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  • 101. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Product and Process Design for Successful Remanufacturing2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is an industrial process where used products are restored to useful life. This dissertation describes how products can be designed to facilitate the remanufacturing process. It also describes how the remanufacturing processes can be improved to be more efficient.

    When comparing remanufacturing with other end-of-life scenarios, it is hard from an environmental perspective to determine which scenario is preferable. This research has shown that remanufacturing is preferable to new manufacturing from a natural resource perspective. With remanufacturing the efforts that initially was used to shape the product part is salvaged. Furthermore, it has been found that it is environmentally and economically beneficial to have products designed for remanufacturing. To avoid obsolescence, the products must be easy to upgrade with new technology in the remanufacturing process.

    In this dissertation, a generic remanufacturing process is described with all included steps that are needed to restore the products to useful life. In order to make the remanufacturing process more efficient, the products need to be adapted for the process. Therefore, the preferable products properties facilitating each step in the generic remanufacturing process have been identified. A matrix (RemPro) was created to illustrate the relation between each and every generic remanufacturing step and the preferable product properties.

    Remanufacturing case studies have shown that the companies performing remanufacturing often have problems with material flows, use of space and high inventory levels. This is often due to the uncertainties in the quality and the number of cores (used products) that will arrive at the remanufacturing plants. To overcome these problems, the remanufacturers need to achieve a better control over the product’s design and use phase, i.e. the life cycle phases that precede the remanufacturing process. This control is best performed by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs).

    Furthermore, it has been found that Swedish manufacturers often have a weak relation between its environmental management systems and product issues, such as design for environment/remanufacturing. Design for environmental/remanufacturing aspects should be a crucial part of the manufacturers environmental management systems (EMSs) as the products stand for much of the material flows at the manufacturing companies. If the external auditors address the manufacturers to have a life cycle perspective on their business the manufacturer would be more likely to adapt the remanufacturing aspects in their environmental management systems.

    List of papers
    1. Analysis of service selling and design for remanufacturing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of service selling and design for remanufacturing
    2000 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, 2000. ISEE 2000., IEEE , 2000, p. 272-277Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A focus on selling services or functions instead of physical products can, through remanufacturing, be a way of closing material flows in present society. When a company decides to sell services, a closer connection with the customer can be established and a better control over the products can be achieved. This analysis shows that it is preferable that products aimed for service selling are designed for remanufacturing, since this facilitates the remanufacturing. With remanufacturing, economical and environmental benefits can be gained. Historical cases indicate this, and are described in this article along with an ongoing pilot project of service selling

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2000
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13535 (URN)10.1109/ISEE.2000.857661 (DOI)000089141600045 ()0-7803-5962-3 (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment (IEEE-00), San Francisco, CA, USA, 8–10 May 2000
    Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2016-04-12
    2. Product Properties Essential for Remanufacturing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Product Properties Essential for Remanufacturing
    2001 (English)In: Proceedings of 8th International Seminar on Life Cycle Engineering (LCE-01), Sponsored by International Institution for Production Engineering Research (CIRP), Varna, Bulgaria, 18–20 June, 2001, p. 171-179Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Series
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13536 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2016-04-12
    3. Enhanced Product Design Facilitating Remanufacturing of two Household Appliances: A case study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced Product Design Facilitating Remanufacturing of two Household Appliances: A case study
    2001 (English)In: Proceedings of International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED-01), Vol. “Design Methods for Performance and Sustainability”, Glasgow, Scotland, The United Kingdom, 21–23 August, 2001, p. 645-652Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13537 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2016-04-12
    4. An Economical and Technical Analysis of a Household Appliance Remanufacturing Process
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Economical and Technical Analysis of a Household Appliance Remanufacturing Process
    2001 (English)In: Proceedings of EcoDesign-01, Tokyo, Japan, 12–15 December, IEEE , 2001, p. 536-541Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyses technical and economical aspects of a specific remanufacturing process at Electrolux AB in Motala, Sweden. The organisation is examined and all remanufacturing steps are analysed in order to find out where to put the most effort to make the remanufacturing process more efficient. The technical analysis showed that the bottleneck in the remanufacturing process was the cleaning step. Suggestions on how to make the cleaning more efficient are described in the article. Economical calculation show which activities hold the largest cost shares. The method for doing these calculations was activity based costing (ABC). This method was chosen since it seemed more preferable in comparison to traditional methods. It was found that two remanufacturing activities stand for the most costs, which were the storing of products and administration of the entire process

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2001
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13538 (URN)10.1109/.2001.992417 (DOI)0-7695-1266-6 (ISBN)
    Conference
    EcoDesign 2001: Second International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, 11-15 December 2001, Tokyo, Japan
    Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2016-04-12
    5. Refurbish or Recycle Household Appliances? An Ecological and Economic study of Electrolux in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Refurbish or Recycle Household Appliances? An Ecological and Economic study of Electrolux in Sweden
    2003 (English)In: Proceedings of EcoDesign–03, Japan, Tokyo, 2003, p. 348–355-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Series
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13539 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2016-04-12
    6. Making functional sales environmentally and economically beneficial through product remanufacturing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making functional sales environmentally and economically beneficial through product remanufacturing
    2005 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 913-925Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Functional sales have both economic and environmental benefits—especially when the functional sales contracts are used in connection with product remanufacturing. This paper elucidates these benefits and provides an argument for why products to be used for functional sales should be remanufactured. To achieve an efficient remanufacturing process, the products aimed for remanufacturing should be adapted for the process as much as possible. The analyses of remanufacturing facilities for household appliances and automotive parts revealed that the cleaning and repairing steps are most critical in the remanufacturing process. To facilitate these two steps, the product designers should focus on giving the products the following properties: ease of access, ease of handling, ease of separation and wear resistance.

