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  • 101.
    Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia
    et al.
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Xiao, Xiangzhu
    Case Western Reserve University, OH 44116 USA.
    Bett, Cyrus
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; US FDA, MD USA.
    Erana, Hasier
    CIC bioGUNE, Spain.
    Soldau, Katrin
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Castilla, Joaquin
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; CIC bioGUNE, Spain; Ikerbasque, Spain.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Surewicz, Witold K.
    Case Western Reserve University, OH 44116 USA.
    Sigurdson, Christina J.
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; University of Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Post-translational modifications in PrP expand the conformational diversity of prions in vivo2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 43295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Misfolded prion protein aggregates (PrPSc) show remarkable structural diversity and are associated with highly variable disease phenotypes. Similarly, other proteins, including amyloid-beta, tau, alpha-synuclein, and serum amyloid A, misfold into distinct conformers linked to different clinical diseases through poorly understood mechanisms. Here we use mice expressing glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)anchorless prion protein, PrPC, together with hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry (HXMS) and a battery of biochemical and biophysical tools to investigate how posttranslational modifications impact the aggregated prion protein properties and disease phenotype. Four GPI-anchorless prion strains caused a nearly identical clinical and pathological disease phenotype, yet maintained their structural diversity in the anchorless state. HXMS studies revealed that GPIanchorless PrPSc is characterized by substantially higher protection against hydrogen/deuterium exchange in the C-terminal region near the N-glycan sites, suggesting this region had become more ordered in the anchorless state. For one strain, passage of GPI-anchorless prions into wild type mice led to the emergence of a novel strain with a unique biochemical and phenotypic signature. For the new strain, histidine hydrogen-deuterium mass spectrometry revealed altered packing arrangements of beta-sheets that encompass residues 139 and 186 of PrPSc. These findings show how variation in posttranslational modifications may explain the emergence of new protein conformations in vivo and also provide a basis for understanding how the misfolded protein structure impacts the disease.

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  • 102.
    Ahl, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thermodynamic Characterization of the Interaction between the C-Terminal Domain of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase and Heparin by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry2009In: BIOCHEMISTRY, ISSN 0006-2960, Vol. 48, no 41, p. 9932-9940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD) interacts with heparin through its C-terminal domain. In this study we used isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to get detailed thermodynamic information about the interaction. We have shown that the interaction between ECSOD and intestinal mucosal heparin (M-w 6000-30000 Da) is exothermic and driven by enthalpy at physiological salt concentration. However, the contribution from entropy is favorable for binding or small isolated heparin fragments. By studying different size-defined heparin fragments, we also concluded that it hexasaccharide moiety is sufficient for strong binding to ECSOD. The binding involves proton transfer from the buffer to the ECSOD-heparin complex, and the results indicate that the number of ionic interactions made between ECSOD and heparin upon binding varies from three to five for heparin and an octasaccharide fragment, respectively. Surprisingly and despite the many charges found oil both the protein and the polysaccharide, our results indicate that the nonionic contribution to the binding is large. From the temperature dependence we have calculated the constant pressure heat capacity change (Delta C-p) of the interaction to -644 J K-1 mol(-1) and -306 J K-1 mol(-1) for heparin and all octasaccharide, respectively

  • 103.
    Ahl, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of Effects of Mutations in the C-Terminal Domain of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry and Phage DisplayManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 104. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Ahlner, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improved Methods for Characterization of Protein Dynamics by NMR spectroscopy and Studies of the EphB2 Kinase Domain2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins are essential for all known forms of life and in many lethal diseases protein failure is the cause of the disease. To understand proteins and the processes they are involved in, it is valuable to know their structures as well as their dynamics and interactions. The structures may not be directly inspected because proteins are too small to be visible in a light microscope, which is why indirect methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have to be utilized. This method provides atomic information about the protein and, in contrast to other methods with similar resolution, the measurements are performed in solution resulting in more physiological conditions, enabling analysis of dynamics. Important dynamical processes are the ones on the millisecond timeframe, which may contribute to interactions of proteins and their catalysis of chemical reactions, both of significant value for the function of the proteins.

    To better understand proteins, not only do we need to study them, but also develop the methods we are using. This thesis presents four papers about improved NMR techniques as well as a fifth where the kinase domain of ephrinB receptor 2 (EphB2) has been studied regarding the importance of millisecond dynamics and interactions for the activation process. The first paper presents the software COMPASS, which combines statistics and the calculation power of a computer with the flexibility and experience of the user to facilitate and speed up the process of assigning NMR signals to the atoms in the protein. The computer program PINT has been developed for easier and faster evaluation of NMR experiments, such as those that evaluate protein dynamics. It is especially helpful for NMR signals that are difficult to distinguish, so called overlapped peaks, and the soft- ware also converts the detected signals to the indirectly measured physical quantities, such as relaxation rate constants, principal for dynamics. Next are two new versions of the Carr-Purcell-Maiboom-Gill (CPMG) dispersion pulse sequences, designed to measure millisecond dynamics in a way so that the signals are more separated than in standard experiments, to reduce problems with overlaps. To speed up the collection time of the data set, a subset is collected and the entire data set is then reconstructed, by multi-dimensional decomposition co-processing. Described in the thesis is also a way to produce suitably labeled proteins, to detect millisecond dynamics at Cα positions in proteins, using the CPMG dispersion relaxation experiment at lower protein concentrations. Lastly, the kinase domain of EphB2 is shown to be more dynamic on the millisecond time scale as well as more prone to interact with itself in the active form than in the inactive one. This is important for the receptor function of the protein, when and how it mediates signals.

    To conclude, this work has extended the possibilities to study protein dynamics by NMR spectroscopy and contributed to increased understanding of the activation process of EphB2 and its signaling mechanism. 

    List of papers
    1. Fast and Accurate Resonance Assignment of Small-to-Large Proteins by Combining Automated and Manual Approaches
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast and Accurate Resonance Assignment of Small-to-Large Proteins by Combining Automated and Manual Approaches
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: PloS Computational Biology, ISSN 1553-734X, E-ISSN 1553-7358, Vol. 11, no 1, p. e1004022-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The process of resonance assignment is fundamental to most NMR studies of protein structure and dynamics. Unfortunately, the manual assignment of residues is tedious and time-consuming, and can represent a significant bottleneck for further characterization. Furthermore, while automated approaches have been developed, they are often limited in their accuracy, particularly for larger proteins. Here, we address this by introducing the software COMPASS, which, by combining automated resonance assignment with manual intervention, is able to achieve accuracy approaching that from manual assignments at greatly accelerated speeds. Moreover, by including the option to compensate for isotope shift effects in deuterated proteins, COMPASS is far more accurate for larger proteins than existing automated methods. COMPASS is an open-source project licensed under GNU General Public License and is available for download from http://www.liu.se/forskning/foass/tidigare-foass/patrik-lundstrom/software?l=en. Source code and binaries for Linux, Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows are available.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Public Library of Science, 2015
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115010 (URN)10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004022 (DOI)000349309400013 ()25569628 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [Dnr. 2012-5136]

    Available from: 2015-03-09 Created: 2015-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    2. PINT: a software for integration of peak volumes and extraction of relaxation rates
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>PINT: a software for integration of peak volumes and extraction of relaxation rates
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Biomolecular NMR, ISSN 0925-2738, E-ISSN 1573-5001, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 191-202Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We present the software Peak INTegration (PINT), designed to perform integration of peaks in NMR spectra. The program is very simple to run, yet powerful enough to handle complicated spectra. Peaks are integrated by fitting predefined line shapes to experimental data and the fitting can be customized to deal with, for instance, heavily overlapped peaks. The results can be inspected visually, which facilitates systematic optimization of the line shape fitting. Finally, integrated peak volumes can be used to extract parameters such as relaxation rates and information about low populated states. The utility of PINT is demonstrated by applications to the 59 residue SH3 domain of the yeast protein Abp1p and the 289 residue kinase domain of murine EphB2.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Verlag (Germany), 2013
    Keywords
    Peak integration, Overlapped peaks, Relaxation rates, Protein dynamics
    National Category
    Cell and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95951 (URN)10.1007/s10858-013-9737-7 (DOI)000321544600001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council||

    Available from: 2013-08-19 Created: 2013-08-12 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Measurement of Protein Backbone 13CO and 15N Relaxation Dispersion at High Resolution
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement of Protein Backbone 13CO and 15N Relaxation Dispersion at High Resolution
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-dimensional pulse sequences for the measurement of Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill relaxation dispersions and new methods for co-processing non-uniformly sampled data are presented. The new methodology was validated for the disordered protein IgA and for an SH3 domain from Abp1p in exchange between its free form and bound to a peptide from the protein Ark1p. We show that the results are similar to ones obtained using traditional experiments and that accurate excited state chemical shifts can be determined. Furthermore, we show that jackknife analysis of down sampled spectra yields robust estimates of peak intensities errors, eliminating the need for recording duplicate data points. The methodology should be useful for characterization of millisecond dynamics in small to medium-sized proteins with poorly dispersed spectra.

    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117070 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-04-15 Created: 2015-04-15 Last updated: 2015-04-15Bibliographically approved
    4. Fractional enrichment of proteins using [2-13C]-glycerol as the carbon source facilitates measurement of excited state 13Cα chemical shifts with improved sensitivity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fractional enrichment of proteins using [2-13C]-glycerol as the carbon source facilitates measurement of excited state 13Cα chemical shifts with improved sensitivity
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Biomolecular NMR, ISSN 0925-2738, E-ISSN 1573-5001, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 341-351Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A selective isotope labeling scheme based on the utilization of [2-13C]-glycerol as the carbon source during protein overexpression has been evaluated for the measurement of excited state 13Cα chemical shifts using Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion (RD) experiments. As expected, the fractional incorporation of label at the Cα positions is increased two-fold relative to labeling schemes based on [2-13C]-glucose, effectively doubling the sensitivity of NMR experiments. Applications to a binding reaction involving an SH3 domain from the protein Abp1p and a peptide from the protein Ark1p establish that accurate excited state 13Cα chemical shifts can be obtained from RD experiments, with errors on the order of 0.06 ppm for exchange rates ranging from 100 to 1000 s−1, despite the small fraction of 13Cα–13Cβ spin-pairs that are present for many residue types. The labeling approach described here should thus be attractive for studies of exchanging systems using 13Cα spin probes.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Netherlands, 2015
    Keywords
    CPMG, 13Cα labeling, [2-13C]-Glycerol, Excited states
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117073 (URN)10.1007/s10858-015-9948-1 (DOI)000357489200010 ()
    Note

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

    At the time for thesis presentation name of publication was: Fractional enrichment using [2-13C]-glycerol as the carbon source facilitates measurements of excited state 13Cα chemical shifts with improved sensitivity

    Available from: 2015-04-15 Created: 2015-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    5. Conformational Dynamics and Multimerization of Active Forms of the EphrinB Receptor 2 Kinase Domain
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conformational Dynamics and Multimerization of Active Forms of the EphrinB Receptor 2 Kinase Domain
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Active and autoinhibited forms of the ephrinB receptor 2 (EphB2) kinase domain have been studied using NMR spectroscopy. The project was initiated because of the finding that the crystal structures of active forms of the kinase domain and previous NMR studies suggested that a change in inter-lobe flexibility and the sampling of catalytically competent excited states conformations are responsible for activity. Using Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill relaxation dispersion experiments, we have measured millisecond dynamics to identify such states. We have also performed concentration dependent relaxation experiments and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments that report on the effective protein size to look for possible differences in self-association for active and autoinhibited forms of the EphB2 kinase domain. We show that the active but not autoinhibited forms exchange between a ground state and an excited state at a rate of 1900 s-1. Similar results were found for the S677/680A mutant of the protein. The nature and importance of the excited state is still unknown. Our most important finding is that active forms of the kinase domain self-associate in a concentration dependent manner and form tetramers and possibly larger oligomers. Multimerization of the kinase domain may enable the assembly of complexes of downstream proteins and could be important for Eph signaling.

    Keywords
    Kinase activation | Eph receptors | chemical exchange | nmr spectroscopy | protein dynamics | self-association
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117071 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-04-15 Created: 2015-04-15 Last updated: 2015-04-15Bibliographically approved
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  • 105.
    Ahlner, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andresen, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Shahid N.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kay, Lewis E.
    Departments of Medical Genetics, Biochemistry and Chemistry, The University of Toronto, Canada.
    Lundström, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fractional enrichment of proteins using [2-13C]-glycerol as the carbon source facilitates measurement of excited state 13Cα chemical shifts with improved sensitivity2015In: Journal of Biomolecular NMR, ISSN 0925-2738, E-ISSN 1573-5001, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 341-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A selective isotope labeling scheme based on the utilization of [2-13C]-glycerol as the carbon source during protein overexpression has been evaluated for the measurement of excited state 13Cα chemical shifts using Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion (RD) experiments. As expected, the fractional incorporation of label at the Cα positions is increased two-fold relative to labeling schemes based on [2-13C]-glucose, effectively doubling the sensitivity of NMR experiments. Applications to a binding reaction involving an SH3 domain from the protein Abp1p and a peptide from the protein Ark1p establish that accurate excited state 13Cα chemical shifts can be obtained from RD experiments, with errors on the order of 0.06 ppm for exchange rates ranging from 100 to 1000 s−1, despite the small fraction of 13Cα–13Cβ spin-pairs that are present for many residue types. The labeling approach described here should thus be attractive for studies of exchanging systems using 13Cα spin probes.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 106.
    Ahlner, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    PINT: a software for integration of peak volumes and extraction of relaxation rates2013In: Journal of Biomolecular NMR, ISSN 0925-2738, E-ISSN 1573-5001, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 191-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the software Peak INTegration (PINT), designed to perform integration of peaks in NMR spectra. The program is very simple to run, yet powerful enough to handle complicated spectra. Peaks are integrated by fitting predefined line shapes to experimental data and the fitting can be customized to deal with, for instance, heavily overlapped peaks. The results can be inspected visually, which facilitates systematic optimization of the line shape fitting. Finally, integrated peak volumes can be used to extract parameters such as relaxation rates and information about low populated states. The utility of PINT is demonstrated by applications to the 59 residue SH3 domain of the yeast protein Abp1p and the 289 residue kinase domain of murine EphB2.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 107.
    Ahlner, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Shahid N.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forman-Kay, Julie D.
    Molecular Structure and Function Program, Hospital for Sick Children; Department and Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Canada.
    Sicheri, Frank
    cDepartment and Biochemistry, University of Toronto; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto; Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Canada.
    Lundström, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Conformational Dynamics and Multimerization of Active Forms of the EphrinB Receptor 2 Kinase DomainManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Active and autoinhibited forms of the ephrinB receptor 2 (EphB2) kinase domain have been studied using NMR spectroscopy. The project was initiated because of the finding that the crystal structures of active forms of the kinase domain and previous NMR studies suggested that a change in inter-lobe flexibility and the sampling of catalytically competent excited states conformations are responsible for activity. Using Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill relaxation dispersion experiments, we have measured millisecond dynamics to identify such states. We have also performed concentration dependent relaxation experiments and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments that report on the effective protein size to look for possible differences in self-association for active and autoinhibited forms of the EphB2 kinase domain. We show that the active but not autoinhibited forms exchange between a ground state and an excited state at a rate of 1900 s-1. Similar results were found for the S677/680A mutant of the protein. The nature and importance of the excited state is still unknown. Our most important finding is that active forms of the kinase domain self-associate in a concentration dependent manner and form tetramers and possibly larger oligomers. Multimerization of the kinase domain may enable the assembly of complexes of downstream proteins and could be important for Eph signaling.

