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  • 101.
    Marotti, R.E.
    et al.
    Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.
    Bojorge, C.D.
    REPSOL-YPF, CITEFA, CINSO, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Canepa, H.
    CINSO, CONICET-CITEFA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Badan, J.A.
    Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.
    Dalchiele, J.A.
    Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.
    Gellman, A.J.
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Characterization of ZnO and ZnO: Al thin films deposited by the sol–gel dip-coating technique2008In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 517, no 3, p. 1077-1080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocrystalline zinc oxide films have been obtained by the sol–gel process. The films were deposited from precursor solutions by dip-coating on quartz substrates, and subsequently transformed into nanocrystalline pure or aluminium-doped ZnO films after a thermal treatment. The film microstructure and composition characterization was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties were studied by transmittance spectroscopy. The water adsorption energy was measured by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) in the range 90–700 K. The optical transmittance in the UV region gives bandgap energy values of 3.27 eV for undoped samples, and higher than 3.30 eV for the Al-doped ones. The increase in bandgap energy in Al-doped samples may be explained by band-filling effects. The band edge absorption coefficient increases monotonically for the Al-doped samples but has a shoulder for the undoped ones, which may be assigned to room-temperature excitonic absorption.

  • 102.
    Mendoza, Arturo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Mexico.
    Arreola-Jardón, Gerardo
    Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Mexico.
    Karlsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jiménez-Sandoval, Sergio
    Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Mexico.
    Optical properties of CuCdTeO thin films sputtered from CdTe-CuO composite targets2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 571, p. 706-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effective complex dielectric function (ε) of Cu and O containing CdTe thin films is reported in the spectral range of 0.05 to 6 eV. The films were fabricated by rf sputtering from targets comprised by a mixture of CdTe and CuO powders with nominal Cu and O concentrations in the range of 2–10 at.%. Low concentration levels improved the crystalline quality of the films. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmittance measurements were used to determine ε. The critical point energies E1, E11, and E2 of CdTe are red-shifted with the incorporation of Cu and O. Also, an absorption band is developed in the infrared range which is associated with a mixture of CdTe and low resistivity phases Cu2 − xTe according to an effective medium analysis. The elemental distribution of the films was mapped by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy using scanning transmission electron microscopy.

  • 103.
    Miller, J
    et al.
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Ashok, T
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Lee, S
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zinc oxide-based thin film functional layers for chemiresistive sensors2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 520, no 21, p. 6669-6676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sol–gel wet-chemical techniques were used to prepare ZnO, Al–ZnO (Al:Zn = 1:10 mol/mol) and Cu–ZnO (Cu:Zn = 1:10 mol/mol) thin films for characterization as functional layers for chemiresistive oxygen sensors. Cu and Al minor components influence the ZnO films' topography and their thermally induced chemical and structural evolution. As prepared (room temperature) films have the structure of layered basic zinc acetate, a lamellar ZnO precursor. Upon annealing at temperatures through 973 K, the films display similar chemical evolution patterns—temperatures above 773 K are needed to completely desorb solvents and decompose precursors. Cu facilitates c-axis orientation of the film as its structure matures, while Al slows its crystallization. Chemiresistive sensors, fabricated by coating thin film functional layers onto interdigitated electrode (IDE) transducers, were evaluated for their responses to oxygen at operating temperatures through 873 K. A ZnO/IDE sensor displays high sensitivity for O2 at an intermediate temperature, 673 K, reflecting an optimal balance between surface O2 coverage and carrier availability. At 1:10 mol/mol Cu:Zn and Al:Zn, the developing ZnO structure cannot accommodate all minor component atoms. Surplus atoms accumulate in independent phases at grain boundaries, contributing to both high base resistances (in N2) and low sensitivity to oxygen.

  • 104.
    Miller, James B.
    et al.
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA and National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Hsieh, Hsin-Jung
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Howard, Bret H.
    National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Microstructural evolution of sol-gel derived ZnO thin films2010In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 518, no 23, p. 6792-6798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc oxide thin films, with thicknesses between ∼ 20 and 450 nm, were prepared by spin-coating a sol–gel precursor solution (zinc acetate dihydrate and monoethanolamine in an isopropanol solvent) onto glass substrates, followed by heat treatment at temperatures through 773 K. At 298 and 373 K, the films exhibited the structure of a lamellar ZnO precursor, Layered Basic Zinc Acetate (LBZA). At higher temperatures, LBZA released intercalated water and acetate groups and dehydroxylated to form zinc oxide nanograins with wurtzite structure, which were preferentially oriented in the c-axis direction. Both the degree of the films' c-axis orientation and the topography of their surfaces varied with heat treatment and precursor concentration. For films calcined at 773 K, a minimum of micron-scale surface wrinkles coincided with a maximum in c-axis preference at intermediate concentrations, suggesting that release of mechanical stress during densification of thicker films may have disrupted the ordering process that occurs during heat treatment.

  • 105.
    Mockuté, Aurelija
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nedfors, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berastegui, P.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SKF Res and Technol Dev Ctr, Netherlands.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Näslund, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Patscheider, J.
    Evatec AG, Switzerland.
    Jansson, U.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synthesis and characterization of (Ti1-xAlx)B2+Delta thin films from combinatorial magnetron sputtering2019In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 669, p. 181-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (Ti1-xAlx)B2+Delta films with a lateral composition gradient of x = [0.30-0.66] and Delta = [0.07-1.22] were deposited on an Al2O3 wafer by dual magnetron sputtering at 400 degrees C from sintered TiB2 and AlB2 targets. Composition analysis indicates that higher Ti:Al ratios favor overstoichiometry in B and a reduced incorporation of O. Transmission electron microscopy reveals distinctly different microstructures of Ti- and Al-rich compositions, with formation of characteristic conical growth features for the latter along with a lower degree of crystallinity and significantly less tissue phase from B segregation at the grain boundaries. For Al-rich films, phase separation into Ti- and Al-rich diboride nanometer-size domains is observed and interpreted as surface-initiated spinodal decomposition. The hardness of the films ranges from 14 to 28 GPa, where the higher values were obtained for the Ti-rich regions of the metal boride.

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  • 106.
    Muehlbacher, Marlene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Leoben, Austria.
    Mendez-Martin, F.
    University of Leoben, Austria.
    Sartory, B.
    Mat Centre Leoben Forsch GmbH, Austria.
    Schalk, N.
    University of Leoben, Austria.
    Keckes, J.
    University of Leoben, Austria; Austrian Academic Science, Austria.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mitterer, C.
    University of Leoben, Austria.
    Copper diffusion into single-crystalline TiN studied by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography2015In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 574, p. 103-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TiN/Cu bilayers were grown by unbalanced DC magnetron sputter deposition on (001)-oriented MgO substrates. Pole figures and electron back-scatter diffraction orientation maps indicate that both layers in the as-deposited state are single-crystalline with a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship with the substrate. This is confirmed by selected area electron diffraction patterns. To study the efficiency of the TiN barrier layer against in-diffusion of Cu, we annealed samples at 900 degrees C for 1 h in vacuum and at 1000 degrees C for 12 h in Ar atmosphere. The single-crystalline structure of the TiN layer is stable up to annealing temperatures of 1000 degrees C as shown by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. While no Cu diffusion was evident after annealing at 900 degrees C, scanning transmission electron microscopy images and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry maps show a uniform diffusion layer of about 12 nm after annealing at 1000 degrees C for 12 h. Concentration depth profiles obtained from 3D atom probe tomography reconstructions confirm these findings and reveal that the TiN film is slightly substoichiometric with a N/Ti ratio of 0.92. Considering this composition, we propose a lattice diffusion mechanism of Cu in TiN via the formation of Cu-N vacancy complexes. The excellent diffusion barrier properties of single-crystalline TiN are further attributed to the lack of fast diffusion paths such as grain boundaries.