    Keywords
    Functional sales; Service selling; Remanufacturing; Design for environment; Ecodesign; Design for remanufacturing and activity based costing (ABC)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13540 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.04.006 (DOI)000228201100005 ()
    Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    7. Products in environmental management systems: drivers, barriers and experiences
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Products in environmental management systems: drivers, barriers and experiences
    2005 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 405-415Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Do standardised environmental management systems (EMS) lead to improved environmental performance? This depends on to what extent these systems lead to changes in important flows of material and energy, which for manufacturing companies, in turn, mean that the product development process is important. Consequently, it appears vital to investigate the connection between EMS and ‘Design for the Environment’ (DFE), i.e. the connection between these management systems and concepts that deal with environmental issues in product development.

    This paper presents product-oriented environmental management systems (POEMS), including characteristics of existing models, experiences from projects where these models have been tested and experiences concerning the product connection in ‘normal’ EMS. It includes a discussion of important factors influencing to what extent DFE activities are integrated into EMS and/or the outcome of such integration.

    There are many motives for integrating the two concepts. Firstly, DFE thinking might enrich EMS by contributing with a life-cycle perspective. If EMS encompassed products' life cycles to a greater extent, they would be a better complement to the often facility-oriented legal requirements and authority control. Secondly, EMS might remove the pilot project character of DFE activities and lead to continuous improvement. Thirdly, integration could lead to successful co-operation, both internally and externally. However, existing studies show that there is a mixed picture concerning the extent ‘normal’ EMS currently encompass products.

    Keywords
    Product oriented environmental management systems; POEMS; Design for the Environment; DFE; Eco-design; ISO 14001; EMAS
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13541 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2003.12.005 (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    8. Products in environmental management systems: the role of auditors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Products in environmental management systems: the role of auditors
    2005 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 417-431Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    For standardized environmental management systems (EMS) to be environmentally effective tools, they should affect important environmental aspects related to flows of materials and energy, which for manufacturing companies are closely connected to their products. This paper presents how external environmental auditors interpret and apply important product-related requirements of ISO 14001 at manufacturing companies in Sweden.

    The results indicate that the link between EMS and products is rather weak. Products are seldom regarded as significant environmental aspects and are therefore not within the main scope of many EMS, which are mainly focused on sites. However, all of the interviewed auditors require that some kind of environmental considerations be incorporated into product development, but these considerations are to large extent site oriented; how they are prioritized in relation to other factors such as economics and other customer priorities appears to be up to the companies.

    The paper includes some recommendations to strengthen the role of products within the framework of standardized EMS.

    Keywords
    Design for environment; DFE; Environmental management systems; EMS; ISO 14001; EMAS; Auditors
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13542 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2003.12.006 (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13
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  • 102.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Product Properties Essential for Remanufacturing2001In: Proceedings of 8th International Seminar on Life Cycle Engineering (LCE-01), Sponsored by International Institution for Production Engineering Research (CIRP), Varna, Bulgaria, 18–20 June, 2001, p. 171-179Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 103.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of remanufacturing in a circular economy2020In: Remanufacturing in the circular economy: operations, engineering and logistics / [ed] Nabil Nasr, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2020, Vol. Sidor 31-60, p. 31-60Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The circular economy is a concept that is studied by many manufacturers today, especially in Europe. Remanufacturing in increasingly recognized as an essential part of the circular economy. This chapter describes the characteristics of both the circular economy and remanufacturing, as well as the relationship between the two, and their mutually reciprocal business and ecological benefits. Evidence from research and industry supports the notion that a strong connection exists between the adoption of remanufacturing and the success of the circular economy.

  • 104.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Development of a Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFM/A) methodology concerning products and components made in composites of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) used in the Aerospace Industry2016In: Swedish Production Symposium  (SPS-16), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composites of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are being used to a greater extent in the aerospace industry due to their desired material properties. CFRP are attractive to use since they are light, strong and make it possible to integrate parts in in ways not possible in other materials. However, using CFRP is challenging since they may lead to more problems in final assembly. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFM/A) methodology for manufacturing aircraft structures in CFRP. The research methodology consisted of interviews, observations, workshops and tests at SAAB Aerostructures, but also interviews with other companies regarding their design for manufacturing methods. The result is a methodology that includes an approach that describes when and how the DFM/A work should be conducted and organized, and how it is linked and integrated into the company’s product development process. The DFM/A methodology developed makes it possible to include manufacturing aspects into the existing product development process to ensure that manufacturing is considered in the design phase, with special focus on CFRP.

