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  • 101.
    Hultsjo, Sally
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Arvidsson, Hans
    Department of Psychology, The University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    School of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Core components in the care of immigrants with psychoses: A Delphi survey of patients, families, and health-care staff2011In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 174-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to identify core components in the care of immigrants with psychosis in Sweden. Experts (n = 43) from different perspectives (immigrants, families, and health-care staff) were assembled and used to score the importance of statements regarding components in the care for a person with psychosis in three questionnaire rounds. After each round, the opinions were consolidated and compared to identify whether consensus was reached. Consensus was reached about the importance of being treated on equal terms, regardless of country of birth. Staff interest and respect, shown in different ways of understanding, was valued. Consensus could not be reached on approximately half of the statements, of which four tended to be ranked towards unimportant. Those included that staff should have specific cultural knowledge or that the patient should be allowed to decide whether to be cared for by male or female staff. Nor was it regarded as important to identify a persons religious or ethnic background. The results illustrate the importance of fundamental psychiatric nursing, which should enable nurses to identify and meet the basic needs of all patients, regardless of country of origin. Areas for which consensus was not reached illustrate a future challenge for health-care staff to identify situations when cultural clashes could appear. Staff should have strategies to accomplish cultural negotiations to build an effective treatment alliance with the patient, as well as the family, to meet individual needs.

  • 102.
    Hultsjö, Sally
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Arvidsson, Hans
    School of Health Sciences and Social Work, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Identifying core components in care of foreign-born persons with psychosis and their families: Using the Delphi techniqueManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to let persons involved in psychosis care (foreign-born persons, families and health care staff) identify the core components in care of foreign-born persons with psychosis and their families in Sweden. The results from three previous qualitative studies consisting of perceptions of psychosis care were reformulated and structured into statements in a questionnaire which was delivered to 43 persons involved in psychosis care. The statements were scored in terms of perceived importance in two rounds using the Delphi technique. The results revealed agreement about the importance of general psychiatric care. Individual perceptions on which importance there was no agreement, suggested that staff must seek to understand a person’s individual perceptions to gain insight about ways to build an effective care alliance with foreign born persons with psychosis and their families.

  • 103.
    Hultsjö, Sally
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hjelm , Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Foreign-born and Swedish-born families perceptions of psychosis care2009In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 62-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe how foreign-born and Swedish born families living in Sweden perceive psychosis care. Eleven foreign-born and 15 Swedish-born family members were interviewed and the data were analyzed using a phenomenographic approach. The findings showed three main descriptive categories: taking responsibility, access to care, and attitudes to psychosis. The degree of responsibility in the family decreased if there was easy access to care and support from health-care staff. Knowledge of psychosis was considered to be important in order to counteract prejudiced attitudes in the family and the community. Foreign-born families did not want to be treated differently from Swedes and stressed the importance of finding ways to communicate despite communication barriers. Foreign-born families also were affected by their experiences of psychiatric care and different beliefs about psychosis in their home country. The results indicate how important it is that health-care staff members treat families on equal terms. It is necessary to take the time to identify how to communicate in a good manner and to identify families previous experiences of and beliefs about psychosis care in order to help families face prejudice in society and to see beyond the psychosis.

  • 104.
    Hultsjö, Sally
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Perceptions of psychiatric care among foreign- and Swedish-born people with psychotic disorders2007In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 279-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This paper is a report of a study to explore different perceptions of psychiatric care among foreign- and Swedish-born people with psychotic disorders.

    BACKGROUND: Research from different countries reports a high-incidence of psychosis among migrants. The risk-factors discussed are social disadvantages in the new country. To understand and meet the needs of people from different countries, their perspective of psychiatric care must be illuminated and taken into consideration.

    METHOD: A phenomenographic study was conducted in 2005-2006 using semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of 12 foreign-born people and 10 Swedish-born people with psychosis.

    FINDINGS: Three categories were identified: personal and family involvement in care; relating to healthcare staff; and managing illness and everyday life. Foreign-born people differed from Swedish-born people in that they struggled to attain an everyday life in Sweden, relied on healthcare staff as experts in making decisions, and had religious beliefs about mental illness. Among Swedish-born people, the need for more support to relatives and help to perform recreational activities was important.

    CONCLUSION: It is important to identify individual perceptions and needs, which may be influenced by cultural origins, when caring for patients with psychosis. Previous experience of care, different ways of relating to staff, and individual needs should be identified and met with respect. Social needs should not be medicalized but taken into consideration when planning care, which illustrates the importance of multi-professional co-operation.

  • 105.
    Jarkman Björn, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Gustafsson, Per A.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Family therapy sessions with regugee families: a qualitative study2013In: Conflict and Health, ISSN 1752-1505, E-ISSN 1752-1505, Vol. 7, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Due to the armed conflicts in the Balkans in the 1990s many families escaped to other countries. The main goal of this study was to explore in more detail the complexity of various family members’ experiences and perceptions from their life before the war, during the war and the escape, and during their new life in Sweden. There is insufficient knowledge of refugee families’ perceptions, experiences and needs, and especially of the complexity of family perspectives and family systems. This study focused on three families from Bosnia and Herzegovina who came to Sweden and were granted permanent residence permits. The families had at least one child between 5 and 12 years old.

    Method

    Family therapy sessions were videotaped and verbatim transcriptions were made. Nine family therapy sessions were analysed using a qualitative method with directed content analysis.

    Results

    Three main categories and ten subcategories were found - 1. Everyday life at home, with two subcategories: The family, Work and School/preschool; 2. The influence of war on everyday life, with three subcategories: The war, The escape, Reflections; 3. The new life, with five subcategories: Employment, Health, Relatives and friends, Limited future, Transition to the new life.

    Conclusions

    Health care and social welfare professionals need to find out what kind of lives refugee families have lived before coming to a new country, in order to determine individual needs of support. In this study the families had lived ordinary lives in their country of origin, and after experiencing a war situation they escaped to a new country and started a new life. They had thoughts of a limited future but also hopes of getting jobs and taking care of themselves and their families. When analysing each person’s point of view one must seek an all-embracing picture of a family and its complexity to tie together the family narrative. To offer refugee families meetings with family-oriented professionals to provide the opportunity to create a family narrative is recommended for the health and social welfare sector. Using this knowledge by emphasizing the salutogenic perspectives facilitates support to refugee families and individuals. This kind of support can help refugee families to adapt to a new system of society and recapture a sense of coherence, including all three components that lead to coherence: comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. More studies are needed to further investigate the thoughts, experiences and needs of various refugee families and how refugee receiving societies can give the most effective support.

  • 106.
    Joakimson, Daga
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nursing Science Focusing on Dying and Death: A Compulsory Course.2000In: Palliative care 2000, Jerusalem, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 107.
    Johansson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Berg, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    To live a life with COPD: the consequences of symptom burden2019In: The International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1176-9106, E-ISSN 1178-2005, Vol. 14, p. 905-909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent illness that, due to its symptoms and treatment, entails a significant burden for the affected person, and his/her family, health care and private finances. Today, knowledge and understanding are sparse regarding COPD-affected persons’ own lived experiences and about the symptom burden and its effect on their daily life. Due to this knowledge gap the aim of this study was to identify and describe the symptom burden and its effect on daily life in people with COPD, based on their own lived experiences.