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  • 107.
    Muñoz-Pineda, Eloy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Querétaro, Mexico.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mendoza-Galván, Arturo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Querétaro, Mexico.
    Symmetries and relationships between elements of the Mueller matrix spectra of the cuticle of the beetle Cotinis mutabilis2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 571, p. 660-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical properties of light reflected from the cuticle of the scarab beetle Cotinis mutabilis are studied using variable angle Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry. Reflection of left-handed polarized light is demonstrated. Large amplitude interference oscillations in the elements of the normalized Mueller matrix (M) reveal highly transparent materials comprising the beetle cuticle. Off-diagonal elements in M obey simple symmetry relationships due to the constraint in the cross-polarized reflection coefficients between p and s polarizations of chiral systems, rps = − rsp. Based on the latter constraint and further interrelationships experimentally investigated, the number of independent elements in M resulted in only six. Reciprocity is probed from measurements performed in opposite sample orientations and the effects on M due to sample rotation by 90° are discussed. The results suggest relatively large areas in the cuticle of C. mutabilis with a helicoidal structure comprised of fibrils with a well-defined orientation.

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  • 108.
    Münger, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundgren, J E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Destabilization and diffusion of two-dimensional close-packed Pt clusters on Pt(111) during film growth from the vapor phase1998In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 318, no 1-2, p. 57-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cluster migration is known to be an important process during film growth at elevated temperatures, but relatively little quantitative data is available. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to follow the dynamics of small two-dimensional Pt clusters on Pt(lll) at 1000 K. While close-packed Pt-7 heptamers are extremely stable structures, the addition of a single-cluster vacancy or an on-top adatom immediately results in intracluster bond breaking, reconfigurations, rotations, the introduction of stacking faults, and greatly enhanced cluster-diffusion rates. Mapping center-of-mass motion for total simulation times > 145 ns revealed increases in cluster velocities by more than an order of magnitude with cluster migration occurring primarily by concerted motion and a novel diffusion mechanism involving double shearing of dimers/trimers. Contrary to some previous reports, edge-atom diffusion plays only a minor role. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science S.A.

  • 109.
    Nedfors, Nils
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Tengstrand, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Flink, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Characterization of amorphous and nanocomposite Nb–Si–C thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering2013In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 545, p. 272-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two series of Nb–Si–C thin films of different composition have been deposited using DC magnetron sputtering. In the first series the carbon content was kept at about 55 at.% while the Si/Nb ratio was varied and in the second series the C/Nb ratio was varied instead while the Si content was kept at about 45 at.%. The microstructure is strongly dependent on Si content and Nb–Si–C films containing more than 25 at.% Si exhibit an amorphous structure as determined by X-ray diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy, however, induces crystallisation during analysis, thus obstructing a more detailed analysis of the amorphous structure. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy suggests that the amorphous films consist of a mixture of chemical bonds such as Nb–Si, Nb–C, and Si–C. The addition of Si results in a hardness decrease from 22 GPa for the binary Nb–C film to 18 – 19 GPa for the Si-containing films, while film resistivity increases from 211 μΩcm to 3215 μΩcm. Comparison with recently published results on DC magnetron sputtered Zr–Si–C films, deposited in the same system using the same Ar-plasma pressure, bias, and a slightly lower substrate temperature (300 °C instead of 350 °C), shows that hardness is primarily dependent on the amount of Si–C bonds rather than type of transition metal. The reduced elastic modulus on the other hand shows a dependency on the type of transition metal for the films. These trends for the mechanical properties suggest that high wear resistant (high H/E and H3/E2 ratio) Me–Si–C films can be achieved by appropriate choice of film composition and transition metal.

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  • 110.
    Neidhardt, Jörg
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cryogenic deposition of carbon nitride thin solid films by reactive magnetron sputtering, Suppression of the chemical desorption processes2005In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 478, no 1-2, p. 34-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanostructured fullerene-like carbon nitride (FL CNx) is commonly grown by reactive magnetron sputtering of carbon in a nitrogen-containing atmosphere. The film structure formation for this technique is presumably due to the existence of preformed molecular CxNy (x,y≤2) species in the deposition flux, which act as growth templates and enhance the selectivity of chemical desorption processes. In the present study, the extent of the desorption processes and the implications on the resulting film have been investigated in detail, addressing in particular the structure evolution and the origin of the incorporated nitrogen. This was studied by varying the N2-fraction in the discharge from 0 to 1 and the substrate temperature from 600 °C (873 K) down to minus 130 °C (143 K). The results show that the incorporation rate of carbon and nitrogen into the film increases substantially with an increased N2-content in the plasma and decreasing substrate temperature, thus indicating that the chemistry and magnitude of the arriving flux is substantially altered with the N2-fraction in the discharge. It is concluded that the chemically activated desorption in conjunction with the varying chemistry of the film-forming flux affects the sensitive structural balance, determined by incorporation and desorption of film forming CxNy (x,y≤2) species.

  • 111.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Du, Chun-Xia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Duteil, F.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Light emitting SiGe/i-Si/Si: Er2000In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 369, no 1, p. 414-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    p+-SiGe/i-Si/n-Si:Er:O/n+-Si tunneling diodes have been processed using layer structures prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Electroluminescence has been observed at room temperature from these devices at reverse bias. The devices have been used for characterizing the optical activation of Er3+ ions in MBE Si:Er:O layers grown at different conditions. In the range of 400-575 °C, a high substrate temperature is favored for formation of Er emission centers, but this is limited by the silicidation process occurring above 600 °C. Several important device parameters such as the impact excitation cross section and various EL decay processes have been carefully studied. A fast decay (approximately 4 µs) due to the Auger carrier transfer process is observed.

  • 112.
    Nyberg, T.
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berg, S.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    A simple model for non-saturated reactive sputtering processes2019In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 688, article id 137413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive sputtering processes are quite complex processes and therefore difficult to understand in detail. However, a number of attempts to clearify the behaviour of reactive sputtering of oxides and nitrides have been made. Several process modelling results for such processes have been published that reasonable well mirrors the actual experimental findings. All of these models indicate that the processes normally exhibit hysteresis effects and that the oxides/nitrides will saturate at the stoichiometric compound values. We therefore call these processes saturated reactive sputtering processes. Carrying out reactive sputtering in a hydrocarbon gas like CH4 instead of in oxygen or nitrogen cannot be described with the previously suggested models for oxide or nitride formations. Decomposition of the CH4 molecule in the plasma may result both in carbide formation with the target metal as well as plasma deposited carbon. Depending on the supply of the CH4 the deposited film composition may vary from 0 to 100% of carbon. In the extreme case of very high supply of CH4 a pure carbon film will be deposited. We expect that similar behaviour will be found when carrying out reactive sputtering in other solid material containing gases like e.g. silane or diborane. We have chosen to call such processes non-saturated reactive sputtering processes. In order to understand the behaviour of non-saturated reactive sputtering processes we have developed a new model that enables the user to find the response to individual processing parameters and thus obtain a tool for process optimization. In order to limit the number of parameters our model is outlined for reactive sputtering of Ti in a mixture of argon and CH4. In this article we report that the simulation results reasonable well correlate with our experimental findings.