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  • 105.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Utformning och flöden2008In: Återvinningscentralen - Sorteringsplats-Arbetsplats-Mötesplats / [ed] Inga-Lill Engkvist, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2008, p. 35-43Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna bok presenteras resultat från forskningsprogrammet "Framtidens återvinningscentral" som har bedrivits vid Linköpings universitet under åren 2002-2007. Återvinningscentraler är en relativt ny företeelse i Sverige och antalet centraler ökar kontinuerligt. Ätervinningscentralerna ger service till kommuninnevånarna, men är även leverantörer av bland annat bränsle till värmeverk och råvaror, som exempelvis metallskrot

  • 106.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Utrustning och hjälpmedel2008In: Återvinningscentralen - Sorteringsplats-Arbetsplats-Mötesplats / [ed] Inga-Lill Engkvist, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2008, p. 99-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna bok presenteras resultat från forskningsprogrammet "Framtidens återvinningscentral" som har bedrivits vid Linköpings universitet under åren 2002-2007. Återvinningscentraler är en relativt ny företeelse i Sverige och antalet centraler ökar kontinuerligt. Ätervinningscentralerna ger service till kommuninnevånarna, men är även leverantörer av bland annat bränsle till värmeverk och råvaror, som exempelvis metallskrot.

  • 107.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Division of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Division of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge.
    Improving the layout of recycling centres by use of lean production principles2011In: WASTE MANAGEMENT, ISSN 0956-053X, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 1121-1132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been increased focus on recycling in Sweden during recent years. This focus can be attributed to external environmental factors such as tougher legislation, but also to the potential gains for raw materials suppliers. Recycling centres are important components in the Swedish total recycling system. Recycling centres are manned facilities for waste collection where visitors can bring, sort and discard worn products as well as large-sized, hazardous, and electrical waste. The aim of this paper was to identify and describe the main flows and layout types at Swedish recycling centres. The aim was also to adapt and apply production theory for designing and managing recycling centre operations. More specifically, this means using lean production principles to help develop guidelines for recycling centre design and efficient control. Empirical data for this research was primarily collected through interviews and questionnaires among both visitors and employees at 16 Swedish recycling centres. Furthermore, adapted observation protocols have been used in order to explore visitor activities. There was also close collaboration with a local recycling centre company, which shared their layout experiences with the researchers in this project. The recycling centres studied had a variety of problems such as queues of visitors, overloading of material and improper sorting. The study shows that in order to decrease the problems, the recycling centres should be designed and managed according to lean production principles, i.e. through choosing more suitable layout choices with visible and linear flows, providing better visitor information, and providing suitable technical equipment. Improvements can be achieved through proper planning of the layout and control of the flow of vehicles, with the result of increased efficiency and capacity, shorter visits, and cleaner waste fractions. The benefits of a lean production mindset include increased visitor capacity, waste flexibility, improved sorting quality, shorter time for visits and improved working conditions.

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    fulltext
  • 108.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology .
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology .
    Östlin, Johan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology .
    Product Remanufacturing Facilitated by New Business Strategies2008In: Swedish Production Symposium,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More and more companies are striving to expand their business strategies so that revenues and profitability emanates from a larger part of the product life cycle than just the product selling. One way of doing this is to have business offerings consisting of a combination of products and services, and where the selling companies retain the ownership of the physical product. Remanufacturing is often an important means for achieving profitable Product Service Systems. Remanufacturing is an industrial process of returning a used product to at least Original Equipment Manufacturer original performance specification, this from the customers- perspective. The resultant product is also given a warranty that is at least equal to that of a newly manufactured equivalent. Thus, by formulating a business strategy in a life cycle perspective, remanufacturing becomes a service in the product-s life cycle. Remanufacturing can help limit the life cycle costs. It is suggested that up to 85% by weight of remanufactured products may be obtained from used components, and that such products have comparable quality to equivalent new products but require 50% to 80% less energy to produce. It is shown that new business approaches like Product Service System facilitates remanufacturing and vice versa. 

  • 109.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bras, Bert
    Georgia Institute of Technology, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Systems Realization Laboratory, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Making functional sales environmentally and economically beneficial through product remanufacturing2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 913-925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional sales have both economic and environmental benefits—especially when the functional sales contracts are used in connection with product remanufacturing. This paper elucidates these benefits and provides an argument for why products to be used for functional sales should be remanufactured. To achieve an efficient remanufacturing process, the products aimed for remanufacturing should be adapted for the process as much as possible. The analyses of remanufacturing facilities for household appliances and automotive parts revealed that the cleaning and repairing steps are most critical in the remanufacturing process. To facilitate these two steps, the product designers should focus on giving the products the following properties: ease of access, ease of handling, ease of separation and wear resistance.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 110.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dunbäck, Otto
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reverse logistics challenges in remanufacturing of automotive mechatronics and electronic systems2013In: Journal of Remanufacturing, ISSN 2210-4690, Vol. 3, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The remanufacturing industry as a whole and the automotive sector in particular have, over the years, proven to be beneficial to the environment and economically lucrative to the companies involved as well as to their customers. However, remanufacturing is associated with complicating characteristics, not least to mention the process of core acquisition.

    The automotive industry is one of the earliest adapters of remanufacturing. Parts like engines, brake calipers and servo pumps are common targets for remanufacturing. Modern cars also have several embedded computers, often referred to as electronic control units that communicate, share information and verify each other over a Controller Area Network (CAN) bus. Due to their high value and an increasing trend in the amount of CAN bus mechatronic devices, interest in their remanufacture is growing.

