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  • 101. Haslam, Mara
    et al.
    Zetterholm, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    The of consonant clusters in English as a lingua franca intelligibility2019In: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Prnunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference / [ed] Levis, J., Nagel, C. & Todey, E., Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 2019, p. 276-284Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 102.
    Hassanzadeh Nezami, Setareh
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Study of Errors, Corrective Feedback and Noticing in Synchronous Computer Mediated Communication2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the different types of errors that EFL learners produce in chat logs and also analyzed the different types of corrective feedback given by the teacher. An eye tracker was employed to study the eye movements of the participants to see how they notice the corrective feedback. This investigation can assist teachers to act better in online classrooms and helps them understand which type of corrective feedback is most likely to result in uptake based on noticing. The results showed that the most common errors in chat logs were related to grammar. It was also found that both recasts and metalinguistic feedback were noticed most of the time during the chat sessions although only a few of them led to uptake in post task session.

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    A STUDY OF ERRORS, CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK AND NOTICING IN SYNCHRONOUS COMPUTER MEDIATED COMMUNICATION
  • 103.
    Hedenqvist, Clara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Persson, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Disfluency incidence in 6-year old Swedish boys and girls with typical language development2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the prevalence of disfluencies in agroup of 55 (25F/30M) Swedish children with typical speech development, and within the agerange 6;0 and 6;11. All children had Swedish as their mother tongue. Speech was elicited using an “event picture” which the children described in their own, spontaneously produced, words. The data were analysed with regard to sex differences and lexicalability, including size of vocabulary and wordretrieval, which was assessed using the two tests Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Ordracet. Results showed that girls produced significantly more unfilled pauses, prolongations and sound repetitions, while boys produced more word repetitions. However, no correlation with lexical development was found. The results are of interest tospeech pathologists who study early speech development in search for potential early predictorsof speech pathologies.

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  • 104.
    Hedenqvist, Clara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Persson, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Disfluency incidence in 6-year old Swedish boys and girls with typical language development2015In: Proceedings of Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech (Diss) 2015. PENDING, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the prevalence of disfluencies in a group of 55 (25F/30M) Swedish children with typical speech development, and within the age range 6;0 and 6;11. All children had Swedish as their mother tongue. Speech was elicited using an“event picture” which the children described in their own, spontaneously produced, words. The data were analysed with regard to sex differences and lexicalability, including size of vocabulary and wordretrieval, which was assessed using the two testsPeabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Ordracet.Results showed that girls produced significantlymore unfilled pauses, prolongations and sound repetitions, while boys produced more word repetitions. However, no correlation with lexical development was found. The results are of interest to speech pathologists who study early speech development in search for potential early predictors of speech pathologies.

  • 105.
    Hefele, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    http://www.anna-maria-hefele.com.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Polyphonic Overtone Singing: an acoustic and physiological (MRI) analysis and a first-person description of aunique mode of singing2019In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2019 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a unique singing mode, tentatively labeled “polyphonic overtone singing”. In overtone singingthe vocal harmonics of a stabile fundamental frequency are filtered by the singer in such a way that specific upper harmonics are amplified, and heard clearly, as a second musical voice. In the “throat singing” of Tuva (Mongolia) moving overtones usually occur over astable drone. In polyphonic overtone singing not only the pitch of the overtonesare changed and moving, but also the fundamental which results in two-voice singing.

  • 106.
    Henriksson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Gothenburg Univ, Sweden.
    Hjerten, Andreas
    Gothenburg Univ, Sweden.
    Zackariasson, Jesper
    Gothenburg Univ, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Linda
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Andersson Damberg, Amanda
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Saldert, Charlotta
    Gothenburg Univ, Sweden.
    Ball, Martin J.
    Bangor Univ, Wales.
    Mueller, Nicole
    Univ Coll Cork, Ireland.
    Public awareness of aphasia - results of a Swedish sample2019In: Aphasiology, ISSN 0268-7038, E-ISSN 1464-5041, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 94-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Public awareness of a condition like aphasia may affect service provision and everyday life communication for people affected by the condition. Nevertheless, studies have shown that the public awareness of aphasia is low in many countries. Aims: This study explores awareness and knowledge of aphasia among the general public in Sweden. Methods amp; Procedures: We describe two surveys on the public awareness of aphasia undertaken using convenience samples in four different cities in southern Sweden. The questionnaire was closely based on those used in previous studies of aphasia awareness around the world. A total of 372 participants were recruited. Results are presented in terms of whether participants had heard of aphasia or not, and in the case that they had heard of it, whether they had a basic knowledge of the condition. Further analyses were undertaken on these three groups of participants: their gender and age distributions, educational background, what they knew about aphasia, and where they had learnt about it. Outcomes amp; Results: The results are discussed in comparison with similar surveys elsewhere, and we note the comparatively high percentage of participants who have heard of aphasia in our survey though, mirroring previous surveys, the amount of knowledge was often limited or incorrect. Unlike in other surveys, no clear relation was found between gender and awareness of aphasia, or education and awareness of aphasia. Age profiles and the source of participants information about aphasia were similar to earlier studies: that is, older people seem to have more aphasia awareness than younger people do. Further, media like TV, radio, newspapers, and magazines were the most often reported source for knowledge of aphasia. Conclusions: There is a need for further work to increase public awareness of aphasia and different forms of public media may play an important role in this endeavour.

  • 107.
    Hirsch, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Argumentation Structure, Semantic Content, and Gesture2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theme of the paper is the relationship between gesture and argumentation structure and semantic content. An analysis is given of the relationship between speech and gesture that occurs in a video-recorded discussion among students of chemical biology and their supervisor where they are asked to describe what they experienced during a haptic laboratory exercise in protein ligand docking. The analysis focuses especially on the repeated use of speech together with gesture expressions, the repetition of gestures by the same and different speakers, sequences and transformations of gestures, the change in function of a gesture, and interactive gesturing.

