of demand-side flexibility, as well as an investigation of how the costs for the end-user and incentives for the DSO are affected by flexibility.

    A review of the values associated with demand-side flexibility has been conducted for electricity suppliers, DSOs and end-users. With regard to the DSOs, the main value is connected to the new economic incentives from Ei, whose potential depends on the properties of the grid and the tariff for the feeding grid. Other values related to operation and delivery reliability can also be achieved. The main values for electricity suppliers are a lowered risk for unbalance following as a consequence of better knowledge of their end-users’ usage, and also the possibility to profit by offering a load shift-service.

    The values for end-users have been divided between cost reductions and system benefits, both of which are regarded to compensate the remuneration end-users require to offer their flexibility. By adapting consumption after the spot market price or the grid tariff, lowered costs for electricity can be achieved. The end-users can also appreciate system-benefits such as the facilitation for intermittent renewable electricity production, electric vehicles and reducing the societal dependency on expensive fossil-fuelled power generation as positive. They do on the other hand regard a possible depreciation of the heat comfort, data confidentiality and reduced control over one’s own electricity consumption as negative. If the service can be bundled with equipment which yields other values, such as an increased heat comfort, the end-users’ demand for remuneration can decrease.

    To explore what effects demand-side flexibility can have on the electricity costs of end-users and the economic incentives for DSOs, a case study is conducted in the electricity distribution grid of Karlskrona. Through review of previous studies, a potential for demand reductions was established and used as input in the case study. It can be determined that the incentive for a more even load profile constitutes a substantially greater share of the total incentives, compared to the incentive for reduced distribution losses. It is further concluded that a fairly large part of the incentives can be achieved by controlling the end-users on only a few occasions each year. It is also established that the cost reductions for end-users can match their demand for remuneration. A future scenario with more electrical vehicles connected to the grid for charging, greatly increases the possible benefits for both the DSO and end-users.

    Through the investigation of different possible designs for the energy service, it is recommended that the demand side management of end-users is placed in the hands of an electricity supplier responsible for balancing the consumption of the end-users. A procurement-procedure is deemed problematicfollowing the risk for unproportional use of resources and time. As a result of this, the energy service should not be traded directly between DSOs and electricity suppliers. Instead, it is proposed that the DSO develops a time-differentiated tariff, after which the electricity supplier can adapt the end-users’ consumption.

    Since the results indicate that controlling the end-users consumption on just a few occasions is sufficient to yield large benefits for the DSO, a grid-tariff with critical peak pricing is recommended. This tariff employs a high price for shorter periods of time when the grid load is peaking and a rebated price during all other occasions. This opens up for controlling the use during the other days according to the spot market price. As the electricity supplier grants the end-user lowered costs for both the electricity grid and trading, they have the opportunity to apply a charge for the service. Both the DSO, end-user and electricity supplier is presumed to improve their profitability with this design.

    When implementing the energy service, a couple of aspects are important to shed light on. The grid-tariff of the end-user and the tariff for the feeding grid needs to be synchronized with each other, to stimulate the same type of load shifts. It should also be noted that the possible gain from the incentives will decrease as demand side management-measures is taken since the reference-level from which a comparison is made improves. Another interesting aspect is that the regulation stipulates that only a certain percentage of the cost reductions will result in incentives, thus limiting the amount of profitable measures. Since the costs and revenues between the actors in the transmission system (low and medium voltage DSOs and the TSO) are interdependent, the revenue loss for the medium voltage DSO resulting from the cost reduction for the low voltage DSO, can result in a recoil effect. Lastly, a widespread introduction of control equipment to end-users can facilitate other uses for the demand-side flexibility.

  • 147.
    Nordenstam, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Corporate and city GHG inventories: Impact on global CO2 emissionswhen considering electricity and CHP-based district heating2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One initiative to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions involves developing standards for GHG inventories. Companies and cities (regions) can use GHG inventories to compile and report their GHG emissions. Standards for corporate and city GHG inventories often claim that GHG inventories can be used for identifying emissions opportunities, building reduction strategies and setting, measuring and reporting emissions targets. Attributional emissions factors are generally used in corporate and city GHG inventories. For purchased electricity, heat and steam, this means using average emission factors for regional or national production of each energy carrier. Also contractual emissions factors can be used. Changes in emissions from affected production elsewhere are not included. For purchased electricity and district heating (DH), a GHG inventory can be improved by lowered purchases or by purchasing a different energy carrier.

