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  • 101.
    Bjaelkebring, Par
    et al.
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Slovic, Paul
    University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Regulation of Experienced and Anticipated Regret in Daily Decision Making2016In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 381-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decisions were sampled from 108 participants during 8 days using a web-based diary method. Each day participants rated experienced regret for a decision made, as well as forecasted regret for a decision to be made. Participants also indicated to what extent they used different strategies to prevent or regulate regret. Participants regretted 30% of decisions and forecasted regret in 70% of future decisions, indicating both that regret is relatively prevalent in daily decisions but also that experienced regret was less frequent than forecasted regret. In addition, a number of decision-specific regulation and prevention strategies were successfully used by the participants to minimize regret and negative emotions in daily decision making. Overall, these results suggest that regulation and prevention of regret are important strategies in many of our daily decisions.

  • 102.
    Bjalkebring, Par
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Dickert, Stephan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Vienna University of Econ and Business, Austria.
    Slovic, Paul
    University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20-74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19-89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts.

  • 103.
    Bjalkebring, Par
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decis Research, OR USA.
    Johansson, Boo E. A.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Happiness and arousal: framing happiness as arousing results in lower happiness ratings for older adults2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, no 703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults have been shown to describe their happiness as lower in arousal when compared to younger adults. In addition, older adults prefer low arousal positive emotions over high arousal positive emotions in their daily lives. We experimentally investigated whether or not changing a few words in the description of happiness could influence a persons rating of their happiness. We randomly assigned 193 participants, aged 22-92 years, to one of three conditions (high arousal, low arousal, or control). In line with previous findings, we found that older participants rated their happiness lower when framed as high in arousal (i.e., ecstatic, to be bursting with positive emotions) and rated their happiness higher when framed as low in arousal (i.e., satisfied, to have a life filled with positive emotions). Younger adults remained uninfluenced by the manipulation. Our study demonstrates that arousal is essential to understanding ratings of happiness, and gives support to the notion that there are age differences in the preference for arousal.

  • 104.
    Bjälkebring, Pär
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Dickert, Stephan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Queen Mary University of London, England.
    Slovic, Paul
    University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Response: Commentary: Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1887Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 105.
    Björck, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hägg, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ”HON KAN ÅKA TILLSJUKHUSET OCH FÅ BEBISFRÖN DÄR”: hur barn till frivilligt ensamstående mammor och till olikkönade sammanboende föräldrapar pratar om tillblivelse2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie kan ses som en del av barndomsforskningen, där barn betraktas som kompetenta aktörer vars rösterförtjänar att lyftas fram. Syftet var att undersöka hur barn i olika familjeformer pratar om tillblivelse. Intervjuer har genomförts med sammanlagt 22 barn varav elva kom från familjer med en sammanboende mamma och pappa som har fått barn genom samlag (relationsbarn) och de andra elva kom från familjer med en ensamstående mamma som har fåttbarn på egen hand med hjälp av assisterad befruktning (femmisbarn). Barnens ålder varierade från tre år och tio månader till nio år och nio månader. En semistrukturerad intervjuguide låg till grund för intervjuerna där barnen ombads prata om tillblivelse, den egna tillblivelsen, tidigare kunskap om tillblivelse, känslor och åsikter inför ämnet samt kunskapskällor kring tillblivelse. Barnens berättelser har analyserats utifrån kritisk diskursiv psykologi.Resultatet visar att både femmisbarnen och relationsbarnen pratar om befruktning i olika former. De flesta pratar om en eller flera förutsättningar att bli till på, vilka alla var bundna till familjeform. Majoriteten av relationsbarnen och en del av femmisbarnen pratar utifrån en heteronormativ tvåsamhet. Många femmisbarn pratar även utifrån sitt eget tillblivelsesätt, assisterad befruktning, och talar dels utifrån att detta sätt är ett fullgott förstahandsalternativ och dels utifrån att det är ett andrahandsalternativ till att få barn genom den heteronormativa tvåsamheten. Flera av både femmisbarnen och relationsbarnen pratade kring att få barn på ett sätt som att det är en självklarhet för vuxna.De flesta av barnen pratade om förlossning och nämnde då vården som något centralt, vilken beskrivs antingen som en fixare eller en hjälpare. För femmisbarnen var vården självklar både vid befruktningen och vid förlossningen, medan vården är självklar för relationsbarnen vid förlossningen. De barn som pratar om pappors roll vid förlossningen gör det utifrån att pappor antingen är sekundära och passiva eller att de är hjälpare. Resultatet visar även att det inte finns någon skillnad kring var barnen från de olika familjeformerna har fått sin kunskap om tillblivelse ifrån samt var de skulle ta reda på mer kunskap. Barnen nämner sina mammor, men även skola, kompisar och olika former av media är kunskapskällor för barnen. Många barn pratar utifrån att kunskapen tillhör vuxenvärlden och att barn inte behöver ha kunskap om tillblivelse. Det är ungefär lika förekommande att barnen oavsett familjeformger uttryck för att tillblivelse och tillhörande ämnen på olika sätt är svårt att prata om, som att det är lätt att prata.Utifrån dessa resultat dras slutsatsen att eftersom den heteronormativa tvåsamheten framställs som det självklara, får det till följd att andra tillblivelsesätt betraktas som mindre eftersträvansvärda. I kontakt med barn blir det därför viktigt att förhålla sig till detta och sträva mot att inkludera fler likvärdiga tillblivelsesätt i sitt prat. Mammor beskrivs av barnen från de båda familjeformerna som de primära kunskapsbärarna, medan pappor nästintill helt saknas. Detta tyder på att femmisbarn, i de undersökta åldrarna, har samma tillgång till kunskap om tillblivelse som relationsbarn har. Slutligen konstateras att sexualitet till viss del fortfarande är tabubelagt i samhället, då flera av barnen på olika sätt uttrycker att det finns aspekter av tillblivelse som var svåra att prata om. Denna syn, som också återfinns i samhället, håller troligtvis på att förändras då ungefär lika många barn gav uttryck för att tillblivelse var lätt att prata om.

  • 106.
    Björnstjerna Hjelm, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    En studie om studenters samarbete och grupputveckling vid interprofessionellt problembaserat lärande2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vården blir allt mer specialiserad och antalet professioner ökar. För att vården ska fungera krävs ett utvecklat interprofessionellt samarbete och enligt Världshälsoorganisationen, WHO, är interprofessionell utbildning en av de viktigaste vägarna till effektiv, patientsäker sjukvård. Syftet med denna presentation är att redogöra för en studie om samarbete och grupputveckling i interprofessionellt sammansatta basgrupper vid grundutbildningen till olika vårdprofessioner. Med stöd av SPGR (Systematisera Person – Grupp i Relation) observerades studenternas beteende vid videoinspelade basgruppsmöten under problembaserat lärande (PBL) med fokus på hur professionella roller och stereotyper påverkade basgruppernas samarbete och utveckling. Resultatet visar att samtliga basgrupper utvecklades men på olika sätt. Resultatet visar även att professionella stereotypiska beteenden minskade över tid samt att basgruppshandledarens agerande påverkade grupputvecklingen. En slutsats är att PBL kan vara ett sätt att minska stereotypt beteende i basgrupper och att handledarens stil är en viktig faktor för framgång med tillvägagångssättet. Fokus vid presentationen är att beskriva studien och dess resultat utifrån de gjorda observationerna med SPGR.

  • 107.
    Blom, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Tarkian Tillgren, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wiklund, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Danlycke, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forssen, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jernelov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Internet-vs. group-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia: A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial2015In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 70, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare guided Internet-delivered to group-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. We conducted an 8-week randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with 6-months follow-up. Participants were forty-eight adults with insomnia, recruited via media. Interventions were guided Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) and group-delivered CBT (GCBT) for insomnia. Primary outcome measure was the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), secondary outcome measures were sleep diary data, depressive symptoms, response- and remission rates. Both treatment groups showed significant improvements and large effect sizes for ISI (Within Cohens d: ICBT post = 1.8, 6-months follow-up = 2.1; GCBT post = 2.1, 6-months follow-up = 2.2). Confidence interval of the difference between groups posttreatment and at FU6 indicated non-inferiority of ICBT compared to GCBT. At post-treatment, two thirds of patients in both groups were considered responders (ISI-reduction greater than 7p). Using diagnostic criteria, 63% (ICBT) and 75% (GCBT) were in remission. Sleep diary data showed moderate to large effect sizes. We conclude that both guided Internet-CBT and group-CBT in this study were efficacious with regard to insomnia severity, sleep parameters and depressive symptoms. The results are in line with previous research, and strengthen the evidence for guided Internet-CBT for insomnia. Trial registration: The study protocol was approved by, and registered with, the regional ethics review board in Linkoping, Sweden, registration number 2010/385-31.