  • 108.
    Hirsch, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Language as reflective experience2010In: Semiotica, ISSN 0037-1998, E-ISSN 1613-3692, Vol. 2010, no 182, p. 215-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article contains a concise presentation of a proposal for the explanation of the basic logical and conceptual structure of meaningful human experience as expressed in language. The core of the argument is that meaningful human experience is something that can only be derived from mutual interpersonal awareness. The article contains a proposal for a terminology for the conceptual details of the structure of inter-subjective experience and an attempt to base a command of natural language within this structure. The article ends with a discussion of the main thesis of the article as it relates to other recent approaches to the study of meaning in natural language.

  • 109.
    Hirsch, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Language, games, and minds2007In: Communication-Action-Meaning: A Festschrift to Jens Allwood / [ed] Elisabeth Ahlsén, Göteborg: Department of Linguistics, Göteborg University , 2007, 1, p. 83-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language has often been compared to the game of Chess. In this article, I claim that a productive analogy for linguistic interaction would be the Asian board game GO. I further explore common aspects of language use and creative play that we find in improvised ensemble music-making.  What is said about language and games, and language and improvised music-making is then related to a discussion of linguistic interaction as constitutive of thought and mind.

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  • 110.
    Hirsch, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Making meaning together: A distributed story of speaking and thinking2010In: Language sciences (Oxford), ISSN 0388-0001, E-ISSN 1873-5746, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 528-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation of language to thought and mind is an ancient topic in linguistic theory. Normally language is related to thought in an individual mind. In this article, I explore the analogy between the dimensions and dynamics of individual perception as formulated by Husserl and the inter-individual perception and conceptualization found in everyday conversations.

    The notions of horizon, perspective, appresentation, and apperception developed by Husserl for the phenomenology of individual perception are generalized to incorporate the mutual and cooperative calibration of consciousness evidenced in conversational discussions where speakers cooperate to construct an interpretation and evaluation of their experience. This process of local cooperative and mutual co-construction and evaluation of interpretations of experience takes place in what is referred to here as a course of development. An extended excerpt from a conversational discussion is used to demonstrate the interactive dialogic and dialectical work speakers carry out in an effort to make sense of their experience of the world and their relationship to the world and each other. Ways of talking are analysed as means of constructing restricted folk-theoretic world-views that rely on the dialogic-dialectical work of the speakers. Contributions to an on-going discussion are claimed to constitute folk theories actualized in real time in the talk where Husserl’s notions of horizon, perspective, etc. of individual consciousness are given a distributed or shared interpretation in the establishment and maintenance of inter-individual consciousness in relation to the topics and events under development in the conversation.

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  • 111.
    Hirsch, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Hand is quicker than the Mind2009In: Studies in Language and Cognition, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing , 2009, 1, p. 454-467Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meaning is often viewed as originating within an individual mind and then expressed by a combination of speech and gesture. In this article I present evidence from documented spontaneous interaction that supports the claim that speech and gesture should be viewed as complementary aspects of the on-going incremental determination of dialogic inter-subjective intentionality in communicative interaction. Speech and gesture relate brain with brain to enable meaning and mind. Embodied meaning is enacted through speech and gesture in interaction. Mind is viewed as embodied but distributed and emerges in the field created by interacting brains-and-bodies. An empirical research methodology for the study of speech and gesture in relation to mind and meaning in interaction is presented.

  • 112.
    Hofstetter, Emily
    Schooll of Social Sciences, Department of Communication, Media, Social and Policy Studies, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Citizens getting help: Interactions at the constituency office2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines a previously unstudied site of interaction: the constituency office. At the constituency office, Members of Parliament (MPs) hold MP surgeries , during which they help constituents to solve their personal difficulties. This thesis provides the first analysis of interactions at the constituency office. It is the only place where ordinary citizens can meet their MP; as such, it also provides the first analysis of face-to-face, unmediated interactions between politicians and their constituents. For this study, 12.5 hours of interactional data were recorded at the office of an MP in the United Kingdom, comprising over 80 encounters between office staff, the MP, and their constituents. The MP was of the majority ( government ) party at the time of recording. The data were analyzed using conversation analysis (CA), in order to investigate how the social activities of the constituency office were accomplished through interaction.

    The first analytic chapter reveals the overall structure of constituency office encounters, as well as examining what constituents say when they call or visit the office, and how they express that they are in need of assistance. This chapter finds that constituents avoid making direct requests of their MP, and instead use narrative descriptions. These descriptions manage interactional challenges including the unknown nature of the institution (Stokoe, 2013b), contingency and entitlement (Drew & Curl, 2008), reasonableness and legitimacy (Edwards & Stokoe, 2007; Heritage & Robinson, 2006), and recruitment (Kendrick & Drew, 2016). The second analytic chapter examines the action of offering, and finds it to be the central mechanism for transacting service. The staff use different offer designs to index different nuances in the offering action, such as asking permission or confirming an activity. Both the first and second analytic chapters show that systematic deployment of offers help control the direction of the encounters and tacitly instruct constituents as to what services are available. Furthermore, both of these chapters show the flexibility participants employed in turn design and action ascription, which extends previous descriptions of how requests and offers are constructed (Couper-Kuhlen, 2014; Curl, 2006) and supports recent calls for a more nuanced approach to action description from conversation analysts (Kendrick & Drew, 2014; Sidnell & Enfield, 2014).

    The third analytic chapter investigates the ostensibly political context of the constituency office, and how the MP and constituents raise political topics in conversation. The chapter finds that the term political is challenging to define in live interactions, and relies on the concept of politicizing (Hay, 2007) statements that upgrade (or downgrade) a topic into greater (or lesser) public and governmental concern. Both the MP and constituents were found to initiate political topics, but in different ways. The MP initiated political topics in explicit references to government, in order to provide evidence that the government was aligned with constituents interests. The constituents initiated political topics in vague and indirect references to recent policy changes, and avoided implicating the MP in any criticisms. The findings suggest that constituents privilege interactional norms (such as not criticizing a co-present interlocutor) over any potential interest in making political critiques. The chapter also discusses what impact these findings may have on concepts such as power and evasion . The final analytic chapter assesses the concept of rapport , finding that it is difficult for both participants and analysts to determine long-term outcomes from local, interactional occurrences in interaction. Rapport is important for MPs who may be attempting to build a personal vote relationship with constituents, but this chapter also finds that constituents have a stake in building rapport in order to receive the best (or any) service. The chapter finds that while traditional practices for building rapport , such as doing small talk or finding common ground, are problematic to employ and assess from an interactional perspective, other local outcomes such as progressivity (Fogarty, Augoustinos & Kettler, 2013) and affiliation (Clark, Drew & Pinch, 2003) may be more useful indicators of positive interactions. This chapter concludes that we need a more nuanced, and interactionally-based, framework to train practitioners (and clients) in effective communication practices.