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  • 113.
    Nygren, K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Impact Coatings AB, Westmansgatan 29, SE-58216 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Impact Coatings AB, Westmansgatan 29, SE-58216 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Impact Coatings AB, Westmansgatan 29, SE-58216 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Jansson, U.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Optical methods to quantify amorphous carbon in carbide-based nanocomposite coatings2017In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 638, p. 291-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report how the total carbon content and the amorphous carbon (a-C) phase fraction in transition metal carbide/a-C nanocomposite coatings can be obtained using optical methods, which are much more practical for industrial use than conventional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A large set of carbon-containing nanocomposite coatings deposited using different magnetron sputtering techniques were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflectance spectrophotometry, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The chemical composition and the a-C phase fraction were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for each coating and results are presented for the Ti-C, Cr-C, and Nb-C systems. The composition and the a-C phase fraction are correlated to optical reflectance in the visible range, by parametrization in L*a*b* color space, and by ellipsometry primary data. Results show that it is possible to rapidly estimate the composition and the a-C fraction using these optical methods. We propose that optical methods have promising use in the industry as a cost-efficient technique for characterization of carbide-based coatings. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 114.
    Odén, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Almer, J
    IKP, Konstruktionsmaterial Linköpings unversitet.
    Håkansson, Greger
    Bodycote Värmebehandling AB Linköping.
    Olsson, M
    Dalarna University .
    Microstructure-property relationships in arc-evaporated Cr-N coatings2000In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 377-378, p. 407-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromium nitride (Cr-N) coatings have received increased attention for tribological applications due to their favorable properties including wear resistance, toughness and oxidation resistance. These properties, in turn, can be strongly influenced by the coating microstructure and residual stress resulting from deposition and subsequent processing operations. In this study these microstructure-property correlations are investigated in Cr-N coatings grown by arc-evaporation. Prominent as-deposited features include formation of metastable amounts of the cubic d-CrN phase, and high levels of compressive residual stress and defect density. During annealing up to 650 ░C the residual stress and defect density decrease substantially, accompanied by a diffusion-based d-CrN to ▀-Cr2N phase transformation and equiaxed grain formation. The effects of these microstructural modifications on the hardness, fracture and wear properties of the coatings are evaluated using a combination of nanoindentation, scratch and pin-on-disk testing. Appreciable changes in these properties are found after annealing, and are correlated to the Cr-N microstructure. As-deposited coating hardness is enhanced by high levels of lattice defect density, with both decreasing concomitantly during annealing. Scratch results show that resistance to cohesive flaking is increased by annealing, suggesting ductility increases via defect annealing and equiaxed grain formation. Finally, the wear rate under dry sliding generally increased with annealing temperature, although wear rates of all Cr-N coatings significantly outperformed TiN tested under identical conditions.

  • 115.
    Olsson, M.K.
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Inst. Solar Ener. Syst., Oltmannstr. 5, D-79100, Freiburg, Germany.
    Macak, K.
    Mechanisms for reactive DC magnetron sputtering of elements with different atomic masses: Large area coatings of Al oxide and W oxide2000In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 371, no 1, p. 86-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stoichiometric Al and W oxide films are prepared with high stability from the metallic state of the cathodes using conventional reactive DC magnetron sputtering on an industrial prototype scale. While for the Al, increased target power is a trivial way to increase growth rates, W oxide sputtering of optically functional films with sufficiently amorphous structure is severely limited by the effect of gas rarefaction at high powers. Choosing an appropriate working gas pressure and a source-to-substrate distance, which facilitates the gas scattering allows the deposition of homogeneous stoichiometric tungsten oxide films in a stable condition with a relatively high discharge current. Optimization of the process parameters with respect to film properties and efficiency of the deposition process is discussed.

  • 116.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Formation of α-approximant and quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe thin films2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 526, p. 74-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered Al/Cu/Fe thin films have been deposited by magnetron sputtering onto Si and Al2O3 substrates with a nominal global composition corresponding to the quasicrystalline phase, 5:2:1. Subsequent annealing was performed on the samples up to 710 degrees C. It is found that when using Si as a substrate a film-substrate reaction occurs already below 390 degrees C, where Si diffuses into the film. This changes the composition, promoting the formation of the alpha-approximant Al55Si7Cu25.5Fe12.5 in the temperature range 400 to 650 degrees C over the quasicrystalline psi-phase. When annealing the same Al-Cu-Fe thin film grown on Al2O3 substrates the Al62.5Cu25Fe12.5 icosahedral quasicrystalline phase is formed.

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  • 117.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Garbrecht, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Structure and Composition of Al(Si)CuFe Approximant Thin Films Formed by Si Substrate Diffusion2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 550, no 1, p. 105-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered Al/Cu/Fe thin films with composition close to the quasicrystalline phase have been prepared by magnetron sputtering. Annealing at 600 °C yields a homogeneous film of the cubic a-approximant phase by Si substrate diffusion, which prevents the formation of the quasicrystalline phase. After 4 h annealing the film contained 8 at.% Si, which corresponds to the expected value of the a-approximant. The amount of Si in the films was found to slowly increase to ~12 at.% during continued annealing (64 h) while the α-approximant phase was retained. The lattice parameter was found to  continuously decrease as Al became substituted with Si. The film is observed to be polycrystalline with individual grains being strained in varying magnitude, and with no preferential orientation relationship to the substrate or each other.

  • 118. Palacio, JF
    et al.
    Bull, SJ
    Neidhardt, Jörg
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Nanoindentation response of high perfonnance fullerene-like CNx2006In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 494, no 01-Feb, p. 63-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous carbon nitride (CNx) coatings are now being developed for a range of applications, e.g. as a protective top layer for hard disks or as a coating to reduce the friction between synthetic joints in the human body. The purpose of this work is to assess the mechanical properties of the latest generation of fullerene-like CNx deposited on different substrates in order to expand the number of potential applications. Samples of CNx on four different substrates have been studied using quasistatic nanoindentation with a wide range of peak loads, from 500 mu N to 500 mN and dynamic nanoindentation for peak loads from 100 mu N to up to 10 mN. Improved deposition techniques generate samples with extremely high values of hardness/Young's modulus, in some cases greater than 0.4 which is not achieved by any other hard material. Adhesion and fracture resistance are comparable to or better than that of traditional high hardness coatings, such as SiC and TiN, on similar substrates. The sample of CNx on titanium showed differences in hardness and Young's modulus at low loads, where the influence of the substrate is negligible, compared to coatings deposited on other substrates. This arises due to the fact that Ti from the substrate may have diffused into the coating in the deposition process creating a sort of C-N-Ti high hardness layer which would have some advantages of both the fullerene-like and traditional hard coating systems. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 119.
    Palmquist, J.-P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Department of Materials Chemistry, Ångström Laboratory, P.O. Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Jansson, U.
    Uppsala University, Department of Materials Chemistry, Ångström Laboratory, P.O. Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Deposition of epitaxial ternary transition metal carbide films2002In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 405, p. 122-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin epitaxial carbide films have been deposited in UHV by co-evaporation of Mo, Nb, Ti and V, with C60 as carbon source. Two separate systems were studied, Ti1-xVxCy on MgO(001) and Nb1-xMoxCy on MgO(111). We demonstrate the possibility to tune the cell parameter of an epitaxial ternary carbide film by control of the composition. Analysis with reciprocal space mapping show that deposition of Ti0.34V0.66C0.81 at 500 °C yields a strain-free film with perfect match towards the MgO(001) substrate. Also, a good manual control of the individual fluxes allows the design of tailor-made compositional gradient structures. An epitaxial linear carbide gradient film going from TiC to VC was deposited at 500 °C. Furthermore, the low deposition temperature allows the deposition of metastable carbide structures. This was shown with epitaxial growth of a Nb1-xMoxCy film at 500 and 600 °C. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 120.
    Palmquist, J.-P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Czigany, Zs.
    Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Budapest.
    Odén, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Neidhardt, Jörg
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, U.
    Uppsala University.
    Magnetron sputtered W-C films with C60 as carbon source2003In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 444, no 1-2, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films in the W–C system were prepared by magnetron sputtering of W with coevaporated C60 as carbon source. Epitaxial deposition of different W–C phases is demonstrated. In addition, nanocrystalline tungsten carbide film growth is also observed. At low C60/W ratios, epitaxial growth of α-W with a solid solution of carbon was obtained on MgO(001) and Al2O3(001) at 400 °C. The carbon content in these films (10–20 at.%) was at least an order of magnitude higher than the maximum equilibrium solubility and gives rise to an extreme hardening effect. Nanoindentation measurements showed that the hardness of these films increased with the carbon content and values as high as 35 GPa were observed. At high C60/W ratios, films of the cubic β-WC1−x (x=0–0.6) phase were deposited with a nanocrystalline microstructure. Films with a grain size <30 Å were obtained and the hardness of these films varied from 14 to 24 GPa. At intermediate C60/W ratios, epitaxial films of hexagonal W2C were deposited on MgO(111) at 400 °C. Polycrystalline phase mixtures were obtained on other substrates and hexagonal WC could be deposited as minority phase at 800 °C.