    Furthermore, combined heat and power (CHP) technology can help reduce global GHG emissions in the supply and conversion of energy, as CHP production is more efficient than conventional separate production of electricity and heat. In CHP production, excess heat from electricity production is utilised for heating buildings, hot water, industry processes etc., either directly or through DH systems.

    This thesis analyses how emissions reduction measures based on corporate or city GHG inventories, carried out using GHG Protocol standards, affect global CO2 emissions when electricity or CHP-based DH is affected. The incentive of a GHG inventory to a company purchasing electricity and DH, and to a city regarding purchases and production of electricity and DH in its region, is analysed. This is done for GHG inventories conducted in a nation where electricity produced within the nation is regarded as CO2-lean (Sweden) and in a nation where it is more CO2-rich (Germany). The indirect incentive to the DH company to change its production, in order to improve the GHG inventory of its customers and of the city where the DH system is located, is also analysed. Consequential analyses are used to assess how global CO2 emissions are affected by changes in purchases or production of electricity and DH that are incentivised by the GHG inventories studied. These consequential analyses include changes in emissions from affected electricity production elsewhere.

    The results show that the strength of incentive to reduce purchase of electricity or CHP-based DH by a company or in a city can differ between GHG inventories and consequential analysis. This is most clear when electricity produced within the nation is regarded as CO2-lean (Sweden) while affected electricity production elsewhere is CO2-rich. For replacing purchases of CHP-based DH with electricity, or vice versa, the incentive in a GHG inventory can be the reverse of that in a consequential analysis. Moreover, the incentive to lower the use of electricity is lost when contractual emissions factors with zero emissions, such as renewable electricity guarantees of origin (RE-GOs), are used. In addition, purchase of electricity RE-GOs, which have a large surplus and no requirement of additionality, is less likely to cause a corresponding increase in production of renewable electricity.

    Furthermore, when the highest emission reduction per Euro invested is sought (e.g. when investment resources are limited), the investment ranking of a heat-only boiler and a CHP plant can differ depending on whether the focus is on improving a city GHG inventory or lowering global CO2 emissions. Moreover, if the DH company improves (reduces) the average emissions factor for DH, it improves the GHG inventory of its customers and of the city where they are located. In a DH system based on bio-fuelled CHP production, the average emissions factor for DH improves when CHP electricity production is lowered to the extent that production of heat at the oil-fuelled heat-only boiler (used for peak heat production) is minimised. However, according to consequential analysis, this would lead to an increase in global CO2 emissions.

    Based on the results of this thesis, it is concluded that measures which include changes in purchases or production of electricity or CHP-based DH can increase global CO2 emissions when based on how corporate or city GHG inventories in general value CO2 emissions of electricity and DH. It is therefore unfortunate that GHG Protocol standards for corporate and city GHG inventories advocate basing emissions reduction decisions on GHG inventories. There is nonetheless an obvious risk of reported and communicated GHG inventories being used as a basis for emissions reductions decisions. If the aim is actual reduction of global CO2 emissions, average or purchased emissions factors should not be used for purchased electricity and CHP-based DH when assessing, reporting or communicating the impact of companies and cities (regions) on CO2 emissions. Instead, a consequential approach should be used for climate evaluation of purchased electricity and DH.