  • 108.
    Ahlner, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mayzel, Maxim
    The Swedish NMR Centre, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Orekhov, Vladislav Y.
    The Swedish NMR Centre, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Measurement of Protein Backbone 13CO and 15N Relaxation Dispersion at High ResolutionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-dimensional pulse sequences for the measurement of Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill relaxation dispersions and new methods for co-processing non-uniformly sampled data are presented. The new methodology was validated for the disordered protein IgA and for an SH3 domain from Abp1p in exchange between its free form and bound to a peptide from the protein Ark1p. We show that the results are similar to ones obtained using traditional experiments and that accurate excited state chemical shifts can be determined. Furthermore, we show that jackknife analysis of down sampled spectra yields robust estimates of peak intensities errors, eliminating the need for recording duplicate data points. The methodology should be useful for characterization of millisecond dynamics in small to medium-sized proteins with poorly dispersed spectra.

  • 109.
    Ahlrot, Ulrica
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Welfare in zoo kept felids: A study of resource usage2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a large number of felid species being endangered they are subjects of conservation projects both in situ and ex situ. Keeping felids in zoos are problematic with stereotypic behaviours such as pacing and reproduction difficulties often occurring. The aim of this study was to review research and zoo husbandry knowledge about which resources are most important for the welfare of zoo kept felids, and in addition perform behavioural observations in seven felid species in four Swedish zoos to try to find an order of priority of resources. Observations were performed during opening hours in 36 sessions per species and zoo. The results showed that studies of felid resource usage are missing. Zoo husbandry practice is probably based mainly on traditions and anecdotal knowledge. The observations showed that except for minor differences felids behave similarly regardless of species but the use of resources varies. Small felid species seems to be hiding rather than pacing as a way of coping. Elevated resources and areas as well as numerous hiding places are important to felids but many factors might affect the choice of resting places. Therefore it is important to provide the felids with multiple choices. It is also important to evaluate both species and individuals when designing enclosures and providing resources. More multi-institutional studies with large number of individuals of all zoo kept felid species are needed to gather knowledge about felids needs and preferences of resources.

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  • 110.
    Ahlsén, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    The Effects of Abiotic Stress on Alternative Splicing in Non-specific Lipid Transfer Proteins in Marchantia polymorpha2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to global warming, our planet will experience more extreme weather conditions. Plants can protect themselves against these abiotic stress conditions with their stress response, which includes alternative splicing of certain genes. Alternative splicing is a post-transcriptional process where a single gene gives rise to different mRNAs, which in turn produces different proteins. In plants, this is usually done by intron retention. One type of protein that may be involved in this stress response are the non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). Indeed, evidence of intron retention has been found in the LTP genes in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, called MpLTPd. To investigate whether this alternative splicing is caused by abiotic stress or not, I subjected the moss to two different types of stress trials, drought and cold, and compared the general expression of the intron in MpLTPd2 and MpLTPd3 from the stressed samples to samples from a moss grown under normal conditions. I found that the expression of the intron did change in the stressed moss, but none of the differences were significant. This suggests that alterative splicing in MpLTPd2 and MpLTPd3 is not caused by cold and drought and that the intron-containing protein plays no role in the protection of M. polymorpha against abiotic stress.

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  • 111.
    Ahmad, Mohammed Metwally Gomaa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. National Research Centre, Egypt.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Susann
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Boshta, M.
    National Research Centre, Egypt.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Farag, B. S.
    National Research Centre, Egypt.
    Osman, M. B. S.
    Ain Shams University, Egypt.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of precursor solutions on the structural and optical properties of sprayed NiO thin films2017In: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, ISSN 1369-8001, E-ISSN 1873-4081, Vol. 64, p. 32-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nickel oxide thin films were deposited by a simple and low-cost spray pyrolysis technique using three different precursors: nickel nitrate, nickel chloride, and nickel acetate on corning glass substrates. X-ray diffraction show that the NiO films are polycrystalline and have a cubic crystal structure, although predominantly with a preferred 111-orientation in the growth direction and a random in-plane orientation. The deconvolution of the Ni 2p and O 1s core level X-ray photoelectron-spectra of nickel oxides produced by using different precursors indicates a shift of the binding energies. The sprayed NiO deposited from nickel nitrate has an optical transmittance in the range of 60-65% in the visible region. The optical band gap energies of the sprayed NiO films deposited from nickel nitrate, nickel chloride and nickel acetate are 3.5, 3.2 and 3.43 eV respectively. Also, the extinction coefficient and refractive index of NiO films have been calculated from transmittance and reflectance measurements. The average value of refractive index for sprayed films by nickel nitrate, nickel chloride and nickel acetate are 2.1, 1.6 and 1.85 respectively. It is revealed that the band gap and refractive index of NiO films by using nickel nitrate corresponds to the commonly reported values. We attribute the observed behavior in the optical band gap and optical constants as due to the change of the Ni/O ratio.

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  • 112.
    Ahmadkhaniha, D.
    et al.
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leisner, P.
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden; RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Zanella, C.
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Effect of SiC particle size and heat-treatment on microhardness and corrosion resistance of NiP electrodeposited coatings2018In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 769, p. 1080-1087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrodeposition of NiP composite coatings with nano and sub-micron sized SiC has been carried out to investigate the possibility of replacing hard chromium coatings. The composition and structure of the coatings were evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively. Microhardness was measured by Vickers indentation and polarization measurements were carried out to study the corrosion behavior of the coatings. The results showed that submicron particles can be codeposited with a higher content as compared to nano sized ones. However, even if a smaller amount of the nano-sized SiC particles are incorporated in the coating, the contribution to an increasing microhardness was comparable with the submicron sized particles, which can be related to the higher density of codeposited particles. SiC particles did not change the anodic polarization behavior of NiP coatings in a 3.5% NaCl solution. Finally, the effect of heat-treatment on the coatings properties at 400 degrees C for 1 h was studied to investigate the contribution of particles and heat-treatment on hardness and corrosion properties. It was found that the heat-treatment doubled the microhardness and changed the anodic polarization behavior of the coatings from passive to active with respect to the asplated conditions. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 113. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Ahrén, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Metal Oxide Nanoparticles for Contrast Enhancement in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Synthesis, Functionalization and Characterization2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work focuses on the design and production of nanoparticle based contrast agents for signal enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different synthesis routes are explored, primarily to produce crystalline gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles, and surface modification is done to obtain stable, dispersible, biocompatible probes inducing high proton relaxivities.

    In Paper I and II we utilized the polyol synthesis method and nanoparticle purification was performed with dialysis. Active surface functionalization was achieved by an innermost layer of 3-mercaptopropyl trimetoxy silanes (MPTS) and an outer layer of bifunctional PEG. Surface capping was shown to greatly affect the water proton relaxation to a degree which is strongly dependent on the purification time. PEGylation also induced stabilizing effects and the ability to provide the nanoparticles with luminescent properties was proven by linking the fluorescent dye Rhodamine to the bifunctional PEG.

    In Paper III the magnetic behavior of yttrium (Y) alloyed Gd2O3 nanoparticles was investigated as a function of Y concentration. This was done by performing magnetic measurements and by studying the signal line width in electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy for Gd2O3, Y2O3 and a series of (GdxY1-x)2O3 samples produced using the combustion synthesis. The results verified that the signal line width is dependent on the percent of yttrium dilution. This is considered as an indication of that yttrium dilution changes the electron spin relaxation time in Gd2O3.

    Paper IV and V present a novel precipitation synthesis method for Gd2O3 nanoparticles. Acetate molecular groups were found to coordinate the nanoparticle surface increasing the water dispersability. The Gd2O3 nanoparticles induce a twice as high relaxivity per gadolinium atom, as compared to the commercially available contrast agent Magnevist. Incorporation of luminescent europium (Eu3+) ions into the Gd2O3 nanoparticles in combination with surface modification with a fluorescent branched carboxyl terminated TEG, produced dual probes with tunable luminescence, maintained relaxivity and thus a bright contrast in MRI.

    In Paper VI, a new approach to accomplish a dual probe was investigated. Luminescent ZnO nanoparticles decorated with Gd ions bound in an organic matrix were evaluated for MR signal enhancement and ability to function as fluorescent probes. Interestingly, these nanoprobes did show an enhanced capability to both strengthen the MR signal and increase the fluorescent quantum yield, as compared to the pure oxides.

    In Paper VII we investigate sub 5 nm crystalline manganese based nanoparticles produced by the precipitation synthesis used for Gd2O3 nanoparticles. Manganese oxide was chosen as another candidate for MRI contrast enhancement as it is expected to have a straight forward surface coupling chemistry. Characterization of the crystal structure and chemical composition indicated nanoparticles with a MnO core and presence of manganese species of higher valences at the nanoparticle surface. The MnO nanomaterial showed a superparamagnetic behavior and less capability to increase the MR signal as compared to Gd2O3.

    Characterization of the nanoparticle crystal structure and size is, throughout the work, performed by means of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and dynamic light scattering. The chemical composition is studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and the fluorescence characteristics are evaluated with fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, theoretical models and calculated IR spectroscopy and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy data have been used for evaluation of experimental results.

    To conclude, the aim of this work is the design, production and characterization of ultrasmall rare earth based nanoparticles for signal enhancement in biomedical imaging. Surface modification clearly increases the colloidal stability and biocompatibility of the nanoparticles. Compared to the agents in clinical use today, these nanoprobes have a higher capability to enhance the MR-signal, and they will in the near future be equipped with tags for specific targeting.

    List of papers
    1. Positive MRI Enhancement in THP-1 Cells with Gd2O3 Nanoparticles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Positive MRI Enhancement in THP-1 Cells with Gd2O3 Nanoparticles
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Contrast Media and Molecular Imaging, ISSN 1555-4309, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 106-111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    There is a demand for more efficient and tissue-specific MRI contrast agents and recent developments involve the design of substances useful as molecular markers and magnetic tracers. In this study, nanoparticles of gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) have been investigated for cell labeling and capacity to generate a positive contrast. THP-1, a monocytic cell line that is phagocytic, was used and results were compared with relaxivity of particles in cell culture medium (RPMI 1640). The results showed that Gd2O3-labeled cells have shorter T1 and T2 relaxation times compared with untreated cells. A prominent difference in signal intensity was observed, indicating that Gd2O3 nanoparticles can be used as a positive contrast agent for cell labeling. The r1 for cell samples was 4.1 and 3.6 s-1 mm-1 for cell culture medium. The r2 was 17.4 and 12.9 s-1 mm-1, respectively. For r1, there was no significant difference in relaxivity between particles in cells compared to particles in cell culture medium, (pr1 = 0.36), but r2 was significantly different for the two different series (pr2 = 0.02). Viability results indicate that THP-1 cells endure treatment with Gd2O3 nanoparticles for an extended period of time and it is therefore concluded that results in this study are based on viable cells.

    Keywords
    gadolinium oxide, nanoparticles, contrast agent, THP-1 cells, magnetic resonance imaging
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12945 (URN)10.1002/cmmi.236 (DOI)000257982000002 ()
    Available from: 2008-02-21 Created: 2008-02-21 Last updated: 2017-09-22Bibliographically approved
    2. Synthesis and Characterization of PEGylated Gd2O3 Nanoparticles for MRI Contrast Enhancement
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis and Characterization of PEGylated Gd2O3 Nanoparticles for MRI Contrast Enhancement
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 5753-5762Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, much attention has been given to the development of biofunctionalized nanoparticles with magnetic properties for novel biomedical imaging. Guided, smart, targeting nanoparticulate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents inducing high MRI signal will be valuable tools for future tissue specific imaging and investigation of molecular and cellular events. In this study, we report a new design of functionalized ultrasmall rare earth based nanoparticles to be used as a positive contrast agent in MRI. The relaxivity is compared to commercially available Gd based chelates. The synthesis, PEGylation, and dialysis of small (3−5 nm) gadolinium oxide (DEG-Gd2O3) nanoparticles are presented. The chemical and physical properties of the nanomaterial were investigated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Neutrophil activation after exposure to this nanomaterial was studied by means of fluorescence microscopy. The proton relaxation times as a function of dialysis time and functionalization were measured at 1.5 T. A capping procedure introducing stabilizing properties was designed and verified, and the dialysis effects were evaluated. A higher proton relaxivity was obtained for as-synthesized diethylene glycol (DEG)-Gd2O3 nanoparticles compared to commercial Gd-DTPA. A slight decrease of the relaxivity for as-synthesized DEG-Gd2O3 nanoparticles as a function of dialysis time was observed. The results for functionalized nanoparticles showed a considerable relaxivity increase for particles dialyzed extensively with r1 and r2 values approximately 4 times the corresponding values for Gd-DTPA. The microscopy study showed that PEGylated nanoparticles do not activate neutrophils in contrast to uncapped Gd2O3. Finally, the nanoparticles are equipped with Rhodamine to show that our PEGylated nanoparticles are available for further coupling chemistry, and thus prepared for targeting purposes. The long term goal is to design a powerful, directed contrast agent for MRI examinations with specific targeting possibilities and with properties inducing local contrast, that is, an extremely high MR signal at the cellular and molecular level.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society (ACS), 2010
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54946 (URN)10.1021/la903566y (DOI)000276562300061 ()
    Available from: 2010-04-23 Created: 2010-04-23 Last updated: 2018-10-29Bibliographically approved
    3. Magnetic and Electron Spin Relaxation Properties of (GdxY1-x)2O3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) Nanoparticles Synthesized by the Combustion Method. Increased Electron Spin Relaxation Times with Increasing Yttrium Content
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnetic and Electron Spin Relaxation Properties of (GdxY1-x)2O3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) Nanoparticles Synthesized by the Combustion Method. Increased Electron Spin Relaxation Times with Increasing Yttrium Content
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 115, no 13, p. 5469-5477Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent (CA) depends on several factors, including the relaxation times of the unpaired electrons in the CA. The electron spin relaxation time may be a key factor for the performance of new CAs, such as nanosized Gd2O3 particles. The aim of this work is, therefore, to study changes in the magnetic susceptibility and the electron spin relaxation time of paramagnetic Gd2O3 nanoparticles diluted with increasing amounts of diamagnetic Y2O3. Nanoparticles of (GdxY1-x)2O3 (0 e x e 1) were prepared by the combustion method and thoroughly characterized (by X-ray di.raction, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility measurements). Changes in the electron spin relaxation time were estimated by observations of the signal line width in electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and it was found that the line width was dependent on the concentration of yttrium, indicating that diamagnetic Y2O3 may increase the electron spin relaxation time of Gd2O3 nanoparticles.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    United States: American Chemical Society, 2011
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67439 (URN)10.1021/jp111368t (DOI)000288885900036 ()
    Available from: 2011-04-13 Created: 2011-04-12 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    4. A simple polyol-free synthesis route to Gd2O3 nanoparticles for MRI applications: an experimental and theoretical study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A simple polyol-free synthesis route to Gd2O3 nanoparticles for MRI applications: an experimental and theoretical study
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896X, Vol. 14, no 8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Chelated gadolinium ions, e. g., GdDTPA, are today used clinically as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An attractive alternative contrast agent is composed of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles as they have shown to provide enhanced contrast and, in principle, more straightforward molecular capping possibilities. In this study, we report a new, simple, and polyol-free way of synthesizing 4-5-nm-sized Gd2O3 nanoparticles at room temperature, with high stability and water solubility. The nanoparticles induce high-proton relaxivity compared to Gd-DTPA showing r(1) and r(2) values almost as high as those for free Gd3+ ions in water. The Gd2O3 nanoparticles are capped with acetate and carbonate groups, as shown with infrared spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and combined thermogravimetric and mass spectroscopy analysis. Interpretation of infrared spectroscopy data is corroborated by extensive quantum chemical calculations. This nanomaterial is easily prepared and has promising properties to function as a core in a future contrast agent for MRI.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Verlag (Germany), 2012
    Keywords
    Gadolinium oxide, Synthesis, Relaxivity, XPS, IR, Toxicity
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81505 (URN)10.1007/s11051-012-1006-2 (DOI)000307273400028 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|VINNOVA|2008-03011|Centre in Nanoscience and Technology at LiTH (CeNano)||Swedish research council|621-2010-5014|SERC (Swedish e-Science Research Center)||