    This thesis challenges the conversation analytic literature by finding that the constituency office setting revolves around a more flexible ascription of requests than many studies have previously accepted, and that we can analyze actions as if on a spectrum, rather than in bounded categories. The thesis also contributes to the political discourse literature by finding that constituents activities at the constituency office are strongly influenced by interactional norms, rather than political attitudes. Finally, this thesis provides a basis from which to study the constituency office, as a site of service interaction.

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    Citizens getting help: Interactions at the constituency office
  • 113.
    Hofstetter, Emily
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Interaction and Professional Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nonlexical "Moans": Response Cries in Board Game Interactions2020In: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 42-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines nonlexical vocalizations in board game interactions, focusing on "moans." Moans are prolonged, voiced, response cries. Moans react to game events where the player has suffered in some way. Despite the complaint-relevant nature of moans, game actions are never withdrawn in response to a moan, Moans are treated as laughable, while lexical complaints invoke arguments and apologies. This article suggests that moans are a manifestation of managing Batesons play paradox in that they denote suffering but also willingness to continue play and a validation of the prior event. Moans are suggested to be a contextualization cue for "this is play." Given the relative unconventionality of the form of moans, these tokens are suggested as evidence that lack of conventionalization may be a members resource rather than a problem. The article analyzes a corpus of 34 hours of video-recorded board game play (169 tokens) in English (Canadian, American, and British).

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  • 114.
    Hofstetter, Emily
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Robles, Jessica
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Manipulation in board game interactions: Being a sporting player2019In: Symbolic interaction, ISSN 0195-6086, E-ISSN 1533-8665, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 301-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deception and manipulation are expected in strategic gameplay, but how do players negotiate what counts as acceptable kinds of manipulation? We compare three examples from a corpus of 30 hours of competitive board game play, using conversation analysis to examine how players orient to the reasonableness of manipulations. We show that contingencies of timing of the attribution and receipt of the manipulation are as morally concerned as manipulation itself. Players organize their negotiations of acceptability around the concept of a “sporting” player or move. The “sporting” resource shows one situated members' method for collaboratively managing fairness and morality in play. A video abstract is available at https://youtu.be/IlaE‐w6FUxw.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-10-07 11:36
  • 115.
    Hofstetter, Emily
    et al.
    Loughborough University, UK.
    Stokoe, Elizabeth
    Loughborough University, UK.
    Chapter 6. Making “politics” relevant: How constituents and a member of parliament raise political topics at constituency surgeries2018In: ‘Doing politics’: Discursivity, performativity and mediation in political discourse / [ed] Michael Kranert and Geraldine Horan, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, p. 127-150Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates an area of political discourse that has hitherto existed in an analytic “black box”: the constituency office. We focus on the interactions between ordinary British people as they engage directly in “political” discussions with their Member of Parliament. While the majority of surgery talk surrounds complaints about services, we focus on sequences of talk in which either citizens or the MP make “political” topics relevant. Eighty consultations were video-recorded, anonymised and transcribed, and the data analysed using conversation analysis. We found that MP-initiated political comments portray the government as aligned with constituents’ needs, whereas constituents use political comments largely to criticise the government. Constituents privilege the interactional contingencies over other issues. Overall, the paper contributes to our understanding of how constituents navigate interactional and political contingencies in interactions with their representative.

  • 116.
    Hofstetter, Emily
    et al.
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Stokoe, Elizabeth
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Getting service at the constituency office: Analyzing citizens' encounters with their Member of Parliament2018In: Text & Talk, ISSN 1860-7330, E-ISSN 1860-7349, Text and Talk, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 551-573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present an analysis of how constituents procure services at the constituency office of a Member of Parliament (MP) in the United Kingdom. This paper will investigate how several previously documented interactional practices (e.g. entitlement) combine at the constituency office in a way that secures service. From a corpus of 12.5 hours of interaction, and using conversation analysis, we examine constituents’ telephone calls and meetings with constituency office staff and the MP, identifying practices constituents use. First, constituents opened encounters with bids to tell narratives. Second, constituents presented lengthy and detailed descriptions of their difficulties. These descriptions gave space to manage issues of legitimacy and entitlement, while simultaneously recruiting assistance. Third, we examine ways in which constituents display uncertainty about how the institution of the constituency office functions, and what services are available. The paper offers original insights into how constituency services are provided, and how constituency offices give access and support to ordinary citizens, while expanding the conversation analytic literature on institutional service provision.

  • 117.
    Hofstetter, Emily
    et al.
    Loughborough University, UK.
    Stokoe, Elizabeth
    Loughborough University, UK.
    Offers of assistance in politician-constituent interaction2015In: Discourse Studies, ISSN 1461-4456, E-ISSN 1461-7080, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 724-751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do politicians engage with and offer to assist their constituents: the people who vote them into power? We address the question by analysing a corpus of 80 interactions recorded at the office of a Member of Parliament (MP) in the United Kingdom, and comprising telephone calls between constituents and the MP’s clerical ‘caseworkers’ as well as face-to-face encounters with MPs in their fortnightly ‘surgeries’. The data were transcribed, and then analysed using conversation analysis, focusing on the design and placement of offers of assistance. We identified three types of offers within a longer ‘offering’ sequence: (1) ‘proposal offers’, which typically appear first in any offering sequence, in which politicians and caseworkers make proposals to help their constituents using formats that request permission to do so, or check that the constituent does indeed want help (e.g. ‘do you want me to’; ‘we could …’); (2) ‘announcement offers’, which appear second, and indicate that something has been decided and confirm the intention to act (e.g. ‘I will do X’) and (3) ‘request offers’, which appear third, and take for form ‘let me do X’. Request offers indicate that the offer is available but cannot be completed until the current conversation is closed; they also appear in environments in which the constituent reissues their problems and appears dissatisfied with the offers so far. The article contributes to what we know about making offers in institutional settings, as well as shedding the first empirical light on the workings of the constituency office: the site of engagement between everyday members of the public and their elected representatives.