    Subject and method: Eleven males and 14 females in GOLD stages III and IV, in an age range of 58–82 years, were interviewed. An interview guide was used to direct the face-to-face interviews. Data was analyzed with thematic analysis following the six steps according to Braun and Clarke.

    Results: The results highlighted one theme: an altered everyday life. The altered everyday life leads to a need for support to handle everyday life and for different strategies to live as desired. Persons with COPD need to take each day as it comes and their life is not easy to plan since it depends on how they feel from day to day. Life is handled with several strategies such as breathing techniques, and ways to take care of the home and garden as well as the emotions. Support from the next of kin, society and the health care service is important.

    Conclusion: This study provides the insight that persons with COPD in stages III and IV have an altered life caused by the symptom burden. They must struggle with strategies to handle everyday life. There is a need of support from the next of kin and society to facilitate daily living, but this support needs to be well-balanced.

  • 108.
    Johansson, I
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Getting no respect: Barriers to mammography for a group of Swedish women2003In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 24, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mammography screening is a highly sensitive and specific method to detect breast cancer at an early stage. If screening campaigns are to be cost effective, compliance is valuable. However, many women do not attend when called for mammography screening. Our aim in this study is to understand and explain why women become nonattenders. A sample of 16 nonattending women, aged between 43 and 73 years, participated in this qualitative study, by interviews or written comments. The core category discovered in the data was "getting no respect." The informants did not feel respected from either the society or the health care system. Below this core category, two categories were identified: the mammography examination and affecting circumstances. The performance and its effects comprised the content of the category of mammography examination. The category affecting circumstances included knowledge about risk factors, prevention, and practical or emotional arguments.

  • 109. Johansson, I
    et al.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Social support and self-steem in patients afflicated with cancer in the reproductive organs, including breast cancer.2003In: Austral-Asian Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0972-2556, Vol. 2, p. 116-123Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Johansson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Why do women refrain from Mammography screenings?1999In: 10th International Interdisciplinary congress on Women's Health Issues, Indianapolis., 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ethical values in caring encounters at a geriatric ward: An observational studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify and describe the ethical values that are experienced by the older person in daily interaction with nurses in a ward for older people during caring encounters.

    Background: Ethical values and morals are important aspects that influence the quality ofcare.Background: Ethical values and morals are important aspects that influence the quality of care.

    Methods: Empirical observational study including follow-up interviews. Twenty-two older people participated voluntarily in this study. Constant comparative analysis, the core foundation of grounded theory was used.

    Results: Five categories; Being addressed, receiving respect, desiring to participate, increasing self-determination and gaining self-confidence were the basis for the core category: Approaching: Approaching is about how people get closer to each other in physical space. It also includes how people become closer to each other in a dialogue, which involves verbal or bodily communication.

    Conclusions and Relevance to Clinical Practice: Approaching indicates the ethical values that guide nurses in their caring encounters with older persons. This ethical value is noted by the older person and has an individual value, as well as leading to improved quality of their care. The older person will be confident and satisfied with the caring encounter if the desired components in the nurse’s approaching are exhibited.

  • 112.
    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The importance of ‘approaching’ older people: a grounded theory2012In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the ethical values in caring encounters as experienced by older patients in their daily interaction with nurses in wards for older people.

    Background. Ethical values and morals are important aspects that influence the quality of care.

    Methods. Empirical observational study including follow-up interviews. Twenty-two older patients participated voluntarily in this study. Constant comparative analysis, the core foundation of grounded theory was used.

    Results. Five categories: being addressed, receiving respect, desiring to participate, increasing self-determination and gaining self-confidence formed the bases for the core category.

    Approaching. Approaching concerns how people become closer to each other in a physical space. It also includes how people become closer to each other in a dialogue, involving verbal or bodily communication.

    Conclusions and relevance to clinical practice. Approaching indicates the ethical values that guide nurses in their caring encounters with older patients. These values are noted by the patient and have an individual value as well as leading to improved quality of their care. The older patient will be confident and satisfied with the caring encounter if the desired components in the nurse's approaching are exhibited.

  • 113.
    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte
    et al.
    Department of Nursing Science, School of Health Sciences, University of Jönköping.
    Liss, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Westerlind, Björn
    Geriatriska kliniken, Länssjukhuset Ryhov, Jönköping.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Corroborating indicates nurses' ethical values in a geriatric ward2011In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 7291-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to identify nurses’ ethical values, which become apparent through their behaviour in the interactions with older patients in caring encounters at a geriatric clinic. Descriptions of ethics in a caring practice are a problem since they are vague compared with the four principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. A Grounded Theory methodology was used. In total, 65 observations and follow-up interviews with 20 nurses were conducted, and data were analysed by constant comparative analysis. Three categories were identified: showing consideration, connecting, and caring for. These categories formed the basis of the core category: ‘‘Corroborating.’’ In corroborating, the focus is on the person in need of integrity and self-determination; that is, the autonomy principle. A similar concept was earlier described in regard to confirming. Corroborating deals more with support and interaction. It is not enough to be kind and show consideration (i.e., to benefit someone); nurses must also connect and care for the older person (i.e., demonstrate non-maleficence) in order to corroborate that person. The findings of this study can improve the ethics of nursing care. There is a need for research on development of a high standard of nursing care to corroborate the older patients in order to maintain their autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence. The principal of justice was not specifically identified as a visible nursing action. However, all older patients received treatment, care, and reception in an equivalent manner.

  • 114.
    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Liss, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Westerlind, Björn
    Geriatric Clinic , County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ethical values in caring encounters on a geriatric ward from the next of kin´s perspective: An interview study2010In: International Journal of Nursing Practice, ISSN 1322-7114, E-ISSN 1440-172X, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 20-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe the governing ethical values that next of kin experience in interaction with nurses who care for elderly patients at a geriatric clinic. Interviews with fourteen next of kin were conducted and data were analysed by Constant comparative analysis. Four categories were identified: Receiving, showing respect, facilitating participation and showing professionalism. These categories formed the basis of the core category: “Being amenable”, a concept identified in the next of kin’s description of the ethical values that they and the elderly patients perceive in the caring encounter. Being amenable means that the nurses are guided by ethical values; taking into account the elderly patient and the next of kin. Nurses’ focusing on elderly patients’ well-being as a final criterion affects the next of kin and their experience of this fundamental condition for high quality care seems to be fulfilled.

  • 115.
    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Westerlind, Björn
    Department of Geriatrics, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Corroborating indicates nurses’ ethical values in a geriatric wardManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim of the study was to identify nurses’ ethical values, which become apparent through their behavior in the interactions with older patients in caring encounters at a geriatric clinic.