    Previous research has shown that it is preferable that the remanufacturer is an original equipment manufacturer (OEM), or has a close relation to the OEM, in order to achieve a well-performing remanufacturing business. In the automotive industry, there are many small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that perform remanufacturing; for these enterprises, the challenges to have a profitable business are even harder. This is because the OEMs will not release any information on the communication parameters and therefore will not support the independent remanufacturing business. As a consequence, the independent remanufacturers, often SMEs, have to perform substantial reverse engineering.

    This paper presents a qualitative research study, based on interviews at SMEs regarding challenges linked to the reverse logistics of SMEs remanufacturing and trading used automotive mechatronic devices, to identify specific challenges concerning the collection phase of automotive mechatronic remanufacturing. Challenges previously identified by researchers are confirmed, additional challenges within the collection phase are recognized, and challenges expected to arise when remanufacturing and trading automotive electronic CAN bus mechatronic devices are identified. The major concern for the involved companies when commencing future challenges is the handling, transportation and storing of cores. Even though the cores today mainly consist of mechanical devices, these challenges are still present; they are expected, however, to become even more crucial when cores contain a higher degree of mechatronic devices.

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  • 111.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elo, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lee, Hui Mien
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design for automatic end-of-life processes2012In: Assembly Automation, ISSN 0144-5154, E-ISSN 1758-4078, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 389-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how manufacturers can develop automatic end-of-life processes facilitated by product design methods, e.g. design for disassembly, recycling and remanufacturing. Also to illustrate this kind of product and end-of-life process development while maintaining economic and environmental values. Here, the cases of toner cartridges and liquid crystal displays are the focus.

    Design/methodology/approach – The research methodology for this paper began with a literature study within the fields of design for automatic recycling and remanufacturing. It also includes the research performed at two different industrial companies using automation in their end-of-life processes. These companies were visited and interviewed several times, in order to understand their processes and what current problems they have in automation and product design.

    Findings – Design implications on the end-of-life have been explored, and in particular, three general product trends are in conflict with automatic disassembly: products are getting more complex and more heterogeneous; products are getting sleeker; and products are using more proprietary joints. In addition, the three industrial cases describe different problems in industry and how they can be tackled. Although many manufacturers have adapted the design principles of DFM and DFE, there is still much to improve when it comes to designing for the product's end-of-life processes. These kinds of adaptations should increase in importance over time as more and more products and components are remanufactured and/or material recycled. These kinds of adaptations will also encourage an increase of products passing through more resource efficient end-of-life options.

    Practical implications – Manufacturers reading what design problems other companies are experiencing and what solutions can be found would facilitate their own businesses and willingness to start their own and/or improve their existing manufacturing business. This could then be in shape developing products for end-of-life processes which also would encourage them to start their own end-of-life process facilities.

    Social implications – From a societal perspective, an increase in remanufactured products being placed on the market can increase the awareness and confidence of the consumers in non-new products made from non-virgin materials. This will increase the market for second-life products and bring about economics of scale, which in turn will alleviate the problem of depletion of resources.

    Originality/value – Most previous research in this area treats the different end-of-life processes separately; material recycling and product remanufacturing are but two examples. However, in this paper the focus is more on the overall view of end-of-life processes, along with examples of more specific and detailed end-of-life processes, such as disassembly and cleaning.

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  • 112.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Hermansson, Henning
    Mälardalen University.
    Managing the Remanufacturing Organization for an Optimal Product Life Cycle2005In: EcoDesign-05,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jacobsson, Nicholas
    International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of service selling and design for remanufacturing2000In: Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, 2000. ISEE 2000., IEEE , 2000, p. 272-277Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A focus on selling services or functions instead of physical products can, through remanufacturing, be a way of closing material flows in present society. When a company decides to sell services, a closer connection with the customer can be established and a better control over the products can be achieved. This analysis shows that it is preferable that products aimed for service selling are designed for remanufacturing, since this facilitates the remanufacturing. With remanufacturing, economical and environmental benefits can be gained. Historical cases indicate this, and are described in this article along with an ongoing pilot project of service selling

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  • 114.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology .
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology .
    Trend&Frntiers at BT Products, Mjölby, Sweden: The Orion Project2001Report (Other academic)
  • 115.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Larsson, Martin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Nielsen, Anders
    Linköpings universitet.
    Design for Functional Sales - A Case Study of Forklift Trucks at BT Sweden2005In: EcoDesign-05,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lee, Hui Mien
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    In what way is remanufacturing good for the environment?2011In: Proceedings of 7th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing (EcoDesign-11): November 30 – December 3, Kyoto, Japan / [ed] M. Matsumoto, Y. Umeda and S. Fukushige, Springer, 2011, p. 551-556Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is often considered an environmentally preferable end-of-life option in comparison with material recycling or manufacturing new products. This paper explores the environmental performance of remanufacturing in comparison with material recycling and manufacturing of new products. The method was primarily a literature study, but also the authors’ own investigations. The results show that remanufacturing is, in general, a preferable option due to the environmental gains from the alleviation of depletion of resources, reduction of global warming potential and chances to close the loop for safer handling of toxic materials.