  • 108.
    Blomberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Relationships between organizational factors, bullying occurrence, health factors, and people’s experience of work2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 109.
    Boersma, Katja
    et al.
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Södermark, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology.
    Flink, Ida K.
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Efficacy of a transdiagnostic emotion-focused exposure treatment for chronic pain patients with comorbid anxiety and depression: a randomized controlled trial2019In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 160, no 8, p. 1708-1718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The comorbidity between chronic pain and emotional problems has proven difficult to address with current treatment options. This study addresses the efficacy of a transdiagnostic emotion-focused exposure treatment ("hybrid") for chronic pain patients with comorbid emotional problems. Adults (n = 115) with chronic musculoskeletal pain and functional and emotional problems were included in a 2-centre, parallel randomized controlled, open-label trial comparing this treatment to an active control condition receiving a guided Internet-delivered pain management treatment based on CBT principles (iCBT). The hybrid treatment (n = 58, 10-16 sessions) integrates exposure in vivo for chronic pain based on the fear-avoidance model with an emotion-regulation approach informed by procedures in Dialectical Behavior Therapy. The iCBT (n = 57; 8 treatment modules) addresses topics such as pain education, coping strategies, relaxation, problem solving, stress, and sleep management using standard CBT techniques. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed before and after treatment as well as at a 9-month primary end point. Across conditions, 78% participants completed post-treatment and 81% follow-up assessment. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that the hybrid had a significantly better post-treatment outcome on pain catastrophizing (d = 0.39) and pain interference (d = 0.63) and significantly better follow-up outcomes on depression (d = 0.43) and pain interference (d = 0.51). There were no differences on anxiety and pain intensity. Observed proportions of clinically significant improvement favoured the hybrid on all but one comparison, but no statistically significant differences were observed. We conclude that the hybrid emotion-focused treatment may be considered an acceptable, credible, and efficacious treatment option for chronic pain patients with comorbid emotional problems.

  • 110.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlbring, Per
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Combining attention training with cognitive-behavior therapy in Internet-based self-help for social anxiety: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial2013In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 68-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Guided Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) has been found to be effective for social anxiety disorder (SAD) by several independent research groups. However, since the extent of clinically significant change demonstrated leaves room for improvement, new treatments should be developed and investigated. A novel treatment, which has generally been found to be effective, is cognitive bias modification (CBM). This study aims to evaluate the combination of CBM and ICBT. It is intended that two groups will be compared; one group randomized to receiving ICBT and CBM towards threat cues and one group receiving ICBT and control training. We hypothesize that the group receiving ICBT plus CBM will show superior treatment outcomes.

    Methods/design

    Participants with SAD (N = 128), will be recruited from the general population. A composite score combining the scores obtained from three social anxiety questionnaires will serve as the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures include self-reported depression and quality of life. All treatments and assessments will be conducted via the Internet and measurement points will be baseline, Week 2, post-treatment, and 4 months post-treatment.

    Discussion

    There is no direct evidence of the effects of combining CBM and ICBT in SAD. Adding attention-training sessions to ICBT protocols could increase the proportion of participants who improve and recover through Internet-based self-help.

    Trial registration

    ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01570400

  • 111.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Hasselrot, Jonas
    Umeå University, Sweden .
    Sund, Erik
    Umeå University, Sweden .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Combining Attention Training with Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavioural Self-Help for Social Anxiety: A Randomised Controlled Trial2014In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 34-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Guided Internet-based cognitive-behavioural self-help (ICBT) has been proven to be effective for social anxiety disorder (SAD) by several independent research groups. However, as the proportion of clinical significant change has room for improvement, new treatments should be developed and investigated. A novel treatment is attention bias modification (ABM). This study aimed at evaluating the combination of ABM and ICBT. We compared two groups, one group receiving ICBT and ABM targeting attentional avoidance and the other group receiving ICBT and control training. ABM and control training tasks were both based on the dot-probe paradigm. A total of 133 participants, diagnosed with SAD, were randomised to these two groups. The attention training group (N=66) received 2 weeks of daily attention training followed by 9 weeks of ICBT. The control group (N=67) received 2 weeks of daily control training, also followed by 9 weeks of ICBT. Social anxiety measures as well as the attention bias were assessed at pre-assessment, at week 2, and at post-treatment. Results showed no significant differences between the attention training group and the control group. Both groups improved substantially on social anxiety symptoms from pre- to post-assessment (d(within)=1.39-1.41), but showed no change in attention processes (d(within)=0.10-0.17). In this trial, the attention modification training failed to induce differential change in attention bias. Results demonstrate that the applied ABM procedure with its focus on the reduction of attentional avoidance was ineffective in the Internet-based setting. The results do not suggest that adding ABM targeting attentional avoidance to ICBT results in better outcomes than ICBT alone.

  • 112.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Leek, Linda
    Umeå University, Sweden .
    Matson, Lisa
    Umeå University, Sweden .
    Holmes, Emily A.
    MRC Cognit and Brain Science Unit, England .
    Browning, Michael
    University of Oxford, England .
    MacLeod, Colin
    University of Western Australia, Australia .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Internet-Based Attention Bias Modification for Social Anxiety: A Randomised Controlled Comparison of Training towards Negative and Training Towards Positive Cues2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biases in attention processes are thought to play a crucial role in the aetiology and maintenance of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). The goal of the present study was to examine the efficacy of a programme intended to train attention towards positive cues and a programme intended to train attention towards negative cues. In a randomised, controlled, double-blind design, the impact of these two training conditions on both selective attention and social anxiety were compared to that of a control training condition. A modified dot probe task was used, and delivered via the internet. A total of 129 individuals, diagnosed with SAD, were randomly assigned to one of these three conditions and took part in a 14-day programme with daily training/control sessions. Participants in all three groups did not on average display an attentional bias prior to the training. Critically, results on change in attention bias implied that significantly differential change in selective attention to threat was not detected in the three conditions. However, symptoms of social anxiety reduced significantly from pre- to follow-up-assessment in all three conditions (d(within) = 0.63-1.24), with the procedure intended to train attention towards threat cues producing, relative to the control condition, a significantly greater reduction of social fears. There were no significant differences in social anxiety outcome between the training condition intended to induce attentional bias towards positive cues and the control condition. To our knowledge, this is the first RCT where a condition intended to induce attention bias to negative cues yielded greater emotional benefits than a control condition. Intriguingly, changes in symptoms are unlikely to be by the mechanism of change in attention processes since there was no change detected in bias per se. Implications of this finding for future research on attention bias modification in social anxiety are discussed. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanTrial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01463137

  • 113.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Free Univ Berlin, Germany.
    Magnusson, Kristoffer
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Marklund, Arvid
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Berglund, Ellinor
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Blomdahl, Rikard
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Braun, Ulrike
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Delin, Lovisa
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Lunden, Charlotte
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Sjoblom, Katja
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Sommer, Daniel
    Free Univ Berlin, Germany.
    von Weber, Kaspar
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Adding a smartphone app to internet-based self-help for social anxiety: A randomized controlled trial2018In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 87, p. 98-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Increasing access to treatment via smartphone apps is an important topic in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Challenger is an app promoting exposure exercises in daily life. The present study evaluated the additional benefit of using the app as adjunct to Internet-based unguided self-help for SAD. In a second step, we also tested how the app and the self-help programme (SH) should best be combined. Method: 209 patients diagnosed with SAD were randomly allocated to three groups. Group 1 received the app and the self-help programme for six weeks (parallel treatment), group 2 first received SH for six weeks and then the app for six weeks (sequential treatment). Group 3 was a wait-list group. Comparisons were made at week 7 evaluating the potential add-on effect of the app (SH plus app versus SH only) and at week 14 comparing the parallel to the sequential treatment. Participants filled in questionnaires prior, during, and post treatment, and at 4- and 12- months follow-up. Results: Intention-to-treat analyses showed no significant effect of adding the app to Internet-based self-help. However, among participants actively using the app, adding Challenger to self-help resulted in significantly less social anxiety (d = 0.30). At week 14, decreases in social anxiety were large for both the parallel and the sequential group with no differences between the active groups (d(within) = 1.12-1.19). Changes were maintained throughout the follow-up period. Conclusion: Results of the current study cautiously support the notion of adding a smartphone app to unguided self-help for SAD. Future studies should investigate how patients can be motivated to use the app more frequently. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 114.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden Department of Clinical Psychology, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Germany.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Division of Clinical Psychology, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Side effects in Internet-based interventions for Social Anxiety Disorder2014In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based interventions are effective in the treatment of various mental disorders and have already been integrated in routine health care in some countries. Empirical data on potential negative effects of these interventions is lacking. This study investigated side effects in an Internet-based treatment for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD).