    Available from: 2012-09-18 Created: 2012-09-18 Last updated: 2017-12-07
    5. Highly Water-Dispersible Surface-Modified Gd2O3 Nanoparticles for Potential Dual-Modal Bioimaging
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Highly Water-Dispersible Surface-Modified Gd2O3 Nanoparticles for Potential Dual-Modal Bioimaging
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 38, p. 12658-12667Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Water-dispersible and luminescent gadolinium oxide (GO) nanoparticles (NPs) were designed and synthesized for potential dual-modal biological imaging. They were obtained by capping gadolinium oxide nanoparticles with a fluorescent glycol-based conjugated carboxylate (HL). The obtained nanoparticles (GO-L) show long-term colloidal stability and intense blue fluorescence. In addition, L can sensitize the luminescence of europium(III) through the so-called antenna effect. Thus, to extend the spectral ranges of emission, europium was introduced into L-modified gadolinium oxide nanoparticles. The obtained Eu-III-doped particles (Eu:GO-L) can provide visible red emission, which is more intensive than that without L capping. The average diameter of the monodisperse modified oxide cores is about 4nm. The average hydrodynamic diameter of the L-modified nanoparticles was estimated to be about 13nm. The nanoparticles show effective longitudinal water proton relaxivity. The relaxivity values obtained for GO-L and Eu:GO-L were r(1)=6.4 and 6.3s(-1)mM(-1) with r(2)/r(1) ratios close to unity at 1.4T. Longitudinal proton relaxivities of these nanoparticles are higher than those of positive contrast agents based on gadolinium complexes such as Gd-DOTA, which are commonly used for clinical magnetic resonance imaging. Moreover, these particles are suitable for cellular imaging and show good biocompatibility.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2013
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-98690 (URN)10.1002/chem.201301687 (DOI)000324316300018 ()
    Available from: 2013-10-11 Created: 2013-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    6. Bifunctional gadolinium decorated ZnO nanocrystals integrating both enhanced MR signal and bright fluorescence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bifunctional gadolinium decorated ZnO nanocrystals integrating both enhanced MR signal and bright fluorescence
    Show others...
    2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gadolinium decorated ZnO nanoparticles simultaneously possess both fluorescent and MR enhancement properties. These ZnO nanoparticles are crystalline and shielded by an amorphous gadolinium acetate matrix. Interestingly, the Gd-acetate decoration enhances the fluorescence emission of the ZnO nanoparticles. The quantum yield does increase for samples with high Gd/Zn relative ratios and these samples do also show a higher colloidal stability.

    In addition, these nanoparticles show an enhanced relaxivity value per Gd atom (r119.9mM1s-1) compared to results earlier reported both on Gd alloyed ZnO nanoparticles and pure Gd2O3 nanoparticles. This improvement is considered to be due to the close proximity of Gd atoms and surrounding water molecules. A comprehensive study of the quantum yield and the relaxivity, as a function of composition, enable us to identify the ultimate design/composition of gadolinium decorated ZnO nanoparticles for optimum fluorescence and MR enhancement properties.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91847 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-05-03 Created: 2013-05-03 Last updated: 2015-05-29Bibliographically approved
    7. One-step synthesis of sub 5 nm sized manganese oxide based nanoparticles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>One-step synthesis of sub 5 nm sized manganese oxide based nanoparticles
    Show others...
    2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sub 5 nm sized manganese oxide nanoparticles; MnOx (1 ≤ x ≤ 2), were synthesized via a short time room temperature synthesis route. The nanoparticles are crystalline, spherically shaped and in the size range of 2-4 nm as shown by transmission electron microscopy studies. Selected area electron diffraction patterns were collected and their appearance indicated that the nanoparticle cores are composed of MnO. Also, co-existence of the (II) and (III) oxidation states at the nanoparticle surface was verified by results achieved from infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These measurements also supported presence of a minor amount of acetate groups as well as a negligible fraction of carbonate groups at the nanoparticle surfaces. The interpretation of the IR spectra was confirmed by quantum chemical calculations using the high spin manganese nanoparticle Mn12O12(OAc)16(H2O)4, as a model system for the MnOx nanoparticle surface. Bulk MnO and Mn2O3 are known to be antiferromagnetic. The magnetic properties are however somewhat dependent of the crystallite size and changes when scaling down to the nanoregion. The MnOx (1 ≤ x ≤ 2) nanoparticles investigated in this work show a superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of approximately 12 K proven by means of SQUID measurements. The relaxivities of the nanoparticles and the Mn(OAc)2 precursors were studied with a bench top NMR analyzer verifying nanoparticle r1 and r2 of 0.5 and 6 mMs-1 respectively. The r1 relaxivity is lower than what is earlier reported for Gd based contrast agent, but improvements are expected by further surface modification, due to increased rotational time and higher water dispersability.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-98692 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-10-11 Created: 2013-10-11 Last updated: 2018-10-08Bibliographically approved
    Download full text (pdf)
    Metal Oxide Nanoparticles for Contrast Enhancement in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Synthesis, Functionalization and Characterization
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    omslag
  • 114.
    Ahrén, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Olsson, Petter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Söderlind, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Klasson, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Radiology . Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV.
    Petoral, Rodrigo Jr
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Engström, Maria
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV.
    Käll, Per-Olov
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Physical Chemistry .
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Rare earth nanoparticles as contrast agent in MRI: Nanomaterial design and biofunctionalization2007In: IVC-17/ICSS-13 ICNT,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 115.
    Ahrén, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Selegård, Linnéa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klasson, Anna
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderlind, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikossova, Natalia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Skoglund, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bengtsson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engström, Maria
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Käll, Per-Olov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synthesis and Characterization of PEGylated Gd2O3 Nanoparticles for MRI Contrast Enhancement2010In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 5753-5762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, much attention has been given to the development of biofunctionalized nanoparticles with magnetic properties for novel biomedical imaging. Guided, smart, targeting nanoparticulate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents inducing high MRI signal will be valuable tools for future tissue specific imaging and investigation of molecular and cellular events. In this study, we report a new design of functionalized ultrasmall rare earth based nanoparticles to be used as a positive contrast agent in MRI. The relaxivity is compared to commercially available Gd based chelates. The synthesis, PEGylation, and dialysis of small (3−5 nm) gadolinium oxide (DEG-Gd2O3) nanoparticles are presented. The chemical and physical properties of the nanomaterial were investigated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Neutrophil activation after exposure to this nanomaterial was studied by means of fluorescence microscopy. The proton relaxation times as a function of dialysis time and functionalization were measured at 1.5 T. A capping procedure introducing stabilizing properties was designed and verified, and the dialysis effects were evaluated. A higher proton relaxivity was obtained for as-synthesized diethylene glycol (DEG)-Gd2O3 nanoparticles compared to commercial Gd-DTPA. A slight decrease of the relaxivity for as-synthesized DEG-Gd2O3 nanoparticles as a function of dialysis time was observed. The results for functionalized nanoparticles showed a considerable relaxivity increase for particles dialyzed extensively with r1 and r2 values approximately 4 times the corresponding values for Gd-DTPA. The microscopy study showed that PEGylated nanoparticles do not activate neutrophils in contrast to uncapped Gd2O3. Finally, the nanoparticles are equipped with Rhodamine to show that our PEGylated nanoparticles are available for further coupling chemistry, and thus prepared for targeting purposes. The long term goal is to design a powerful, directed contrast agent for MRI examinations with specific targeting possibilities and with properties inducing local contrast, that is, an extremely high MR signal at the cellular and molecular level.

  • 116.
    Ahrén, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Selegård, Linnéa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Söderlind, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Linares, Mathieu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kauczor, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norman, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Käll, Per-Olov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Physical Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A simple polyol-free synthesis route to Gd2O3 nanoparticles for MRI applications: an experimental and theoretical study2012In: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896X, Vol. 14, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chelated gadolinium ions, e. g., GdDTPA, are today used clinically as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An attractive alternative contrast agent is composed of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles as they have shown to provide enhanced contrast and, in principle, more straightforward molecular capping possibilities. In this study, we report a new, simple, and polyol-free way of synthesizing 4-5-nm-sized Gd2O3 nanoparticles at room temperature, with high stability and water solubility. The nanoparticles induce high-proton relaxivity compared to Gd-DTPA showing r(1) and r(2) values almost as high as those for free Gd3+ ions in water. The Gd2O3 nanoparticles are capped with acetate and carbonate groups, as shown with infrared spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and combined thermogravimetric and mass spectroscopy analysis. Interpretation of infrared spectroscopy data is corroborated by extensive quantum chemical calculations. This nanomaterial is easily prepared and has promising properties to function as a core in a future contrast agent for MRI.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 117.
    Ahrén, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Söderlind, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Linares, Mathieu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nordblad, Per
    Division of Solid State Physics, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Norman, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    One-step synthesis of sub 5 nm sized manganese oxide based nanoparticles2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sub 5 nm sized manganese oxide nanoparticles; MnOx (1 ≤ x ≤ 2), were synthesized via a short time room temperature synthesis route. The nanoparticles are crystalline, spherically shaped and in the size range of 2-4 nm as shown by transmission electron microscopy studies. Selected area electron diffraction patterns were collected and their appearance indicated that the nanoparticle cores are composed of MnO. Also, co-existence of the (II) and (III) oxidation states at the nanoparticle surface was verified by results achieved from infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These measurements also supported presence of a minor amount of acetate groups as well as a negligible fraction of carbonate groups at the nanoparticle surfaces. The interpretation of the IR spectra was confirmed by quantum chemical calculations using the high spin manganese nanoparticle Mn12O12(OAc)16(H2O)4, as a model system for the MnOx nanoparticle surface. Bulk MnO and Mn2O3 are known to be antiferromagnetic. The magnetic properties are however somewhat dependent of the crystallite size and changes when scaling down to the nanoregion. The MnOx (1 ≤ x ≤ 2) nanoparticles investigated in this work show a superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of approximately 12 K proven by means of SQUID measurements. The relaxivities of the nanoparticles and the Mn(OAc)2 precursors were studied with a bench top NMR analyzer verifying nanoparticle r1 and r2 of 0.5 and 6 mMs-1 respectively. The r1 relaxivity is lower than what is earlier reported for Gd based contrast agent, but improvements are expected by further surface modification, due to increased rotational time and higher water dispersability.

  • 118.
    Ahsan, Aisha
    et al.
    Univ Basel, Switzerland.
    Mousavi, S. Fatemeh
    Univ Basel, Switzerland.
    Nijs, Thomas
    Univ Basel, Switzerland.
    Nowakowska, Sylwia
    Univ Basel, Switzerland.
    Popova, Olha
    Univ Basel, Switzerland.
    Wackerlin, Aneliia
    Univ Basel, Switzerland.
    Björk, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gade, Lutz H.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Jung, Thomas A.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Switzerland.
    Phase Transitions in Confinements: Controlling Solid to Fluid Transitions of Xenon Atoms in an On-Surface Network2019In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 15, no 3, article id 1803169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on "phase" transitions of Xe condensates in on-surface confinements induced by temperature changes and local probe excitation. The pores of a metal-organic network occupied with 1 up to 9 Xe atoms are investigated in their propensity to undergo "condensed solid" to "confined fluid" transitions. Different transition temperatures are identified, which depend on the number of Xe atoms in the condensate and relate to the stability of the Xe clustering in the condensed "phase." This work reveals the feature-rich behavior of transitions of confined planar condensates, which provide a showcase toward future "phase-transition" storage media patterned by self-assembly. This work is also of fundamental interest as it paves the way to real space investigations of reversible solid to fluid transitions of magic cluster condensates in an array of extremely well-defined quantum confinements.

  • 119.
    Ahsan, Aisha
    et al.
    Univ Basel, Switzerland.
    Mousavi, S. Fatemeh
    Univ Basel, Switzerland.
    Nijs, Thomas
    Univ Basel, Switzerland.
    Nowakowska, Sylwia
    Univ Basel, Switzerland.
    Popova, Olha
    Univ Basel, Switzerland.
    Wackerlin, Aneliia
    Univ Basel, Switzerland.
    Björk, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gade, Lutz H.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Jung, Thomas A.
    Univ Basel, Switzerland; Paul Scherrer Inst, Switzerland.
    Watching nanostructure growth: kinetically controlled diffusion and condensation of Xe in a surface metal organic network2019In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 4895-4903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion, nucleation and growth provide the fundamental access to control nanostructure growth. In this study, the temperature activated diffusion of Xe at and between different compartments of an on-surface metal organic coordination network on Cu(111) has been visualized in real space. Xe atoms adsorbed at lower energy sites become mobile with increased temperature and gradually populate energetically more favourable binding sites or remain in a delocalized fluid form confined to diffusion along a topological subset of the on-surface network. These diffusion pathways can be studied individually under kinetic control via the chosen thermal energy kT of the sample and are determined by the network and sample architecture. The spatial distribution of Xe in its different modes of mobility and the time scales of the motion is revealed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) at variable temperatures up to 40 K and subsequent cooling to 4 K. The system provides insight into the diffusion of a van der Waals gas on a complex structured surface and its nucleation and coarsening/growth into larger condensates at elevated temperature under thermodynamic conditions.