  • 117.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Integrerade produkt- och tjänsteerbjudanden ur ett konstruktionsperspektiv2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 118.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Rethinking Product Design for Remanufacturing to Facilitate Integrated Product Service Offerings2008In: IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment IEEE-08,2008, IEEE , 2008, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of manufacturers have started to sell their products through integrated product service offerings. These offerings can preferably be connected to remanufacturing systems. In order to achieve a successful remanufacturing process, there must be an efficient take-back system - and preferably good product designs. In this paper, we have highlighted the design for remanufacturing aspects found in our research with remanufacturing companies.

  • 119.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Comstock, Mica
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Department of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Achieving mass customisation through servicification2009In: International Journal of Internet Manufacturing and Services, ISSN 1751-6048, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 56-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies face many challenges today, one of theseis how to successfully meet increasingly diverse customer needs. This could beachieved through customisation. This paper elucidates how mass customisation could be enabled by companies adding more services to their customised products. This ‘servicification’ of products is made available by integratedproduct service engineering. This paper also describes how products and services can be developed in coherence through an integrated product service engineering approach. Furthermore, a software supporting this approach along with customisation named Service Explorer is described. This paper presents acase study of a forklift truck manufacturer called Toyota Material Handling Group (TMHG). TMHG customise their product/service offerings and by doing so they can offer its customers increased value than only selling standard forklift trucks. TMHG has managed to create successful customised offerings for its customers. However, with a more integrated development, TMHG could become even more successful.

  • 120.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Comstock, Mica
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Mitsubishi Research Institute.
    Integrated Product and Service Engineering Enabling Mass Customization2007In: International Conference on Production Research,2007, 2007, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies face many challenges today. One of these is how to successfully meet increasingly diverse customer needs. This paper elucidates, from several perspectives, how mass customization could be enabled using integrated product and service engineering. BT Products AB (BT) produces forklift trucks in Sweden that are customized and sold through various kinds of product offerings, which are also customer-tailored. By doing so, BT can offer their customers increased value through customized product service offerings. This paper shows, through a case study at BT, how the customization issues are tackled by the company. Though the development of products and services is conducted in separate organizations at BT, the company has managed to create successful customized offerings for its customers. However, with a more integrated development BT could become even more successful in its customer offerings.

  • 121.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ijomah, Winifred
    DMEM, Faculty of Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Product design for product/service systems: Design experiences from Swedish industry2009In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 723-753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to elucidate how Swedish industry has adapted theirproducts for product/service systems (PSS).Design/methodology/approach – Three case study companies that manufacture forklift trucks,soil compactors and household appliances are studied. Interviews with company staff are conducted aswell as product analyses in laboratorial environment. The theory is based mainly on previous PSS,design and remanufacturing research.Findings – A key factor when developing products for PSS is to design the product from a life-cycleperspective, considering all the product’s life-cycle phases, namely manufacturing, use, maintenanceand end-of-life treatment. Many of the design improvements deal with the accessibility of parts andcomponents during maintenance and remanufacturing operations, and several of them could reducethe need and cost for maintenance, repair and remanufacturing.Research limitations/implications – Uncovering any additional product requirements needed fora successful PSS not addressed in this paper. For example, it could be interesting to explore whichproduct data could be collected during use in order to improve the products’ different life stages.Practical implications – The findings in this paper illustrate and describe many industrialimplications for engineering designers to consider when developing PSS.Originality/value – The novelty of this paper is aimed for designers to study how they can adapttheir future products used in PSS in a more beneficial way than in traditional product design. Thepaper shows ideas and general guidelines to follow which have been scarcely published.

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  • 122.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental and Economic Benefits of Industrial Product/Service Systems2010In: Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS²): Proceedings of the 2nd CIRP IPS² Conference / [ed] Tomohiko Sakao, Tobias Larsson & Mattias Lindahl, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010, p. 91-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased competition and new customer requirements make manufacturers to strive towards selling industrialproduct/service systems. Product/service systems have derived partly from environmental research and development.However, it is still not clear how much can be earned in environmental and economic concerns.This paper aims to explore the economic and environmental benefits of product/service systems from a life-cycle perspectivein comparison to traditional selling approaches. To fulfill this aim, four case studies were performed at four product/servicesystem providers in Sweden. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews, telephone interviews and dataprovided by the product/service system providers. A comparison life-cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted betweentraditional scenarios and product/service system scenarios. In addition, a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted. Tosummarize, in all four cases the product/service system scenarios had environmental and economic advantages incomparison to their traditional selling scenarios.

  • 123.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Darmstadt universitet.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    New Engineering Design for Functional Sales Business2005In: International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED05,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 124.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Shimomura, Y.
    Sakao, T.
    Need for New Engineering Design Methodologies for Functional Sales Business - An International Survey Concering the Experiences of the Business Concept within Japanese and Swedish Industries2005In: the 15th International Conference on Engineering Design ICED05,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Öhlund, A
    Sandström, G
    Östlin, Johan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Integrated Product and Service Engineering Methodology2006In: Intl Conference of Sustainable Innovation October 23-24,2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 126.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nässlander, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lelah, Alan
    University Grenoble Alpes, G-SCOP, Grenoble, France.
    Sustainability indicators for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the transition to provide Product-Service Systems (PSS)2015In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 30, p. 149-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-Service Systems (PSS) were developed as more sustainable alternatives to traditional product sales, especially through better and more intensive use of materials. Some companies currently use this business model successfully, while others are still in the process of transforming to PSS. The change from providing a product to providing a service has proved to be rather difficult and actual sustainable benefits have been questioned.