  • 118.
    Hoskins, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Five Categories of "We" in a European Parliamentary Debate: A Conversation Analytic Study2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse the personal pronoun “we” in a political debate using Conversation Analysis as research method. More specifically, the thesis aims to identify and analyse how the speakers of a political debate use “we” to express different referential domains in terms of group affiliation. Consequently, to support the thesis’s aim, the following research questions have been devised:

    • What different categories of “we” can be found in the debate?
    • How and when are these different categories used to manifest group affiliation and what do they accomplish?
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  • 119.
    Huq, Rizwan-ul
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Doing English-Only Instructions: A Multimodal Account of Bilingual Bangladeshi Classrooms2018In: Hacettepe University Journal of Education, E-ISSN 2536-4758, Vol. 33, p. 278-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research reported here is part of a broader research project on bilingual Bangladeshi ESL schools. The study seeks to find out how a prescribed language policy that is operating at the school informs classroom instruction. To do so, it uses the distinction between medium of instruction and medium of interaction, introduced by Bonacina & Gafaranga (2011), to examine how participants to instructional exchanges orient their actions to the language policy as well as to locally emerging interactional challenges. Through multimodal conversation analysis the study shows how participants sustain, suppress or even overlook the medium of instruction in the service of doing instruction. These findings therefore contribute to the existing literature on language policy-in-practice and language alternation in bilingual classrooms. 

  • 120.
    Hurtig, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Student’s second-language grade may depend on classroom listening position2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This experiment explored whether position, close to or at a distance from the sound source, in the classroom, and the reverberation time in the classroom, influenced Swedish speaking participants’ score on a test for second-language (English) listening comprehension. The listening comprehension test administered was part of a standardized national test of English used in the Swedish school system. A total of 133 upper school pupils, 15 years old, participated. Listening position was manipulated within subjects and classroom reverberation time was varied between subjects. The results showed that English listening comprehension decreased with the distance from the sound source. Participants with higher proficiency scores for English were less susceptible to this effect. Classroom reverberation time had no significant main effect and it did not interact with listening position. The results indicate that listening comprehension scores – and hence students’ grade in English – may depend on their classroom listening position.

  • 121.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Örulv, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Feedback and common ground in conversational storytelling involvning people with Alzheimer's disease2012In: Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders/Equinox, ISSN 2040-5111, E-ISSN 2040-512X, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 211-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article focuses on feedback in storytelling involving people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and how feedback is related to the ways participants establish a common ground (Clark 1996) in interaction. The establishment of common ground is important in all kinds of interaction and becomes an especially intricate process if participants have AD, since the achievement of common ground requires the ability to draw from knowledge and experiences relating to past as well as present events; an ability that is often hampered by the disease. Analyses show that other aspects than the actual content of the conversation are important for the participants – for instance being together, supporting the positive identities both presented in the story and embodied in the socially rewarding activity that they manage to engage in, implying that the participants create and sustain a common ground not so much about the story-layer as of the storytelling activity.

  • 122.
    Högberg, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Investigating developmental effects in and-enrichment2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two propositions connected by and have the same truth-value, irrespective of the order of the conjuncts. However, in a sentence like “I put my socks and shoes on” it becomes obvious that the order of the conjuncts affects the meaning of the sentence. This study concerns the contribution of pragmatics to and by implicit enrichment to and then or and thus. It includes three experiments that investigate and-enrichment in adults and children. Nine five-line stories concerning everyday events were used. After each story the participants were to respond “yes” or “no” to a statement which referred to two events that occurred in the story, conjoined with and. In the critical statement, the two events were presented in the inverse order to which they had occurred. The results show no general developmental effect but awareness of the task plays a critical role for and-enrichment production. Ten-year-olds enrich and to the same extent as adults when no efforts are made to mask the intention behind the task. However, when a more spontaneous response is captured by masking the purpose of the task children respond more logically. There are no clear evidence that and-enrichment is affected by the cognitive demands of the task.

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  • 123.
    Ivanova (Anatoli Smith), Olga
    Department of Applied Linguistics, University of California, Los Angeles, 3300 Rolfe Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1531, USA.
    Constructing social norms: The pragmatics of multimodal quotation boundaries in spoken Swahili2013In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 57, p. 82-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article examines the pragmatic meaning of direct quotation boundaries in Swahili. The application of conversation and discourse analysis to naturally occurring talk in media settings reveals that by avoiding reporting verbs, speakers manage to create an imagined participant framework involving co-present participants in a hypothetical dialog between ‘me’ and ‘you,’ which becomes an appropriate context for imperative verbs. In Searlean terms, these imperative verbs have a twofold function, namely the function of bald directives and of indirect representative speech acts. Speakers employ multimodal resources to signal to co-participants the pragmatic value of these speech acts. The coordinated use of verbally unframed quotations with imperative verbs proves to be a strategy with which Swahili speakers display their epistemic authority. By so doing, Swahili speakers are able to represent a personal stance as a societal moral norm and to contribute to the construction of social normativity through media discourse.