  • 121.
    Pecz, B
    et al.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Inst Tech Phys & Mat Sci, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Outokumpu Semitron AB, S-17824 Ekero, Sweden Swedish Space Corp, S-17104 Solna, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, S-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Lockowandt, C
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Inst Tech Phys & Mat Sci, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Outokumpu Semitron AB, S-17824 Ekero, Sweden Swedish Space Corp, S-17104 Solna, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, S-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Radamson, H
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Inst Tech Phys & Mat Sci, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Outokumpu Semitron AB, S-17824 Ekero, Sweden Swedish Space Corp, S-17104 Solna, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, S-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Radnoczi, G
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Inst Tech Phys & Mat Sci, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Outokumpu Semitron AB, S-17824 Ekero, Sweden Swedish Space Corp, S-17104 Solna, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, S-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Structural investigation of SiC epitaxial layers grown under microgravity and on-ground conditions1999In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 357, no 2, p. 137-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thick 4H-, and 6H-SiC epitaxial layers have been grown by LPE from Si-Sc-C solvent at microgravity conditions during a space experiment, as well as on-ground. The samples are characterised by cross-sectional TEM and HRXRD. Layers grown at microgravity are relatively defect free, although their surfaces are always stepped. Control samples grown on-ground have similar surface appearance, but contain scandium carbide precipitates, nanopipes, micropipes and/or cavities as verified by TEM. However, none of the aforementioned defects was traced in the layers grown at microgravity conditions. So, samples grown at space microgravity conditions are superior in their defect structure to those ones grown on the ground. The defects called nanopipes can be described as empty pipes of about 200 nm diameter traversing the layer in the [0001] (growth) direction. The steps in the microgravity and on-ground samples have facets of {104} type crystallographic planes both in 6H-, and 4H-SiC. We suggest, that those facets are formed and preferred during growth due to a possible mechanism of decreasing the high energy of the growing Si terminated (0001) surface. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

  • 122.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the effect of water and oxygen in chemical vapor deposition of boron nitride2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 520, no 18, p. 5889-5893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth studies of sp(2)-hybridized boron nitride (BN) phases by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are presented; of particular interest is the presence of oxygen and water during growth. While Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveals the presence of B-N bonds and elemental analysis by elastic recoil detection analysis shows that the films are close to stoichiometric, although containing a few atomic percent oxygen and hydrogen, X-ray diffraction measurements show no indications for nucleation of any crystalline BN phases, despite change in N/B-ratio and/or process temperature. Thermodynamic modeling suggests that this is due to formation of strong B-O bonds already in the gas phase in the presence of water or oxygen during growth. This growth behavior is believed to be caused by an uncontrolled release of water and/or oxygen in the deposition chamber and highlights the sensitivity of the BN CVD process towards oxygen and water.

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  • 123.
    Persson, P. O. Å.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höglund, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ti2Al(O,N) formation by solid state reaction between substoichiometric TiN thin films and Al2O3(0001) substrates2011In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 519, no 8, p. 2421-2425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium nitride TiNx (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 1) thin films were deposited onto Al2O3(0001) substrates using reactive magnetron sputtering at substrate temperatures (Ts) ranging from 800 ºC to 1000 ºC and N2 partial pressures (pN2) between 0.1 and 1.0 mTorr. It is found that Al and O from the substrates diffuse into the substoichiometric TiNx films during deposition. Solid state reactions between the film and substrate result in the formation of Ti2O and Ti3Al domains at low N2 partial pressures, while for increasing pN2, the Ti2AlN MAX phase nucleates and grows together with TiNx. Depositions at increasingly stoichiometric conditions result in a decreasing incorporation of the substrate species into the growing film. Eventually, a stoichiometric deposition gives a stable TiN(111) || Al2O3(0001) structure without the incorporation of substrate species. Growth at Ts 1000 ºC yields Ti2AlN(0001), leading to a reduced incorporation of substrate species compared to films grown at 900 ºC, but contains also Ti2AlN(101ɸ3) grains. Finally, the Ti2AlN domains incorporate O, likely on the N site, such that a MAX phase oxynitride Ti2Al(O,N) is formed. The results were obtained by a combination of structural methods, including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM), together with spectroscopy methods, which comprise elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS).

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  • 124.
    Petrov, Ivan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61820 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stueber, Michael
    KIT, Germany.
    Chen, Li-Chyong
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taiwan.
    Desjardins, Patrick
    Ecole Polytech Montreal, Canada.
    Preface of the special issue "Thin Films Advances" dedicated to the 75th birthday of Professor Joe Greene2019In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 688, article id 137494Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-08-03 09:54
  • 125.
    Poksinski, Michal
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Protein monolayers monitored by internal reflection ellipsometry2004In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 455-456, p. 716-721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) in spectroscopic mode in the wavelength range 400–1200 nm is employed in situ at a solid/liquid interface for investigation of protein adsorption on thin semitransparent gold films. In this configuration, the surface plasmon resonance phenomenon gives a large enhancement of the thin film sensitivity. Adsorption of a monolayer of the protein ferritin is monitored kinetically in situ and results in a change in the ellipsometric parameter Δ of more than 90° compared to 3° in similar ellipsometric measurements on gold substrates. This large sensitivity demonstrates a potential for sensor applications. The ferritin layer optical function is modeled with a Cauchy dispersion model resulting in a layer thickness of 9.2 nm, in good agreement with the dimension of the ferritin molecules. A transition layer between the protein film and the gold layer is necessary to introduce in the model to account for interactions between the protein layer and the gold film. The large sensitivity of TIRE for thin layers opens up a pathway to analyze in detail the structure of thin protein layers provided that a further development of the experimental setup and the model for the protein layer is carried out.

  • 126.
    Qadir Israr, Muhammed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rana Sadaf, Jamil
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Asif, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, B.
    Lund University.
    Potentiometric cholesterol biosensor based on ZnO nanorods chemically grown on Ag wire2010In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 519, no 3, p. 1106-1109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An electrochemical biosensor based on ZnO nanorods for potentiometric cholesterol determination is proposed. Hexagon-shaped ZnO nanorods were directly grown on a silver wire having a diameter of 250 mu m using low temperature aqueous chemical approach that produced ZnO nanorods with a diameter of 125250 nm and a length of similar to 1 mu m. Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was immobilized by a physical adsorption method onto ZnO nanorods. The electrochemical response of the ChOx/ZnO/Ag biosensor against a standard reference electrode (Ag/AgCl) was investigated as a logarithmic function of the cholesterol concentration (1 x 10(-6)M to 1 x 10(-2)M) showing good linearity with a sensitivity of 35.2 mV per decade and the stable output signal was attained at around 10 s.