    The research described in this paper was part of the ServINNOV project. The initial idea was to find out if, and how, indicators could help in the move to PSS. Indicators could give a clearer picture of the situation and monitor progress during the transition period. Indicators could also help companies focus on their core activities, and determine whether a PSS offering really helps them to become more sustainable. The study covers an overall view of sustainable indicators, with a focus on environmental issues.

    The research for this paper was carried out through both theoretical and empirical studies. Empirical findings were obtained from interviews with three companies, all of them working with PSS on different levels. The results will guide transition to provide more sustainable PSS.

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  • 127.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Innovation Potentials of Using Solvent-free Industrial Cleaning in Swedish Manufacturing Industry2008In: Proceedings of Sustainable Innovation 08 - Future products, technologies and industries: 13th International Conference part of the ‘Towards Sustainable Product Design’ series of conferences, 27-28 October 2008, Malmö, Sweden, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research collaboration project between SMEs and academia a new way of cleaning machine parts have been developed. The cleaning company Servicestaden and researchers at Linköping University have discovered new ways of cleaning without the use of solvents. In the research project called ‘Solvent-Free Industrial Cleaning’ (SOFIQ) it has been found that cleaning with the SOFIQ-technology is more environmentally sound than with traditional cleaning techniques. However, there is a major challenge to keep up the pace of cleaning within manufacturing since it often have high demands of short lead times. This is a challenge that will be constraining the use of the method.

  • 128.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hammarstedt, Petra
    Qlean Scandinavia AB.
    Solvent-free Industrial Cleaning of Printed Circuit Boards2009In: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2009, Sapporo, Japan, 2009, p. 823-828Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry today uses different kinds of chemicals in its cleaning processes. The industrial cleaners often contain some sort of degreasing chemical to clean parts and components before for instance sur-face treatment processes. These types of cleaning meth-ods imply expensive and dangerous handling of chemi-cals in the manufacturing process, as well as in the transportation of hazardous waste. Furthermore, the cleaning processes also use a substantial amount of en-ergy for cleaning.The aim of this paper is to explore the potential of how ultra-clean water cleaning can be used in the manufac-turing industry. In order to meet the aim, a case study was conducted at a electronic manufacturer. The data for this research was collected mainly through interviews, but also by industrial study visits.The results from this research show that using solvent-free industrial cleaning with ultra-clean water is benefi-cial from the perspectives of quality, environment and business. The quality improvement is the most important benefit that the electronic manufacturer can see by using solvent-free industrial cleaning for their printed circuit boards.

  • 129.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    McLaren, J
    Jackson, T
    A Dynamic Life Cycle Energy Model of the UK Paper and Pulp Sector1998In: Con Account Workshop: Ecologizing Societal Metabolism - Designing Scenarios for Sustainable Materials Management, CML report 148,1998, 1998, p. 135-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 130.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Mårtén, Elin
    Linköpings universitet.
    The Swedish Remanufacturing Industry - An Overview of Present Status and Future Potential2005In: CIRP Life Cycle Engineering Seminar 12th edition - 2005, Paper BM4 on the LCE-05 CD,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tyskeng Bruhn-Tysk, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Refurbish or Recycle Household Appliances? An Ecological and Economic study of Electrolux in Sweden2003In: Proceedings of EcoDesign–03, Japan, Tokyo, 2003, p. 348–355-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 132.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology .
    Tyskeng, Sara
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Inverse Manufacturing at Electrolux or Recycling at Local Facilities? -A Comparison from Environmental and Economic Perspectives2003In: EcoDesign,2003, 2003, p. 348-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 133.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    From Component to System Solution Supplier: Strategic Warranty Management as a Key to Efficient Integrated Product/Service Engineering2009In: Proceedings of 42nd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, 2009, p. Paper No.-46Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As hardening competition in industry pushes manufacturing companies to deliver increased customer value, communication with the customer during the use-phase becomes paramount. This paper investigates whether warranty management could be a method for improved integrated product/service engineering (IPSE) as a firm moves from component to system solution supplier. The research methodology applied was a multiple case study, with four suppliers as focal firms, where buyer-supplier relationships were investigated from a supplier perspective. Results show that advanced warranty reporting, implemented as a strategic tool, can be a key to efficient IPSE.

  • 134.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    From Component to System Solution Supplier: Strategic Warranty Management as a Key to Efficient Integrated Product/Service Engineering2010In: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 183-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As hardening competition in industry pushes manufacturing companies to deliver increased customervalue, communication with the customer during the use phase becomes paramount. This paperinvestigates whether warranty management could be a strategic tool for improved integrated product/service engineering (IPSE) as a firm moves from component to system solution supplier. The researchmethodology appliedwas amultiple case study, with four suppliers as focal firms, where buyer–supplierrelationships were investigated from a supplier perspective. Results show that advanced warrantymanagement, implemented as a strategic tool, can be a key to efficient IPSE.