    A total of 133 individuals diagnosed with SAD took part in an 11-week guided treatment. Side effects were assessed as open formatted questions after week 2 and at post-treatment after week 11. Answers were independently rated by two coders. In addition, rates of deterioration and non-response were calculated for primary social anxiety and secondary outcome measures (depression and quality of life).

    In total, 19 participants (14%) described unwanted negative events that they related to treatment. The emergence of new symptoms was the most commonly experienced side effect, followed by the deterioration of social anxiety symptoms and negative well-being. The large majority of the described side effects had a temporary but no enduring negative effect on participants' well-being. At post-treatment, none of the participants reported deterioration on social anxiety measures and 0–7% deteriorated on secondary outcome measures. Non-response was frequent with 32–50% for social anxiety measures and 57–90% for secondary outcomes at post-assessment.

    Results suggest that a small proportion of participants in Internet-based interventions experiences negative effects during treatment. Information about potential side effects should be integrated in patient education in the practice of Internet-based treatments.

  • 115.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden and Freie Universitaet Berlin, Germany.
    Åström, Viktor
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Påhlsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Schenström, Ola
    Mindfulnesscenter AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Internet-based mindfulness treatment for anxiety disorders: a randomized controlled trial2014In: Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0005-7894, E-ISSN 1878-1888, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 241-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mindfulness-based interventions have proven effective for the transdiagnostic treatment of heterogeneous anxiety disorders. So far, no study has investigated the potential of mindfulness-based treatments when delivered remotely via the Internet. The current trial aims at evaluating the efficacy of a stand-alone, unguided, Internet-based mindfulness treatment program for anxiety. Ninety-one participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or anxiety disorder not otherwise specified were randomly assigned to a mindfulness treatment group (MTG) or to an online discussion forum control group (CG). Mindfulness treatment consisted of 96 audio files with instructions for various mindfulness meditation exercises. Primary and secondary outcome measures were assessed at pre-, posttreatment, and at 6-months follow-up. Participants of the MTG showed a larger decrease of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and insomnia from pre- to postassessment than participants of the CG (Cohen's dbetween=0.36-0.99). Within effect sizes were large in the MTG (d=0.82-1.58) and small to moderate in the CG (d=0.45-0.76). In contrast to participants of the CG, participants of the MTG also achieved a moderate improvement in their quality of life. The study provided encouraging results for an Internet-based mindfulness protocol in the treatment of primary anxiety disorders. Future replications of these results will show whether Web-based mindfulness meditation can constitute a valid alternative to existing, evidence-based cognitive-behavioural Internet treatments. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01577290).

  • 116.
    Bohman, Benjamin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Santi, Alberto
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Psykologpartners Private Practice, Linköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cognitive behavioral therapy in practice: therapist perceptions of techniques, outcome measures, practitioner qualifications, and relation to research.2017In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 391-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has a strong evidence base for several psychiatric disorders, however, it may be argued that currently there is no overall agreement on what counts as 'CBT'. One reason is that CBT is commonly perceived as encompassing a broad range of treatments, from purely cognitive to purely behavioral, making it difficult to arrive at a clear definition. The purpose of the present study was to explore practicing therapists' perceptions of CBT. Three hundred fifty members of two multi-disciplinary interest groups for CBT in Sweden participated. Mean age was 46 years, 68% were females, 63% psychologists and mean number of years of professional experience was 12 years. Participants completed a web-based survey including items covering various aspects of CBT practice. Overall, therapist perceptions of the extent to which different treatment techniques and procedures were consistent with CBT were in line with current evidence-based CBT protocols and practice guidelines, as were therapists' application of the techniques and procedures in their own practice. A majority of participants (78%) agreed that quality of life or level of functioning were the most important outcome measures for evaluating treatment success. Eighty percent of therapists believed that training in CBT at a basic level was a requirement for practicing CBT. There was a medium size Spearman correlation of rs=.46 between the perceived importance of research to practice and the extent to which participants kept themselves updated on research. Implications for training, quality assurance, and the effectiveness of CBT in clinical practice are discussed.

  • 117.
    Borjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish Def Univ, Sweden; Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad Univ, Sweden; Karlstad Univ, Sweden; Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Norway.
    Davis, Paul
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Flotation REST as a Stress Reduction Method: The Effects on Anxiety, Muscle Tension, and Performance2018In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL SPORT PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 333-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of flotation REST upon skilled and less skilled golfers anxiety in terms of physiological indicators of stress, self-rated anxiety scores, muscle tension, and the effect on golf putting. Prior to performing the putting task participants underwent a treatment of flotation REST or a period of resting in an armchair. Participants completed both treatments in a randomized order with a two-week interval. The results showed that both flotation REST and the armchair treatment reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate, with no differences between treatments or athlete skill levels. No significant differences between treatments were revealed regarding self-ratings, level of muscle tension or putting precision. The results indicate that flotation REST may be useful for reducing negative symptoms related to stress and anxiety in general; however, no support for direct positive effects on golf performance were found.

  • 118.
    Boström, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Social Anxiety Disorder, ratings of faces and character strengths: Some insights to their relation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder has several impairments (including attention bias in ratings of facial expressions). Character strengths has been seen to increase well-being and functioning among healthy individuals. With this in mind, three aims were stated; Is there a relation between SAD and VIA, can this relation be explained by confounding’s and does ratings of faces tell anything about the relation? Data were collected through a survey from 41 participants (13 men) with a mean age of 30 years. Correlation and regression models were performed to see if these constructs were related. The findings showed that character strengths and social anxiety were correlated, and that the regression model did not predict SAD. The regression model for Via were significant with all confounding variables. Ratings of facial expression were not related to any variables. Further studies need to look more into this correlation to see the underpinnings of these constructs.

  • 119.
    Bouwmeester, S
    et al.
    Erasmus University, The Netherlands.
    Verkoeijen, P. P. J. L.
    Erasmus University, The Netherlands.
    Aczel, B
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Barbosa, F
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Bègue, L
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Brañas-Garza, P
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Chmura, TGH
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Cornelissen, G
    Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Døssing, FS
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Espín, AM
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Evans, AM
    Tilburg University, The Netherlands.
    Ferreira-Santos, S
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Fiedler, S
    Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Flegr, J
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Ghaffari, M
    Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Glöckner, A
    University of Hagen, Germany; Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Goeschl, T
    University of Heidelberg, Germany.
    Guo, L
    University of California, USA.
    Hauser, OP
    Harvard University, USA.
    Hernan-Gonzalez, R
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Herrero, A
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Horne, Z
    University of Illinois, USA.
    Houdek, P
    University of Economics, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Johannesson, M
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Koppel, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kujal, P
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Laine, T
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Lohse, J
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Martins, EC
    Maia University, Institute ISMI/CPUP, USA.
    Mauro, C
    Catholic University of Portugal, Portugal.
    Mischkowski, D
    University of Hagen, Germany.
    Mukherjee, S
    Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, India.
    Myrseth, KOR
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Navarro-Martínez, D
    Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Neal, TMS
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Novakova, J
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Pagà, R
    Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Paiva, TO
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Palfi, B
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Piovesan, M
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rahal, RM
    Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Salomon, E
    University of Illinois, USA.
    Srinivasan, N
    University of Allahabad, India.
    Srivastava, A
    University of Allahabad, India.
    Szaszi, B
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Szollosi, A
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Thor, K Ø
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Trueblood, JS
    Vanderbilt University, USA.
    van Bavel, JJ
    New York University, USA.
    van ‘t Veer, A. E.
    Leiden University, The Netherlands.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, USA.
    Warner, M
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Wengström, E
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wills, J
    New York University, USA.
    Wollbrant, CE
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; NTNU Business School, Norway.
    Registered Replication Report: Rand, Greene, and Nowak (2012): Multilab direct replication of: Study 7 from Rand, D. G., Greene, J. D., & Nowak, M. A. (2012) Spontaneous giving and calculated greed. Nature, 489, 427–430.2017In: Perspectives on Psychological Science, ISSN 1745-6916, E-ISSN 1745-6924, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 527-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an anonymous 4-person economic game, participants contributed more money to a common project (i.e., cooperated) when required to decide quickly than when forced to delay their decision (Rand, Greene & Nowak, 2012), a pattern consistent with the social heuristics hypothesis proposed by Rand and colleagues. The results of studies using time pressure have been mixed, with some replication attempts observing similar patterns (e.g., Rand et al., 2014) and others observing null effects (e.g., Tinghög et al., 2013; Verkoeijen & Bouwmeester, 2014). This Registered Replication Report (RRR) assessed the size and variability of the effect of time pressure on cooperative decisions by combining 21 separate, preregistered replications of the critical conditions from Study 7 of the original article (Rand et al., 2012). The primary planned analysis used data from all participants who were randomly assigned to conditions and who met the protocol inclusion criteria (an intent-to-treat approach that included the 65.9% of participants in the time-pressure condition and 7.5% in the forced-delay condition who did not adhere to the time constraints), and we observed a difference in contributions of −0.37 percentage points compared with an 8.6 percentage point difference calculated from the original data. Analyzing the data as the original article did, including data only for participants who complied with the time constraints, the RRR observed a 10.37 percentage point difference in contributions compared with a 15.31 percentage point difference in the original study. In combination, the results of the intent-to-treat analysis and the compliant-only analysis are consistent with the presence of selection biases and the absence of a causal effect of time pressure on cooperation. 