    Background. Descriptions of ethics in caring practice are a problem since they are vague compared with the four principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice.

    Methods. A Grounded Theory methodology was used. In total, 65 observations and follow-up interviews with 20 nurses were conducted, and data were analysed by constant comparative analysis.

    Findings. Three categories were identified: showing consideration, connecting, and caring for. These categories formed the basis of the core category: ―Corroborating‖. In corroborating the focus is on the person in need of integrity and self-determination, that is, the autonomy principle. A similar concept was earlier described in regard to confirming. Corroborating deals more with support and interaction. It is not enough to be kind and show consideration, i.e. to benefit someone; nurses must also connect and care for the older person, i.e. demonstrate nonmaleficence, in order to corroborate that person.

    Conclusion. The findings of this study can improve the ethics of nursing care. There is a need for research on development of a high standard of nursing care to corroborate the older patients in order to maintain their autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence. The principal of justice was not specifically identified as a visible nursing action. However, all older patients received treatment, care and reception in an equivalent manner.

  • 116.
    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Westerlind, Björn
    County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Empirical and normative ethics: a synthesis relating to the care of older patients2011In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 814-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to synthesize the concepts from empirical studies and analyze, compare and interrelate them with normative ethics. International Council of nurses (ICN) and the Health and Medical Service Act are normative ethics. Five concepts were used in the analysis; three from the grounded theory studies and two from the theoretical framework on normative ethics. A simultaneous concept analysis resulted in five outcomes; interconnectedness, interdependence, corroboratedness, completeness and good care are all related to the empirical perspective of the nurse’s interaction with the older patient, and the normative perspective, i.e. that found in ICN code and SFS law. Empirical ethics and normative ethics are intertwined according to the findings of this study. Normative ethics are supporting documents for nurses as professionals and by extension also beneficial for older patients.

  • 117.
    Jonsson, A
    et al.
    Urologiska kliniken Sahlgrenska.
    Aus, G
    Urologiska kliniken Sahlgrenska.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Men's perception of fatigue when newly diagnosed with localized prostate cancer2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, E-ISSN 1651-2065, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 20-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Cancer is a complicated issue both medically and psychosocially, and the process of the disease affects the whole human being. Fatigue is the commonest symptom associated with cancer and its treatment. Prostate cancer is the third commonest male cancer worldwide and the leading cause of male cancer death. The aims of this study were: (i) to identify whether fatigue is found in men with newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer (predominantly early-stage, very low tumour burden asymptomatic patients), and (ii) to gain a perception of whether fatigue has an influence on these men and to try to find out what the cause of this fatigue was. Material and methods. Sixteen men who had been newly diagnosed with localized prostate cancer were interviewed to determine whether fatigue is experienced by such men and whether it has an effect on them. Verbal transcripts were analyzed using hermeneutical interpretation. Results. Five equivalent fusions were identified according to the time when the participants received their diagnosis of early-stage prostate cancer. These fusions occurred successively, in three steps. The first step was Enclosing Intrapersonal Emotions and Enclosing Interpersonal Attachments, when the men were living in a kind of vacuum. Moving onto step two, another two fusions were triggered and contributed to a positive attitude: Reopening Intrapersonal Emotions and Reopening Interpersonal Attachments. Finally, at step three, a unifying fusion was identified: Living with a New Perspective. This study provides insights and new knowledge indicating that prostate cancer does not in itself cause fatigue. Conclusions. The clinical implications of these findings are that it is not possible to handle new and detailed information about prostate cancer at the first visit. The need for information occurs, however, relatively soon afterwards and it would seem appropriate to offer a new appointment within 1 week of the first visit. © 2007 Taylor & Francis.

  • 118. Jonsson, A
    et al.
    Aus, G
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    No fatigue related to prostate cancer examination: A qualitative study2006In: Austral-Asian Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0972-2556, Vol. 5, p. 163-168Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Jonsson, Annikki
    et al.
    Höglandssjukhuset Nässjö, Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset Göteborg.
    Aus, Gunnar
    Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset Göteborg.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Living with a prostate cancer diagnosis: a qualitative 2-year follow-up2010In: The Aging Male, ISSN 1368-5538, E-ISSN 1473-0790, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 25-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. Previous research has identified how newly diagnosed prostate cancer affects men's daily lives, including daily activities and existential issues. The aim of this qualitative study was to provide information if and how prostate cancer affects men's daily lives 2 years after the diagnosis. 

    Methods. A second follow-up interview with men who were diagnosed with localized or advanced prostate cancer approximately 18-24 months earlier. Twenty-two men aged 50-85 years participated, data were analyzed by hermeneutical interpretation with Gadamer's approach.

     Results. The men feel healthy, but prostate cancer affects their daily lives. They experience every day fatigue associated with several changes in life due to age. Three equivalent fusions which influenced the men are: `Age is claiming its due', `Living with uncertainty', and `Strengthen self-esteem'. The unifying fusion is identified as `Balancing a changed life situation.'

     Conclusions. There is need for knowledge and guidance for men with prostate cancer on how to adapt to new life situation decreasing uncertainty and increasing welfare. Men found a sense of pride, despite physical changes, in appreciating independence and close relationships. Value of life was readjusted. The findings indicate harmony in living, enjoying being frank as well as rating the `little' things.

  • 120.
    Jonsson, Annikki
    et al.
    Urologiska Kliniken, Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Göteborg.
    Aus, Gunnar
    Rologiska Kliniken, Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Göteborg.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Men's experience of their life situation when diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer2009In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 13, p. 268-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim was to improve the knowledge and understanding of how newly diagnosed advanced prostate cancer affects the men and their life situation and perhaps causes fatigue before the side effects of any treatment has an impact on them.

    Method

    The qualitative study where ten men, newly diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer and at an early stage in their treatment, were interviewed. The interviews were analysed by using Gadamer's hermeneutics.

    Results

    The men in the present study did not experience fatigue specifically because they had been diagnosed for advanced prostate cancer. Three topics were identified during the analysis and interpretations: awareness of mortality, the influence on their emotions and the influence on their normal life. These topics offered a structure presenting the essence; the need to get back to as normal a life as possible, albeit with a new perspective. The topics together confirmed an affected life situation, which in turn helped the participants to form a new perspective on life.

    Conclusion

    The knowledge and understanding of the study is that advanced prostate cancer affects men's lives: they are placed in a new life situation, against their will, and in their new situation they form a new life perspective. Healthcare professionals need to evaluate, perceive and furthermore understand the men's apprehensions and expectations, on an individual basis, for their future and empower them to formulate a new life perspective.