  • 135.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lommatzch, Nils
    Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany.
    Selling Warranty Services instead of Supplying Components2009In: Proceedings of the QUIS 11: Moving Forward with Service Quality, 2009, p. 664-673Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers in the industrial world today seek to deliver customer value through products and services, in contrast to a product or market focus. In this paper we investigate whether warranty management can be a method for improved integrated product service offerings when a firm moves from component to system solution supplier. Based on the results of a case study of a component manufacturer in Sweden, advanced warranty reporting implemented as a strategic tool can be a solution. In addition, procedures required for users (e.g. online portals) that follow a ten-year guarantee can be a tool for conscious, strategic warranty management.

  • 136.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    KTH - Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using company-academia networks for improving Product/Service Systems at large companies2009In: Introduction to Product/Service-System Design / [ed] Sakao T. and Lindahl M., London: Springer , 2009, 1, p. 185-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturers are shifting focus for different reasons from being providers of mainly physical products, to providing increased services in their customer offerings. Traditionally, the focus at manufacturing companies has been more on product development than service development; this is one reason why it is important for PSS developers to meet others who understand this situation. This chapter describes challenges large PSS providers in Sweden are facing, and how these can be explored and discussed within a Product/Service System company-academia network setting. It is concluded that during the three first years of network meetings, this approach has been a success. In addition, the experiences gained from participation in this network have resulted in recommendations for PSS providers and researchers thinking of starting up similar networks and/or building ones already begun.

  • 137.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    Department of Machine Design, School of Industrial Technology and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Division of Functional Product Development, University of Technology, Luleå.
    Challenges for Industrial Product/Service Systems: Experiences from a learning network of large companies2009In: Industrial product-service systems (IPS2) : proceedings of the 1st CIRP IPS² Conference, Cranfield, UK: Cranfield University Press , 2009, p. 298-304Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there are a growing number of manufacturers that are using the approach of industrial product/service systems. This paper explores how manufacturers and university researchers have started a workshop series where important and topical product/service system issues are elucidated. The companies face many challenges in order to achieve a good product/service system business. Many challenges are related to changing different peoples’ mindset within the company and/or with external companies and customers. Having a learning network approach of dealing with these challenges has been perceived as a good manner of tackling the questions raised within the product/service system providing companies.

  • 138.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Östlin, Johan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Case Study of Three Toner Cartridge Remanufacturers2005In: EcoDesign-05,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 139.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Östlin, Johan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Why is Remanufacturing More Successful in the United States than in Sweden?2008In: CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering,2008, 2008, p. 247-251Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing can be defined as a process of rebuilding a product, during which: the used product is cleaned, inspected and disassembled; defective components are replaced; and the product is reassembled,tested and inspected again to ensure it meets or exceeds newly manufactured product standards. Hence, remanufacturing would not only promote the multiple reuse of materials, but it would also allow for upgrading the quality and the functions of products steadily, without manufacturing completely new products and throwing away used ones. Remanufacturing is often seen as an environmentally sound way of salvaging the resources that are put into products when shaped. The methodology used was to study literature about American and Swedish remanufacturers. In this study,different kinds of success factors for remanufacturing were identified. Secondly, a qualitative research study was performed through visits to remanufacturers and to universities performing remanufacturing research.The interviews show that there are multiple reasons why remanufacturing is advantageous in the United States. These reasons are also dependant on what type of remanufacturing case that is considered. The potential sources identified for remanufacturing success potential in the USA compared to Sweden were cultural behaviour, closeness to a secondary market and a greater focus on price.

  • 140.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östlin, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    Department of Machine Design, School of Industrial Technology and Managemant, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Remanufacturing of Products used in Product Service System Offerings2008In: Manufacturing Systems and Technologies for the New Frontier / [ed] Mamoru Mitsuishi, Kanji Ueda, Fumihiko Kimura, London, UK: Springer London, 2008, 1, p. 537-542Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a product service system provider it is important to consider its benefits and drawbacks. Connecting the product service system with a remanufacturing system has a good potential of being economically and environmentally beneficial. This paper elucidates the case of three different remanufacturers and how their relation with their core provider affects their business. Products sold as a part of a product service system have great potential of being remanufactured in an efficient manner. This is for example due to large possibilities to plan the remanufacturing operations and to achieve pre-information about the cores coming in to the remanufacturing facilities.

  • 141.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial Cleaning with ultra-clean water according to the Qlean-method – a case study of printed circuit boards2011In: : May 3-5, Lund, Sweden, 2011, p. 577-582Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry today uses many kinds of chemicals in its cleaning processes. The industrial cleaners often contain some sort of degreasing chemical to clean parts and components before the main processes, for instance assembly or surface treatment. These types of cleaning methods are often expensive and involve hazardous handling of chemicals in manufacturing, as well as in the transportation of hazardous waste. In addition, the cleaning processes often use a substantial amount of energy for cleaning.

    The aim of this paper is to explore how ultra-clean water cleaning, using a method called Qlean, can be applied in the manufacturing industry. In order to meet this aim, a case study was conducted at Flextronics, in Karlskrona, Sweden. The data for this research was collected through interviews and functional tests at different industries, which then was analysed further.