  • 124.
    Ivanova (Anatoli Smith), Olga
    Department of Linguistics, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), UCLA, Linguistics, 3125 Campbell Hall, 335 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
    Overcoming discursive prohibitions in participatory media: A case study on talk about homosexuality in Tanzania2018In: Language & Communication, ISSN 0271-5309, E-ISSN 1873-3395, Vol. 58, p. 34-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel genres of participatory media often criticized as info- or edutainment are regularly used in developing countries for pursuing liberal ideologies. Conversation and discourse analysis applied to unedited footage of such genre from East Africa reveals how its format and organization introduce participants and audience to the political role of active citizens. A detailed analysis of a selected episode on homosexuality—a crime and a subject of legal censorship in the region—investigates how televised media may contribute to changing discursive norms. By strategically shifting footing and generating a vivid televisual conflict, the hosts open up a discursive space that allows for the transgression of discursive prohibitions without jeopardizing the legal status of the show.

  • 125.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Institutionen för lingvistik, Stockholms universitet.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Linköping University, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Modeling the Evolution of Creoles2015In: Language Dynamics and Change, ISSN 2210-5824, E-ISSN 2210-5832, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various theories have been proposed regarding the origin of creole languages. Describing a process where only the end result is documented involves several methodological difficulties. In this paper we try to address some of the issues by using a novel mathematical model together with detailed empirical data on the origin and structure of Mauritian Creole. Our main focus is on whether Mauritian Creole may have originated only from a mutual desire to communicate, without a target language or prestige bias. Our conclusions are affirmative. With a confirmation bias towards learning from successful communication, the model predicts Mauritian Creole better than any of the input languages, including the lexifier French, thus providing a compelling and specific hypothetical model of how creoles emerge. The results also show that it may be possible for a creole to develop quickly after first contact, and that it was created mostly from material found in the input languages, but without inheriting their morphology.

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  • 126.
    Jansson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Taking a shower. Managing a potentially imposing activity in dementia care2014In: Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders/Equinox, ISSN 2040-5111, E-ISSN 2040-512X, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 27-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on an activity routinely carried out in elderly care: taking a shower. The care setting is two nursing homes in Sweden hosting elderly people with dementia. The data consist of transcriptions of three caregivers’ interaction with their residents prior to, and during the performance of the shower task. While the shower routinely is rejected by the care recipient in these settings, the article demonstrates alternative ways of performing the task that are less imposing for the elderly person and that may maintain the care recipient’s dignity and sense of autonomy. The way opposition occurs during the course of the activity depends on how the care worker frames the performance of the task. When physical action is embedded and aligned with the care recipient’s concerns, the washing of the body progresses more smoothly. The article highlights the importance of allowing the care recipient to feel that her priorities form the basis for how the activity should proceed. The implications of this study for the care system are discussed in terms of providing opportunities for caregivers and elderly persons to build relationships of mutual trust and support.

  • 127.
    Jansson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wadensjo, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Department Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Managing complaints in multilingual care encounters2017In: Multilingua - Journal of Cross-cultural and Interlanguage Communiciation, ISSN 0167-8507, E-ISSN 1613-3684, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 313-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Troubles-telling and complaints are common in contexts of care for older people and need to be managed by care staff in a respectful manner. This paper examines the handling of an older persons complaints in multilingual care encounters that involve participants who do not share a common language. The data consist of video-recordings and ethnographic fieldwork in a residential home for older people in Sweden that is characterised by a variety of languages and backgrounds. The findings are based on analyses of multi-party interactions involving an Arabic-speaking resident and caregivers with different levels of knowledge in different languages. We focus on complaint sequences when the resident expresses a negative stance (displeasure, anger, etc.) towards some difficult circumstance. Using the methodology of conversation analysis, we analyse the affect-regulating work through which the caregivers attempt to turn a pressing situation into a moment of cheerfulness and intimacy. The analyses bring to light the multilingual practices that the caregivers draw upon in pursuing this work, such as translating and giving voice to the residents complaining.

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  • 128.
    Jonsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Voice Provider Sweden AB.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gender differences in verbal behaviour in a call routing speech application2011In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2011, Quarterly Progress and Status Report TMH-QPSR, Volume 51, 2011, Stockholm: Universitetsservice , 2011, p. 81-84Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports results on verbal behavior in a live natural language call routing speechapplication. Differences between male and female callers in terms of verbosity are investigated, andput in relation to three variations of the system prompts. Findings show that in this particularapplication female callers are more verbose than male callers for open style prompts, while there isno difference for a directed style prompt.

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  • 129.
    Jonsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Voice Provider Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kognition och talbaserade människa–maskin-gränssnitt2012In: Kognitionsvetenskap: en introduktion / [ed] Jens Allwood & Mikael Jensen, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 583-594Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kognitionsvetenskap är den första boken på svenska som beskriver kärnan i kognitionsvetenskap - att förstå hur människor tänker. Den spänner därmed över ett brett tvärvetenskapligt fält som inrymmer filosofi, lingvistik, psykologi, antropologi, datavetenskap och neuro­vetenskap. Författarna beskriver hur ämnet har vuxit fram och hur man kan studera kognition utifrån filosofiska, psykologiska och neurovetenskapliga aspekter. Även språkvetenskapliga och sociala aspekter på tänkande presenteras. Författarna tar dessutom upp relationen mellan mänskligt tänkande och djurs tänkande, samt utvecklingen av kognition från barndom till vuxen ålder. Avslutningsvis berörs flera aspekter av tänkande i förhållande till teknologi, både som stöd för tänkande och som simulering av tänkande.

    Boken vänder sig till studenter som läser introduktionskurs eller grundkurs i kognitionsvetenskap, men är även lämplig för beteendevetenskapliga eller språkinriktade utbildningar. Den kan även vara av intresse för alla som vill förstå mer om mänskligt tänkande.

  • 130.
    Jönsson, Linda
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Polisförhöret som kommunikationssituation1988Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom ramen för projektet "Framgång och motgång i dialoger" (jfr Aronsson & Linell, 1985) har studier gjorts av kommunikationen mellan professionella och lekmän i bl a rättegångar, närmare bestämt handläggningen av vissa typer av brottmål. Första ledet i undersökningen har behandlat huvudförhandlingar vid domstol (tingsrätt) (se Aronsson m fl, 1987, Adelswärd m fl, 1987 och Adelswärd m fl, 1988) 1. Den föreliggande studien behandlar ett annat led i samma ärendegång, nämligen polisens förhör med den misstänkte som en del av förundersökningen inför ett eventuellt åtal.