  • 127.
    Radnoczi, G.
    et al.
    Radnóczi, G., Res. Inst. for Tech. Phys./Mat. Sci., P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary.
    Safran, G.
    Sáfrán, G., Res. Inst. for Tech. Phys./Mat. Sci., P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary.
    Czigany, Zs.
    Czigány, Zs., Res. Inst. for Tech. Phys./Mat. Sci., P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary.
    Berlind, T.
    Thin Film Electronics AB, Westmansgatan 27, SE-582 16 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Structure of DC sputtered Si-C-N thin films2003In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 440, no 1-2, p. 41-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Si-C-N films of maximum 65 at.% of Si and maximum 40 at.% of N were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering and their fine structure was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. For compositions, where C-C and C-N bonds prevail, the films had anisotropic structure on the atomic scale, composed of curved graphitic layers, aligned parallel to the substrate normal. An isotropic structure was detected in the middle of the compositional triangle. On a larger scale, a columnar morphology, aligned in the direction of the deposition flux was formed in films containing more than 15 at.% of Si. Singular or simultaneous appearance of the above structures depended on film composition. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 128.
    Rantzer, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjörvarsson, B.
    Department of Materials Science, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bakker, J.W.P.
    Faculty of Applied Physics, University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optical properties of intrinsic and doped a-Si:H films grown by d.c. magnetron sputter deposition2001In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 394, no 1-2, p. 255-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of intrinsic, B- and P-doped a-Si:H were grown by d.c. magnetron sputter deposition. The doping was accomplished by doped targets and co-sputtering Si and B4C. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used for optical characterization and multiple sample analysis was applied to extract the dielectric functions of intrinsic films with 8–10 at.% hydrogen content, boron doped films with 2.2 at.% hydrogen and phosphorous-doped films with hydrogen contents of 10–15 at.%. One of the phosphorous-doped films was micro-crystalline. Hydrogen content was determined by nuclear reaction analysis. From the obtained optical properties the absorption and the optical gap were studied addressing p–i–n diode applications. The optical gaps for intrinsic a-Si:H material were 1.88±0.03 eV as determined by Tauc analysis and 1.45±0.06 eV by applying Cody analysis.

  • 129.
    Reginski, K
    et al.
    Inst Electr Mat Technol, Dept Phys & Technol Low Dimens Struct, PL-02668 Warsaw, Poland Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ochalski, T
    Inst Electr Mat Technol, Dept Phys & Technol Low Dimens Struct, PL-02668 Warsaw, Poland Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Muszalski, J
    Inst Electr Mat Technol, Dept Phys & Technol Low Dimens Struct, PL-02668 Warsaw, Poland Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Bugajski, M
    Inst Electr Mat Technol, Dept Phys & Technol Low Dimens Struct, PL-02668 Warsaw, Poland Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Bergman, JP
    Inst Electr Mat Technol, Dept Phys & Technol Low Dimens Struct, PL-02668 Warsaw, Poland Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Investigations of optical properties of active regions in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown by MBE2002In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 412, no 1-2, p. 107-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of the vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) needs proper tuning of many different optical parameters of those structures. So, the optimisation of the VCSELs requires deep understanding of optical processes occurring in the active regions of such lasers. In a series of MBE processes, active regions of VCSELs as well as the whole VCSELs were grown. The active regions of the VCSEL structures were designed for lambda = 1000 nm and 980 nm emission. They consisted of a pair of distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) composed of AlAs and GaAs quarter wavelength layers and a cavity made of GaAs. The cavities contained one or several quantum wells (QWs) made of In0.2Ga0.8As. To optimise the optical characteristics of the active regions, several experimental methods have been applied. The Bragg reflectors and the whole microcavities were investigated by optical reflectivity. For selective excitation of a QW in a cavity active layer, a Ti-sapphire tuneable laser has been used. The fine tuning between the QW emission and the cavity Fabry-Perot resonance has been investigated by photoluminescence at varying temperatures of the sample. For monitoring the temporal evolution of the luminescence from the active region of the laser, time-resolved spectroscopy has been employed. The combination of many methods of optical investigations enabled a comprehensive characterisation and as a result an optimisation of the whole laser structure. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 130.
    Riascos, Henry
    et al.
    Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Colombia.
    Neidhardt, Jörg
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Radnoczi, G. Z.
    Research Institute for Technical Physics Materials Science, Budapest.
    Emmerlich, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Zambrano, G.
    Universidad del Valle Excellence Center for Novel Materials, Cali, Colombia.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Prieto, P.
    Universidad del Valle Excellence Center for Novel Materials, Cali, Colombia.
    Structure and properties of pulsed-laser deposited carbon nitride thin films2006In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 497, no 1-2, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nitride (CNx) thin films were deposited on silicon (100) and (111) substrates at 300 °C by laser ablation of a graphite target using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser in a nitrogen atmosphere. The composition and structural properties of the films were investigated as functions of gas pressure and laser fluence. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed a strong dependence of the amount of structurally incorporated nitrogen upon gas pressure. A maximum was observed at the highest laser fluence of 10 J/cm2 and at an intermediate pressure of 4 Pa. Further analyses of the XPS N 1s core level spectra of the CNx films, exhibiting the highest elasticity in nanoindentation experiments, revealed a typical double-peak arrangement; most pronounced for the highest laser fluence at low pressures. These two peak components indicate that the nitrogen bonded onto a graphitic structure dominates over the two-fold coordinated pyridine-like bonding configuration. This favors the growth of intersecting corrugated graphene structures that may be considered to have “fullerene-like” microstructures. Additionally, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy analyses of films deposited at different pressures show the presence of 2229 and 2273 cm− 1 stretching peaks associated with CN triple bonds (CN) of nitriles and isocyanides, 1640 cm− 1 and 1545 cm− 1 associated with the CC and CN and a peak at 1730 cm− 1, which is connected to the CO carbonyls groups. Films grown at 0.66 Pa revealed the strongest CN peak.

  • 131.
    Rogström, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Mats
    Sandvik Tooling AB, 126 80 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Auto-organizing ZrAlN/ZrAlTiN/TiN multilayers2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 520, no 21, p. 6451-6454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structural evolution during annealing of arc evaporated ZrAlN/ZrN andZrAlN/TiN multilayers is studied. On annealing, ZrN- and AlN-rich domains form within the ZrAlN sublayers. In the ZrAlN/TiN film, interdiffusion at the ZrAlN/TiN interfaces cause formation of a new cubic Zr(Al,Ti)N phase when annealed at temperatures above 900 C. The formation of this metastable phase results in a substantial increase in hardness of the film, which is retained to annealing temperatures of 1100 C. In the ZrAlN/ZrN film no secondary phases are formed and for annealing at temperatures above 800 C grain growth of the ZrN grains results in decreased hardness.

  • 132.
    Rogström, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johnson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Mats
    SECO Tools AB, Fagersta.
    Ahlgren, Mats
    Sandvik Tooling AB, Stockholm.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thermal stability and mechanical properties of arc evaporated ZrN/ZrAlN multilayers2010In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 519, no 2, p. 694-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZrN1.20/Zr0.44Al0.56N1.20 multilayer films as well as ZrN1.17 and Zr0.44Al0.56N1.20 films were deposited by reactive arc evaporation on WC–Co substrates. Samples were post-deposition annealed for 2 h at 800–1200 °C. As-deposited and heat treated films were characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation. The thermal stability was studied using a combination of differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, and mass spectrometry. The as-deposited Zr0.44Al0.56N1.20 film exhibits a nanocomposite structure of cubic and wurtzite ZrAlN. During annealing, the formation of ZrN- and AlN-rich domains results in age hardening of both the Zr0.44Al0.56N1.20 and the ZrN/ZrAlN multilayers. The age hardening is enhanced in the ZrN/ZrAlN multilayer due to straining of the ZrAlN sublayers in which a maximum hardness of 31 GPa is obtained after annealing at 1100 °C.