  • 120.
    Bower, Peter
    et al.
    University of Manchester, England.
    Kontopantelis, Evangelos
    University of Manchester, England.
    Sutton, Alex
    University of Leicester, England.
    Kendrick, Tony
    University of York, England.
    Richards, David A.
    University of Exeter, England.
    Gilbody, Simon
    University of York, England.
    Knowles, Sarah
    University of Manchester, England.
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Christensen, Helen
    University of New S Wales, Australia.
    Meyer, Bjoern
    GAIA AG, Germany.
    Huibers, Marcus
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Smit, Filip
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    van Straten, Annemieke
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Warmerdam, Lisanne
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Barkham, Michael
    University of Sheffield, England.
    Bilich, Linda
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Lovell, Karina
    University of Manchester, England.
    Tung-Hsueh Liu, Emily
    Fu Jen Catholic University, Taiwan.
    Influence of initial severity of depression on effectiveness of low intensity interventions: meta-analysis of individual patient data2013In: BMJ (Clinical Research Edition), ISSN 0959-8138, Vol. 346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To assess how initial severity of depression affects the benefit derived from low intensity interventions for depression.

    Design Meta-analysis of individual patient data from 16 datasets comparing low intensity interventions with usual care.

    Setting Primary care and community settings.

    Participants 2470 patients with depression.

    Interventions Low intensity interventions for depression (such as guided self help by means of written materials and limited professional support, and internet delivered interventions).

    Main outcome measures Depression outcomes (measured with the Beck Depression Inventory or Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), and the effect of initial depression severity on the effects of low intensity interventions.

    Results Although patients were referred for low intensity interventions, many had moderate to severe depression at baseline. We found a significant interaction between baseline severity and treatment effect (coefficient −0.1 (95% CI −0.19 to −0.002)), suggesting that patients who are more severely depressed at baseline demonstrate larger treatment effects than those who are less severely depressed. However, the magnitude of the interaction (equivalent to an additional drop of around one point on the Beck Depression Inventory for a one standard deviation increase in initial severity) was small and may not be clinically significant.

    Conclusions The data suggest that patients with more severe depression at baseline show at least as much clinical benefit from low intensity interventions as less severely depressed patients and could usefully be offered these interventions as part of a stepped care model.

  • 121.
    Braarud, Hanne C.
    et al.
    Uni Research, Norway .
    Slinning, Kari
    National Network Infant Mental Heatlh, Norway .
    Moe, Vibeke
    National Network Infant Mental Heatlh, Norway .
    Smith, Lars
    National Network Infant Mental Heatlh, Norway .
    Tranaas Vannebo, Unni
    National Network Infant Mental Heatlh, Norway .
    Guedeney, Antoine
    Hospital Bichat Claude Bernhard, France .
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. National Network Infant Mental Heatlh, Norway .
    RELATION BETWEEN SOCIAL WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS IN FULL-TERM AND PREMATURE INFANTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMTOMS IN MOTHERS: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY2013In: Infant Mental Health Journal, ISSN 0163-9641, E-ISSN 1097-0355, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 532-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this longitudinal study was to investigate the prevalence of infants social withdrawal and mothers depressive symptoms in a cohort of full-term infants and their mothers and in a cohort of moderately premature infants and their mothers at 3, 6, and 9 months postpartum. The Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) was used to assess social withdrawal; the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was administered to ascertain postpartum depressive symptoms. The results revealed a higher proportion of premature infants with social withdrawal at 6 months postpartum and significantly higher ADBB composite scores at 3 and 6 months of age, as compared with the full-term infants. A higher proportion of mothers in the premature cohort had symptoms of postpartum depression at the 3-month assessment, and they reported a significantly higher EPDS composite score at 3 months postpartum. There was a significant relation between maternal depressive symptoms at 3 and 6 months and infants social withdrawal at 9 months, and a significant concurrent relation between the two variables at 6 and 9 months in the full-term cohort. The findings suggest a need to screen for both infant social withdrawal and maternal depressive symptoms in moderately prematurely born infants and their caregivers.

  • 122.
    Braarud, Hanne
    et al.
    Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Bergen, Norway.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Moe, Vibeke
    National Network for Infant Mental Health, Norway.
    Slinning, Kari
    National Network for Infant Mental Health, Norway.
    Tranaas-Vannebo, Unni
    National Network for Infant Mental Health, Norway.
    Guedeney, Antoine
    Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard, AP/HP, Paris, France.
    Smith, Lars
    National Network for Infant Mental Health, Norway.
    Early sustained withdrawal in infants, mothers’ mental health, other early risk factors, and socio- emotional outcome in infants2012In: Infant Mental Health Journal, 33: [Abstract supplement p 64] / [ed] K. Puura, M. Tomkinson, N.W. Boris & M. Sorsa, 2012, p. 64-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The  paper examines the interplay between the biomedical and socioemotional risk factors, i.e. maternal depression and prematurity, as predictors of infant’s sustained withdrawal, and subsequent socioemotional outcomes. The study (n=284) follows the developmental course of infant’s sustained withdrawal during the first year, and illuminates the pathways in which the early adversity possibly compromises the infant’s natural intersubjective skills and motivation.

  • 123.
    Brandberg Grage, Anna Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    När kameleonten möter dronten: Om handledarrollen vid grupphandledning av yrkesverksamma inom människohjälpande yrken2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att i en svensk kontext belysa handledarens roll vid grupphandledning av yrkesverksamma inom människohjälpande yrken, då detta är ett område som endast är sparsamt utforskat. Materialet inhämtades genom semi-­strukturerade intervjuer med nio verksamma handledare med socionom­ eller psykologutbildning. De transkriberade  intervjuerna bearbetades med tematisk analys. Resultatet kan övergripande beskrivas i form av  en modell med fem huvudteman: handledarrollen i modellens centrum, som påverkar och påverkas av förutsättningar, förväntningar, arbetssätt och utvärderingar. Modellen illustrerar hur handledarrollen i all dess komplexitet är produkten av en hel samling olika påverkansfaktorer och beslut, där vissa har sitt ursprung i handledarens egen bakgrund, men många är beroende av det sammanhang i vilket handledaren verkar. Resultatet visar även att handledarna skiljer sig gällande fokus samt prioritering av olika funktioner i handledningen. Det formuleras sällan konkreta mål i handledningen utan innehållet styrs utifrån syfte och förväntningar, och det varierar hur och i vilken grad utvärderingar genomförs.