  • 121.
    Kapborg, I
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Swedish student nurses' knowledge of health statutes regulating nurses practice2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 122. Kapborg, I
    et al.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    The phenomenon of caring from the novice student nurse's perspective: A qualitative content analysis2003In: International Nursing Review, ISSN 0020-8132, E-ISSN 1466-7657, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 183-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Caring has been seen as a nursing term/concept, including all the aspects that are used to deliver nursing care to patients. Sometimes caring has been conceptualized as a relational expression of human concern and as a collection of human activities that assists others. Aim: This study is to identify and describe the nature of the concept 'caring' from the novice student nurse's perspective. Methods: A total of 127 Swedish novice student nurses wrote comments in essay form to the question: 'what is your image of the concept caring?' Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis, with the use of the theoretical framework: 'doing' and 'being'. Findings: Three categories of caring were identified as 'doing', 'being' and 'professionalism'. The phenomena of caring and the caring process could be illustrated as including hand (doing), heart (being) and brain (professionalism). Conclusions: It is now time to make care more visible as a principle of practice and of moral action. This could be explicit in a clear professional framework and incorporated more fully into nursing education programmes. Caring is to take care of the entire human being physically, emotionally and intellectually. Nurses need to use hand, heart and brain in order to fulfil their commitments.

  • 123.
    Kapborg, I
    et al.
    n/a.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Threats to validity in qualitative interviews when using an interpreter2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Kapborg, I.
    et al.
    Department of Nursing Science, Univ. College of Health Sciences, Jönköping, Sweden, Univ. College of Health Sciences, Box 1038, SE-551 11 Jönköping, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science.
    Using an interpreter in qualitative interviews: Does it threaten validity?2002In: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 52-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an extensive literature on the problem of translating scales for use across cultures, but very little is published on the problems of conducting qualitative interviews in another language with assistance of an interpreter. The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss threats to validity that arise when conducting qualitative interviews using an interpreter. Ten female student nurses in two cities in Lithuania were interviewed about how they perceived their educational program. All interviews were conducted in English with an interpreter. When using an interpreter to conduct interviews, potential threats to validity arise at various points in the interview process. A threat arises when the researcher, whose first language is Swedish, addresses a question in English to the interpreter, another during the translation by the interpreter from English to Lithuanian, and again when the interpreter translates the interviewee's Lithuanian responses to English. In the last situation, the researcher may not know whether the interpreter has summarized and/or modified the responses. To mitigate these problems, the interpreter should not only have the required linguistic abilities, but also be trained in the research field. The researcher has to be aware of these threats to validity and make efforts to meet and limit their effects.

  • 125.
    Kapborg, Inez
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Critiquing thesis: Does it enhance the quality?1999In: Sigma Theta Tau 35th International Biennial Convention Scientific Sessions, San Diego., 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 126.
    Kapborg, Inez D
    et al.
    Jonköping University.
    Berterö , Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Swedish student nurses knowledge of health statutes: a descriptive survey2009In: INTERNATIONAL NURSING REVIEW, ISSN 0020-8132 , Vol. 56, no 2, p. 222-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nurses function, no matter the working area, is guided by ethical approaches, grounded in science and well-tried experiences, and has to be conducted according to national laws, statutes and instructions.

    To survey newly graduated Swedish nurses knowledge about current statutes and laws that govern their healthcare system.

    A questionnaire was developed from facts in relevant statutes and laws presented and used in the nursing education programmes. Following a pilot study testing the items, a 20-item questionnaire, with mostly open-ended questions, was distributed to student nurses in the last semester of their nursing education programme before graduation.

    One hundred and seventy-eight participants answered the questionnaire (response rate 59%). Only 29% of responses on all questions showed correct knowledge about the different statutes and laws that regulate their work as nurses. The best knowledge was found in the area of documentation (range 35-86%) and in the area of information (range 16-54%) on group scores.

    This survey concerning novice nurses knowledge about statutes and laws showed great deficiencies. It was surprising to find that, on existing demands regarding nurses delegating medical tasks, not a single respondent presented a correct answer. Evidence-based knowledge was difficult to recognize. Nurses will be more conscious of their own limitations and more prepared to meet the reality of practice if there is emphasis on relevant statutes and laws during their education.

  • 127.
    Kilander, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Eksjo Nassjo Hosp, Sweden.
    Thor, Johan
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Alehagen, Siw
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Womens experiences of contraceptive counselling in the context of an abortion - An interview study2018In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 17, p. 103-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To identify and understand womens lived experiences of contraceptive counselling given at the same time as abortion counselling. Methods: We interviewed 13 women aged 20-39 who had experienced an abortion and the related counselling. The women were recruited from five hospitals in Sweden. Interviews were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological approach. Results: We identified two themes: need for respectful counselling and needs for guidance and access to contraceptives. The essence "Being in a state of limbo and feeling sceptical" was coalesced from the themes. The women described a state of limbo, as being caught in an unwanted and emotionally charged situation. They reported that respectful counselling and meeting a skilled health professional helped to dispel their scepticism and influenced their plans for contraceptive use post abortion. Furthermore, women who wanted an intrauterine device described difficulties in access post abortion. Conclusion: The women seem to have a limited receptivity to contraceptive counselling when they have an unwanted pregnancy and are sceptical about contraceptives. Women, who experience respect in the counselling, report being helped in contraceptive decision-making. To receive respectful counselling and to have good access to intrauterine devices emerged as central needs among women at the time of an abortion.

  • 128.
    Klaeson, Kicki
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sexual identity following breast cancer treatments in premenopausal women2008In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 185-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon in focus for this study was the sexual identity preserved in premenopausal women due to breast cancer treatments. During the last decade the methods of breast cancer treatments have become more aggressive and many women have had to undergo surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, as well as three to five years of hormone therapy. All these forms of treatment can have negative side effects on their sexual capability. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning structure and the constituents of sexual identity in the lifeworld of premenopausal women. Six informants who had become menopausal following cancer treatment were interviewed about their experiences related to their sexual identity. Their ages varied between 38 and 48 years. The empirical phenomenological psychological (EPP) method was used. The meaning structure of the phenomenon could be symbolized using the metaphor of a bird which is pinioned and unable to fly. The women perceived their sexual identity as being inhibited in different ways. They felt odd and marginalized as women, and it was only within a support group that they felt completely confirmed. A future challenge for the health care professionals would be to care for their patients on the basis of their lifeworld experiences.

  • 129.
    Klaeson, Kicki
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sandell, K
    Centrum för genusvetenskap, Lunds Universitet.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    To feel like an outsider: focus group discussions regarding the influence on sexuality caused by breast cancer treatment2011In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 728-737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aftermath of breast cancer treatment, especially the sexual side effects, appears to be a neglected issue in developed society. The purpose of this study was to explore how middle-aged women treated for a breast cancer experienced their sexual identity connected to the community norms and values in the society as a whole. Three focus group interviews were conducted, with a total of 12 women. The discussions were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The main theme to feel like an outsider symbolises the womens situation after breast cancer treatment. They experienced their body in a wholly new unfamiliar way, which affected their sexuality in a deep and profound way. This feeling affected their female roles and overshadowed earlier experiences in life. All their female roles were suddenly vague and this was expressed in various ways across each of the four subthemes: to feel different, the unruly body, eroticism is not what it used to be and re-evaluating. From a nursing perspective, there appears to be a definite challenge to identify the womens own unique sexual needs in the rehabilitation transition and to use the skills from all team professionals to improve sexual health in this context.