  • 120.
    Ahuja, R.
    et al.
    Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Da, Silva A.F.
    Da Silva, A.F., Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40 210 340 Salvadoor, Ba, Brazil.
    Persson, C.
    Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Osorio-Guillen, J.M.
    Osorio-Guillén, J.M., Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Souza, De Almeida J.
    Souza De Almeida, J., Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Araujo, C.M.
    Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40 210 340 Salvadoor, Ba, Brazil.
    Veje, E.
    Dept. of Electronic Power Eng., Technical University of Denmark, Building 325, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
    Veissid, N.
    Instituto Nac. de Pesq. Espaciais, LAS, C.P 515, 12 201 970 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil.
    An, C.Y.
    Instituto Nac. de Pesq. Espaciais, LAS, C.P 515, 12 201 970 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil.
    Pepe, I.
    Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40 210 340 Salvadoor, Ba, Brazil, LPCC, College de France, F-75231, Paris, France.
    Johansson, B.
    Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Electronic and optical properties of lead iodide2002In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 92, no 12, p. 7219-7224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic and optical properties of lead iodide were studied experimentally using absorption, transmission, ellipsometry, and theoretically using a full-potential linear muffin-tin-orbital method. The samples were mounted in a closed-cycle helium refrigeration system and studied at temperatures between 10 and 300 K. Band-gap energy of lead iodide was measured as a function of temperature using optical absorption. Calculations showed that there was a small anisotropy in optical properties of lead iodide, and dielectric function calculations agreed well with experiments.

  • 121.
    Ahuja, R.
    et al.
    Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 530, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ferreira, Da Silva A.
    Ferreira Da Silva, A., Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40 210 340 Salvador, Ba, Brazil.
    Persson, C.
    Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 530, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Osorio-Guillen, J.M.
    Osorio-Guillén, J.M., Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 530, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pepe, I.
    Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40 210 340 Salvador, Ba, Brazil.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindquist, O.P.A.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Edwards, N.V.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wahab, Qamar Ul
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Johansson, B.
    Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 530, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Optical properties of 4H-SiC2002In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 91, no 3, p. 2099-2103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical band gap energy and the dielectric functions of n-type 4H-SiC have been investigated experimentally by transmission spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry and theoretically by an ab initio full-potential linear muffin-tin-orbital method. We present the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric functions, resolved into the transverse and longitudinal photon moment a, and we show that the anisotropy is small in 4H-SiC. The measurements and the calculations fall closely together in a wide range of energies. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  • 122.
    Ahvenniemi, Esko
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Akbashev, Andrew R.
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Ali, Saima
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Bechelany, Mikhael
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Berdova, Maria
    University of Twente, Netherlands.
    Boyadjiev, Stefan
    Bulgarian Academic Science, Bulgaria.
    Cameron, David C.
    Masaryk University, Czech Republic.
    Chen, Rong
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    University of Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Cremers, Veronique
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Devi, Anjana
    Ruhr University of Bochum, Germany.
    Drozd, Viktor
    St Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Elnikova, Liliya
    Institute Theoret and Expt Phys, Russia.
    Gottardi, Gloria
    Fdn Bruno Kessler, Italy.
    Grigoras, Kestutis
    VTT Technical Research Centre Finland, Finland.
    Hausmann, Dennis M.
    Lam Research Corp, OR 97062 USA.
    Seong Hwang, Cheol
    Seoul National University, South Korea; Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Jen, Shih-Hui
    Globalfoundries, NY 12203 USA.
    Kallio, Tanja
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Kanervo, Jaana
    Aalto University, Finland; Abo Akad University, Finland.
    Khmelnitskiy, Ivan
    St Petersburg Electrotech University of LETI, Russia.
    Han Kim, Do
    MIT, MA 02139 USA.
    Klibanov, Lev
    Techinsights, Canada.
    Koshtyal, Yury
    Ioffe Institute, Russia.
    Krause, A. Outi I.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Kuhs, Jakob
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Kaerkkaenen, Irina
    Sentech Instruments GmbH, Germany.
    Kaariainen, Marja-Leena
    NovaldMedical Ltd Oy, Finland.
    Kaariainen, Tommi
    NovaldMedical Ltd Oy, Finland; University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lamagna, Luca
    STMicroelectronics, Italy.
    Lapicki, Adam A.
    Seagate Technology Ireland, North Ireland.
    Leskela, Markku
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lipsanen, Harri
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Lyytinen, Jussi
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Malkov, Anatoly
    Technical University, Russia.
    Malygin, Anatoly
    Technical University, Russia.
    Mennad, Abdelkader
    CDER, Algeria.
    Militzer, Christian
    Technical University of Chemnitz, Germany.
    Molarius, Jyrki
    Summa Semicond Oy, Finland.
    Norek, Malgorzata
    Mil University of Technology, Poland.
    Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla
    ASELSAN Inc, Turkey.
    Panov, Mikhail
    St Petersburg Electrotech University of LETI, Russia.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Piallat, Fabien
    KOBUS, France.
    Popov, Georgi
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Puurunen, Riikka L.
    VTT Technical Research Centre Finland, Finland.
    Rampelberg, Geert
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Ras, Robin H. A.
    Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Rauwel, Erwan
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Roozeboom, Fred
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; TNO, Netherlands.
    Sajavaara, Timo
    University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Salami, Hossein
    University of Maryland, MD 20742 USA.
    Savin, Hele
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Schneider, Nathanaelle
    IRDEP CNRS, France; IPVF, France.
    Seidel, Thomas E.
    Seitek50, FL 32135 USA.
    Sundqvist, Jonas
    Fraunhofer Institute Ceram Technology and Syst IKTS, Germany.
    Suyatin, Dmitry B.
    Lund University, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Torndahl, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    van Ommen, J. Ruud
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Wiemer, Claudia
    CNR, Italy.
    Ylivaara, Oili M. E.
    VTT Technical Research Centre Finland, Finland.
    Yurkevich, Oksana
    Immanuel Kant Balt Federal University, Russia.
    Recommended reading list of early publications on atomic layer deposition-Outcome of the "Virtual Project on the History of ALD"2017In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 35, no 1, article id 010801Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD), a gas-phase thin film deposition technique based on repeated, self-terminating gas-solid reactions, has become the method of choice in semiconductor manufacturing and many other technological areas for depositing thin conformal inorganic material layers for various applications. ALD has been discovered and developed independently, at least twice, under different names: atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) and molecular layering. ALE, dating back to 1974 in Finland, has been commonly known as the origin of ALD, while work done since the 1960s in the Soviet Union under the name "molecular layering" (and sometimes other names) has remained much less known. The virtual project on the history of ALD (VPHA) is a volunteer-based effort with open participation, set up to make the early days of ALD more transparent. In VPHA, started in July 2013, the target is to list, read and comment on all early ALD academic and patent literature up to 1986. VPHA has resulted in two essays and several presentations at international conferences. This paper, based on a poster presentation at the 16th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition in Dublin, Ireland, 2016, presents a recommended reading list of early ALD publications, created collectively by the VPHA participants through voting. The list contains 22 publications from Finland, Japan, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States. Up to now, a balanced overview regarding the early history of ALD has been missing; the current list is an attempt to remedy this deficiency. (C) 2016 Author(s).

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  • 123.
    Aichhorn, Markus
    et al.
    Graz University of Technology.
    Pourovskii, Leonid
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Georges, Antoine
    Ecole Polytech.
    Importance of electronic correlations for structural and magnetic properties of the iron pnictide superconductor LaFeAsO2011In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 84, no 5, p. 054529-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present calculations of structural and magnetic properties of the iron-pnictide superconductor LaFeAsO including electron-electron correlations. For this purpose we apply a fully charge self-consistent combination of density-functional theory with the dynamical mean-field theory, allowing for the calculation of total energies. We find that the inclusion of correlation effects gives a good agreement of the arsenic z position with experimental data even in the paramagnetic (high-temperature) phase. Going to low temperatures, we study the formation of the ordered moment in the striped spin-density-wave phase, yielding an ordered moment of about 0.60 mu(B), again in good agreement with experiments. This shows that the inclusion of correlation effects improves both structural and magnetic properties of LaFeAsO at the same time.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 124.
    Aidas, Kestutis
    et al.
    Vilnius University, Lithuania .
    Angeli, Celestino
    University of Ferrara, Italy .
    Bak, Keld L.
    University of Aarhus, Denmark .
    Bakken, Vebjorn
    University of Oslo, Norway .
    Bast, Radovan
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    Boman, Linus
    EMGS ASA, Norway .
    Christiansen, Ove
    University of Aarhus, Denmark .
    Cimiraglia, Renzo
    University of Ferrara, Italy .
    Coriani, Sonia
    University of Trieste, Italy .
    Dahle, Pal
    Norwegian Comp Centre, Norway .
    Dalskov, Erik K.
    Systematic, Denmark .
    Ekstrom, Ulf
    University of Oslo, Norway .
    Enevoldsen, Thomas
    University of So Denmark, Denmark .
    Eriksen, Janus J.
    University of Aarhus, Denmark .
    Ettenhuber, Patrick
    University of Aarhus, Denmark .
    Fernandez, Berta
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain .
    Ferrighi, Lara
    UiT Arctic University of Norway, Norway .
    Fliegl, Heike
    University of Oslo, Norway .
    Frediani, Luca
    UiT Arctic University of Norway, Norway .
    Hald, Kasper
    Danske Bank, Denmark .
    Halkier, Asger
    CSC Scandihealth, Denmark .
    Hattig, Christof
    Ruhr University of Bochum, Germany .
    Heiberg, Hanne
    Norwegian Meteorol Institute, Norway .
    Helgaker, Trygve
    University of Oslo, Norway .
    Christian Hennum, Alf
    Norwegian Def Research Estab, Norway .
    Hettema, Hinne
    University of Auckland, New Zealand .
    Hjertenaes, Eirik
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway .
    Host, Stinne
    University of Aarhus, Denmark .
    Hoyvik, Ida-Marie
    University of Aarhus, Denmark .
    Francesca Iozzi, Maria
    University of Oslo, Norway .
    Jansik, Branislav
    Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic .
    Jorgen Aa. Jensen, Hans
    University of So Denmark, Denmark .
    Jonsson, Dan
    UiT Arctic University of Norway, Norway .
    Jorgensen, Poul
    University of Aarhus, Denmark .
    Kauczor, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kirpekar, Sheela
    KVUC, Denmark .
    Kjrgaard, Thomas
    University of Aarhus, Denmark .
    Klopper, Wim
    Karlsruhe Institute Technology, Germany .
    Knecht, Stefan
    Swiss Federal Institute Technology, Switzerland .
    Kobayashi, Rika
    Australian National University, Australia .
    Koch, Henrik
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway .
    Kongsted, Jacob
    University of So Denmark, Denmark .
    Krapp, Andreas
    Jotun AS, Norway .
    Kristensen, Kasper
    University of Aarhus, Denmark .
    Ligabue, Andrea
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy .
    B. Lutnaes, Ola
    Cisco Syst, Norway .
    I. Melo, Juan
    University of Buenos Aires, Argentina University of Buenos Aires, Argentina .
    V. Mikkelsen, Kurt
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark .
    H. Myhre, Rolf
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway .
    Neiss, Christian
    University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany .
    B. Nielsen, Christian
    Sun Chemistry, Denmark .
    Norman, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olsen, Jeppe
    University of Aarhus, Denmark University of So Denmark, Denmark .
    Magnus H. Olsen, Jogvan
    University of Aarhus, Denmark University of So Denmark, Denmark .
    Osted, Anders
    Koge Gymnasium, Denmark .
    J. Packer, Martin
    University of So Denmark, Denmark .
    Pawlowski, Filip
    Kazimierz Wielki University, Poland .
    B. Pedersen, Thomas
    University of Oslo, Norway .
    F. Provasi, Patricio
    Northeastern University, Argentina IMIT CONICET, Argentina .
    Reine, Simen
    University of Oslo, Norway .
    Rinkevicius, Zilvinas
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    A. Ruden, Torgeir
    Kjeller Software Commun, Norway .
    Ruud, Kenneth
    UiT Arctic University of Norway, Norway .
    V. Rybkin, Vladimir
    Karlsruhe Institute Technology, Germany .
    Salek, Pawel
    PSS9 Dev, Poland .
    C. M. Samson, Claire
    Karlsruhe Institute Technology, Germany .
    Sanchez de Meras, Alfredo
    University of Valencia, Spain .
    Saue, Trond
    University of Toulouse 3, France .
    P. A. Sauer, Stephan
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Schimmelpfennig, Bernd
    Karlsruhe Institute Technology, Germany .
    Sneskov, Kristian
    Danske Bank, Denmark .
    H. Steindal, Arnfinn
    UiT Arctic University of Norway, Norway .
    O. Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian
    Danish Technology Institute Nano and Microtechnol Prod, Denmark .
    R. Taylor, Peter
    University of Melbourne, Australia University of Melbourne, Australia .
    M. Teale, Andrew
    University of Nottingham, England .
    I. Tellgren, Erik
    University of Oslo, Norway .
    P. Tew, David
    University of Bristol, England .
    J. Thorvaldsen, Andreas
    University of Aarhus, Denmark .
    Thogersen, Lea
    CLC bio, Denmark .
    Vahtras, Olav
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    A. Watson, Mark
    Princeton University, NJ 08544 USA .
    J. D. Wilson, David
    La Trobe University, Australia La Trobe University, Australia .
    Ziolkowski, Marcin
    Clemson University, SC USA .
    Agren, Hans
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    The Dalton quantum chemistry program system2014In: WILEY INTERDISCIPLINARY REVIEWS-COMPUTATIONAL MOLECULAR SCIENCE, ISSN 1759-0876, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 269-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dalton is a powerful general-purpose program system for the study of molecular electronic structure at the Hartree-Fock, Kohn-Sham, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, MOller-Plesset, configuration-interaction, and coupled-cluster levels of theory. Apart from the total energy, a wide variety of molecular properties may be calculated using these electronic-structure models. Molecular gradients and Hessians are available for geometry optimizations, molecular dynamics, and vibrational studies, whereas magnetic resonance and optical activity can be studied in a gauge-origin-invariant manner. Frequency-dependent molecular properties can be calculated using linear, quadratic, and cubic response theory. A large number of singlet and triplet perturbation operators are available for the study of one-, two-, and three-photon processes. Environmental effects may be included using various dielectric-medium and quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics models. Large molecules may be studied using linear-scaling and massively parallel algorithms. Dalton is distributed at no cost from for a number of UNIX platforms.

  • 125. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Aiempanakit, Montri
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering of Metal Oxides2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this thesis deals with reactive magnetron sputtering processes of metal oxides with a prime focus on high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). The aim of the research is to contribute towards understanding of the fundamental mechanisms governing a reactive HiPIMS process and to investigate their implications on the film growth.