    Arbetets syfte har varit att studera och beskriva kommunikationssituationer från kommunikationsteoretiska, samtalsanalytiska och sociolingvistiska utgångspunkter. Några primärt juridiska, kriminologiska eller rättssociologiska perspektiv har inte anlagts (även om arbetet kan ha relevans för rättssociologin, och vice versa).

    De olika delprojektens övergripande syfte har varit att studera dialoger med utgångspunkt i situationer där den ena parten i samtalet har en dominerande roll i kraft av högre utbildning och/eller större erfarenhet av situationen, dvs situationer där representanter för t ex en myndighet för en dialog med en lekman eller en representant"för allmänheten. Både rättegångsförhandlingama och polisförhören tillhör den nämnda typen av situationer och de har många gemensamma drag. De är båda led i brottmålsprocessen och styrs av de allmänna processprinciperna (jfr tex .Klette, 1976: 31-38). Dialogerna utgörs i båda fallen av en form av samtal där representanter för de rättskipande myndigheterna, genom att höra en enskild människa, försöker utreda och eventuellt fastställa dennes skuld i anslutning till ett begånget brott. Trots dessa principiella likheter fmns det naturligtvis stora skillnader mellan de båda situationerna och vissa jämförelser kan hjälpa till att belysa vad som är specifika förutsättningar för kommunikationen inom respektive situation.

    För en mera utförlig och systematisk genomgång av de teoretiska utgångspunkterna och en översikt över tidigare forskning inom området hänvisas till Jönsson (1988). Nedan följer en kortfattad redovisning av de huvudperspektiv utifrån vilka arbetet har bedrivits.

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    Polisförhöret som kommunikationssituation
  • 131.
    Jönsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Adelswärd, VivecaLinköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Cederberg, AnnLinköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Pettersson, Per A.Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Kelly, CarolineLinköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svenskans beskrivning 24: Förhandlingar vid Tjugofjärde sammankomsten för svenskans beskrivning, Linköping, 22–23 oktober 19992001Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
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  • 132.
    Kawai, Maho
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    THE APPLICATION OF POLITENESS THEORY INTO ENGLISH EDUCATION IN JAPAN2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Japan, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) revised the Course of Study in English education twice in the last decade (in 2002 and in 2011), and the drastic changes have been made especially in the section of communicative skills: introduction of English study in elementary school, teaching English in English in high school, requirement of the subject ‘Oral Communication I’ in high school, etc. The aim of the revisions is to produce international individuals, who have high English proficiency not only in input-skills but also in output-skills, especially in speaking (MEXT 2004: 90, MEXT 2011). Despite the revisions of the Course of Study, Japan is still ranked low in English proficiency not only among the developed countries but also among the Asian countries (Sakamoto 2012: 409; Sullivan and Schatz 2009: 586; Educational Testing Service 2012).

    Inputs on different cultures and languages take an important role in language learning especially in the modern society where students have high chances to encounter cross-cultural communication. The politeness strategy is one of those factors that the social actors must learn for the sound relationships with others. Each culture has its own politeness strategy; therefore, miscommunication is observed more often in intercultural conversations due to the various conceptualization of politeness in different cultures (Sifianou 1992: 216). That is, comprehending the diversity in politeness strategy seems to be a clue of smooth communication and better apprehension of different cultures in cross-culture conversations. The Course of Study for foreign languages and English language also refers to the significance of comprehending various cultures and languages (MEXT 2009); however, as previous studies represent the Japanese students studying abroad or the Japanese businessman in intercultural communications seem to lack the understanding of the western politeness strategy (cf. Fujio 2004, Nakane 2006). Besides, it is vague what ‘different cultures’ refers to in the Course of Study for English. Based on the attitudes of the Japanese students towards cross-cultural communication and ambiguous explanation on ‘cultural learning’ by the Course of the Study, I assume that one of the reasons why Japan cannot achieve the communication-focused curriculum might be attributed to the lack of politeness theory perspective in English learning. Taking differences in politeness strategies between the western societies and the Japanese ones into consideration, it seems to be unfeasible and insufficient to only increase the number of communicative lessons and compel students into speaking English. The differences in politeness strategy should be applied into English learning in order to boost the English proficiency of Japanese students and produce globalized students.

    The present paper focuses on the following two aspects of English learning in Japan in order to test the hypothesis:

    • The Course of Study in English learning in Japan does not specify what is ‘cultural learning’, which triggers the lack of politeness perspective
    • The lack of politeness learning obstruct Japanese students to successful crosscultural communication

    In the present paper, in order to observe the application of the politeness theory in English learning, firstly English textbooks used in Japan are analyzed in terms of the politeness theory by focusing on the following four aspects: silence, speech style, ambiguity, and hierarchical relationship. Previous studies have shown that extinctive differences between the western politeness and the Japanese politeness in communication are obviously revealed in those four points (cf. Fujio 2004; Kameda  2001; Nakane 2006). In addition to the analysis of the English textbooks, an interview on the correlation between English learning and politeness theory is conducted on international Japanese in order to observe how they acquire the western politeness strategy, how English learning at school functioned to learn the western politeness strategy, etc. (cf. see 3. for details). To contextualize this paper, the politeness theory and the previous studies on the relation between the Japanese politeness and crossculture communication will be presented first, and a brief overview of English education in Japan and tendencies in Japanese schooling will follow.