  • 133.
    Rogström, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ullbrand, Jennifer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Almer, J.
    Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, B.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Seco Tools AB, 737 82 Fagersta, Sweden.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strain evolution during spinodal decomposition of TiAlN thin films2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 520, no 17, p. 5542-5549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a combination of in-situ x-ray scattering experiments during annealing and phase-field simulations to study the strain and microstructure evolution during decomposition of TiAlN thin films. The evolved microstructure is observed to depend on composition, where the larger elastic anisotropy of higher Al content films causes formation of elongated AlN and TiN domains. The simulations show strain formation in the evolving cubic-AlN and TiN domains, which is a combined effect of increasing lattice mismatch and elastic incompatibility between the domains. The experimental results show an increased compressive strain in the TiAlN phase during decomposition due to the onset of transformation to hexagonal-AlN.

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  • 134.
    Rudko, G. Yu,
    et al.
    V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Kovalchuk, A. O.
    V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Fediv, V. I.
    Department of Biophysics and Medical Informatics, Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine.
    Ren, Q. J.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Buyanova, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Role of the host polymer matrix in light emission processes in nano-CdS/poly vinyl alcohol composite2013In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 543, p. 11-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participation of a polymeric media in light-emitting processes of composite nano-CdS/polyvinyl alcohol is studied by probing different absorption-emission routes via adjustment of excitation wavelengths. It is shown that the polymeric constituent of the composite contributes chiefly to the photoluminescence excitation processes via absorption and excitation transfer to the embedded CdS nanoparticles while the composite emission occurs mostly within the nanoparticles.

  • 135.
    Ruppi, S.
    et al.
    Seco Tools AB, S-737 82 Fagersta, Sweden.
    Larsson, A.
    Seco Tools AB, S-737 82 Fagersta, Sweden.
    Flink, Axel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Nanoindentation hardness, texture and microstructure of a-Al2O3 and ?-Al2O3 coatings2008In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 516, no 18, p. 5959-5966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoidentation responses of Al2O3 coatings obtained using chemical vapour deposition on cemented carbides were studied and related to the Al2O3 modification and microstructure. Five different Al2O3 layers were studied: (i) ?-Al2O3, (ii) a-Al2O3, obtained through the ? ? a phase transformation, (iii) as-grown a-Al2O3 with (101-2) texture, (iv) as-grown a-Al2O3 with (101-4) texture and (v) as-grown a-Al2O3 with (0001) texture. All the Al2O3 coatings were deposited to a thickness of at least 6 µm onto identical WC - 6 wt.% Co cemented carbide substrates. Nanoindentation was performed on taper-section specimens. The microstructure, phase and texture were elucidated by using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Nanoindentation responses of the as-grown, textured a-Al2O3 coatings were compared with ?-Al2O3 and a-Al2O3 formed as a result of the ? ? a phase transformation. The as-grown, textured a-Al2O3 layers exhibited clearly a higher hardness and Young's modulus than the ?-Al2O3 and the a-Al2O3 layers formed as a result of the phase transformation. Only slight differences in hardness and modulus could be detected between the (101-2), (101-4) and (0001) textured a-Al2O3 films. Among these the (101-2) textured a-Al2O3 coating exhibited the lowest hardness and modulus. Opposite to earlier reports, the present investigation clearly showed that ?-Al2O3 exhibited both the lowest hardness and Young's modulus as compared with the other studied coatings. It is emphasised that the earlier nanoindentation investigations that were intended to deal with a-Al2O3 were in fact performed on transformed ?-Al2O3. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 136.
    Sakamoto, K.
    et al.
    Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522, Japan.
    Takeyama, W.
    Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics.
    Uhrberg, Roger
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics.
    High-resolution core-level study of the Ca/Si(1 1 1)-(2×1) surface2003In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 428, no 1-2, p. 115-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the geometric structure of the Ca/Si(1 1 1)-(2×1) surface using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and high-resolution core-level photoelectron spectroscopy. A clear (2×1) periodicity was observed in LEED after annealing the (7×1) phase formed at room temperature in LEED. In the Si 2p core-level spectra, three surface components were observed. By considering the energy shift and intensity of each surface component and the Ca 3p core-levels of the two phases, we regard the (2×1) phase to be formed by p-bonded Seiwatz Si chains with a Ca coverage of 0.5 ML. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 137.
    Sakamoto, K.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics.
    Uhrberg, Roger
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics.
    Initial oxidation process of an Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface studied by photoelectron spectroscopy2004In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 464-465, p. 10-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the initial oxidation stage of an Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface using valence-band photoemission measurements. As the oxygen exposure increases, the intensities of the dangling bond states of adatoms (S 1) and rest atoms (S2) decrease. Among the four oxygen-induced states, three originate from the orbitals of adsorbed oxygen species, and one originates from the dangling bonds of adatoms with more than one oxygen atom adsorbed into its back-bond. Taking the dosage-dependent intensity of this modified dangling bond state into account, we conclude that the first adsorption site of oxygen is the back-bond of an adatom. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 138.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ZrB2 thin films grown by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) from a compound target2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 526, p. 163-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZrB2 thin films were grown on Si by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) from a compound target in an industrial deposition system. By keeping a constant average power while modifying the HiPIMS pulse repetition frequency, the pulse peak current and thereby the degree of ionisation was varied. The films were characterised using X-ray diffraction techniques, scanning electron microscopy, time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis, and four-point probe measurements. It was found that the composition of the films matched closely that of the target material, and the films were low in contamination. The films were crystalline with a strong (000n) preferred orientation, and that the residual stress could be adjusted, from tensile to compressive, by increasing the degree of ionisation. The film morphology appeared dense, with a smooth surface, and the resistivity was found to range from 180 to 250 μΩcm with no clear dependence on frequency in the investigated parameter range.

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  • 139.
    Sangiovanni, Davide
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ruhr Univ Bochum, Germany.
    Mass transport properties of quasiharmonic vs. anharmonic transition-metal nitrides2019In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 688, article id 137297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I present a development of the color-diffusion algorithm, used in non-equilibrium (accelerated) ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of point-defect migration in crystals [Sangiovanni et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 094305 (2016)], to determine the temperature dependence of anion vacancy jump frequencies in rocksalt-structure (B1) TiN and VN characterized by quasiharmonic (TiN) vs. strongly anharmonic (VN) lattice dynamics. Over a temperature range [ 0.6"Tm amp;lt; T amp;lt; 0.9 T-m] relatively close to the materials melting points Tm, the simulations reveal that anion vacancy migration in TiN and VN exhibits an Arrhenius-like behavior, described by activation energies EJN = 4.2 0.3 eV and EZN = 3.1 0.3 eV, and attempt frequencies vTN = 8.1015 0.7 s-1 and vvN = 2.1017 c).8s-1. A comparison of activation energies E extracted by Arrhenius linear regression at elevated temperatures with ab initio E,,ca values calculated at 0 Kelvin reveals that, while the nitrogen migration energy amp;ills varies modestly with temperature {AEPN = [E-a(T-m)- Ea(0 K)1/Ea(0 K) 0.1}, the changes in EavN vs. T are considerable (AEavN 1). The temperature-induced variations in vacancy migration energies and diffusivities are discussed in relation to the TiN and VN vibrational properties determined via ab initio molecular dynamics at different temperatures. It is argued that static 0-K calculations, which account for thermal expansion effects within the framework of quasiharmonic transition-state theory, accurately reproduce the finite-temperature mass transport properties of TiN. Conversely, the use of molecular dynamics simulations, which explicit treat lattice vibrations at any temperature of interest, is necessary to achieve reliable atomic diffusivities in B1 VN, a crystal phase dynamically stabilized by anharmonic vibrations [Mei et al., Phys. Rev. B 91, 054101 (2015)].