  • 124.
    Briere, John
    Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, USA.
    Svedin, Carl Göran (Translator, Contributor)
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    TSCC, Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children: Manual Supplement, svensk version2010Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    TSCC är ett självrapporteringsformulär som mäter posttraumatisk stress och relaterade symptom. Instrumentet är avsett att användas för barn och ungdomar som har upplevt traumatiska händelser såsom fysiska eller sexuella övergrepp, dödsfall av närstående, naturkatastrofer eller bevittnat hot och våld. TSCC mäter ett brett spektrum av traumatiska symptom och lämpar sig framförallt för screening men kan också användas för att utvärdera effekter av psykoterapeutiska interventioner.

  • 125.
    Briere, John
    Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, USA.
    Svedin, Carl Göran (Translator, Contributor)
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    TSCYC, Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children: Manual, Svensk version2012Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    TSCYC är ett frågeformulär som används för att mäta ett brett spektrum av akuta eller kroniska posttraumatiska symptom hos barn som har upplevt traumatiska händelser såsom övergrepp eller misshandel eller har bevittnat våld i hemmet eller i sin närmiljö. Den svenska versionen av TSCYC har översatts av docent Doris Nilsson och professor Carl-Göran Svedin som även har översatt, normerat och standardiserat den svenska versionen av traumainstrumentet TSCC för äldre barn och ungdomar.

    Den svenska standardiseringen och normeringen av TSCYC har gjorts i en grupp om 629 barn ur normalpopulation och en klinisk grupp om 59 barn i åldrarna 3–11 år. Normerna är uppdelade utifrån ålder och kön.

    TSCYC-formuläret innehåller 90 frågor och handlar om olika typer av traumasymptom som barnet kan uppvisa. Frågorna besvaras av barnets förälder eller vårdnadshavare. TSCYC ger en detaljerad utvärdering av posttraumatiska symptom på åtta kliniska skalor. En summaskala ger värdefull information om akuta och kroniska symptom samt andra vanligt förekommande symptom hos traumatiserade barn. PTSD-diagnosbladet, som ingår i svarsblanketten, kan användas som stöd i evalueringen av möjlig PTSD-diagnos.

  • 126.
    Broström, Filip
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    Självskattad individuell och mellanmänsklig emotionsreglerings förklaringsvärde för relationsnöjdhet i vuxna par2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Emotionsreglering är ett närmast transdiagnostiskt fenomen med relevans för såväl individ- som parrelaterade problembilder. Kopplingar till relationsnöjdhet har tidigare gjorts via observationsstudier på parnivå eller självskattningsstudier på individnivå. Studiens huvudsyfte var att undersöka om mellanmänskliga skattningsskalor för emotionsreglering kan förklara varians i pars relationsnöjdhet utöver den varians som förklaras av en intrapersonell skattningsskala för emotionell dysreglering. Som ett andra syfte översattes och undersöktes två skattningsskalor med potentiell relevans för mellanmänsklig emotionsreglering.

    I studien fyllde ett urval av vuxna par (n = 110) i självskattningsformulär över internet. För att kunna undersöka både egen (aktörens) och partnerns emotionsreglerings inverkan på aktörens relationsnöjdhet användes en actor-partner interdependence model (APIM). En första modell bestående av intrapersonell emotionsreglering visades förklara 19.7% av variansen i relationsnöjdhet, en andra modell som också inkluderade mellanmänskliga mått visade signifikant bättre model-fit och större variansförklaring (64.6%). Effekter på relationsnöjdhet i den andra modellen kom ifrån tre aktörskattade mått och ett partnerskattat mått.

    Adekvat intern konsistens fanns för delskalorna för inre affektförbättrande, yttre affektförbättrande, inre affektförsämrande, yttre affektförsämrande, stoppbeteenden och negativ eskalering, men inte för undfallenhet. Affektförbättrande delskalor och stoppbeteenden visade inga samband med intrapersonell dysreglering.

    Fortsatta undersökningar krävs för att uttala sig om eventuell kausal inverkan på relationsnöjdhet och för att kunna etablera de översatta skalornas validitet och reliabilitet.

  • 127.
    Brännström, Jonas K
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Dept of clinical science, Section of Logopedics, Phoiatrics and audiology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Öberg, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Ingo, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Månsson, Kristoffer N. T.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Denmark.
    Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Denmark.
    The Process of Developing an Internet-Based Support System for Audiologists and First-Time Hearing Aid Clients2015In: American Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1059-0889, E-ISSN 1558-9137, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 320-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In audiologic practice, complementary information sources and access to the clinician between appointments improve information retention and facilitate adjustment behaviors. An Internet-based support system is a novel way to support information sharing and clinician access. Purpose: This research forum article describes the process of developing an Internet-based support system for audiologists and their first-time hearing aid clients. Method: The iterative development process, including revisions by 4 research audiologists and 4 clinical audiologists, is described. The final system is exemplified. Conclusion: An Internet-based support system was successfully developed for audiologic practice.

  • 128.
    Brännström, Jonas
    et al.
    Clinical Sciences Lund, Sweden.
    Öberg, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ingo, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Månsson, Kristoffer N T
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Sweden.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre, Denmark.
    Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre, Denmark.
    The initial evaluation of an internet-based support system for audiologists and first-time hearing aid clientsThe process of developing an internet-based support system for audiologists and first-time hearing aid clients2016In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 82-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 129.
    Bråhn, Carolina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    Fler behövande minskar (ibland) hjälpmotivationen: Proportions-dominans effekten i separat bedömning, samtidig bedömning samt påtvingt val2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare har studier funnit att människor tenderar att ha en högre motivation till att hjälpa när proportionen vi hjälper är större. Detta kallas för proportions- dominans effekten (PDE) och syftet med uppsatsen är att i två studier, systematiskt undersöka om PDE finns i tre olika bedömningssätt (separat bedömning, samtidig bedömning och påtvingat val). Studierna undersökte även PDE med antalsokänslighet, som gör att vi ibland föredrar projekt som har högre räddningsprocent, men räddar färre antal än ett projekt som har en lägre räddningsprocent men kan rädda fler antal personer. I separat bedömning visade resultaten en stark PDE, både när det innebar antalsokänslighet (respondenter föredrog att rädda 4 av 4 personer framför att rädda 6 av 100 personer) och när det inte gjorde det (respondenter föredrog att rädda 6 av 6 personer framför att rädda 6 av 100 personer). PDE utan antalsokänslighet fanns även i samtidig bedömning och i påtvingat val. Däremot upptäcktes ingen PDE i varken samtidig bedömning eller påtvingat val om PDE innebar antalsokänslighet.

  • 130.
    Buhrman, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Skoglund, Astrid
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Husell, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Bergstrom, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Bendelin, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Guided internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain patients: A randomized controlled trial2013In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 307-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) interventions for persons with chronic pain have recently received empirical support. ACT focuses on reducing the disabling influences of pain through targeting ineffective control strategies and teaches people to stay in contact with unpleasant emotions, sensations, and thoughts. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a guided internet-delivered ACT intervention for persons with chronic pain. A total of 76 patients with chronic pain were included in the study and randomized to either treatment for 7 weeks or to a control group that participated in a moderated online discussion forum. Intent-to-treat analyses showed significant increases regarding activity engagement and pain willingness. Measurements were provided with the primary outcome variable Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire which was in favour of the treatment group. Reductions were found on other measures of pain-related distress, anxiety and depressive symptoms. A six month follow-up showed maintenance of improvements. We conclude that an acceptance based internet-delivered treatment can be effective for persons with chronic pain.

  • 131.
    Buhrman, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Syk, Martin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Burvall, Olle
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Individualized Guided Internet-delivered Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Chronic Pain Patients With Comorbid Depression and Anxiety A Randomized Controlled Trial2015In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 504-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Depression and anxiety are commonly seen in patients with chronic pain which affects the patients daily life functioning. Although considerable attention has been devoted to explain why depression and anxiety are frequent comorbid with chronic pain, little empirical work has been conducted on interventions that target depression and anxiety and chronic pain. The present study was designed to test an individualized cognitive-behavioral treatment delivered through the internet for persons with chronic pain and emotional distress. Materials and Methods: A total of 52 patients with chronic pain and depression were included and randomized to either treatment for 8 weeks or to a control group that participated in a moderated online discussion forum. Results: Intent-to-treat analyses showed significant decreases regarding depressive symptoms and pain disability in the treatment group. Results on the primary outcomes of depression and anxiety were in favor of the treatment group. Reductions were also found on pain catastrophizing. Discussion: One-year follow-up showed maintenance of improvements. We conclude that an individualized guided internet-delivered treatment based on cognitive-behavior therapy can be effective for persons with chronic pain comorbid emotional distress.