  • 130.
    Klaeson, Kicki
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sandell, Kerstin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Losing the Elixir of Life: Sexuality in the Context of Prostate Cancer Narratives2012In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1184-1194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this phenomenological paper we explored how men diagnosed with prostate cancer experienced their sexuality from a lifeworld perspective. One essential meaning was identified: “having the elixir of life stolen”. This essential meaning had four constituents: “something that no longer exists”, “the threat to manhood”, “intimacy” and “staged manhood”. The lifeworld for these men comprised the dynamic interaction between being deprived of their “life’s elixir” and their ability to have and experience intimacy. The men were preoccupied with embodied experiences unfamiliar to them. They mourned the loss of sexuality in connection with their new life situation which threatened their identity. Their female partner was a great support, and with her the man could picture himself and at best renegotiate his sexuality. In the future, cancer care should be organized so as to enable all aspects of sexuality to be acknowledged and discussed.

  • 131.
    Klaeson, Kicki
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sandell, Kerstin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Talking About Sexuality: Desire, Virility, and Intimacy in the Context of Prostate Cancer Associations2008Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of middle-aged men with a diagnosis of prostate cancer has increased in recent decades. The aim of this study was therefore to explore how some of these middle-aged men experienced and talked about their sexuality. Four focus group discussions were performed in the context of associations for prostate cancer. Using qualitative content analysis, it was identified how the diagnosis was a threat to their male identity; the men‟s vulnerability as a group in society was made explicit. Their sexuality was diminished by their illness experiences, which was also connected with silence and sorrow. Their contact with health care services was precarious and as patients they often played a passive role when or if discussing issues of sexuality. The possibility of voluntarily joining a cancer association was probably highly beneficial for these men. During the sessions, several men expressed the opinion that it is always great to talk.

  • 132.
    Klaeson, Kicki
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sandell, Kerstin
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Talking About Sexuality: Desire, Virility, and Intimacy in the Context of Prostate Cancer Associations2013In: American Journal of Men's Health, ISSN 1557-9883, E-ISSN 1557-9891, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 42-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate cancer and its outcomes are a real threat for health and well-being for men living in the Western world. The number of men with a diagnosis of prostate cancer, before the age of 65 years, has increased in recent decades. The aim of this study was to explore how some of these Swedish men experienced and talked about their sexuality. Four focus group discussions were performed in the context of associations for prostate cancer. Using qualitative content analysis, it was identified how the diagnosis was a threat to their male identity; the mens vulnerability as a group in society was made explicit. Their sexuality was diminished by their illness experiences. These experiences were difficult to share and talk about with others and therefore connected with silence and sorrow. As a result of this, the informants often played a passive role when or if they discussed issues related to sexuality with someone in the health care organizations. The possibility of voluntarily joining a cancer association was probably highly beneficial for these men. During the sessions, several men expressed the opinion that "it is always great to talk.".

  • 133.
    Ledenfors, Anna
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    First-time fathers' experiences of normal childbirth2016In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 40, p. 26-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To identify and describe first-time fathers' experiences of normal childbirth.

    Design

    A qualitative interview study using a thematic analysis for analysing the transcripts.

    Participants

    purposeful sampling was used. Eight men were interviewed two to six months after experiencing childbirth. Participants were men who had become fathers for the first time.

    Setting

    A county located in the middle of Sweden covering both urban and rural areas.

    Findings

    The analysis resulted in one major theme – a transformative experience – with four sub-themes: preparing for childbirth, feeling vulnerable in a new situation, being confirmed as part of a unit, and meeting their child for the first time.

    Key conclusions

    The findings indicate that the needs of prospective fathers should be given more recognition during childbirth. The findings also show that the midwife is an important person for prospective fathers, both before and during the birth.

    Implications for practice

    The findings of the study show what affects first-time fathers' experiences of childbirth. By listening to fathers and recognising them as part of a unit with the woman giving birth, midwifes can support them and increase their participation. Thereby, they can find their role in an unfamiliar situation and thus have a positive experience of childbirth.

  • 134.
    MacAdam, Ruth
    et al.
    Kvinnokliniken Örebro.
    Huuva, Elisabeth
    Kvinnokliniken, Universitetssjukhuset Örebro.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fathers' experiences after having a child: sexuality becomes tailored according to circumstances2011In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 27, no 5, p. e149-e155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    to identify and describe men’s experiences of sexuality after having a child.

    Design

    a qualitative study using an interpretative phenomenological approach for analysing in-depth interviews.

    Participants

    purposeful sampling was used. 12 men were interviewed six to 13 months after having a child. Informants were men who became fathers for the first time or had already fathered a child.

    Setting

    a mid-sized town located in the centre of Sweden.

    Findings

    four themes became apparent; a new way of closeness due to non-existing sexuality immediately after birth, an expression of sexuality influenced by the consequences of caring for a child, the expression of love and consideration taking priority over sexual activities, and the father’s expression of sexuality being limited by the lack of reciprocation from the partner.

    Key conclusions

    after having a child, the expression of sexuality became subjective to the change in circumstances. Sexuality itself was not experienced any differently, but the expression of sexuality for the fathers was modified depending on how the circumstances presented themselves. Sexuality was extended to different avenues of expression where a sense of belonging evolved and a display of love and affection preceded sexual activities.

    Implications for practice

    it is important that health care professionals are aware that as sexuality can have various avenues of expression after having a child it is important to not only focus on providing information regarding sexual activities. Fathers should be involved in discussions about possible circumstances affecting sexuality to be able to prepare accordingly.

  • 135.
    Molander, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alehagen, Siw
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Routine ultrasound examination during pregnancy: a world of possibilities.2010In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 26, p. 18-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    to identify and describe the meaning of the routine ultrasound scan to pregnant women.

    Design

    a qualitative descriptive study using a grounded theory approach, with individual interviews to collect data.

    Setting

    three antenatal clinics in a Swedish county of approximately 400,000 inhabitants.

    Participants

    voluntary samples of 10 pregnant Swedish women, 26–38 years of age, were interviewed prior to their first routine ultrasound.

    Findings

    ‘making it possible’ was the core category that explained and illustrated the meaning of the scan. The core category showed that the women considered the examination to be filled with possibilities to reach different goals during pregnancy. It also explained the categories: ultrasound as an event; ultrasound as a situation; ultrasound as a test; and the effects of ultrasound; as well as how they related to each other. The findings are considered the beginning of a theory concerning the meaning of the first ultrasound to pregnant women.

    Key conclusions and implications for practice

    pregnant women can see their first ultrasound as a tool that enables them to reach different goals during their pregnancy. Many of the goals concern meeting and connecting with the baby, suggesting that pregnant women consider the examination an important step towards parenthood. An ultrasound examination offered for medical reasons, which has other meanings than the intended for pregnant women, is important knowledge. It can be useful when giving information about the scan, addressing the woman during the examination, and for understanding and handling possible reactions.