    List of papers
    1. Energy conservation measures in buildings heated by district heating - A local energy system perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy conservation measures in buildings heated by district heating - A local energy system perspective
    2010 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 3194-3203Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The extensive energy use in the European building sector creates opportunities for implementing energy conservation measures (ECMs) in residential buildings. If ECM are implemented in buildings that are connected to a district heating (DH) system, the operation of DH plants may be affected, which in turn may change both revenue and electricity production in cogeneration plants. In this study a local energy system, containing a DH supplier and its customer, has been analysed when implementing three ECMs: heat load control, attic insulation and electricity savings. This study is unique since it analyses economic and CO2 impacts of the ECMs in both a user and a supplier perspective in combination with a deregulated European electricity market. Results show that for the local energy system electricity savings should be prioritised over a reduction in DH use, both from an economic and a global CO2 perspective. For the DH supplier attic insulation demonstrates unprofitable results, even though this measure affects the expensive peak load boilers most. Heat load control is however financially beneficial for both the DH supplier and the residences. Furthermore, the relation between the fixed and variable DH costs is highlighted as a key factor for the profitability of the ECMs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam., 2010
    Keywords
    Energy conservation measures; District heating; Combined heat and power; Optimisation; Residential buildings
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-58169 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2010.04.001 (DOI)000280017300008 ()
    Note
    Original Publication: Kristina Difs, Marcus Bennstam, Louise Trygg and Lena Nordenstam, Energy conservation measures in buildings heated by district heating - A local energy system perspective, 2010, Energy, (35), 8, 3194-3203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2010.04.001 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2010-08-11 Created: 2010-08-09 Last updated: 2018-11-05
    2. Considering investment resources when assessing potential CO2 reductions of CHP - a case study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Considering investment resources when assessing potential CO2 reductions of CHP - a case study
    2017 (English)In: 15TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING (DHC15-2016), ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2017, Vol. 116, p. 273-284Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combined heat and power (CHP) can increase electricity production efficiency and decrease global CO2 emissions. Studies have shown large unrealised economic CHP investment potentials. An assessment of profitable CO2 reduction based solely on net present value (NPV) implicitly assumes unlimited investment resources. This study analysed the impact of the assumption of unlimited/limited investment resources on the assessment of profitable reduction potential of global CO2 emissions due to CHP investment. The correlation between changes in direct and global fossil CO2 emissions was also analysed. This was done by evaluating alternative CHP and heat-only boiler investments in a district heating system. When investment resources were unlimited, NPV was used to determine whether an investment was profitable and to rank the profitability of the investment. When investment resources were limited, equivalent annual annuity ratio (EAAR) was used to rank the investments profitability and determine whether its level of profitability was acceptable. The results showed that the profitability ranking of an investment can change depending on whether investment resources are considered unlimited or limited. Moreover, an investment with positive NPV may be regarded as insufficiently profitable when investment resources are limited. This could have an important impact on profitable CO2 reduction potential. Furthermore, when CHP investments are considered, local views on CO2 emissions may be counterproductive for global CO2 emission reductions. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2017
    Series
    Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102
    Keywords
    CHP; district heating; CO2 emissions; GHG; reduction potential; investment resource
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-140076 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.05.074 (DOI)000406743000025 ()
    Conference
    15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling (DHC)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Tekniska verken i Linkoping AB

    Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2018-11-05
    3. Corporate greenhouse gas inventories, guarantees of origin and combined heat and power production - Analysis of impacts on total carbon dioxide emissions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corporate greenhouse gas inventories, guarantees of origin and combined heat and power production - Analysis of impacts on total carbon dioxide emissions
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 186, p. 203-214Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard (Corporate Standard) and the EU frameworks of guarantees of origin (GO) and emissions disclosure of energy carriers are intended to inform decision -making and reduce GHG emissions. This study analyses how decisions on purchases of electricity and district heating and decisions on combined heat and power (CHP) production are incentivised by the Corporate Standard and EU frameworks. It also analyses how the EU frameworks relate to CO2 emissions reductions through CHP production. Using a consequential CO2 assessment method for comparison, the study shows that purchasing decisions supported by the Corporate Standard or the GO scheme can increase total CO2 emissions. It also shows that the Corporate Standard and EU frameworks can counteract CHP production and its contribution to CO2 emissions reduction. We recommend that consequential GHG assessment methods be used for emissions reduction decisions, including when designing policy instruments aimed at emissions reduction. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2018
    Keywords
    GHG; Carbon accounting; Guarantee of origin; Combined heat and power; District heating; Emissions reduction incentive
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147893 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.034 (DOI)000430785600019 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Tekniska verken i Linkoping AB

    Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2018-11-05
  • 148.
    Nordenstam, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Tekniska Verken Linköping AB Publ, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Bennstam, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Tekniska Verken Linköping AB Publ, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Considering investment resources when assessing potential CO2 reductions of CHP - a case study2017In: 15TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING (DHC15-2016), ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2017, Vol. 116, p. 273-284Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combined heat and power (CHP) can increase electricity production efficiency and decrease global CO2 emissions. Studies have shown large unrealised economic CHP investment potentials. An assessment of profitable CO2 reduction based solely on net present value (NPV) implicitly assumes unlimited investment resources. This study analysed the impact of the assumption of unlimited/limited investment resources on the assessment of profitable reduction potential of global CO2 emissions due to CHP investment. The correlation between changes in direct and global fossil CO2 emissions was also analysed. This was done by evaluating alternative CHP and heat-only boiler investments in a district heating system. When investment resources were unlimited, NPV was used to determine whether an investment was profitable and to rank the profitability of the investment. When investment resources were limited, equivalent annual annuity ratio (EAAR) was used to rank the investments profitability and determine whether its level of profitability was acceptable. The results showed that the profitability ranking of an investment can change depending on whether investment resources are considered unlimited or limited. Moreover, an investment with positive NPV may be regarded as insufficiently profitable when investment resources are limited. This could have an important impact on profitable CO2 reduction potential. Furthermore, when CHP investments are considered, local views on CO2 emissions may be counterproductive for global CO2 emission reductions. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 149.
    Olsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sociotechnical system studies of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from energy and transport systems2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is agreed that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy and transport systems must be reduced. Technical means exist to reduce GHG emissions from these sources. However, these emission-reduction measures are not implemented to a high enough degree. In this thesis, it is assumed that this is because the reduction of GHG emissions from energy and transport systems is a wicked problem. Unlike a tame problem, which has an unambiguous definition and a finite number of well-defined solutions, a wicked problem is difficult to define, and its solutions are often intertwined with the problem. The “wickedness” of a wicked problem lies in the extreme difficulty of solving the problem, rather than in the problem itself.

    In this thesis, the wicked problem of reducing GHG emissions from energy and transport systems is studied by applying a sociotechnical systems approach to the introduction of renewable vehicle fuels, the production and use of biogas, the introduction of electric vehicles, and the sustainability of district heating. In addition, this thesis discusses how energy issues are approached in different contexts, and what implications different actions can have on GHG emissions. The analysis shows that a sociotechnical approach to energy systems analysis can offer insights with regard to how system boundaries are handled within GHG-emission assessments and energy and transport policy. By problematising the use of system boundaries in GHG-emission assessments, this thesis explains how attempts to reduce GHG emissions could add to the wicked problem of GHGemission reductions from energy and transport systems. GHG-emission assessments can give very different results depending on system boundaries. While these results can be used in attempts to solve this wicked problem, they can also contribute to complicating it. As solutions to wicked problems are mainly found in policy, the use of system boundaries in policy is studied. Results show that narrow system boundaries in energy and transport policy can hamper sustainable development of energy and transport systems. The use of wider system boundaries could facilitate approaches to solve the wicked problem of reducing GHG emissions from energy and transport systems by making the consequences and effects of policy actions more clearly visible.