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-05-08 11:27
  • 140.
    Sangiovanni, Davide
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Toughness enhancement in TiAlN-based quarternary alloys2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 520, no 11, p. 4080-4088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved toughness in hard and superhard thin films is a primary requirement for present day ceramic hard coatings, known to be prone to brittle failure during in-use conditions. We use density functional theory calculations to investigate a number of (TiAl)(1-x)MxN thin films in the B1 structure, with 0.06 andlt;= x andlt;= 0.75 obtained by alloying TiAlN with M = V, Nb, Ta, Mo and W. Results show significant ductility enhancements, hence increased toughness, in these compounds. Importantly, these thin films are also predicted to be superhard, with similar or increased hardness values, compared to Ti0.5Al0.5 N. For (TiAl)(1-x)WxN the results are experimentally confirmed. The ductility increase originates in the enhanced occupancy of d-t(2g) metallic states, induced by the valence electrons of substitutional elements (V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W). This effect is more pronounced with increasing valence electron concentration, and, upon shearing, leads to the formation of a layered electronic structure in the compound material, consisting of alternating layers of high and low charge density in the metallic sublattice, which in turn, allows a selective response to normal and shear stresses.

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  • 141.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A review on morphological evolution of thin metal films on weakly-interacting substrates2019In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 688, article id 137312Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction strength between film-forming species and substrate atoms is a decisive factor in determining film morphological formation and evolution. When the interaction is weak, as e.g., during deposition of thin metal films on oxide and 2D-material substrates, a pronounced 3D morphology is obtained. Owing to the great technological relevance of these film/substrate systems, the present paper reviews theories and recent developments with regards to the film growth dynamics and the atomistic origin of 3D film morphology. It also highlights possible future directions toward which this sub-field of thin film science and technology can develop.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-05-15 10:54
  • 142.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    et al.
    Institute of Physics (IA), RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Alami, J.
    Aachen University, Germany.
    Severin, D.
    Aachen University, Germany.
    Karimi, P .M.
    Aachen University, Germany.
    Wuttig, M.
    Aachen University, Germany.
    The effect of the backscattered energetic atoms on the stress generation and the surface morphology of reactively sputtered vanadium nitride films2008In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 516, no 14, p. 4568-4573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the reactive magnetron sputtering of transition metal nitrides in an Ar-N-2 ambient, Ar+ and N-2(+) plasma ions are neutralized upon impingement on the target and are backscattered towards the growing film as neutral Ar and N species, respectively. Based on simulations, as well as on plasma and on film characterization techniques we manifest the relationship between the bombardment by the backscattered energetic atoms and the properties of reactively sputtered vanadium nitride (VN) films. Depending on the N-2 flow (q(N2)) two bombardment regimes are established. In the first regime, (q(N2) less than 20 seem) the contribution of the N species to the energetic bombardment is insignificant. The major bombarding species in this regime are the backscattered Ar species, as well as positive plasma ions and sputtered atoms. These species have relatively low energies and subplantation ratios and thus, their energy is transferred to the surface of the growing film. In the second regime (q(N2) greater than 20 scent) the backscattered N atoms are the major bombarding species and their flux to the growing film increases with increasing the N-2 flow. We argue that the backscattered N atoms have higher energy and subplantation ratio in comparison to the other bombarding species. As a result, a higher part of their energy is dissipated in the bulk of the film. The two bombarding regimes correlate well with the residual compressive stresses and the surface roughness of the films. Films grown at q(N2)less than20 seem exhibit low compressive stresses and their roughness drops when q(N2) is increased. This consistent with the low subplantation ratio and the transfer of the energy of the bombarding species to surface the growing film. The compressive stresses of films grown at q(N2) greater than 20 seem are higher, than those of the films grown in the first regime, and increase with increasing N-2 flow. This is attributed to the subplantation of the bombarding N species in the growing film.

  • 143.
    Schmidt, Susann
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Goyenola, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gueorguiev, Gueorgui Kostov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gueorguiev Ivanov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Czigany, Zs
    Hungarian Academic Science, Hungary .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of CFx thin films in mixed Ar/C4F4 and Ar/C4F8 discharges2013In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 542, p. 21-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering processes of carbon in argon/tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and argon/octafluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8) have been characterized. Amorphous carbon fluoride (CFx) films were synthesized at deposition pressure and substrate temperature of 400 mPa and 110 degrees C, respectively. The CFx film composition was controlled in the range of 0.15 andlt; x andlt; 0.35 by varying the partial pressure of the F-containing gases from 0 mPa to 110 mPa. The reactive plasma was studied employing time averaged positive ion mass spectrometry and the resulting thin films were characterized regarding their composition, chemical bonding and microstructure as well as mechanical properties by elastic recoil detection analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nanoindentation, and water droplet contact angle measurements, respectively. The experimental results were compared to results obtained by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The modeling of the most abundant precursor fragment from the dissociation of CF4 and C4F8 provided their relative stability, abundance, and reactivity, thus permitting to evaluate the role of each precursor during film growth. Positive ion mass spectrometry of both fluorine plasmas shows an abundance of CF+, C+, CF2+, and CF3+ (in this order) as corroborated by first-principles calculations. Only CF3+ exceeded the Ar+ signal in a CF4 plasma. Two deposition regimes are found depending on the partial pressure of the fluorine-containing reactive gas, where films with fluorine contents below 24 at.% exhibit a graphitic nature, whereas a polymeric structure applies to films with fluorine contents exceeding 27 at.%. Moreover, abundant precursors in the plasma are correlated to the mechanical response of the different CFx thin films. The decreasing hardness with increasing fluorine content can be attributed to the abundance of CF3+ precursor species, weakening the carbon matrix.

  • 144.
    Schoehe, S.
    et al.
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Hofmann, T.
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, X.
    Chiba University, Japan.
    Yoshikawa, A.
    Chiba University, Japan.
    Wang, K.
    Ritsumeikan University, Japan.
    Araki, T.
    Ritsumeikan University, Japan.
    Nanishi, Y.
    Ritsumeikan University, Japan.
    Schubert, M.
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Free-charge carrier parameters of n-type, p-type and compensated InN:Mg determined by infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 571, p. 384-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied to investigate the free-charge carrier properties of Mg-doped InN films. Two representative sets of In-polar InN grown by molecular beam epitaxy with Mg concentrations ranging from 1.2 x 10(17) cm(-3) to 8 x 10(20) cm(-3) are compared. P-type conductivity is indicated for the Mg concentration range of 1 x 10(18) cm(-3) to 9 x 10(19) cm(-3) from a systematic investigation of the longitudinal optical phonon plasmon broadening and the mobility parameter in dependence of the Mg concentration. A parameterized model that accounts for the phonon-plasmon coupling is applied to determine the free-charge carrier concentration and mobility parameters in the doped bulk InN layer as well as the GaN template and undoped InN buffer layer for each sample. The free-charge carrier properties in the second sample set are consistent with the results determined in a comprehensive analysis of the first sample set reported earlier [Schoche et al., J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013502 (2013)]. In the second set, two samples with Mg concentration of 2.3 x 10(20) cm(-3) are identified as compensated n-type InN with very low electron concentrations which are suitable for further investigation of intrinsic material properties that are typically governed by high electron concentrations even in undoped InN. The compensated n-type InN samples can be clearly distinguished from the p-type conductive material of similar plasma frequencies by strongly reduced phonon plasmon broadening.