  • 136.
    Muniz da Costa Vargens, Octavio
    et al.
    University of Estado Rio De Janeiro, Brazil .
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The Phantom of Death Improving Quality of Life: You Live Until You Die2012In: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HOSPICE and PALLIATIVE MEDICINE, ISSN 1049-9091, Vol. 29, no 7, p. 555-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was, using secondary analysis on data collected from previous empirical studies, to focus on improving the quality of life due to the new possibilities for living after a cancer diagnosis. No matter how long or short the life will be, quality of life in palliative care is about "living in the best way" until death. The data analysis identified 4 main themes; death as a main concern, reevaluating life, living a normal life with support, and living until death. The key message is that the patients are living until they die. Palliative care should facilitate and support the patients in their new life situation in order to sustain their quality of life. They are still alive-living until death.

  • 137.
    Muniz da Costa Vargens, Octavio
    et al.
    Faculty of Nursing, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Berterö, Carina M.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Defining contentment in quality of life in the context of breast cancer experience: a meta-synthesis2015In: Journal of Palliative Care & Medicine, E-ISSN 2165-7386, Vol. 5, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There has been a great deal of qualitative research conducted that has examined the impact of breast cancer on the concept of Quality of Life (QoL); however, there has been little effort to analyse the psycho-social components of QoL findings from a meta-perspective.

    Method: Computer searches in electronic databases, search date from 2000 onwards; Publications focusing on women with breast cancer; using qualitative research/studies or combining qualitative and quantitative research, including a clear presentation of qualitative findings; and focused on women’s perspectives and experiences of QoL and affected life situation due to breast cancer. Thirty articles were selected for appraisal and 12 qualitative studies were interpreted and analysed.

    Results: The fusions identified from this meta-synthesis reveal three aspects of QoL affected by the diagnosis of breast cancer and its treatment: contentment, comfort, and contentedness. The results, understanding what QoL is about from the women’s perspectives may guide nurses and health care professionals when caring for women with breast cancer.

    Conclusion: The breast cancer experience has powerful impacts on women’s lives, and affects their QoL. This QoL is identified as contentment, comfort and contentedness, which are closely related but diverse. These results of the present study highlight the importance of providing support for women who have breast cancer in order to help them find the best strategies to overcome the impact of the disease and improve their QoL.

  • 138.
    Mylen, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    To feel strong in an unfamiliar situation; Patients lived experiences of neurosurgical intensive care. A qualitative study2016In: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing, ISSN 0964-3397, E-ISSN 1532-4036, Vol. 32, p. 42-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the lived experiences of conscious patients in neurosurgical intensive care. Method: Data collection was performed by qualitative interviews using an interview guide. Eleven former patients, seven women and four men, were interviewed two to 14 months after discharge. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and analysed using an interpretive phenomenological approach. Findings: The analysis revealed three themes: To feel safe in an unfamiliar situation, to experience strains and limitations, and to be confirmed as a human being. These three themes culminated in the essence: To feel strong in an unfamiliar situation. Patients experienced a soothing environment where, despite strains, they felt safe being cared for in a ward with specialised medical treatment. When mental and physical strains decreased during the period of care, they experienced the ability to cope with the simplest tasks as a sign of regained identity. Conclusion: Patients main experience during intensive care was security. Security along with human contact and interaction with staff and next of kin made the patients feel strengthened as human beings in an unfamiliar situation. The fact that the patients were conscious enabled them to understand their situation and to experience security. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 139.
    Mårtenson Wikström, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ethical reflections about an encounter with a severe ill small child2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation is a self experienced encounter with a boy, Linuz, 18 months old, which is no longer with us. He was so young that his language was not fully developed, and he could not express himself totally verbally. These circumstances challenge the power and responsibility of health care professionals, to encounter a small person while respecting the integrity and developing autonomy.

    The aim of the study is to make ethical refl ections, in a paediatric nursing care situation, with a severe ill small child.

    Method used is a case study, an empirical investigation of an incident in real-life context, here a little boy being treated at a paediatric ward in a county hospital.

    Linuz was diagnosed with a malignant tumor in his stomach. He was very upset of what the health care professionals had to do with him in nursing care and he protested loudly and clearly; he was not motivated at all to cooperate. In our fi rst meeting Linuz needed intravenous medication in his central venous catheter and I shared this information with him, while he was sitting in his parent’s knee. “Come here Linuz, and lay down on your bed and I will give you your medication in the catheter so you are going to be big, strong and healthy”. He looked at me for a moment and then he climbed up in the bed, looking me in the eyes all the time and lay down on the pillow very close to me. Then he put up his t-shirt, handed me the central venous catheter and received his medication without any complaints and in full cooperation. Afterwards he draws down his t-shirt and returned to his parents. The silence was total during this sequence. My fi rst refl ection was that; this little boy was listening to me, was thinking what to do, did make a competent decision and was acting according to that.

    There is no age limit to have a standpoint of what is going to happen, even if it is not possible for the person to express it verbally. We can only imaging what Linuz was thinking, if he made a competent decision, or if he felt hope or trust or if it was all of this that he felt. But it was his human right to express his feelings.

  • 140.
    Mårtenson Wikström, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fägerskiöld, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Firm handling the information exchange interaction by parents/guardians in paediatric care: An observational studyManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Health care professionals need further background knowledge to encounter the parents/guardians from their perspective in their minors’ health care. The parents/guardians possibility to manage the situations is dependent on their receiving optimal information, which is why it is important to study how information is exchanged.

    Objective. To identify, describe and conceptualize how parents/guardians resolved their main concern in information exchange with health care professionals in paediatric care situations involving their minors.

    Methods. The grounded theory method was used and all data were analysed using constant comparative analysis. The observational study took place at three paediatric outpatient units at a university hospital and twenty four parents/guardians participated. Data sources were field notes from 37 observations of paediatric care situations and adherent excerpts from the minors’ medical records.

    Results. Firm handling revealed as the way the parents/guardians resolved their main concerns when they were exchanging information in their minors’ paediatric care. Firm handling is built on five inter-related categories: representative advocating, collaborating, aim sharing, supportive resourcing and minor bypassing.

    Conclusions. This knowledge renders possibilities to the health care professionals to design paediatric care that supports, facilitates, strengthens and improves the parents’/guardians’ firm handling. The key issue is to find ways to support parents/guardians and minors so they can participate in health care encounters according to their preferences. Firm handling give an opportunity to both reinforce parenthood in paediatric care and invite minors to participate.

  • 141.
    Mårtenson Wikström, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fägerskiöld, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Information exchange in paediatric settings: an observational study2007In: Paediatric nursing, ISSN 0962-9513, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 40-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this observational study was to identify, describe and generate concepts regarding the exchange of information between children/young people and healthcare professionals in paediatric outpatient settings.