    The stabilization of the HiPIMS process at the transition zone between the metal and compound modes of Al-O and Ce-O was investigated for realizing the film deposition with improved properties and higher depositionrate and the results are compared with direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) processes. The investigations were made for different sputtering conditions obtained by varying pulse frequency, peak power and pumping speed. For the experimental conditions employed, it was found that reactive HiPIMS can eliminate/suppress the hysteresis effect for a range of frequency, leading to a stable deposition process with a high deposition rate. The hysteresis was found to be eliminated for Al-O while for Ce-O, it was not eliminated but suppressed as compared to the DCMS. The behavior of elimination/suppression of the hysteresis may be influenced by high erosion rate during the pulse, limited target oxidation between the pulses and gas rarefaction effects in front of the target. Similar investigations were made for Ti-O employing a larger target and the hysteresis was found to be suppressed as compared to the respective DCMS, but not eliminated. It was shown that the effect of gas rarefaction is a powerful mechanism for preventing oxide formation upon the target surface. The impact of this effect depends on the off-time between the pulses. Longer off-times reduce the influence of gas rarefaction.

    To gain a better understanding of the discharge current-voltage behavior in a reactive HiPIMS process of metal oxides, the ion compositions and ion energy distributions were measured for Al-O and Ti-O using time averaged and time-resolved mass spectrometry. It was shown that the different discharge current behavior between non-reactive and reactive modes couldn’t be explained solely by the change in the secondary electron emission yield from the sputtering target. The high fluxes of O1+ ions contribute substantially to the discharge current giving rise to an increase in the discharge current in the oxide mode as compared to the metal mode. The results also show that the source of oxygen in the discharge is both, the target surface (via sputtering) as well as the gas phase.

    The investigations on the properties of HiPIMS grown films were made by synthesizing metal oxide thin films using Al-O, Ti-O and Ag-Cu-O. It was shown that Al2O3 films grown under optimum condition using reactive HiPIMS exhibit superior properties as compared to DCMS. The HiPIMS grown films exhibit higher refractive index as well as the deposition rate of the film growth was higher under the same operating conditions. The effect of HiPIMS peak power on TiO2 film properties was investigated and the results are compared with the DCMS. The properties of TiO2 films such as refractive index, film density and phase structure were experimentally determined. The ion composition during film growth was investigated and an explanation on the correlation of the film properties and ion energy was made. It was found that energetic and ionized sputtered flux in reactive HiPIMS can be used to tailor the phase formation of the TiO2 films with high peak powers facilitating the rutile phase while the anatase phase can be obtained using low peak powers. These phases can be obtained at room temperature without external substrate heating or post-deposition annealing which is in contrast to the reactive DCMS where both, anatase and rutile phases of TiO2 are obtained at either elevated growth temperatures or by employing post deposition annealing. The effect of HiPIMS peak power on the crystal structure of the grown films was also investigated for ternary compound, Ag-Cu-O, for which films were synthesized using reactive HiPIMS as well as reactive DCMS. It was found that the stoichiometric Ag2Cu2O3 can be synthesized by all examined pulsing peak powers. The oxygen gas flow rate required to form stoichiometric films is proportional to the pulsing peak power in HiPIMS. DCMS required low oxygen gas flow to synthesis the stoichiometric films. The HiPIMS grown films exhibit more pronounced crystalline structure as compared to the films grown using DCMS. This is likely an effect of highly ionized depositing flux which facilitates an intense ion bombardment during the film growth using HiPIMS. Our results indicate that Ag2Cu2O3film formation is very sensitive to the ion bombardment on the substrate as well as to the backattraction of metal and oxygen ions to the target.

    List of papers
    1. Hysteresis and process stability in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of metal oxides
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hysteresis and process stability in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of metal oxides
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    2011 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 519, no 22, p. 7779-7784Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the further development of reactive sputter deposition, strategies which allow for stabilization of the transition zone between the metallic and compound modes, elimination of the process hysteresis, and increase of the deposition rate, are of particular interest. In this study, the hysteresis behavior and the characteristics of the transition zone during reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of Al and Ce targets in an Ar-O(2) atmosphere as a function of the pulsing frequency and the pumping speed are investigated. Comparison with reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) reveals that HiPIMS allows for elimination/suppression of the hysteresis and a smoother transition from the metallic to the compound sputtering mode. For the experimental conditions employed in the present study, optimum behavior with respect to the hysteresis width is obtained at frequency values between 2 and 4 kHz, while HiPIMS processes with values below or above this range resemble the DCMS behavior. Al-O films are deposited using both HiPIMS and DCMS. Analysis of the film properties shows that elimination/suppression of the hysteresis in HiPIMS facilitates the growth of stoichiometric and transparent Al(2)O(3) at relatively high deposition rates over a wider range of experimental conditions as compared to DCMS.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2011
    Keywords
    Reactive sputtering, High power impulse magnetron sputtering, Aluminum oxide, Cerium oxide, Hysteresis, Process stability
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71797 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2011.06.021 (DOI)000295057000027 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR)|621-2008-3222|Strategic Research Center in Materials Science for Nanoscale Surface Engineering (MS2E)||Ministry of Science and Technology, Thailand||VR|623-2009-7348|

    Available from: 2011-11-04 Created: 2011-11-04 Last updated: 2017-12-08
    2. Studies of hysteresis effect in reactive HiPIMS deposition of oxides
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studies of hysteresis effect in reactive HiPIMS deposition of oxides
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    2011 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 205, p. S303-S306Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    igh power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has proven to be capable of substantial improvement of the quality of deposited coatings. Lately, there have been a number of reports indicating that the hysteresis effect may be reduced in HiPIMS mode resulting in an increase of the deposition rate of stoichiometric compound as compared to a direct current magnetron sputtering process in oxide mode. In this contribution, we have studied the hysteresis behaviour of Ti metal targets sputtered in Ar + O(2) mixtures. For fixed pulse on time and a constant average power, there is an optimum frequency minimizing the hysteresis. The effect of gas dynamics was analyzed by measurements of the gas refill time and rarefaction. Results indicate that the gas rarefaction may be responsible for the observed hysteresis behaviour. The results are in agreement with a previous study of Al oxide reactive process.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam., 2011
    Keywords
    Magnetron sputtering, Reactive sputtering, HiPIMS, Hysteresis, Oxides deposition
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69986 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.01.019 (DOI)000293258600065 ()
    Available from: 2011-08-12 Created: 2011-08-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08
    3. Understanding the discharge current behavior in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of oxides
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the discharge current behavior in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of oxides
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    2013 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, no 13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The discharge current behavior in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of Ti-O and Al-O is investigated. It is found that for both metals, the discharge peak current significantly increases in the oxide mode in contrast to the behavior in reactive direct current magnetron sputtering where the discharge current increases for Al but decreases for Ti when oxygen is introduced. In order to investigate the increase in the discharge current in HiPIMS-mode, the ionic contribution of the discharge in the oxide and metal mode is measured using time-resolved mass spectrometry. The energy distributions and time evolution are investigated during the pulse-on time as well as in the post-discharge. In the oxide mode, the discharge is dominated by ionized oxygen, which has been preferentially sputtered from the target surface. The ionized oxygen determines the discharge behavior in reactive HiPIMS.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2013
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91256 (URN)10.1063/1.4799199 (DOI)000317238000006 ()
    Available from: 2013-04-18 Created: 2013-04-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    4. Effect of peak power in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of titanium dioxide
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of peak power in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of titanium dioxide
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    2011 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 205, no 20, p. 4828-4831Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of peak power in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) reactive deposition of TiO(2) films has been studied with respect to the deposition rate and coating properties. With increasing peak power not only the ionization of the sputtered material increases but also their energy. In order to correlate the variation in the ion energy distributions with the film properties, the phase composition, density and optical properties of the films grown with different HiPIMS-parameters have been investigated and compared to a film grown using direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). All experiments were performed for constant average power and pulse on time (100W and 35 mu s, respectively), different peak powers were achieved by varying the frequency of pulsing. Ion energy distributions for Ti and O and its dependence on the process conditions have been studied. It was found that films with the highest density and highest refractive index were grown under moderate HiPIMS conditions (moderate peak powers) resulting in only a small loss in mass-deposition rate compared to DCMS. It was further found that TiO2 films with anatase and rutile phases can be grown at room temperature without substrate heating and without post-deposition annealing.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam., 2011
    Keywords
    HiPIMS; Titanium dioxide; Rutile; Anatase; Reactive sputtering; TiO(2)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69795 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.04.071 (DOI)000292361400013 ()
    Note

    Original Publication: Montri Aiempanakit, Ulf Helmersson, Asim Aijaz, Petter Larsson, Roger Magnusson, Jens Jensen and Tomas Kubart, Effect of peak power in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of titanium dioxide, 2011, Surface & Coatings Technology, (205), 20, 4828-4831. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.04.071 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/

    Available from: 2011-08-10 Created: 2011-08-08 Last updated: 2017-12-08
    5. Ag2Cu2O3 thin films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ag2Cu2O3 thin films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering
    2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ag2Cu2O3 thin films were prepared by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) from an alloy silver-copper (Ag0.5Cu0.5) target on silicon and glass substrates. The effects of the oxygen gas flow and the peak power on the structural properties of the films were investigated. Structural characterization by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements show that the structure of Ag2Cu2O3 is related to the oxygen flow and the peak power. Films grown with high peak power required higher oxygen flow rate in order to get stoichiometric Ag2Cu2O3 thin films. It was further found that using HiPIMS, polycrystalline Ag2Cu2O3 films can be grown at room temperature without substrate heating or post-deposition annealing, while films deposited by DCMS exhibit poor crystallinity under the same process conditions.

    Keywords
    Silver-copper oxide, HiPIMS, Reactive sputtering, film structure
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91258 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-04-18 Created: 2013-04-18 Last updated: 2013-10-30Bibliographically approved
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    Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering of Metal Oxides
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    omslag
  • 126.
    Aiempanakit, Montri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aijaz, Asim
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kubart, Tomas
    The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Understanding the discharge current behavior in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of oxides2013In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, no 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discharge current behavior in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of Ti-O and Al-O is investigated. It is found that for both metals, the discharge peak current significantly increases in the oxide mode in contrast to the behavior in reactive direct current magnetron sputtering where the discharge current increases for Al but decreases for Ti when oxygen is introduced. In order to investigate the increase in the discharge current in HiPIMS-mode, the ionic contribution of the discharge in the oxide and metal mode is measured using time-resolved mass spectrometry. The energy distributions and time evolution are investigated during the pulse-on time as well as in the post-discharge. In the oxide mode, the discharge is dominated by ionized oxygen, which has been preferentially sputtered from the target surface. The ionized oxygen determines the discharge behavior in reactive HiPIMS.

  • 127.
    Aiempanakit, Montri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aijaz, Asim
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University.
    Effect of peak power in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of titanium dioxide2011In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 205, no 20, p. 4828-4831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of peak power in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) reactive deposition of TiO(2) films has been studied with respect to the deposition rate and coating properties. With increasing peak power not only the ionization of the sputtered material increases but also their energy. In order to correlate the variation in the ion energy distributions with the film properties, the phase composition, density and optical properties of the films grown with different HiPIMS-parameters have been investigated and compared to a film grown using direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). All experiments were performed for constant average power and pulse on time (100W and 35 mu s, respectively), different peak powers were achieved by varying the frequency of pulsing. Ion energy distributions for Ti and O and its dependence on the process conditions have been studied. It was found that films with the highest density and highest refractive index were grown under moderate HiPIMS conditions (moderate peak powers) resulting in only a small loss in mass-deposition rate compared to DCMS. It was further found that TiO2 films with anatase and rutile phases can be grown at room temperature without substrate heating and without post-deposition annealing.

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  • 128.
    Aiempanakit, Montri
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Petter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hysteresis and process stability in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of metal oxides2011In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 519, no 22, p. 7779-7784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the further development of reactive sputter deposition, strategies which allow for stabilization of the transition zone between the metallic and compound modes, elimination of the process hysteresis, and increase of the deposition rate, are of particular interest. In this study, the hysteresis behavior and the characteristics of the transition zone during reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of Al and Ce targets in an Ar-O(2) atmosphere as a function of the pulsing frequency and the pumping speed are investigated. Comparison with reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) reveals that HiPIMS allows for elimination/suppression of the hysteresis and a smoother transition from the metallic to the compound sputtering mode. For the experimental conditions employed in the present study, optimum behavior with respect to the hysteresis width is obtained at frequency values between 2 and 4 kHz, while HiPIMS processes with values below or above this range resemble the DCMS behavior. Al-O films are deposited using both HiPIMS and DCMS. Analysis of the film properties shows that elimination/suppression of the hysteresis in HiPIMS facilitates the growth of stoichiometric and transparent Al(2)O(3) at relatively high deposition rates over a wider range of experimental conditions as compared to DCMS.

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    fulltext
  • 129.
    Aiempanakit, Montri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lund, Esben
    Department of Physics/Center for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Kubart, Tomas
    The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ag2Cu2O3 thin films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ag2Cu2O3 thin films were prepared by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) from an alloy silver-copper (Ag0.5Cu0.5) target on silicon and glass substrates. The effects of the oxygen gas flow and the peak power on the structural properties of the films were investigated. Structural characterization by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements show that the structure of Ag2Cu2O3 is related to the oxygen flow and the peak power. Films grown with high peak power required higher oxygen flow rate in order to get stoichiometric Ag2Cu2O3 thin films. It was further found that using HiPIMS, polycrystalline Ag2Cu2O3 films can be grown at room temperature without substrate heating or post-deposition annealing, while films deposited by DCMS exhibit poor crystallinity under the same process conditions.