    List of papers
    1. Bridging the implementation gap: Combining backcasting and policy analysis to study renewable energy in urban road transport
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bridging the implementation gap: Combining backcasting and policy analysis to study renewable energy in urban road transport
    2015 (English)In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 37, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper combines backcasting and policy analysis to identify the opportunities for and barriers to the increased use of renewable energy and energy-efficient vehicles in an urban road transport system, namely, that of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2030. The combination of methods could bridge the implementation gap between scenario-based research and actual policy implementation and thus increase the chances of research being implemented in practice. In the case study, backcasting identifies a need for diverse fuels and vehicles and for immediate policy action. However, analysis of policy integration demonstrates that such action is unlikely given current policy structures. The fundamental lack of integration between energy and transport policy obstructs measures to increase the use of renewable fuels and more energy-efficient vehicles, which in turn obstructs the reduction of CO2 emissions from transport. The combination of backcasting and policy analysis is demonstrated to improve our understanding of the prerequisites for transitioning to a system based on renewable energy, and could thus be useful in further research.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Urban road transport, Renewable fuels, Energy efficiency, Transport policy, Energy policy, Scenario studies
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112506 (URN)10.1016/j.tranpol.2014.10.014 (DOI)000347594100008 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2014-11-28 Created: 2014-11-28 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Policy for biomass utilisation in energy and transport systems: The case of biogas in Stockholm, Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Policy for biomass utilisation in energy and transport systems: The case of biogas in Stockholm, Sweden
    2012 (English)In: World Renewable Energy Forum(WREF) 2012. Including 41st ASES Annual Conference, 37th National PassiveSolar Conference, 7th Renewable Energy Policy and MarketingConference, World Renewable Energy Congress XII, andColorado Renewable Energy Society (CRES) Annual Conference. Denver, Colorado, USA13 – 17 May 2012, Volume 1 of 6 / [ed] Cheryl Fellows, 2012, p. 4758-4765Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This interdisciplinary paper explains how biogas policy processes affect energy and transport systems in Stockholm, Sweden. The aim is to discuss future implications of the political biogas agenda, and analyse how municipal organic waste should be utilised to achieve greenhouse gas emission reductions. An energy systems analysis illustrates the environmental impact of biogas production and utilisation, while planning practice and political attitudes are studied in interviews with policy-makers. Conclusions include that demand for biogas as vehicle fuel and the influence of particular actors has led to an extensive political campaign for biogas. However, to maximise emission reductions, Stockholm’s waste should ideally be used to produce electricity, not biogas. With the current narrow system perspective and lack of long-term strategies, increased utilisation of renewable fuels in the transport system may be impeded.

    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85508 (URN)9781622760923 (ISBN)
    Conference
    World Renewable Energy Forum 2012, Real Science. Real Solutions. Real World, Denver, Colorado, 13-17 May 2012
    Available from: 2012-11-23 Created: 2012-11-21 Last updated: 2015-03-31Bibliographically approved
    3. Waste(d) potential: a socio-technical analysis of biogas production and use in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Waste(d) potential: a socio-technical analysis of biogas production and use in Sweden
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 107-115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes a socio-technical perspective on Swedish biogas production and use, in order to identify characteristics which may improve and increase biogas production. Biogas could potentially reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Swedish road transport by 25%, and to that end transport policy endorses the use of biogas as vehicle fuel. Currently, however, only a small fraction of the biogas production potential is utilised. By analysing how social and technological context has influenced production and use of biogas over the past 70 years, using concepts from the theory of Large Technical Systems (LTS), features of importance for increasing biogas production are identified. Biogas is shown to be a complex issue, with different functions within the energy, transport and waste management systems. As there is not one coherent biogas system but many individual systems, with different objectives, local and sectorial measures are required in order to increase biogas production. In particular, the importance of biogas production as waste management is identified. In order to utilise the biogas potential and reduce GHG emissions from road transport, policy-makers and researchers are advised to address the plurality in biogas systems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Biogas, socio-technical systems analysis, greenhouse gas emissions, waste treatment
    National Category
    Energy Systems Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112507 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.02.015 (DOI)000356194300011 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2014-11-28 Created: 2014-11-28 Last updated: 2018-01-11
    4. Climate impact of the electrification of road transport in a short-term perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate impact of the electrification of road transport in a short-term perspective
    2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the transport sector, replacing conventional vehicles with electric vehicles (EVs) is considered a desirable alternative. Due to increased integration of renewable energy sources in electricity generation, EVs are often considered emission-free although current electricity generation is largely dependent on fossil fuels. By 2018, the European Union (EU) requires biofuels to ensure 60% emission reductions in a lifecycle perspective, in order to avoid unsustainable production. No such criteria apply to EVs, although several European countries aim for an EV mass market by 2020. This study aims to show how a rapid, large-scale deployment of EVs will affect the GHG emissions, using Sweden as an example. GHG emissions from the energy use of electric and conventional vehicles are compared, applying a life cycle perspective on the fuels. Results show that with assumed electricity generation, EVs cause GHG emissions 25% higher than emissions from conventional vehicles. Hence, in a short-term perspective, a large-scale introduction of EVs is not beneficial for the climate. Nonetheless, a comprehensive approach to EVs, similar to EUs biofuel sustainability policy, may help reduce GHG emissions from the electricity generation system.