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  • 145.
    Serban, Elena Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per Ola Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Site-controlled growth of GaN nanorod arrays by magnetron sputter epitaxy2018In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 660, p. 950-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catalyst-free GaN nanorod regular arrays have been realized by reactive magnetron sputter epitaxy. Two nanolithographic methods, nanosphere lithography (NSL) and focused ion beam lithography (FIBL), were applied to pattern Si substrates with TiNx masks. The growth temperature was optimized for achieving selectivity and well-faceted nanorods grown onto the NSL-patterned substrates. With increasing temperature from 875 to 985 °C, we observe different growth behaviors and associate them with selective insensitive, diffusion-dominated, and desorption-dominated zones. To further achieve site-specific and diameter control, these growth parameters were transferred onto FIBL-patterned substrates. Further investigation into the FIBL process through tailoring of milling current and time in combination with varying nanorod growth temperature, suggests that minimization of mask and substrate damage is the key to attain uniform, well-defined, single, and straight nanorods. Destruction of the mask results in selective area growth failure, while damage of the substrate surface promotes inclined nanorods grown into the openings, owning to random oriented nucleation.

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  • 146.
    Shtepliuk, Ivan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Frantsevich Institute Problems Mat Science NAS Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of c-axis inclination angle on the properties of ZnO/Zn1-xCdxO/ZnO quantum wells2016In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 603, p. 139-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of optoelectronic devices based on highly-promising Zn1 - xCdxO semiconductor system demands deep understanding of the properties of the Zn1 - xCdxO-based quantum wells (QWs). In this regard, we carried out a numerical study of the polarization-related effects in polar, semi-polar and non-polar ZnO/ Zn1 - xCd xO/ZnO QWs with different parameters of the quantum well structure. The effects of well width, barrier thickness, cadmium content in the active layer and c-axis inclination angle on the distribution of the electron and hole wave function and transition energy were investigated using the 6 x 6 k center dot p Hamiltonian and one-dimensional self-consistent solutions of nonlinear Schrodinger-Poisson equations with consideration of spatially varying dielectric constant and effective mass. The strong sensitivity of the internal electric field, transition energy and overlap integral to cadmium content and well thickness in the angle range from 0 to 40 degrees was revealed. An unexpected change of the internal electric fields sign was observed at the angles ranging from 70 to 90 degrees. We also found a difference in the electronic properties between (0001)-, (11 (2) over bar2)-and (10 (1) over bar0)-oriented QWs.

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  • 147.
    Shtepliuk, Ivan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Theoretical study of O- and Zn-face polarity effect on the optical properties of the conventional and staggered ZnO/Zn1-xCdxO/ZnO quantum wells2015In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 594, p. 323-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present a comparative study of Zn-face and O-face polarity Zn1 - xCdxO-based conventional and staggered quantum-well (QW) structures. The calculation of optical properties of QWs was performed by means of self-consistent Schrodinger-Poisson solver with consideration of polarization-induced effects. The conventional Zn-face and O-face QWs possess similar values of transition energy and an overlap of electron and hole wave functions. A change of the polarity from Zn-face to O-face for the conventional QWs influences only a shape of the conduction and valence band edge profile. It is revealed that the utilization of the staggered QWs leads to an improvement of the confinement characteristics. In addition, the O-face staggered QW structure has larger values of transition energy and overlap integral compared to the Zn-face staggered QW structure. O-terminated staggered QW structure is less dependent on the well thickness and has lower sensitivity to Cd content in embedded Zn1 - xCdxO layer. Control of the material polarity and design of the staggered QWs provide cost-effective approach for engineering the QW band structures with enhanced QW performance. This enables constructing of the Zn1 - xCdxO-based light emission diodes with improved radiative efficiency emitting, applicable for solid state lighting. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • 148.
    Spetz, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enquist, F.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Armgarth, M.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Structure and ammonia sensitivity of thin platinum or iridium gates in metal-oxide-silicon capacitors1989In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 177, no 1-2, p. 77-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures with thin discontinuous platinum or iridium gates have a strong sensitivity to ammonia gas. Surface potential changes caused by NH3-derived species adsorbed on the metal grains are assumed to be capacitively coupled to the semiconductor surface through the cracks in the metal film. This causes a negative shift along the voltage axis of the capacitance-voltage curve of the MOS capacitor. The structure of the platinum or iridium film is thus of crucial importance for the response to NH3. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were therefore performed with specially prepared substrates which enabled thin metal films on silicon dioxide to be studied by TEM without any further treatment of the films. TEM micrographs of platinum films showed that the metal coverage and crack density corresponded well to the NH3 sensitivity of the films. Iridium films with a reproducible film structure were made through evaporation of about 10 nm of iridium at a pressure below 2 × 10-7 Torr at room temperature. Iridium films prepared in that way exhibited a very good NH3 response. Heat treatments of platinum and iridium films were shown to influence the structure of the metal film. H2 and NH3 treatments (in synthetic air) initiated structural changes at lower temperatures. For platinum films a change in film structure was always coupled with a decrease in the speed of response to NH3. For metal films with very large grains the surface potential change due to NH3 did not couple under the whole metal grain, which provides strong support for the proposed model of NH3 sensitivity.

  • 149.
    Stehr, Jan Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Chen, Shula
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Cai, Li
    International Research Center for Renewable Energy, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049, Shaanxi, China.
    Shen, Shaohua
    International Research Center for Renewable Energy, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049, Shaanxi, China.
    Buyanova, Irina A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of N implantation on defect formation in ZnO nanowires2019In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 687, article id UNSP 137449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One-dimensional ZnO nanowires are a promising material system for a wide range of optoelectronic and photonic applications. Utilization of ZnO, however, requires high-quality ZnO with reliable n-type and p-type conductivity, with the latter remaining elusive, so far. In this work we report on effects of N doping via ion implantation on defect formation in ZnO nanowires studied by optically detected paramagnetic resonance (ODMR) spectroscopy complemented by photoluminescence spectroscopy. After N implantation, zinc interstitial shallow donors, which are formed as a result of ion implantation, are observed in addition to effective mass type shallow donors. Additionally, ODMR signals related to oxygen vacancies can be observed. Implantation also causes formation of a new nitrogen related defect center, which acts as an acceptor. The present findings are of importance for understanding impacts of different defects and impurities on electronic properties of nanostructured ZnO and achieving p-type conductivity via nitrogen doping.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-08-01 08:00
  • 150.
    Strelchuk, V. V.
    et al.
    National Academic Science Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Nikolenko, A. S.
    National Academic Science Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Kolomys, O. F.
    National Academic Science Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Rarata, S. V.
    National Academic Science Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Avramenko, K. A.
    National Academic Science Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Lytvyn, P. M.
    National Academic Science Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Tronc, P.
    Ecole Super Phys and Chim Ind Ville Paris, France.
    Chey, Chan Oeurn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Optical and structural properties of Mn-doped ZnO nanorods grown by aqueous chemical growth for spintronic applications2016In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 601, p. 22-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of Mn-doping on the structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of the ZnO:Mn nanorods (NRs) synthesized by aqueous chemical process is reported. Grown ZnO:Mn NRs are shown to have hexagonal end facets and the diameters increasing with nominal Mn content. Optical absorption measurements show a decrease in optical band gap with increase of Mn concentration. Raman spectroscopy revealed significant modification of the lattice vibrational properties of the ZnO matrix upon Mn doping. The additional Mn-related vibrational mode, intensity of which increases with amount of Mn can be regarded as an evidence of Mn incorporation into the host lattice of the ZnO. At high Mn concentrations, coexistence of hexagonal Zn1-xMnxO phase along with the secondary phases of ZnMn2O4 cubic spinel is revealed. Magnetic properties of ZnO: Mn NRs are studied by combinatorial atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy imaging, and obtained clear magnetic contrast at room temperature provides a strong evidence of ferromagnetic behavior. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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