  • 130.
    Aiempanakit, Montri
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Larsson, Petter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Jädernäs, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Effects on deposition rate when varying the magnetic field strength in magnetron sputtering2008In: 14th International Congress on Thin Films,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Poster

  • 131.
    Aifa, Sami
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology.
    Aydin, J
    Nordvall, G
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Samuel
    Hermanson, O
    A basic peptide within the juxtamembrane region is required for EGF receptor dimerization2005In: Experimental Cell Research, ISSN 0014-4827, E-ISSN 1090-2422, Vol. 302, no 1, p. 108-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is fundamental for normal cell growth and organ development, but has also been implicated in various pathologies, notably tumors of epithelial origin. We have previously shown that the initial 13 amino acids (P13) within the intracellular juxtamembrane region (R645-R657) are involved in the interaction with calmodulin, thus indicating an important role for this region in EGFR function. Here we show that P13 is required for proper dimerization of the receptor. We expressed either the intracellular domain of EGFR (TKJM) or the intracellular domain lacking P13 (ΔTKJM) in COS-7 cells that express endogenous EGFR. Only TKJM was immunoprecipitated with an antibody directed against the extracellular part of EGFR, and only TKJM was tyrosine phosphorylated by endogenous EGFR. Using SK-N-MC cells, which do not express endogenous EGFR, that were stably transfected with either wild-type EGFR or recombinant full-length EGFR lacking P13 demonstrated that P13 is required for appropriate receptor dimerization. Furthermore, mutant EGFR lacking P13 failed to be autophosphorylated. P13 is rich in basic amino acids and in silico modeling of the EGFR in conjunction with our results suggests a novel role for the juxtamembrane domain (JM) of EGFR in mediating intracellular dimerization and thus receptor kinase activation and function. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 132. Aifa, Sami
    et al.
    Frikha, Fakher
    Miled, Nabil
    Johansen, Knut
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Svensson, Samuel P.S.
    Astra Zeneca.
    Phosphorylation of Thr654 but not Thr669 within the juxtamembrane domain of the EGF receptor inhibits calmodulin binding2006In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 347, no 2, p. 381-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calcium-calmodulin (CaM) binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to both inhibit and stimulate receptor activity. CaM binds to the intracellular juxtamembrane (JM) domain (Met645-Phe688) of EGFR. Protein kinase C (PKC) mediated phosphorylation of Thr654 occurs within this domain. CaM binding to the JM domain inhibits PKC phosphorylation and conversely PKC mediated phosphorylation of Thr654 or Glu substitution of Thr654 inhibits CaM binding. A second threonine residue (Thr669) within the JM domain is phosphorylated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Previous results have shown that CaM interferes with EGFR-induced MAPK activation. If and how phosphorylation of Thr669 affects CaM-EGFR interaction is however not known.In the present study we have used surface plasmon resonance (BIAcore) to study the influence of Thr669 phosphorylation on real time interactions between the intracellular juxtamembrane (JM) domain of EGFR and CaM. The EGFR-JM was expressed as GST fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and phosphorylation was mimicked by generating Glu substitutions of either Thr654 or Thr669. Purified proteins were coupled to immobilized anti-GST antibodies at the sensor surface and increasing concentration of CaM was applied. When mutating Thr654 to Glu654 no specific CaM binding could be detected. However, neither single substitutions of Thr669 (Gly669 or Glu669) nor double mutants Gly654/Gly669 or Gly654/Glu669 influenced the binding of CaM to the EGFR-JM. This clearly shows that PKC may regulate EGF-mediated CaM signalling through phosphorylation of Thr654 whereas phosphorylation of Thr669 seems to play a CaM independent regulatory role. The role of both residues in the EGFR-calmodulin interaction was also studied in silico. Our modelling work supports a scenario where Thr654 from the JM domain interacts with Glu120 in the calmodulin molecule. Phosphorylation of Thr654 or Glu654 substitution creates a repulsive electrostatic force that would diminish CaM binding to the JM domain. These results are in line with the Biacore experiments showing a weak binding of the CaM to the JM domain with Thr654 mutated to Glu. Furthermore, these results provide a hypothesis to how CaM binding to EGFR might both positively and negatively interfere with EGFR-activity. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 133. Aifa, Sami
    et al.
    Johansen, Knut
    Nilsson, Ulrica K
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Svensson, Samuel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology.
    Interactions between the juxtamembrane domain of the EGFR and calmodulin measured by surface plasmon resonance2002In: Cellular Signalling, ISSN 0898-6568, E-ISSN 1873-3913, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 1005-1013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One early response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation is an increase in intracellular calcium. We have used surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to study real-time interactions between the intracellular juxtamembrane (JM) region of EGFR and calmodulin. The EGFR-JM (Met644-Phe688) was expressed as a GST fusion protein and immobilised on a sensor chip surface. Calmodulin specifically interacts with EGFR-JM in a calcium-dependent manner with a high on and high off rate. Chemical modification of EGFR-JM by using arginine-selective phenylglyoxal or deletion of the basic segment Arg645-Arg657 inhibits the interaction. Phosphorylation of EGFR-JM by protein kinase C (PKC) or glutamate substitution of Thr654 inhibits the interaction, suggesting that PKC phosphorylation electrostatically interferes with calmodulin binding to basic arginine residues. Calmodulin binding was also inhibited by suramin. Our results suggest that EGFR-JM is essential for epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated calcium-calmodulin signalling and for signal integration between other signalling pathways.

  • 134.
    Aigbavbiere, Ernest
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology.
    How does predation from fish influence the benthic invertebrates’ species composition in the Phragmites australis and Chara vegetation of Lake Takern?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Predation is one of the important selective factors that regulate the species composition of benthic invertebrate communities. The study objective was to investigate the invertebrate distribution in two contrasting habitats in Lake Takern, southern Sweden, submerged Chara vegetation and emergent Phragmites australis vegetation, and to investigate the influence of predation from fish on certain invertebrates. Laboratory studies were used to estimate handling time and the intake rate (mg/sec) by the fish based on the optimal foraging model. In the field, fish and invertebrates were collected with gill nets and hand nets respectively and the fish gut content was analyzed. In total, sixteen invertebrates’ taxa were collected from the two habitats. The proportion of the invertebrate’s overlaps from each of the habitat was calculated by Renkonen index and with Sorensen diversity index. Both indices showed a similarity larger than 65%, indicating that there was no significant difference in the invertebrates’ distribution in the P. australis and the Chara habitat. The fish caught with the gill nets were: roach (Rutilus rutilus), perch (Perca fluviatilis), tench (Tinca tinca), and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus). The caught perch had eaten: Asellus aquaticus, Gammarus lacustris, Corixidae, and the larvae of Chironomidae and Zygoptera.A comparison was made on the invertebrates found in the field and the ones observed from the gut of the perch, and the findings were that the invertebrates that had more occurrence in the gut were less in proportion in the benthic samples. In the laboratory experiment perch ( Perca fluviatilis) was used as the predator fish and the prey organisms were Asellus aquaticus,Gammarus pulex, and Corixidae of three size categories. The results showed that perch handling time for A.aquaticus of the different size categories, was not significantly different (p>0.05); and the same results were valid for Corixidae and G. pulex. However, the intake rate of perch across the prey and their size categories were significantly different. The handling time was not significantly different which means that the predator fish will gain more in terms of intake rate as it prey on larger size prey items, thus harmonizing with the optimum foraging theory.

     

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    ernaigecology
  • 135.
    Aijaz, Asim
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Design and Characterisation of A SynchronousCo-Axuak Double Magnetron Sputtering System2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is a novel pulsed power technique. In HiPIMS, high power pulses are applied to the target for short duration with a low duty factor. It provides a high degree of ionization of the sputtered material (in some cases up to 90%) and a high plasma density (1019 m-3) which results in densification of the grown films. Recently a large side-transport of the sputtered material has been discovered, meaning that the sputtered material is transported radially outwards, parallel to the cathode surface. In this research, we use this effect and study the side-ways deposition of thin films. We designed a new magnetron sputtering system, consisting of two opposing magnetrons with similar polarity. Ti films were grown on Si using the side-ways transport of the sputtered material. Scanning electron microscope was employed to investigate the microstructure of the grown films. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements were made for investigating the ionized fraction of the sputtered material while Langmuir probe measurements were made for evaluating the plasma parameters such as electron density. The conclusion is that the system works well for side-ways deposition and it can be useful for coating the interior of cylindrically shaped objects. It is a promising technique that should be used in industry.

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    Design and Characterisation of A SynchronousCo-Axuak Double Magnetron Sputtering System
  • 136. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Aijaz, Asim
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    HiPIMS-based Novel Deposition Processes for Thin Films2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) based new deposition processes are introduced to address; the issue of low degree of ionization of C in magnetron sputtering discharges, and the difficulty encountered in thin film deposition on complex-shaped surfaces. The issue of low degree of C ionization is addressed by introducing a new strategy which is based on promoting the electron impact ionization ofC by increasing the electron temperature in the plasma discharge using Ne, instead of conventionally used Ar. The Ne-based HiPIMS process provides highly ionized C fluxes which are essential for the synthesis of high-density and sp3 rich amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) and tetrahedral a-C (ta-C). The feasibility of coating complex-shaped surfaces is demonstrated by using the dual-magnetron approach in an open-field (magnetic field of the magnetrons) configuration and performing sideways deposition of Ti films. The HiPIMS-based open-field configuration process enhances the sideways transport of the sputtered flux — an effect which is observed in the case of HiPIMS.

    The characterization of the Ne-HiPIMS discharge using a Langmuir probe and mass spectrometry shows that it provides an increase in the electron temperature resulting in an order of magnitude decrease in the mean ionization length of the sputtered C as compared to the conventional Ar-HiPIMS discharge. The C1+ ion energy distribution functions exhibit the presence of an energetic C1+ ion population and a substantial increase in the total C1+ ion flux. The higher C1+ ion flux facilitates the growth of sp3 rich carbon films with mass densities, measured by x-ray reflectometry, reaching as high as approx. 2.8 gcm-3.

    The dual-magnetron open-field configuration process is operated in DCMS as well as in HiPIMS modes. The plasma characterization, performed by Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy, shows that the plasma density in the Ti-HiPIMS discharge is higher than that of the Ti-DCMS discharge. This results in the higher ionized fraction of the sputtered Ti in the case of HiPIMS. The film uniformity and the deposition rate of the film growth, obtained by employing scanning electron microscopy, demonstrate that the sideways deposition approach can be used for depositing thin films on complex-shaped surfaces.

    List of papers
    1. A strategy for increased carbon ionization in magnetron sputtering discharges
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A strategy for increased carbon ionization in magnetron sputtering discharges
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Diamond and related materials, ISSN 0925-9635, E-ISSN 1879-0062, Vol. 23, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A strategy that facilitates a substantial increase of carbon ionization in magnetron sputtering discharges is presented in this work. The strategy is based on increasing the electron temperature in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge by using Ne as the sputtering gas. This allows for the generation of an energetic C+ ion population and a substantial increase in the C+ ion flux as compared to a conventional Ar-HiPIMS process. A direct consequence of the ionization enhancement is demonstrated by an increase in the mass density of the grown films up to 2.8 g/cm3; the density values achieved are substantially higher than those obtained from conventional magnetron sputtering methods.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2012
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74315 (URN)10.1016/j.diamond.2011.12.043 (DOI)000302887600001 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 621-2008-3222 623-2009-7348
    Available from: 2012-01-24 Created: 2012-01-24 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    2. Dual-magnetron open field sputtering system for sideways deposition of thin films
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dual-magnetron open field sputtering system for sideways deposition of thin films
    2010 (English)In: SURFACE and COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0257-8972, Vol. 204, no 14, p. 2165-2169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A dual-magnetron system for deposition inside tubular substrates has been developed. The two magnetrons are facing each other and have opposing magnetic fields forcing electrons and thereby also ionized material to be transported radially towards the substrate. The depositions were made employing direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). To optimize the deposition rate, the system was characterized at different separation distances between the magnetrons under the same sputtering conditions. The deposition rate is found to increase with increasing separation distance independent of discharge technique. The emission spectrum from the HiPIMS plasma shows a highly ionized fraction of the sputtered material. The electron densities of the order of 10(16) m(-3) and 10(18) m(-3) have been determined in the DCMS and the HiPIMS plasma discharges respectively. The results demonstrate a successful implementation of the concept of sideways deposition of thin films providing a solution for coating complex shaped surfaces.

    Keywords
    Dual-magnetron, Open field configuration, Sideways deposition, HiPIMS, HPPMS, DCMS
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54766 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2009.11.044 (DOI)000275920900009 ()
    Available from: 2010-04-09 Created: 2010-04-09 Last updated: 2015-05-28
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    HiPIMS-based Novel Deposition Processes for Thin Films
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  • 137. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Aijaz, Asim
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synthesis of Carbon-based and Metal-Oxide Thin Films using High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this thesis deals with synthesis of carbon-based as well as metal-oxide thin films using highly ionized plasmas. The principal deposition method employed was high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). The investigations on plasma chemistry, plasma energetics, plasma-film interactions and its correlation to film growth and resulting film properties were made. The thesis is divided into two parts: (i) HiPIMS-based deposition of carbon-based thin films and (ii) HiPIMS-based deposition of metal-oxide thin films.

    In the first part of the thesis, HiPIMS based strategies are presented that were developed to address the fundamental issues of low degree of carbon ionization and low deposition rates of carbon film growth in magnetron sputtering. In the first study, a new strategy was introduced for increasing the degree of ionization of sputtered carbon via increasing the electron temperature in the discharge by using a higher ionization potential buffer gas (Ne) in place of commonly used Ar. A direct consequence of enhanced electron temperatures was observed in the form of measured large fluxes of ionized carbon at the substrate position. Consequently, high mass densities of the resulting amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films reaching 2.8 g/cm3 were obtained.

    In another study, feasibility of HiPIMS-based high density discharges for high-rate synthesis of dense and hard a-C thin films was explored. A strategy was compiled and implemented that entailed coupling a hydrocarbon precursor gas (C2H2) with high density discharges generated by the superposition of HiPIMS and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). Appropriate control of discharge density (by tuning HiPIMS/DCMS power ratio), gas phase composition and energy of the ionized depositing species lead to a route capable of providing ten-fold increase in the deposition rate of a-C film growth compared to that obtained using HiPIMS Ar discharge in the first study. The increased deposition rate was achieved without significant incorporation of H (<10 %) and with relatively high hardness (>25 GPa) and mass density (~2.32 g/cm3). The knowledge gained in this work was utilized in a subsequent work where the feasibility of adding high ionization potential buffer gas (Ne) to increase the electron temperature in an Ar/C2H2 HiPIMS discharge was explored. It was found that the increased electron temperature lead to enhanced dissociation of hydrocarbon precursor and an increased H incorporation into the growing film. The resulting a-C thin films exhibited high hardness (~ 25 GPa), mass densities in the order of 2.2 g/cm3 and H content as low as about 11%. The striking feature of the resulting films was low stress levels where the films exhibited compressive stresses in the order of 100 MPa.

    In the second part of the thesis, investigations on reactive HiPIMS discharge characteristics were made for technologically relevant metal-oxide systems. In the first study, the discharge characteristics of Ti-O and Al-O were investigated by studying the discharge current characteristics and measuring the ion flux composition. Both, Ti-O and Al-O discharges were dominated by large fluxes of ionized metallic as well as sputtering and reactive gases species. The generation of large ionized fluxes influenced the discharge characteristics consequently surpassing the changes in the secondary electron emission yields which, in the case of DCMS discharges entail contrasting behavior of the discharge voltage for the two material systems. The study also suggested that the source of oxygen ions in the case of reactive HiPIMS is both, the target surface (via sputtering) as well as gas phase.

    In a subsequent study, the knowledge gained from the studies on metal-oxide HiPIMS discharges was utilized for investigating the behavior of reactive HiPIMS discharges related to ternary compound thin film growth. In this work Al-Si-O system, which is a promising candidate for anti-reflective and solar thermal applications, was employed to carry out the investigations under varied target compositions (Al, Al0.5Si0.5, and Al0.1Si0.9). It was found that the discharge current behavior of metal and oxide modes of Al-Si-O HiPIMS discharges were similar to those of Al-O and were independent of the target composition. The influence of energy and composition of the ionized depositing fluxes on the film growth was also investigated. It was shown that stoichiometric Al-Si-O thin films exhibiting a refractive index below 1.6 (which is desired for anti-reflective applications) can be grown. Furthermore, the refractive index and chemical composition of the resulting films were found to be unchanged with respect to the energy of the depositing species.