    Keywords
    Electric vehicles, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions, Environment
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112508 (URN)
    Conference
    13th World Conference on Transport Research (WCTR 2013), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 15-18, 2013
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2014-11-28 Created: 2014-11-28 Last updated: 2015-03-31
    5. The role of electric vehicles in EU transport and energy policy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of electric vehicles in EU transport and energy policy
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper combines two approaches to analysing the role of electric vehicles (EVs) in society. It uses an explorative approach to analyse the framing of EVs in European Union (EU) policy, and identifies the opportunities for EVs to reduce climate impact in a sociotechnical systems analysis, based on previous research. By relating the two approaches to each other, this paper illuminates the complexity of the sustainability issue in transport policy. The aim of this paper is to identify what problems EVs are meant to solve according to EU policy, how EVs could address these problems, and what effects the framing of EVs could have on the climate impact of the European transport system.

    This paper concludes that EVs are a solution to the problem of changes in the European road transport system, which is brought on by the need to reach climate goals and reduce oil dependence. However, the introduction of EVs risks missing sustainability effects in a wider system perspective, as current policy only concerns the technology itself, and not its use. Unless use and users are included in policy, it is unlikely that EVs will be able to substantially reduce climate impact from transport. Including the use of transport and energy in policy would illuminate the climate impact of the transport system, possibly leading to measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transport.

    Keywords
    Electric vehicles, transport policy, climate impact, sociotechnical systems
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-116683 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-03-31 Created: 2015-03-31 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    6. Assessing the climate impact of district heating systems with combined heat and power production and industrial excess heat
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the climate impact of district heating systems with combined heat and power production and industrial excess heat
    2015 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 86, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Heat demand is a large contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the European Union (EU), as heat is largely produced using fossil fuel resources. Extended use of district heating (DH) could reduce climate impact, as DH systems can distribute heat produced in efficient combined heat and power (CHP) plants and industrial excess heat, thus utilising heat that would otherwise be wasted. The difficulty to estimate and compare GHG emissions from DH systems can however constitute an obstacle to an expanded implementation of DH. There are several methods for GHG emission assessments that may be used with varying assumptions and system boundaries. The aim of this paper is to illuminate how methodological choices affect the results of studies estimating GHG emissions from DH systems, and to suggest how awareness of this can be used to identify possibilities for GHG emission reductions. DH systems with CHP production and industrial excess heat are analysed and discussed in a systems approach. We apply different methods for allocating GHG emissions between products and combine them with different system boundaries. In addition, we discuss the impact of resource efficiency on GHG emissions, using the framework of industrial symbiosis (IS). We conclude that assessments of the climate impact of DH systems should take local conditions and requirements into account. In order for heat from CHP production and industrial excess heat to be comparable, heat should be considered a by-product regardless of its origin. That could also reveal opportunities for GHG emission reductions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Systems analysis, District heating, Greenhouse gas emissions, Resource efficiency, Combined heat and power, Industrial excess heat
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114402 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.01.006 (DOI)000351655000004 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Note

    This paper was written under the auspices of the Energy Systems Programme, which is financed by the Swedish Energy Agency. Dr Sandra Backlund, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, is gratefully acknowledged for valuable input to an early version of the paper. We would also like to thank two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments.

    Available from: 2015-02-20 Created: 2015-02-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04
  • 150.
    Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Climate impact of the electrification of road transport in a short-term perspective2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the transport sector, replacing conventional vehicles with electric vehicles (EVs) is considered a desirable alternative. Due to increased integration of renewable energy sources in electricity generation, EVs are often considered emission-free although current electricity generation is largely dependent on fossil fuels. By 2018, the European Union (EU) requires biofuels to ensure 60% emission reductions in a lifecycle perspective, in order to avoid unsustainable production. No such criteria apply to EVs, although several European countries aim for an EV mass market by 2020. This study aims to show how a rapid, large-scale deployment of EVs will affect the GHG emissions, using Sweden as an example. GHG emissions from the energy use of electric and conventional vehicles are compared, applying a life cycle perspective on the fuels. Results show that with assumed electricity generation, EVs cause GHG emissions 25% higher than emissions from conventional vehicles. Hence, in a short-term perspective, a large-scale introduction of EVs is not beneficial for the climate. Nonetheless, a comprehensive approach to EVs, similar to EUs biofuel sustainability policy, may help reduce GHG emissions from the electricity generation system.

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