  • 132.
    Bystedt, Samuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    Free University of Berlin, Germany.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Clinicians Perspectives on Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments2014In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 319-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Negative effects of psychological treatments is a fairly unexplored area of clinical research. Previous investigations have indicated that a portion of all patients experience negative effects in terms of deterioration and various adverse events. Meanwhile, evidence suggests that many clinicians are untrained in identifying negative effects and unaware of the current research findings. The objective of the current study is thus to investigate clinicians own perspectives and experiences of possible negative effects of psychological treatments. An invitation to participate in an anonymous online survey consisting of 14 open-ended questions was distributed via three mailing lists used by clinicians that primarily identify themselves as cognitive behavior therapists. The responses were analyzed using a qualitative method based on thematic analysis. In total, 74 participants completed the survey. A majority agreed that negative effects of psychological treatments exist and pose a problem, and many reported having experienced both deterioration and adverse events among patients in their own practice. The thematic analysis resulted in three core themes: characteristics of negative effects, causal factors, as well as methods and criteria for evaluating negative effects. The clinicians recognize that negative effects exist, but many are unaware of the current research findings and are unfamiliar with methods and criteria for identifying and preventing deterioration and adverse events. The results provide evidence for further dissemination of the present knowledge regarding negative effects, particularly during basic clinical training, as well as the need for raising awareness of the available methods for identifying and preventing negative effects.

  • 133.
    Bäck, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. a cademy for health and care, region Jönköping c ounty, Jönköping, s weden.
    Gustafsson, S.A.
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, University Health Care Research Center, Region Örebro County, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Interpersonal psychotherapy for eating disorders with co-morbid depression: A pilot study [Psychothérapie interpersonnelle dans les cas de troubles alimentaires avec dépression comorbide: une étude-pilote] [Interpersonelle Psychotherapie für Essstörungen mit Ko-morbider Depression: eine Pilot-Studie, Malin.] [Psicoterapia interpersonale per comorbilità tra disturbi alimentari e depressione: uno studio pilota] [PSICOTERAPIA INTERPERSONAL EN TRASTORNOS DE LA ALIMENTACION CON DEPRESION CO-MORBIDA: un estudio piloto.]2017In: European Journal of Psychotherapy, ISSN 1364-2537, E-ISSN 1469-5901, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 378-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Patients with eating disorders (ED) often suffer from co-morbid depression, which may complicate the ED treatment. Previous studies have found that ED interventions seem to have limited capacity to reduce depressive symptoms. Several studies of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), have found that when patients have been treated for depression, co-morbid symptoms have diminished. As depression and EDs are commonly co-occurring conditions, this pilot study aimed to examine the effect of an IPT treatment for these conditions, with the focus on the depressive symptoms. Method: In this multi-centre study, 16 patients with EDs and co-occurring major depression received 16 weeks of depression-focused IPT. Results: Significant improvements with substantial effect sizes were found for both depression (d = 1.48) and ED (d =.93). Symptom reduction in the two syndromes were strongly correlated (r =.625, p =.004). Patients with a restrictive ED did not improve on either depression or ED symptoms. Conclusion: These findings point to the usefulness of IPT for concurrent depression and ED with a bingeing/purging symptomatology. Working with negative affect and problem-solving related to current interpersonal problems may alleviate general psychological distress among these patients. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor amp; Francis Group.

  • 134.
    Bånkestad, Ellinor
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fear avoidance och acceptans som mediatorer vid tinnitusbesvär: Två modeller jämförs i en enkätstudie2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna enkätstudie var att jämföra två olika förklaringsmodeller för tinnitusbesvär; fear avoidance och acceptans. Förutom att undersöka sambanden till tinnitusbesvär, testades även modellerna mot utfallsmåtten tinnitusvigilans och livskvalitet. Då nivå av depression och ångest är kända prediktorer för tinnitusbesvär, användes de som kontrollvariabler. Även processerna mindfulness och värderad riktning testades. Deltagare i studien var 362 patienter med tinnitus som någon gång mellan åren 2004-2011 varit i kontakt med Öronkliniken Hörselvården vid universitetssjukhuset i Linköping. Hierarkiska regressionsanalyser visade att både acceptans och fear avoidance förklarade unika bidrag till utfallsmåtten tinnitusbesvär och tinnitusvigilans. Värderad riktning förklarade unik varians i utfallsmåttet livskvalitet. Utifrån multipla mediationsanalyser visade det sig att både acceptans och fear avoidance medierade sambandet mellan ljudnivån av tinnitus och tinnitusbesvär samt sambandet mellan ljudnivån av tinnitus och tinnitusvigilans. Ingen av mediatorerna bidrog med signifikant mer förklaringsvärde än den andra. Slutsatsen är att acceptans och fear avoidance är två viktiga och kompletterande modeller för att förklara graden av tinnitusbesvär och tinnitusvigilans. Resultatet från denna studie kan ha implikationer för utvecklingen av mer effektiva behandlingar för tinnitus.

  • 135.
    C. Manchaiah, Vinaya K.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stages of change in adults noticing hearing difficulties but not using hearing aidsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate health behaviour change characteristics based on the transtheoretical stages-of-change model in adults noticing hearing difficulties but not using hearing aids using the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) scale.

    Design: The study employed a cross-sectional design.

    Study Sample: The study was conducted in United Kingdom and 90 pre-clinical participants completed URICA as well as measures of self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression, self-reported hearing disability acceptance and also provided some demographic details online.

    Results: As predicted, the results indicate that a high percentage of participants (over 90%) were in the contemplation and preparation stages. This was in contrast to a previous study, which included participants attending audiology clinic, where most participants (about 80%) were in the action stage (Laplante-Lévesque et al., 2013). In addition, statistically significant differences were observed in terms of readiness to change composite and committed action composite between the study samples in the current and the previous study.

    Conclusions: Study results support the stages-of-change model. In addition, implications of the current study and areas for future research are discussed.

  • 136.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Department of Clinical, Neuro and Developmental Psychology, Section of Clinical Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Riper, Heleen
    Department of Clinical, Neuro and Developmental Psychology, Section of Clinical Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; VU University Medical Centre/GGZ inGeest, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Faculty of Health Science, Telepsychiatric Unit, University of Southern Denmark, University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
    Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Osher Center for Integrative Medicine and Division of Psychology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis2018In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 1-18Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades, Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in hundreds of randomized controlled trials, often with promising results. However, the control groups were often waitlisted, care-as-usual or attention control. Hence, little is known about the relative efficacy of ICBT as compared to face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). In the present systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 1418 participants, guided ICBT for psychiatric and somatic conditions were directly compared to face-to-face CBT within the same trial. Out of the 2078 articles screened, a total of 20 studies met all inclusion criteria. Results showed a pooled effect size at post-treatment of Hedges g = .05 (95% CI, -.09 to .20), indicating that ICBT and face-to-face treatment produced equivalent overall effects. Study quality did not affect outcomes. While the overall results indicate equivalence, there have been few studies of the individual psychiatric and somatic conditions so far, and for the majority, guided ICBT has not been compared against face-to-face treatment. Thus, more research, preferably with larger sample sizes, is needed to establish the general equivalence of the two treatment formats.

  • 137.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Apelstrand, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sehlin, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Amir, Nader
    San Diego State University, USA .
    Rousseau, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hofmann, Stefan
    Boston University, USA .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Internet-delivered attention bias modification training in individuals with social anxiety disorder - a double blind randomized controlled trial2012In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 66-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Computerized cognitive bias modification for social anxiety disorder has in several well conducted trials shown great promise with as many as 72% no longer fulfilling diagnostic criteria after a 4 week training program. To test if the same program can be transferred from a clinical setting to an internet delivered home based treatment the authors conducted a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: After a diagnostic interview 79 participants were randomized to one of two attention training programs using a probe detection task. In the active condition the participant was trained to direct attention away from threat, whereas in the placebo condition the probe appeared with equal frequency in the position of the threatening and neutral faces. RESULTS: Results were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, including all randomized participants. Immediate and 4-month follow-up results revealed a significant time effect on all measured dimensions (social anxiety scales, general anxiety and depression levels, quality of life). However, there were no time x group interactions. The lack of differences in the two groups was also mirrored by the infinitesimal between group effect size both at post test and at 4-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: We conclude that computerized attention bias modification may need to be altered before dissemination for the Internet. Trial registration ISRCTN01715124.