    The effect of ionized deposition fluxes that are generated in metal-oxide HiPIMS discharges was also investigated for the phase composition and optical properties of TiO2 thin films. It was found that energetic and ionized sputtered flux in reactive HiPIMS can be used to tailor the phase formation of the TiO2 films with high peak powers facilitating the rutile phase while the anatase phase can be obtained using low peak powers. It was also demonstrated that using HiPIMS, these phases can be obtained at room temperature without external substrate heating or  post-deposition annealing. The results on plasma and film properties were also compared with DCMS.

    List of papers
    1. A strategy for increased carbon ionization in magnetron sputtering discharges
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A strategy for increased carbon ionization in magnetron sputtering discharges
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    2012 (English)In: Diamond and related materials, ISSN 0925-9635, E-ISSN 1879-0062, Vol. 23, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A strategy that facilitates a substantial increase of carbon ionization in magnetron sputtering discharges is presented in this work. The strategy is based on increasing the electron temperature in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge by using Ne as the sputtering gas. This allows for the generation of an energetic C+ ion population and a substantial increase in the C+ ion flux as compared to a conventional Ar-HiPIMS process. A direct consequence of the ionization enhancement is demonstrated by an increase in the mass density of the grown films up to 2.8 g/cm3; the density values achieved are substantially higher than those obtained from conventional magnetron sputtering methods.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2012
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74315 (URN)10.1016/j.diamond.2011.12.043 (DOI)000302887600001 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 621-2008-3222 623-2009-7348
    Available from: 2012-01-24 Created: 2012-01-24 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    2. Principles for designing sputtering-based strategies for high-rate synthesis of dense and hard hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Principles for designing sputtering-based strategies for high-rate synthesis of dense and hard hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Diamond and related materials, ISSN 0925-9635, E-ISSN 1879-0062, Vol. 44, p. 117-122Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study we contribute to the understanding that is required for designing sputtering-based routes for high rate synthesis of hard and dense amorphous carbon (a-C) films. We compile and implement a strategy for synthesis of a-C thin films that entails coupling a hydrocarbon gas (acetylene) with high density discharges generated by the superposition of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). Appropriate control of discharge density (by tuning HiPIMS/DCMS power ratio), gas phase composition and energy of the ionized depositing species leads to a route capable of providing ten-fold increase in the deposition rate of a-C film growth compared to HiPIMS Ar discharge (Aijaz et al. Diamond and Related Materials 23 (2012) 1). This is achieved without significant incorporation of H (< 10 %) and with relatively high hardness (> 25 GPa) and mass density (~2.32 g/cm3). Using our experimental data together with Monte-Carlo computer simulations and data from the literature we suggest that: (i) dissociative reactions triggered by the interactions of energetic discharge electrons with hydrocarbon gas molecules is an important additional (to the sputtering cathode) source of film forming species and (ii) film microstructure and film hydrogen content are primarily controlled by interactions of energetic plasma species with surface and sub-surface layers of the growing film.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon, DLC, HiPIMS, reactive sputtering
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104261 (URN)10.1016/j.diamond.2014.02.014 (DOI)000335272800017 ()
    Available from: 2014-02-13 Created: 2014-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Synthesis of amorphous carbon thin films using acetylene-based high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis of amorphous carbon thin films using acetylene-based high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges
    Show others...
    2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films are synthesized using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) based Ne-Ar/C2H2 discharges. Plasma properties and film growth are investigated under different gas phase composition and operating pressures. Film mass densities, H content, hardness and compressive stresses are measured. Mass densities in the order of 2.2 g/cm3, hardness close to 25 GPa and H content as low as 11% are obtained. The film properties manifest a dependence on energy and flux of the depositing species and energetic ion bombardment driven structural changes in the films are found to govern the resulting film properties.

    Keywords
    Diamond-like carbon, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, HiPIMS, Reactive sputtering
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104263 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-02-13 Created: 2014-02-13 Last updated: 2014-02-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Understanding the discharge current behavior in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of oxides
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the discharge current behavior in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of oxides
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    2013 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, no 13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The discharge current behavior in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of Ti-O and Al-O is investigated. It is found that for both metals, the discharge peak current significantly increases in the oxide mode in contrast to the behavior in reactive direct current magnetron sputtering where the discharge current increases for Al but decreases for Ti when oxygen is introduced. In order to investigate the increase in the discharge current in HiPIMS-mode, the ionic contribution of the discharge in the oxide and metal mode is measured using time-resolved mass spectrometry. The energy distributions and time evolution are investigated during the pulse-on time as well as in the post-discharge. In the oxide mode, the discharge is dominated by ionized oxygen, which has been preferentially sputtered from the target surface. The ionized oxygen determines the discharge behavior in reactive HiPIMS.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2013
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91256 (URN)10.1063/1.4799199 (DOI)000317238000006 ()
    Available from: 2013-04-18 Created: 2013-04-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    5. Exploring the potential of high power impulse magnetron sputtering for the synthesis of scratch resistant, antireflective coatings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the potential of high power impulse magnetron sputtering for the synthesis of scratch resistant, antireflective coatings
    Show others...
    2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Broad band anti-reflective multilayer coatings require the use of a low-index material as a top layer. Normally SiO2 is used which exhibits sufficiently low refractive index (~1.5 at 550 nm) yet its low hardness (~10 GPa) hinders its application in abrasive environments. A strategy to circumnavigate these limitations is the synthesis of multicomponent materials that combine good mechanical and optical performance. In this work we synthesize Al-Si-O thin films seeking to combine the low refractive index of SiO2 and the relatively high hardness of Al2O3. The potential of reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) for synthesizing Al-Si-O suitable for top-layers in anti-reflective coating stacks is explored by depositing films in an Ar+O2 ambient under varied target compositions (Al0.5Si0.5 and Al0.1Si0.9). The behavior of discharge current in metal and oxide mode is correlated with the plasma composition, plasma energetics as well as target surface composition in order to obtain information about the chemical nature and the energy of the film forming species. Plasma composition and plasma energetics are investigated by measuring electron density, electron temperature as well as energy distributions and as fluxes of Ar+, Al+, Si+ and O+ ions. Monte-Carlo based computer simulations are employed to assess the ion-target surface interactions to gain insight into the discharge characteristics as well as film growth. The properties of the grown films (chemical composition, mechanical and optical properties) are investigated and an understanding of the reactive HiPIMS-based growth of anti-reflective Al-Si-O thin films is established. For reference, the plasma and film properties of Al-O are also studied.

    Keywords
    Al-Si-O, anti-reflective coatings, optical coatings, HiPIMS, reactive sputtering
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104264 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-02-13 Created: 2014-02-13 Last updated: 2014-02-13Bibliographically approved
    6. Effect of peak power in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of titanium dioxide
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of peak power in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of titanium dioxide
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 205, no 20, p. 4828-4831Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of peak power in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) reactive deposition of TiO(2) films has been studied with respect to the deposition rate and coating properties. With increasing peak power not only the ionization of the sputtered material increases but also their energy. In order to correlate the variation in the ion energy distributions with the film properties, the phase composition, density and optical properties of the films grown with different HiPIMS-parameters have been investigated and compared to a film grown using direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). All experiments were performed for constant average power and pulse on time (100W and 35 mu s, respectively), different peak powers were achieved by varying the frequency of pulsing. Ion energy distributions for Ti and O and its dependence on the process conditions have been studied. It was found that films with the highest density and highest refractive index were grown under moderate HiPIMS conditions (moderate peak powers) resulting in only a small loss in mass-deposition rate compared to DCMS. It was further found that TiO2 films with anatase and rutile phases can be grown at room temperature without substrate heating and without post-deposition annealing.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam., 2011
    Keywords
    HiPIMS; Titanium dioxide; Rutile; Anatase; Reactive sputtering; TiO(2)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69795 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.04.071 (DOI)000292361400013 ()
    Note

    Original Publication: Montri Aiempanakit, Ulf Helmersson, Asim Aijaz, Petter Larsson, Roger Magnusson, Jens Jensen and Tomas Kubart, Effect of peak power in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of titanium dioxide, 2011, Surface & Coatings Technology, (205), 20, 4828-4831. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.04.071 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/

    Available from: 2011-08-10 Created: 2011-08-08 Last updated: 2017-12-08
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    Synthesis of Carbon-based and Metal-Oxide Thin Films using High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
    Download (pdf)
    omslag
  • 138.
    Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aiempanakit, Montri
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Present address: Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.
    Bruns, Stefan
    Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films (IST), Germany.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vergöhl, Michael
    Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films (IST), Germany.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring the potential of high power impulse magnetron sputtering for the synthesis of scratch resistant, antireflective coatings2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Broad band anti-reflective multilayer coatings require the use of a low-index material as a top layer. Normally SiO2 is used which exhibits sufficiently low refractive index (~1.5 at 550 nm) yet its low hardness (~10 GPa) hinders its application in abrasive environments. A strategy to circumnavigate these limitations is the synthesis of multicomponent materials that combine good mechanical and optical performance. In this work we synthesize Al-Si-O thin films seeking to combine the low refractive index of SiO2 and the relatively high hardness of Al2O3. The potential of reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) for synthesizing Al-Si-O suitable for top-layers in anti-reflective coating stacks is explored by depositing films in an Ar+O2 ambient under varied target compositions (Al0.5Si0.5 and Al0.1Si0.9). The behavior of discharge current in metal and oxide mode is correlated with the plasma composition, plasma energetics as well as target surface composition in order to obtain information about the chemical nature and the energy of the film forming species. Plasma composition and plasma energetics are investigated by measuring electron density, electron temperature as well as energy distributions and as fluxes of Ar+, Al+, Si+ and O+ ions. Monte-Carlo based computer simulations are employed to assess the ion-target surface interactions to gain insight into the discharge characteristics as well as film growth. The properties of the grown films (chemical composition, mechanical and optical properties) are investigated and an understanding of the reactive HiPIMS-based growth of anti-reflective Al-Si-O thin films is established. For reference, the plasma and film properties of Al-O are also studied.

  • 139.
    Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Louring, Sascha
    Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synthesis of amorphous carbon thin films using acetylene-based high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films are synthesized using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) based Ne-Ar/C2H2 discharges. Plasma properties and film growth are investigated under different gas phase composition and operating pressures. Film mass densities, H content, hardness and compressive stresses are measured. Mass densities in the order of 2.2 g/cm3, hardness close to 25 GPa and H content as low as 11% are obtained. The film properties manifest a dependence on energy and flux of the depositing species and energetic ion bombardment driven structural changes in the films are found to govern the resulting film properties.

  • 140.
    Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Louring, Sascha
    Aarhus University, Denmark; Danish Technology Institute, Denmark.
    Lundin, Daniel
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synthesis of hydrogenated diamondlike carbon thin films using neon-acetylene based high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges2016In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 34, no 6, article id 061504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogenated diamondlike carbon (DLC:H) thin films exhibit many interesting properties that can be tailored by controlling the composition and energy of the vapor fluxes used for their synthesis. This control can be facilitated by high electron density and/or high electron temperature plasmas that allow one to effectively tune the gas and surface chemistry during film growth, as well as the degree of ionization of the film forming species. The authors have recently demonstrated by adding Ne in an Ar-C high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge that electron temperatures can be effectively increased to substantially ionize C species [Aijaz et al., Diamond Relat. Mater. 23, 1 (2012)]. The authors also developed an Ar-C2H2 HiPIMS process in which the high electron densities provided by the HiPIMS operation mode enhance gas phase dissociation reactions enabling control of the plasma and growth chemistry [Aijaz et al., Diamond Relat. Mater. 44, 117 (2014)]. Seeking to further enhance electron temperature and thereby promote electron impact induced interactions, control plasma chemical reaction pathways, and tune the resulting film properties, in this work, the authors synthesize DLC: H thin films by admixing Ne in a HiPIMS based Ar/C2H2 discharge. The authors investigate the plasma properties and discharge characteristics by measuring electron energy distributions as well as by studying discharge current characteristics showing an electron temperature enhancement in C2H2 based discharges and the role of ionic contribution to the film growth. These discharge conditions allow for the growth of thick (amp;gt;1 mu m) DLC: H thin films exhibiting low compressive stresses (similar to 0.5 GPa), high hardness (similar to 25 GPa), low H content (similar to 11%), and density in the order of 2.2 g/cm(3). The authors also show that film densification and change of mechanical properties are related to H removal by ion bombardment rather than subplantation. (C) 2016 American Vacuum Society.

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  • 141.
    Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dual-magnetron open field sputtering system for sideways deposition of thin films2010In: SURFACE and COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0257-8972, Vol. 204, no 14, p. 2165-2169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dual-magnetron system for deposition inside tubular substrates has been developed. The two magnetrons are facing each other and have opposing magnetic fields forcing electrons and thereby also ionized material to be transported radially towards the substrate. The depositions were made employing direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). To optimize the deposition rate, the system was characterized at different separation distances between the magnetrons under the same sputtering conditions. The deposition rate is found to increase with increasing separation distance independent of discharge technique. The emission spectrum from the HiPIMS plasma shows a highly ionized fraction of the sputtered material. The electron densities of the order of 10(16) m(-3) and 10(18) m(-3) have been determined in the DCMS and the HiPIMS plasma discharges respectively. The results demonstrate a successful implementation of the concept of sideways deposition of thin films providing a solution for coating complex shaped surfaces.

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    fulltext
  • 142.
    Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brenning, Nils
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A strategy for increased carbon ionization in magnetron sputtering discharges2012In: Diamond and related materials, ISSN 0925-9635, E-ISSN 1879-0062, Vol. 23, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A strategy that facilitates a substantial increase of carbon ionization in magnetron sputtering discharges is presented in this work. The strategy is based on increasing the electron temperature in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge by using Ne as the sputtering gas. This allows for the generation of an energetic C+ ion population and a substantial increase in the C+ ion flux as compared to a conventional Ar-HiPIMS process. A direct consequence of the ionization enhancement is demonstrated by an increase in the mass density of the grown films up to 2.8 g/cm3; the density values achieved are substantially higher than those obtained from conventional magnetron sputtering methods.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 143.
    Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Raza, Mohsin
    Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), University of Mons, Belgium.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Principles for designing sputtering-based strategies for high-rate synthesis of dense and hard hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films2014In: Diamond and related materials, ISSN 0925-9635, E-ISSN 1879-0062, Vol. 44, p. 117-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study we contribute to the understanding that is required for designing sputtering-based routes for high rate synthesis of hard and dense amorphous carbon (a-C) films. We compile and implement a strategy for synthesis of a-C thin films that entails coupling a hydrocarbon gas (acetylene) with high density discharges generated by the superposition of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). Appropriate control of discharge density (by tuning HiPIMS/DCMS power ratio), gas phase composition and energy of the ionized depositing species leads to a route capable of providing ten-fold increase in the deposition rate of a-C film growth compared to HiPIMS Ar discharge (Aijaz et al. Diamond and Related Materials 23 (2012) 1). This is achieved without significant incorporation of H (< 10 %) and with relatively high hardness (> 25 GPa) and mass density (~2.32 g/cm3). Using our experimental data together with Monte-Carlo computer simulations and data from the literature we suggest that: (i) dissociative reactions triggered by the interactions of energetic discharge electrons with hydrocarbon gas molecules is an important additional (to the sputtering cathode) source of film forming species and (ii) film microstructure and film hydrogen content are primarily controlled by interactions of energetic plasma species with surface and sub-surface layers of the growing film.