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    THE APPLICATION OF POLITENESS THEORY INTO ENGLISH EDUCATION IN JAPAN
  • 133.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Balti keelepoliitika õigustuseks [Justifying language policies in the Baltics]2009In: Sirp, ISSN 1406-6254, Vol. 40, no 0kt 30, p. 5-5Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [et]

    Gabrielle Hogan-Brun, Uldis Ozolins, Meilutė Ramonienė, Mart Rannut, Language Politics and Practices in the Baltic States. Current Issues in Language Planning, Volume 8, Issue 4 January 2008, lk 469–631.    Oleme veendunud, et väljaspool Balti riike elavad inimesed ei saa õieti aru, miks meie keelepoliitika on just selline, nagu ta on. Sealjuures on seda kogu taasiseseisvusaja saatnud erakordselt suur rahvusvaheline tähelepanu. Sellest ajendatuna on neli keele- ja poliitikateadlast kirjutanud monograafia, mille eesmärgiks on asetada kolme Balti riigi viimase aja keelepoliitika ajaloolisse konteksti. Raamatu üks põhieesmärke ongi väidelda, et keelealaste otsuste tegemisel ei ole võimalik lähtuda ainult käesolevast hetkest, vaid peab arvestama ka ajaloolist tausta. Seisukoht, mis kodusele lugejale on intuitiivselt endastmõistetav. 

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    Balti keelepoliitika õigustuseks [Justifying language policies in the Baltics]
  • 134.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Bodily quoting in dance correction2010In: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 401-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on research into reported speech and enactments, this study explores a new aspect of  quoting by looking at how dance teachers ascribe body movements to students. Whether words or movements are quoted depends on the activity the participants are engaged in and what they aim to accomplish. Within corrective teaching sequences at dance classes bodily quotes serve to contrast incorrect performance with the correct one and display features such as decomposition, highlighting, and exaggeration. They afford simultaneous production of demonstration and description. The paper argues that a quote can only be understood as such within the local context and, even in the case of bodily quoting, with adequate ascription. Quoting other bodies is an inherently multimodal achievement, where vocal as well as bodily resources are implemented to construct a coherent course of action. The study is based on video-recorded data in three languages, Swedish, Estonian and English.

  • 135.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Clauses emerging as epistemic adverbs in Estonian conversation2010In: Linguistica Uralica, ISSN 0868-4731, E-ISSN 1736-7506, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 81-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper shows how four combinations of 1st person pronoun + epistemic verb emerge as adverbs in contemporary spoken Estonian, arguing that word classes have fuzzy boundaries. Excerpts from naturally occurring conversations demonstrate how ma tean ‘I know’, ma usun ‘I believe’, ma arvan ‘I think’, and mai tea ‘I don’t know’ are used in varying positions in relation to the commented clause with the prosody that usually suggests their integration into these units. The items display somewhat divergent semantics as compared to their components, expressing degrees of epistemic certainty and uncertainty as well as personalized stance.

  • 136.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Finsk-ugriska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Collaborating towards Coherence: Lexical Cohesion in English DiscourseSanna-Kaisa Tanskanen, John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, 2006, 192 pp., $1582009In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 1071-1073Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 137.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Estonian reduplication in action sequences2001In: Nordic and Baltic Morphology: Papers from a NorFA Course, Tartu, June 2000., p. 23-33Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 138.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Grammatika suhtluses [Grammar in Interaction]2002In: Teoreetiline keeleteadus Eestis, p. 89-104Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 139.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Internal development and borrowing of pragmatic particles: the Estonian vaata/vat 'look', näed 'you see' and vot.2008In: Finnisch-Ugrische Mitteilungen, ISSN 0341-7816, Vol. 30/31, p. 23-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper compares the pragmatic usage patterns of the Estonian particles vaata/vat ‘look’, näed ‘you see’ and vot in interaction. The two first of these have most probably developed language-internally — the frequent usage of a particular verb form in a specific function has resulted in its grammaticalization as a particle. Näed is predominantly an evidential particle and vaata/vat an explanatory and focusing particle. The particularized forms may be phonologically assimilated or shortened and they do not behave as predicates. No arguments can be attached to them and they have acquired new functions that instead concern text structure and interaction. The Russian loanword vot, on the other hand, has been stigmatized in Estonian linguistics and instead, the literary form vaat has been officially promoted. The present article shows why this is a mistake. The particle vot may occasionally fulfill the same functions as näed and vaata/vat but it also displays completely idiosyncratic interactional functions, such as topic closure and handing over the turn to the interlocutor who can then introduce a new topic or alternatively a closure of the conversation. The nature of these efficacious particles can only be revealed in conversational sequences and for their adequate analysis one has to account for the dynamics of interaction.

  • 140.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Making up one’s mind in second position: Estonian no-preface in action plans2018In: Between Turn and Sequence: Turn-initial particles across languages / [ed] John Heritage, Marja-Leena Sorjonen, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, p. 315-338Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses preferred responses that are delayed by the initial particle no in Estonian. It demonstrates that the turn-initial time-space may be employed for a display of “making up one’s mind”, either weighing matters outside the conversation or something already discussed in the talk. The paper argues that besides the dichotomous choice between the preferred and the dispreferred answer format, there are individual contingencies to consider in committing to future actions as made relevant in requests, proposals and suggestions. The particle no prefaces preferred second actions that are associated with high contingency for the concerned parties, or are framed as such. Examples of high contingency include receiving a guest, attending a potentially unpleasant meeting, and faking a signature. The no-prefacing pattern is valid across response types, from partial to full repeats and independently formatted responses which reflect other social dimensions of talk-in-interaction, such as independent agency, commitment, and degree of assent/confirmation. By marking a transition from prior resistance to current compliance with a no-preface, the speaker makes salient that she is currently considering whether to proceed to a complying or non-complying answer, as well as indexes a more global transition between these two standpoints. The resulting turn gives an appearance of a carefully considered and therefore socially cohesive response.

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    Making up one’s mind in second position: Estonian no-preface in action plans
  • 141.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Marking boundaries between activities: The particle nii in Estonian2010In: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 157-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies a practice of marking transitions to a next activity in Estonian interaction. The particle nii is implemented at boundaries between activities or phases of activities, showing that a pragmatic particle need not be implemented only in regard to verbal matters, such as topic or turn sequence. Nii marks the prior activity or its phase as being closed down and the next one as imminent. Sequences of verbal and non-verbal actions in audio and video recordings disclose the multimodal nature of the boundaries marked by nii. Boundary marking entails a number of interactional capacities, including summoning, claiming authority, setting the agenda, making salient transitions within an individual course of action, marking the expectedness of the sequencing of activities, and changing opportunities for participation.