  • 138.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Hagglund, Malin
    Umeå University, Sweden .
    Luthstrom, Anne
    Umeå University, Sweden .
    Dahlin, Mats
    Psykologpartners, Linkoping, Sweden .
    Kadowaki, Asa
    Psykologpartners, Linkoping, Sweden .
    Vernmark, Kristofer
    Psykologpartners, Linkoping, Sweden .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Internet-based behavioral activation and acceptance-based treatment for depression: A randomized controlled trial2013In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 148, no 2-3, p. 331-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for depression has been tested in several trials but there are no internet studies on behavioral activation (BA), and no studies on BA over the internet including components of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The aim of this study was to develop and test the effects of internet-delivered BA combined with ACT against a waiting list control condition as a first test of the effects of treatment. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Selection took place with a computerized screening interview and a subsequent semi-structured telephone interview. A total of 80 individuals from the general public were randomized to one of two conditions. The treatment lasted for 8 weeks after which both groups were assessed. We also included a 3 month follow-up. The treatment included interactive elements online and a CD-ROM for mindfulness and acceptance exercises. In addition, written support and feedback was given by a therapist every week. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Results at posttreatment showed a large between group effect size on the Beck Depression inventory II d = 0.98 (95%CI = 0.51-1.44). In the treated group 25% (10/40) reached remission defined as a BDI score andlt;= 10 vs. 5% (2/40) in the control group. Results on secondary measures were smaller. While few dropped out from the study (N = 2) at posttreatment, the average number of completed modules was M = 5.1 out of the seven modules. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanLimitations: The study only included a waiting-list comparison and it is not possible to determine which treatment components were the most effective. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: We conclude that there is initial evidence that BA with components of ACT can be effective in reducing symptoms of depression.

  • 139.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindner, Philip
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden and Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Martell, Christopher
    Martell Behavioral Activation Research Consulting and Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Lars
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ström, Lars
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The effects on depression of Internet-administered behavioural activation and physical exercise with treatment rationale and relapse prevention: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial2013In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 14, no 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Despite their potential as low-threshold, low-cost and high-flexibility treatments of depression, behavioural activation and physical exercise have not yet been directly compared. This study will examine the effects of these interventions, administered via the Internet. The added effect of providing a treatment rationale will also be studied, as well as a relapse prevention program featuring cognitive behavioural therapy components.

    Methods/Design

    This randomised controlled trial will include 500 participants meeting the diagnostic criteria for major depression, recruited in multiple cycles and randomised to either a waiting list control group with delayed treatment, or one of the four treatment groups: (1) physical exercise without a clear treatment rationale; (2) physical exercise with treatment rationale; (3) behavioural activation with treatment rationale; or (4) behavioural activation without a clear treatment rationale. Post treatment, half of the participants will be offered a relapse prevention program. Primary outcome measure will be the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item. Secondary measures include diagnostic criteria for depression, as well as self-reported anxiety, physical activity and quality of life. Measurements - done via telephone and the Internet - will be collected pre-treatment, weekly during treatment period, immediately post treatment and then monthly during a 24-month follow-up period.

    Discussion

    The results of this study will constitute an important contribution to the body of knowledge of the respective interventions. Limitations are discussed.

    Trial registration

    ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01619930

  • 140.
    Carlsson, Emma
    et al.
    School of Health Sciences, Department of Natural Science and Biomedicine, Jonköping University, Jönköping, Sweden, Division of Medical Diagnostics, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Frostell, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Faresjo, Maria
    School of Health Sciences, Department of Natural Science and Biomedicine, Jonköping University, Jönköping, Sweden, Division of Medical Diagnostics, Ryhov County Hospital, Jonköping, Sweden.
    Psychological stress in children may alter the immune response2014In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 192, no 5, p. 2071-2081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological stress is a public health issue even in children and has been associated with a number of immunological diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological stress and immune response in healthy children, with special focus on autoimmunity. In this study, psychological stress was based on a composite measure of stress in the family across the domains: 1) serious life events, 2) parenting stress, 3) lack of social support, and 4) parental worries. PBMCs, collected from 5-y-old high-stressed children (n = 26) and from 5-y-old children without high stress within the family (n = 52), from the All Babies In Southeast Sweden cohort, were stimulated with Ags (tetanus toxoid and b-lactoglobulin) and diabetes-related autoantigens (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, insulin, heat shock protein 60, and tyrosine phosphatase). Immune markers (cytokines and chemokines), clinical parameters (C-peptide, proinsulin, glucose), and cortisol, as an indicator of stress, were analyzed. Children from families with high psychological stress showed a low spontaneous immune activity (IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL10; p less than 0.01) but an increased immune response to tetanus toxoid, b-lactoglobulin, and the autoantigens glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, heat shock protein 60, and tyrosine phosphatase (IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IFN-g, TNF-A, CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL10; p less than 0.05). Children within the high-stress group showed high level of cortisol, but low level of C-peptide, compared with the control group (p less than 0.05). This supports the hypothesis that psychological stress may contribute to an imbalance in the immune response but also to a pathological effect on the insulin-producing b cells.Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists.

  • 141.
    Carlsson, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of playing number games on 6-year-old children’s number knowledge and skills2017In: Linköping studies in Behavioral Science, ISSN 1654-2029Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 142.
    Carlsson, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Samuelsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Investigating children’s number line estimation patterns using Latent class regression analysis2017In: Linköping studies in Behavioral ScienceArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 143.
    Carpenter, Stephanie M.
    et al.
    Decis Research, OR USA University of Michigan, MI 48109 USA .
    Peters, Ellen
    Ohio State University, OH 43210 USA Decis Research, OR USA .
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Isen, Alice M.
    Cornell University, NY 14853 USA Cornell University, NY 14853 USA .
    Positive feelings facilitate working memory and complex decision making among older adults2013In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 184-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of induced mild positive feelings on working memory and complex decision making among older adults (aged 6385) was examined. Participants completed a computer administered card task in which participants could win money if they chose from gain decks and lose money if they chose from loss decks. Individuals in the positive-feeling condition chose better than neutral-feeling participants and earned more money overall. Participants in the positive-feeling condition also demonstrated improved working-memory capacity. These effects of positive-feeling induction have implications for affect theory, as well as, potentially, practical implications for people of all ages dealing with complex decisions.

  • 144.
    Cederlund, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wallin, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    DELORES: Smartphone som stöd vid beteendeaktivering för depression: en studie av prediktorer för utfall2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka möjliga prediktorer för utfallet i KBT-behandling vid depression, face-to-face samt i kombination med stöd av en smartphoneapplikation. 88 deltagare randomiserades till smartphone- (n = 45) eller face-to-face-betingelsen (n = 43). Utfallsmåttet var förändring i Beck Depression Inventory-II mellan förocheftermätning, främst beräknat med residual gain scores. Samband mellan prediktorer och utfall undersöktes medkorrelationsanalyser. Regressionsanalyser med interaktionen mellan prediktor och behandlingsbetingelse genomfördes för att undersöka skillnader mellan betingelserna. Resultatet visade att högre initial depressionsnivå predicerade större förbättring för alla deltagare sammantaget samt för båda behandlingsbetingelserna. Att ha sysselsättning predicerade mindre förbättring för face-to-face-betingelsen. Vissa frågor gällande smartphoneanvändning visade sig betydelsefulla. Exempelvis var upplevelsen av att ha stor användning av sin smartphone relaterat till större förbättring för smartphonebetingelsen. Gällande allians var högre skattningar på Working Alliance Inventory-Short under behandlingsvecka tre relaterat till större förbättring för alla deltagaresammantaget samt för smartphonebetingelsen. Detta samband gällde även vid kontroll för skattning av förväntad allians. Kön, ålder, civilstånd, utbildningsnivå, stad, initial ångestnivå, samtidig ångestdiagnos, tidigare depressionsdiagnos, förväntad allians samt flera smartphonefrågor predicerade inte utfallet. Att många faktorer inte korrelerade med utfallet skulle kunna tyda på att detta behandlingsformat kan komma att passa en bred patientgrupp, men att det kan vara viktigt att ta hänsyn till betydelsen av allians samt individers smartphonevanor.