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  • 144.
    Ail, Ujwala
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Hui
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermoelectric Properties of Polymeric Mixed Conductors2016In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, no 34, p. 6288-6296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermoelectric (TE) phenomena are intensively explored by the scientific community due to the rather inefficient way energy resources are used with a large fraction of energy wasted in the form of heat. Among various materials, mixed ion-electron conductors (MIEC) are recently being explored as potential thermoelectrics, primarily due to their low thermal conductivity. The combination of electronic and ionic charge carriers in those inorganic or organic materials leads to complex evolution of the thermovoltage (Voc) with time, temperature, and/or humidity. One of the most promising organic thermoelectric materials, poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT-PSS), is an MIEC. A previous study reveals that at high humidity, PEDOT-PSS undergoes an ionic Seebeck effect due to mobile protons. Yet, this phenomenon is not well understood. In this work, the time dependence of the Voc is studied and its behavior from the contribution of both charge carriers (holes and protons) is explained. The presence of a complex reorganization of the charge carriers promoting an internal electrochemical reaction within the polymer film is identified. Interestingly, it is demonstrated that the time dependence behavior of Voc is a way to distinguish between three classes of polymeric materials: electronic conductor, ionic conductor, and mixed ionic–electronic conductor

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  • 145. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Aili, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polypeptide-Based Nanoscale Materials2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembly has emerged as a promising technique for fabrication of novel hybrid materials and nanostructures. The work presented in this thesis has been focused on developing nanoscale materials based on synthetic de novo designed polypeptides. The polypeptides have been utilized for the assembly of gold nanoparticles, fibrous nanostructures, and for sensing applications.

    The 42-residue polypeptides are designed to fold into helix-loop-helix motifs and dimerize to form four-helix bundles. Folding is primarily driven by the formation of a hydrophobic core made up by the hydrophobic faces of the amphiphilic helices. The peptides have either a negative or positive net charge at neutral pH, depending on the relative abundance of Glu and Lys. Charge repulsion thus prevents homodimerization at pH 7 while promoting hetero-dimerization through the formation of stabilising salt bridges. A Cys incorporated in position 22, located in the loop region, allowed for directed, thiol-dependent, immobilization on planar gold surfaces and gold nanoparticles. The negatively charged (Glu-rich) peptide formed homodimers and folded in solution at pH < 6 or in the presence of certain metal ions, such as Zn2+. The folding properties of this peptide were retained when immobilized directly on gold, which enabled reversible assembly of gold nanoparticles resulting in aggregates with well-defined interparticle separations. Particle aggregation was found to induce folding of the immobilized peptides but folding could also be utilized to induce aggregation of the particles by exploiting the highly specific interactions involved in both homodimerization and hetero-association. The possibility to control the assembly of polypeptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles was utilized in a colorimetric protein assay. Analyte binding to immobilized ligands prevented the formation of dense particle aggregates when subjecting the particles to conditions normally causing extensive aggregation. Analyte binding could hence easily be distinguished by the naked eye. Moreover, the peptides were utilized to assemble gold nanoparticles on planar gold and silica substrates.

    Fibrous nanostructures were realized by linking monomers through a disulphide-bridge. The disulphide-linked peptides were found to spontaneously assemble into long and extremely thin peptide fibres as a result of a propagating association mediated by folding into four-helix bundles.

    List of papers
    1. Alpha-helix-inducing dimerization of synthetic polypeptide scaffolds on gold
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alpha-helix-inducing dimerization of synthetic polypeptide scaffolds on gold
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    2005 (English)In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 2480-2487Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Designed, synthetic polypeptides that assemble into four-helix bundles upon dimerization in solution were studied with respect to folding on planar gold surfaces. A model system with controllable dimerization properties was employed, consisting of negatively and positively charged peptides. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance based measurements showed that at neutral pH, the peptides were able to form heterodimers in solution, but unfavorable electrostatic interactions prevented the formation of homodimers. The dimerization propensity was found to be both pH- and buffer-dependent. A series of infrared absorption−reflection spectroscopy experiments of the polypeptides attached to planar gold surfaces revealed that if the negatively charged peptide was immobilized from a loading solution where it was folded, its structure was retained on the surface provided it had a cysteine residue available for anchoring to gold. If it was immobilized as random coil, it remained unstructured on the surface but was able to fold through heterodimerization if subsequently exposed to a positively charged polypeptide. When the positively charged peptide was immobilized as random coil, heterodimerization could not be induced, probably because of high-affinity interactions between the charged primary amine groups and the gold surface. These observations are intended to pave the way for future engineering of functional surfaces based on polypeptide scaffolds where folding is known to be crucial for function.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ACS Publications, 2005
    National Category
    Other Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15115 (URN)10.1021/la048029u (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-10-16 Created: 2008-10-16 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Aggregation-Induced Folding of a de novo Designed Polypeptide Immobilized on Gold Nanoparticles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aggregation-Induced Folding of a de novo Designed Polypeptide Immobilized on Gold Nanoparticles
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    2006 (English)In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 128, no 7, p. 2194 -2195Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This communication reports the first steps in the construction of a novel, nanoparticle-based hybrid material for biomimetic and biosensor applications. Gold nanoparticles were modified with synthetic polypeptides to enable control of the particle aggregation state in a switchable manner, and particle aggregation was, in turn, found to induce folding of the immobilized peptides.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ACS Publications, 2006
    Keywords
    Not aviable
    National Category
    Other Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14041 (URN)10.1021/ja057056j (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-09-28 Created: 2006-09-28 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Folding Induced Assembly of Polypeptide Decorated Gold Nanoparticles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Folding Induced Assembly of Polypeptide Decorated Gold Nanoparticles
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    2008 (English)In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 130, no 17, p. 5780-5788Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Reversible assembly of gold nanoparticles controlled by the homodimerization and folding of an immobilized de novo designed synthetic polypeptide is described. In solution at neutral pH, the polypeptide folds into a helix–loop–helix four-helix bundle in the presence of zinc ions. When immobilized on gold nanoparticles, the addition of zinc ions induces dimerization and folding between peptide monomers located on separate particles, resulting in rapid particle aggregation. The particles can be completely redispersed by removal of the zinc ions from the peptide upon addition of EDTA. Calcium ions, which do not induce folding in solution, have no effect on the stability of the peptide decorated particles. The contribution from folding on particle assembly was further determined utilizing a reference peptide with the same primary sequence but containing both D and L amino acids. Particles functionalized with the reference peptide do not aggregate, as the peptides are unable to fold. The two peptides, linked to the nanoparticle surface via a cysteine residue located in the loop region, form submonolayers on planar gold with comparable properties regarding surface density, orientation, and ability to interact with zinc ions. These results demonstrate that nanoparticle assembly can be induced, controlled, and to some extent tuned, by exploiting specific molecular interactions involved in polypeptide folding.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ACS Publications, 2008
    National Category
    Other Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15116 (URN)10.1021/ja711330f (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-10-16 Created: 2008-10-16 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Controlled Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles using De Novo Designed Polypeptide Scaffolds
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Controlled Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles using De Novo Designed Polypeptide Scaffolds
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    2008 (English)In: Proceedings SPIE, Vol. 6885, Photonic Biosensing and Microoptics, 2008, p. 688506-1-688506-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterodimerization between designed helix-loop-helix polypeptides was utilized in order to assemble gold nanoparticles on planar substrates. The peptides were designed to fold into four-helix bundles upon dimerization. A Cys-residue in the loop region was used to immobilize one of the complementary peptides on a maleimide containing SAM on planar gold substrates whereas the second peptide was immobilized directly on gold nanoparticles. Introducing the peptide decorated particles over a peptide functionalized surface resulted in particle assembly. Further, citrate stabilized particles were assembled on amino-silane modified glass and silicon substrates. By subsequently introducing peptides and gold nanoparticles, particle-peptide hybrid multi layers could be formed.

    Keywords
    Heterodimerization, polypeptides, gold nanoparticles, four-helix bundle, helix-loop-helix, self-assembly
    National Category
    Other Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15118 (URN)10.1117/12.775806 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-10-16 Created: 2008-10-16 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    5. Self-Assembly of Fibers and Nanorings from Disulfide-Linked Helix–Loop–Helix Polypeptides
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-Assembly of Fibers and Nanorings from Disulfide-Linked Helix–Loop–Helix Polypeptides
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    2008 (English)In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 47, no 30, p. 5554-5556Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley InterScience, 2008
    Keywords
    fibers, helical structures, nanostructures, polypeptides, self-assembly
    National Category
    Other Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15120 (URN)10.1002/anie.200801155 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-10-16 Created: 2008-10-16 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    6. Assembly of Polypeptide-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles through a Heteroassociation- and Folding-Dependent Bridging
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assembly of Polypeptide-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles through a Heteroassociation- and Folding-Dependent Bridging
    2008 (English)In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 8, no 8, p. 2473-2478Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Gold nanoparticles were functionalized with a synthetic polypeptide, de novo-designed to associate with a charge complementary linker polypeptide in a folding-dependent manner. A heterotrimeric complex that folds into two disulphide-linked four-helix bundles is formed when the linker polypeptide associates with two of the immobilized peptides. The heterotrimer forms in between separate particles and induces a rapid and extensive aggregation with a well-defined interparticle spacing. The aggregated particles are redispersed when the disulphide bridge in the linker polypeptide is reduced.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ACS Publications, 2008
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15121 (URN)10.1021/nl8014796 (DOI)
    Note
    The original title of this article was "Assembly of Decorated Gold Nanoparticles through a Hetero-Association and Folding-Dependent Bridging".Available from: 2008-10-16 Created: 2008-10-16 Last updated: 2017-12-07
    7. Colorimetric Protein Sensing by Controlled Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Synthetic Receptors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Colorimetric Protein Sensing by Controlled Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Synthetic Receptors
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, Vol. 5, no 21, p. 2445-2452Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A strategy for colorimetric sensing of proteins, based on the induced assembly of polypeptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles, is described. Recognition was accomplished using a polypeptide sensor scaffold designed to specifically bind the model analyte, human carbonic anhydrase II (HCAII). The extent of particle aggregation, induced by the Zn2+-triggered dimerization and folding of a second polypeptide also present on the surface of the gold nanoparticle, gave a readily detectable colorimetric shift that was dependent on the concentration of the target protein. In the absence of HCAII, particle aggregation resulted in a major redshift of the plasmon peak whereas analyte binding prevented formation of dense aggregates, significantly reducing the magnitude of the redshift. The limit of detection of HCAII was estimated to be around 15 nM. The versatility of the technique was demonstrated using a second model system based on the recognition of a peptide sequence from the tobacco mosaic virus coat protein (TMVP by a recombinant antibody fragment. This strategy is proposed as a generic platform for robust and specific protein analysis that can be further developed for monitoring a wide range of target proteins.

    Keywords
    Not available.
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15122 (URN)10.1002/smll.200900530 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-10-16 Created: 2008-10-16 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
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  • 146.
    Aili, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enander, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baltzer, Lars
    Division of Organic Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, BMC, Box 576, Uppsala UniVersity, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assembly of Polypeptide-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles through a Heteroassociation- and Folding-Dependent Bridging2008In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 8, no 8, p. 2473-2478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gold nanoparticles were functionalized with a synthetic polypeptide, de novo-designed to associate with a charge complementary linker polypeptide in a folding-dependent manner. A heterotrimeric complex that folds into two disulphide-linked four-helix bundles is formed when the linker polypeptide associates with two of the immobilized peptides. The heterotrimer forms in between separate particles and induces a rapid and extensive aggregation with a well-defined interparticle spacing. The aggregated particles are redispersed when the disulphide bridge in the linker polypeptide is reduced.

  • 147.
    Aili, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enander, Karin
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nesterenko, Irina
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baltzer, Lars
    Division of Organic Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, BMC, Box 599, Uppsala University, SE-751 24 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Controlled Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles using De Novo Designed Polypeptide Scaffolds2008In: Proceedings SPIE, Vol. 6885, Photonic Biosensing and Microoptics, 2008, p. 688506-1-688506-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterodimerization between designed helix-loop-helix polypeptides was utilized in order to assemble gold nanoparticles on planar substrates. The peptides were designed to fold into four-helix bundles upon dimerization. A Cys-residue in the loop region was used to immobilize one of the complementary peptides on a maleimide containing SAM on planar gold substrates whereas the second peptide was immobilized directly on gold nanoparticles. Introducing the peptide decorated particles over a peptide functionalized surface resulted in particle assembly. Further, citrate stabilized particles were assembled on amino-silane modified glass and silicon substrates. By subsequently introducing peptides and gold nanoparticles, particle-peptide hybrid multi layers could be formed.

  • 148.
    Aili, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enander, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nesterenko, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baltzer, Lars
    Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, BMC, Box 599, Uppsala UniVersity, SE-751 24 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Folding Induced Assembly of Polypeptide Decorated Gold Nanoparticles2008In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 130, no 17, p. 5780-5788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reversible assembly of gold nanoparticles controlled by the homodimerization and folding of an immobilized de novo designed synthetic polypeptide is described. In solution at neutral pH, the polypeptide folds into a helix–loop–helix four-helix bundle in the presence of zinc ions. When immobilized on gold nanoparticles, the addition of zinc ions induces dimerization and folding between peptide monomers located on separate particles, resulting in rapid particle aggregation. The particles can be completely redispersed by removal of the zinc ions from the peptide upon addition of EDTA. Calcium ions, which do not induce folding in solution, have no effect on the stability of the peptide decorated particles. The contribution from folding on particle assembly was further determined utilizing a reference peptide with the same primary sequence but containing both D and L amino acids. Particles functionalized with the reference peptide do not aggregate, as the peptides are unable to fold. The two peptides, linked to the nanoparticle surface via a cysteine residue located in the loop region, form submonolayers on planar gold with comparable properties regarding surface density, orientation, and ability to interact with zinc ions. These results demonstrate that nanoparticle assembly can be induced, controlled, and to some extent tuned, by exploiting specific molecular interactions involved in polypeptide folding.

  • 149.
    Aili, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tai, Feng-I
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enander, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baltzer, Lars
    Department of Biochemistry andOrganic Chemistry Uppsala University, BMC, Box 576, 75123 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Self-Assembly of Fibers and Nanorings from Disulfide-Linked Helix–Loop–Helix Polypeptides2008In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 47, no 30, p. 5554-5556Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 150.
    Aili, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Enander, Karin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Baltzer, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Synthetic de novo designed polypeptides for control of nanoparticle assembly and biosensing2007In: Bionanotechnology; from self-assembly to cellbiology,2007, London: Biochemical Society Transactions , 2007, p. 532-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

         

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