    METHOD: The grounded theory methodology was used. Field notes from observations and excerpts from medical records were analysed using constant comparative analysis. Twenty eight children and young people were observed in three separate paediatric outpatient units; 76 observations were conducted of interactions between children/young people, parents and staff (paediatric nurses, paediatric enrolled nurses and paediatricians).

    FINDINGS: 'Balancing the circumstances' was identified as the core category during information exchange, based on six categories: taking part, trust, being in touch, mutuality, getting facts and family influence. The six categories relate to one another and balance the circumstances in the information exchange to varying degrees. These children and young people seemed to be trying to enhance their situation as much as possible by finding out as much as they were able to, sharing their own knowledge with the staff and participating in social interaction with them.

    CONCLUSION: With this understanding of information exchange, nurses can enable and support children and young people to balance their circumstances and improve information exchanges, thereby promoting their partnership in care.

  • 142.
    Mårtenson Wikström, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fägerskiöld, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Observations of health care professionals sharing and contributing responsibility in paediatric caring situations2009In: International Journal of Nursing Practice, ISSN 1322-7114, E-ISSN 1440-172X, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 185-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to identify, describe and generate concepts regarding health care professionals’ information exchanges with minors and/or their parents/guardians in paediatric caring situations. The study took place at three paediatric outpatient units at a university hospital and there were 15 health care professionals involved. Using the grounded theory and the constant comparative analysis methods, the data collection and analysis was undertaken simultaneously, using participant observation, review of medical records and follow-up interviews. The main concern of the health care professionals that emerged as the core category was: sharing and contributing responsibility, interrelated with the six categories; interchanging of knowledge, relationship-creating chat, calculated confirming, encouraging, dichotomous talking and of situation related effects. This research has explored the elements of information exchange in caring situations and highlighted the interaction between the involved persons. These findings could be valuable to health care professionals in order to develop and improve their caring skills.

  • 143.
    Mårtenson Wikström, Eva K
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fägerskiöld, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Runeson, Ingrid V
    University of Kalmar.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The Ethical Demand in Nursing A Scandinavian Perspective2009In: Nursing Science Quarterly, ISSN 0894-3184, E-ISSN 1552-7409, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 281-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this column the authors discuss the ethics of information exchange in nursing practice with children. Five concepts identified in three Swedish grounded theory studies and a content analysis that used the theoretical framework of ethical demand were analyzed. A simultaneous concept analysis found five related concepts: being interconnected, acting according to accepted procedure, completeness, interdependence, and social intercourse. These concepts are synthesized in the concept of intergrade, which emphasizes the value of maintaining the integrity of all involved in information exchange.

  • 144.
    Nilsing, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderberg, Elsy
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Primary Healthcare Professionals' Experiences of the Sick Leave Process: A Focus Group Study in Sweden2013In: Journal of occupational rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, E-ISSN 1573-3688, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 450-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The aim of this study was to explore primary healthcare (PHC) professionals' experiences of the sick leave process. Methods This is an explorative study using data from four semi-structured focus group discussions with a purposeful sample of PHC professionals in A-stergotland County, Sweden. Content analysis with an inductive approach was used in the analysis. Results Four key themes emerged from the analysis; priority to the sick leave process, handling sickness certifications, collaboration within PHC and with other stakeholders, and work ability assessments. Patients' need for sick leave was handled from each professional group's perspective. Collaboration was considered important, but difficult to achieve and all the competencies available at the PHC centre were not used for work ability assessments. There was insufficient knowledge of patients' work demands and contact with an employer was rare, and the strained relationship with the social insurance officers affected the collaboration. Conclusions This study highlights the challenges physicians and other PHC professionals face when handling the need for sick leave, especially when encountering patients with symptom-based diagnoses, and the influence of non-medical factors. Hindrances to good practice were increased demands, collaboration, and role responsibility. The challenges in the sick leave process concerned both content and consequences related to poor collaboration within PHC and with representatives from various organizations, primarily employers and social insurance officers. Further research on how to develop a professional approach for handling the sick leave process is needed.

  • 145.
    Nordfeldt, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Young Patients' Views on the Open Web 2.0 Childhood Diabetes Patient Portal: A Qualitative Study2012In: Future Internet, ISSN 1999-5903, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 514-527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the views of young patients themselves on interactive Web portal services provided by pediatric practitioners. We aimed to explore their perceptions of a real-world diabetes portal that offers facts and contact with peers and practitioners; e.g., discussion forums, blog tools, self-care and treatment information, research updates and news from local practitioners. Twelve young patients (ages 12–21, median 15 years), one boyfriend, 7 mothers and one father each wrote an essay on their experience from use of the portal. Their essays underwent qualitative content analysis. A major theme was “Helping and facilitating daily life with diabetes”, the portal was perceived as a place where contents are interesting, inspiring and may trigger users’ curiosity. There were three subthemes; “Ease of use in my everyday life,” which includes the perception that the portal was perceived as smooth and easy to enter and navigate whenever needed; that information was easy to understand for different groups of users. “Support via an exchange of experience,” includes the ability to contact peers being regarded advantageous. Some said that just reading others’ experiences can be helpful in terms of persevering; children could find peers in the same age group. “Evidence based information,” includes the perception of the portal being a useful and trustworthy source of facts on e.g., physical activity, blood glucose, medical devices, emotional wellbeing, food and nutrition, and other aspects that impact living with diabetes. Young users expressed positive perceptions towards the interactive web portal. Such services seem to have great potential for supporting young patients and significant others - intergrading for confidence.

  • 146.
    Nordfeldt, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hanberger, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Patient and parent views on a Web 2.0 diabetes portal - the management tool, the generator and the gatekeeper: Qualitative study2010In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Internet has undergone rapid development, with significant impact on social life and on modes of communication. Modern management of type 1 diabetes requires that patients have access to continuous support and learning opportunities. Although Web 2.0 resources can provide this support, few pediatric clinics offer it as part of routine diabetes care.Objective: We aimed to explore patients’ and parents’ attitudes toward a local Web 2.0 portal tailored to young patients with type 1 diabetes and their parents, with social networking tools such as message boards and blogs, locally produced self-care and treatment information, and interactive pedagogic devices. Opportunities and obstacles to the implementation of Web 2.0 applications in clinical practice were sought.Methods: Participants were 16 mothers, 3 fathers, and 5 young patients (ages 11-18 years; median 14 years) who each wrote an essay on their experience using the portal, irrespective of frequency and/or their success in using it. Two main guiding questions were asked. A qualitative content analysis was conducted of the essays as a whole.Results: Three main categories of portal users’ attitudes were found; we named them “the management tool,” “the generator,” and “the gatekeeper.” One category was related to the management tool functionality of the portal, and a wide range of concrete examples was found regarding useful facts and updates. Being enabled to search when necessary and find reliable information provided by local clinicians was regarded as a great advantage, facilitating a feeling of security and being in control. Finding answers to difficult-to-ask questions, questions portal users did not know they had before, and questions focusing on sensitive areas such as anxiety and fear, was also an important feature. A second category was related to the generator function in that visiting the portal could generate more information than expected, which could lead to increased use. Active message boards and chat rooms were found to have great value for enhancing mediation of third party peer-to-peer information. A certain level of active users from peer families and visible signs of their activity were considered necessary to attract returning users. A third category was related to the gatekeeper function of the password requirement, which created various access problems. This and other unsuccessful experiences caused users to drop the portal. A largely open portal was suggested to enhance use by those associated with the child with diabetes, such as school personnel, relatives, friends and others, and also by young users somewhat unwilling to self-identify with the disease.Conclusions: Web 2.0 services have great potential for supporting parents and patients with type 1 diabetes by enhancing their information retrieval and disease management. Well-developed services, such as this one, may generate continued use and should, therefore, be carefully maintained and updated by health care professionals who are alert and active on the site with new information and updates. Login procedures should be simple and minimized as much as possible. The education of clinical practitioners regarding the use of Web 2.0 resources needs more attention.