  • 145.
    Ceschi, Andrea
    et al.
    University of Verona, Italy.
    Dorofeeva, Ksenia
    University of Verona, Italy.
    Sartori, Riccardo
    University of Verona, Italy.
    Dickert, Stephan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. WU Vienna University of Econ and Business, Austria.
    Scalco, Andrea
    University of Verona, Italy.
    A Simulation of Householders Recycling Attitudes Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior2015In: TRENDS IN PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF AGENTS, MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABILITY: THE PAAMS COLLECTION, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2015, Vol. 372, p. 177-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What would induce householders to recycle their waste in a practicable way? This paper investigates the determinants of recycling behavior through the development of an Agent-Based Model (ABM) simulation. Specifically, this contribution examines the effectiveness of a simulation based on different recycling behaviors to better understand the phenomenon. The perspective used takes into consideration the recycling attitude and the sensitivity to social norms based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict recycling outcomes. As a whole, this paper highlights the dominance of dynamics and interacting aspects of waste management for the formulation of effective recycling public policies based on behavioral aspects. In addition, it illustrates how it is possible to use such empirical models as the Structural Equation Models (SEM) as a starting point for developing ABM simulations that are closer to both theory and reality.

  • 146.
    Ceschi, Andrea
    et al.
    University of Verona, Italy.
    Scalco, Andrea
    University of Verona, Italy.
    Dickert, Stephan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. WU Vienna University of Econ and Business, Austria.
    Sartori, Riccardo
    University of Verona, Italy.
    Compassion and Prosocial Behavior. Is it Possible to Simulate them Virtually?2015In: TRENDS IN PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF AGENTS, MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABILITY: THE PAAMS COLLECTION, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2015, Vol. 372, p. 207-214Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of artificial intelligence, a question dealing with computer and cognitive science is arising and becoming more and more crucial: Can we design agents so sophisticated that they are capable of mimicking emotional behaviors in general as well as specific emotions like compassion or empathy? Despite the production of different computational models, their integration with cognitive and psychological theories remains a central problem. Reasons are both methodological and theoretical. Primarily, it is difficult to quantify the impact of such factors as individual differences, inclinations and personality traits. In addition, Agent-Based Models (ABMs) often use linear dynamics, even in describing emotions, without considering the basis of psychophysics. Bearing in mind this and focusing on compassion as a particular emotion, the paper aims to present a "Decalogue" for those interested in designing agents capable of mimicking human emotional behaviors. In the paper, compassion will be translated as prosocial behavior.

  • 147.
    Christensen, Helen
    et al.
    University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Calear, Alison L
    Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thorndike, Frances P
    University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, United States.
    Tait, Robert J
    Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    Beyond efficacy: the depth and diversity of current internet interventions.2012In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 14, no 3, p. e92-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 148.
    Cima, Rilana F. F.
    et al.
    Maastricht University, Netherlands Adelante, Netherlands .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Schmidt, Caroline J.
    VA Connecticut Healthcare Syst, CT USA Yale School Med, CT USA .
    Henry, James A.
    VA Medical Centre, OR USA Oregon Health and Science University, OR 97201 USA .
    Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Tinnitus: A Review of the Literature2014In: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF AUDIOLOGY, ISSN 1050-0545, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 29-61Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tinnitus can be defined as the perception of an auditory sensation, perceivable without the presence of an external sound. Purpose: The aim of this article is to systematically review the peer-reviewed literature on treatment approaches for tinnitus based on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and to provide a historical overview of developments within these approaches. Research Design: Experimental studies, (randomized) trials, follow-up assessments, and reviews assessing educational, counseling, psychological, and CBT treatment approaches were identified as a result of an electronic database metasearch. Results: A total of 31 (of the initial 75 studies) were included in the review. Results confirm that CBT treatment for tinnitus management is the most evidence-based treatment option so far. Though studied protocols are diverse and are usually a combination of different treatment elements, and tinnitus diagnostics and outcome assessments vary over investigations, a common ground of therapeutic elements was established, and evidence was found to be robust enough to guide clinical practice. Conclusions: Treatment strategy might best be CBT-based, moving toward a more multidisciplinary approach. There is room for the involvement of different disciplines, using a stepped-care approach. This may provide brief and effective treatment for a larger group of tinnitus patients, and additional treatment steps can be provided for those suffering on a more severe level.

  • 149.
    Conrad, Isabell
    et al.
    Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany.
    Kleinstaeuber, Maria
    University of Marburg, Germany.
    Jasper, Kristine
    Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany.
    Hiller, Wolfgang
    Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Weise, Cornelia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. University of Marburg, Germany.
    The Changeability and Predictive Value of Dysfunctional Cognitions in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Chronic Tinnitus2015In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 239-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Multidimensional tinnitus models describe dysfunctional cognitions as a complicating factor in the process of tinnitus habituation. However, this concept has rarely been investigated in previous research. Purpose The present study investigated the effects of two cognitive-behavioral treatments on dysfunctional tinnitus-related cognitions in patients with chronic tinnitus. Furthermore, dysfunctional cognitions were examined as possible predictors of the therapeutic effect on tinnitus distress. Method A total of 128 patients with chronic tinnitus were randomly assigned to either an Internet-delivered guided self-help treatment (Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy, ICBT), a conventional face-to-face group therapy (cognitive-behavioral group therapy, GCBT), or an active control group in the form of a web-based discussion forum (DF). To assess tinnitus-related dysfunctional thoughts, the Tinnitus Cognitions Scale (T-Cog) was used at pre- and post-assessment, as well as at the 6- and 12-month follow-up. Results Multivariate ANOVAs with post hoc tests revealed significant and comparable reductions of dysfunctional tinnitus-related cognitions for both treatments (GCBT and ICBT), which remained stable over a 6- and 12-month period. Negative correlations were found between the catastrophic subscale of the T-Cog and therapy outcome for ICBT, but not for GCBT. This means a higher degree of catastrophic thinking at baseline was associated with lower benefit from ICBT directly after the treatment. Hierarchical regression analysis confirmed catastrophizing as a predictor of poorer therapy outcome regarding emotional tinnitus distress in ICBT. No associations were detected in the follow-up assessments. Conclusion Both forms of CBT are successful in reducing dysfunctional tinnitus-related cognitions. Catastrophizing significantly predicted a less favorable outcome regarding emotional tinnitus distress in ICBT. Clinical implications of these results are described. Dysfunctional cognitions could be targeted more intensively in therapy and in future research on tinnitus.

  • 150.
    Conrad, Isabell
    et al.
    Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany.
    Kleinstaeuber, Maria
    University of Marburg, Germany.
    Jasper, Kristine
    Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany.
    Hiller, Wolfgang
    Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Weise, Cornelia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. University of Marburg, Germany.
    The Role of Dysfunctional Cognitions in Patients With Chronic Tinnitus2015In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 36, no 5, p. E279-E289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The present study investigates the role of dysfunctional cognitions in patients with chronic tinnitus. To explore different dimensions of tinnitus-related thoughts, a 22-item self-report measure, the Tinnitus Cognitions Scale (T-Cog), is presented. Furthermore, dysfunctional cognitions are examined as a possible mediator of the relation between tinnitus distress and depression. Design: The present study analyzes the cross-sectional data of 373 patients with chronic tinnitus. Parallel analysis and principal axis factoring are used to identify the factor structure of the T-Cog. Assumed mediating effects are tested using the asymptotic and resampling procedure. Results: Factor analysis reveals two factors interpreted as tinnitus-related catastrophic thinking and tinnitus-related avoidance cognitions. Internal consistency is sufficient with a Cronbachs of 0.88 for the total scale and 0.74 and 0.87 for the subscales. The authors find high associations between the T-Cog and other measures of tinnitus distress, depression, anxiety, and tinnitus acceptance, indicating convergent validity. With the exception of neuroticism, low correlations with personality factors are found, indicating discriminant validity. Patients with moderate or severe tinnitus distress report significantly higher scores of dysfunctional cognitions than patients with mild tinnitus distress. Tinnitus-related catastrophic thinking and tinnitus-related avoidance cognitions partially mediate the relation between tinnitus distress and depression. Conclusions: Dysfunctional cognitions can play an important role in the degree of tinnitus distress. Catastrophic and avoidant thoughts contribute to the explanation of depression among tinnitus patients. The T-Cog is a reliable and valid questionnaire for the assessment of different dimensions of cognitions. Its use could provide information for identifying tinnitus patients who are particularly suitable for cognitive-behavioral therapy.

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