  • 142.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Minimal answers to yes/no questions in the service of sequence organization2010In: Discourse Studies, ISSN 1461-4456, E-ISSN 1461-7080, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 283-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In conversation analytic and interactional studies, some responses are analyzed as being minimal. This article explores minimality in regard to two types of answers that appear to be used interchangeably as minimal responses to yes/no questions in Estonian. The answers represent typologically different formats, particles and echo answers (verb repeats). It is argued that minimality should be defined in a sequentially sensitive manner and that the two answer formats are used to display speaker’s understanding of the status of the social action implemented in the preceding question. The data come from audio recordings of phone calls and face-to-face interaction.

  • 143.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    New Yorgi kaubamajad ja Mulgi murre ehk millega tegelevad sotsiolingvistid2001In: Oma Keel, ISSN 1406-6599, Vol. 2, p. 5-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 144.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Pro-adverbs of manner as markers of activity transition2010In: Studies in Language, ISSN 0378-4177, E-ISSN 1569-9978, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 350-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the phenomenon that pro-adverbs of manner are cross-linguistically used to mark transitions from one activity to another. In Estonian, the pro-adverb nii is used for this purpose. Among Estonian refugees in Sweden, an activity transition is frequently marked with soo. Both nii and soo originally had the same semantic meaning ‘like this/that, in this way, so’, even though soo merely in its source language German. The article argues that the deictic pro-adverbs of manner are especially suitable for the task of marking activity transitions because they can be applied at the boundaries of verbal as well as non-verbal activities. The reason for the existence of this pattern seems to lie in the general necessity in human interaction to jointly move from one activity to another and the exophoric deictic capacity of pro-adverbs. The study explores audio- and video-recorded examples with regard to the sequencing of social actions accomplished by the participants in the verbal as well as the bodily domain.

  • 145.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Social action of syntactic reduplication2010In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 800-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduplication has been shown to carry the semantic meaning of increased intensity, duration or emphasis. This study demonstrates that syntactic reduplication in Estonian is regularly used in responsive positions in action sequences. Instances of syntactic reduplication constitute specific social practices such as affiliative and disaffiliative urging, challenging the prior speaker, reinforcing answers to yes/no questions, and providing a non-elicited confirmation. It is a sedimented linguistic pattern grounded in the social actions it recurrently performs. Different reduplicative actions furthermore display characteristic prosodic features, involving initial prominence in affiliative actions and delayed pitch peak in disaffiliative ones. Mock repeats and disconfirming answers are produced with double pitch peaks. Grammar and prosody are complementary means of achieving social action in particular positions in interactive sequences. The paper shows that sequential and social contingencies may be essential in understanding a grammatical pattern.

  • 146.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Suhtluskeele uurimine partiklistunud verbivormide näitel2005In: Keel ja Kirjandus, ISSN 0131-1441, Vol. 48, no 7-8, p. 535-548Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 147.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    The grammar-interaction interface of negative questions in Estonian2009In: SKY Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 1456-8438, E-ISSN 1796-279X, Vol. 22, p. 139-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grammatically negative questions have been considered tricky because out of context it is basically impossible to predict whether they are conducive of a positive or negative answer (e.g. Sadock and Zwicky 1985). Furthermore, some of them convey reverse polarity affirmations rather than ask for information (Koshik 2002). The current study looks systematically at all negative polar questions found in Estonian spoken language corpora and shows that in actual usage, they are predominantly conducive of a confirming answer. However, a confirming answer may in some cases be either in a positive or negative form. Conduciveness of a negative question as well as its linguistic format depend on the action the question implements in a conversational sequence. The paper shows that each of the five negative question formats in Estonian regularly implement different kinds of social action ranging from challenging and topic initiation to requests for information and confirmation.

  • 148.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The temporal organization of conversation while mucking out a sheep stable2018In: Time in Embodied Interaction: Synchronicity and sequentiality of multimodal resources / [ed] Arnulf Deppermann, Jürgen Streeck, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, p. 97-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on talk-oriented activities, there seems to be a consensus that turn-taking is organized to minimize gaps between turns. This study looks at a conversational sequence that evolved in a multi-party setting during a joint cleaning of a sheep stable, and analyzes how nextness is accomplished in a nonproblematic manner after extensive silences. It argues that due to the non-cognitive but physically straining nature of the activity in a confined space, chatting is almost constant but response relevance is reduced. It discusses the moral orders of talk and work in this multiactivity setting, where urgency is not an issue, and suggests that data collection for sequence analysis be more attentive to the systematic differences between talk-oriented and other settings.

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    The temporal organization of conversation while mucking out a sheep stable
  • 149.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska språk.
    The terms of not knowing2011In: The Morality of Knowledge in Interaction / [ed] Tanya Stivers, Lorenza Mondada, Jacob Steensig, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2011, p. 184-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In some sequential positions in conversation, knowledge displays are systematically due. Information questions make the recipient accountable for providing an informative answer and mai tea (‘I don’t know’ in Estonian) serves as an account for not doing so. This paper looks at mai tea in responsive turns in everyday conversation in Estonian, showing parallels in Swedish and Russian.

     

    Prior conversation analytic studies on “no knowledge” responses have been based on institutional interaction (Clayman 2001; Drew 1992; Hutchby 2002) where knowledge as well as the right to extort it are distributed according to the participants’ institutional roles. In everyday interaction a “no knowledge” response is treated as a joint responsibility. Insofar as questions should be addressed to knowing recipients, a mai tea response implies that the question was irrelevant, inapposite or posed to a wrong recipient. The answerer can affiliatively show her understanding of the design of the question by giving a further account. In the case of stand-alone mai tea, which constitutes a disaffiliative action, the questioner is responsible for redesigning the question. The epistemic claim is thus used for handling interactional contingencies. The paper looks at how participants manage the accountability for not knowing, and how this plays out in terms of speaker-recipient affiliation.

  • 150.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Tracing grammaticalization of oota 'wait' in Estonian conversation2001In: Papers in Estonian Cognitive Linguistics, p. 119-144Article in journal (Refereed)
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