  • 147.
    Nordfeldt, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Ängarne-Lindberg, Teresia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    To use or not to use - practitioners' perceptions of an open web portal for young patients with diabetes.2012In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 51-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Health care professionals' attitudes can be a significant factor in their acceptance and efficient use of information technology, so they need to have more knowledge about this resource to enhance their participation.

    OBJECTIVE: We explored practitioners' perceptions of using an open-access interactive Web portal tailored to young diabetes type 1 patients and their guardians or significant others. The portal offered discussion forums, blog tools, self-care and treatment information, research updates, and news from local practitioners.

    METHODS: Eighteen professionals who were on pediatric diabetes care teams each wrote an essay on their experience using the portal. For their essays, they were asked to describe two situations, focusing on positive and negative user experiences. The essays were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: Based on our analysis of the respondents essays, we identified three categories that describe perceptions of the Web portal. The first category - to use or not to use - included the different perspectives of the practioners; those who questioned the benefits of using the Web portal or showed some resistance to using it. The frequency of use among the practitioners varied greatly. Some practitioners never used it, while others used it on a daily basis and regularly promoted it to their patients. Some respondents in this category reflected on the benefits of contributing actively to online dialogues. In the second category - information center for everyone - practitioners embraced the site as a resource for scientifically sound information and advice. As part of their practice, and as a complement to traditional care, practitioners in this category described sending information through the portal to patients and their significant others. Practitioners felt safe recommending the site because they knew that the information provided was generated by other practitioners. They also assumed that their patients benefited from actively using the Web portal at home: peers brought the site to life by exchanging experiences through the discussion forums. In the third category - developing our practice - practitioners reflected upon the types of information that should be given to patients and how to give it (ie, during in-person appointments or through the Web portal). They perceived meeting with various professionals at other hospitals to update information on the portal and develop content policies as constructive teamwork. Practitioners expressed interest in reading patients' dialogues online to learn more about their views. They also thought about how they could use the portal to adapt more to patients' needs (eg, creating functions so patients could chat with the diabetes nurses and doctors).

    CONCLUSIONS: Practitioners expressed positive perceptions toward a tailored open Web portal. They suggested that future benefits could be derived from systems that integrate factual information and online dialogues between practitioners and patients (ie, exchanging information for everyone's benefit).

  • 148.
    Nordfeldt, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Ängarne-Lindberg, Teresia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordwall, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Norrköping.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Folkhälsovetenskap, Högskolan i Skövde, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    As facts and chats go online, what is important for adolsescents with type 1 diabetes?2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 6, p. e67659-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Continued refinement of resources for patient information, education and support is needed. Considering the rapid development of new communication practices, the perspectives of young people themselves warrant more attention using a wide research focus. The purpose of this study was to understand information-seeking behaviours, Internet use and social networking online in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). This applied to their everyday life, including the context of diabetes and their experiences and need of contact with T1DM peers.

    Methodology/Principal Findings

    Twenty-four adolescents aged 10–17 years with T1DM were recruited from a county hospital in the south-east of Sweden. Qualitative data were obtained using eight focus groups, wherein each participant engaged in a 60–90 minute video/audio-recorded session. The focus group data were transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Some demographic and medical information was also collected. The three main categories that were identified; Aspects of Security, Updating, and Plainness and their sub-categories gave significant information about how to enhance information retrieval and peer contacts related to T1DM. Regarding the persons' information-seeking behaviour, Internet use, and use of social media some differences could be identified depending on gender and age.

    Conclusions/Significance

    Sensitivity and adaptation to users' needs and expectations seem crucial in the development of future online resources for adolescents with T1DM. To start with, this could mean applying a wider range of already existing information and communication technologies. Health practitioners need to focus on the areas of security of information and communication, frequency of updating, and simplicity of design-less is more.

  • 149.
    Olsson, Frida
    et al.
    Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Living with faecal incontinence: trying to control the daily life that is out of control2014In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 24, p. 141-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:

    To identify and describe the lived experience of persons living with faecal incontinence and show how it affects daily life.

    BACKGROUND:

    Faecal incontinence is a relatively common condition, with a prevalence ranging from 3-24%, not differing between men and women. There is an under-reporting due to patients' reluctance to talk about their symptoms and consult healthcare professionals about their problems, which means that problems related to faecal incontinence are often underestimated. Living with faecal incontinence affects the quality of life negatively and has a negative impact on family situations, social interaction, etc.

    DESIGN:

    A qualitative interpretative study based on interviews.

    METHODS:

    In-depth interviews were conducted with five informants, all women, living with faecal incontinence. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis.

    RESULTS:

    The analysis identified four themes: self-affirmation, guilt and shame, limitations in life and personal approach. The themes differ from each other, but are related and have similarities. The results show different aspects of living with faecal incontinence and how they affected daily life.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Living with faecal incontinence is a complex problem affecting everyday life in a number of different ways. It is a highly distressing and socially incapacitating problem. Living with faecal incontinence is about trying to control the daily life which is out of control. Living with faecal incontinence cannot be generalised as individuals experience the situation in unique ways.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:

    By gaining insight into the experience of living with faecal incontinence, healthcare professionals can deepen their understanding of this complex problem and thereby better address it and provide more individually based care.

  • 150.
    Pereira Caldas, Célia
    et al.
    Nursing Faculty, Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil .
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Concept Analysis About Temporality and Its Applicability in Nursing Care2012In: Nursing Forum, ISSN 0029-6473, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 245-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Topic: Concept analysis of temporality. Purpose: To develop a comprehensive definition of temporality applicable to nursing care. Source: Published literature. Conclusions: Temporality is a central component of our experience of the world. Phenomena such as the passage of time, time cycles, the trajectory of aging, transitions toward something, something being, and life as a limited time are integral to human experience. Temporality could be seen as lived time, and as such it is subjective time as opposed to clock time or objective time. The temporal dimensions of past, present, and future constitute the perspective of a persons temporal world. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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