    The results from this research show that using solvent-free industrial cleaning with ultra-clean water is beneficial from the perspectives of quality, environment and business. The quality improvement derived from using solvent-free industrial cleaning in the case of cleaning printed circuit boards was the most important benefit.

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    Industrial Cleaning with ultra-clean water according to the Qlean-method – a case study of printed circuit boards
  • 142.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Potentials of Using Solvent-free Industrial Cleaning in Swedish Manufacturing Industry.2009In: Joint Actions on Climate Change, 8-10 June, 2009, Aalborg, Denmark, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry today uses different kinds of chemicals in its cleaning processes. The industrial cleaners often contain some sort of degreasing chemical to clean parts and components before for instance surface treatment processes. These types of cleaning methods imply expensive and dangerous handling of chemicals in the manufacturing process, as well as in the transportation of hazardous waste. Furthermore, the cleaning processes also uses a substanstial amount of energy for cleaning.

    “Ultra-clean water” is relatively new way of cleaning without the use of chemicals. The method has proven successful, for example, in the cleaning of building exteriors, transformer stations, and tunnels. The procedure has been to spray with low-pressure, thus better salvaging the paint yet removing dirt, oil and debris from surfaces such as walls. Successful projects, for example, include the cleaning of the above mentioned building exteriors and tunnel walls at and Södra Länken tunnel system in. The aim of this paper is to explore the potentials of how “ultra-clean” water cleaning can be used in the manufacturing industry. The overall goals of the project are to reduce manufacturers’ use of chemicals, and also the amount of emissions to landfills. Another goal with the project is to reduce the environmental effects on the manufacturing site, the amount of chemical emissions during manufacturing and the amount of chemical transports from the facility. Furthermore this innovation have a potential to improve the working environment within the industry and at the same time reduce the energy consumption used for cleaning. Two case studies will be presented in which environmental performance of a prototype of the solvent-free cleaning technology is compared with existing technologies. The first case is dealing with cleaning of circuit-boards with special attention to flux material residues. Furthermore the second case focuses on surface treatment industry and focuses more on the ability to clean oily and/or fatty surfaces.

    To summarize, this research project have a large economic and environmental potential in its unique constellation of university research and manufacturing company involvement. At this moment the potentials are preliminary but shows a lot of promise for the future.

  • 143.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    McLaren, Jake
    Centre for Environmental Strategy, University of Surrey, UK.
    Jackson, Tim
    Centre for Environmental Strategy,University of Surrey, UK.
    Material and Energy flow Analysis of Paper consumption in the United Kingdom2002In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 5 3, p. 89-105Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 144.
    Wei, Shuoguo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cheng, Dongbo
    School of Economics and Management, Tongji University, China.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Motives and barriers of the remanufacturing industry in China2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 94, p. 340-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Realizing the importance of remanufacturing for sustainable development due to the large scale of the economy and its increasing pressure on the environment, the Chinese government has been strongly promoting its remanufacturing industry since 2008. The objective of this paper is to identify the motives and barriers for remanufacturing in China. According to the survey conducted among remanufacturers in China, environmental and ethical responsibility, customer orientation and strategic advantage are the three most important motives, while customer recognition is the most serious barrier at present. This survey also shows that there are many differences between car part and machinery remanufacturers in China. For example, car part remanufacturers are more motivated by subsidies, at the same time, they are also more restricted by legislation, while lack of sales channels is a more serious barrier for the machinery remanufacturers. The differences exist partly due to the Chinese remanufacturing environment, for example the policies from different government departments that regulate the related industries. Suggestions for improving the remanufacturing industry, in particular from the policy makers’ perspective, are provided according to the survey results.

  • 145.
    Wei, Shuoguo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Core (product) Acquisition Management for remanufacturing: a review2015In: Journal of Remanufacturing, ISSN 2210-4690, no 4Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Core acquisition is essential for the success of remanufacturing business. To describe the current status of the quantitative research in Core Acquisition Management and to indicate possible future research directions, a literature review is conducted in this paper about the quantitative modeling in Core Acquisition Management research area. The activities included in Core Acquisition Management are categorized into topics such as acquisition control, forecasting return, return strategies, quality classification and reverse channel design. While most of the studies focus on acquisition control, studies on return strategies and return forecast are relatively limited. Furthermore, this paper analyzes the research papers according to the key assumptions such as, hybrid/non-hybrid remanufacturing systems, acquisition functions, quality classification methods and perfect/imperfect substitutions. In conclusion, studies based on the assumptions of non-hybrid remanufacturing systems and imperfect substitution should gain more attentions, since these situations frequently occur in practice but are less investigated in the existing literature. In addition, empirical validation of the various forms of the acquisition function (relations between acquisition incentives and acquisition volume) should be important for further investigations.

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    fulltext
  • 146.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Janhager, Jenny
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Managing Innovation Processes for a Business-Driven Collaborative Network to Export Total Technical Solutions2008In: ISPIM Innovation Symposium, 2008, Singapore: ISPIM , 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large need of environmental solutions at developing countries, where a network of small firms, e.g. in Sweden, have much opportunity for their business. This paper discusses, from both theoretical and from practical aspects, the high degree of complexity that needs to be managed when small firms export environmental-technology innovation to emerging markets. Especially, it deals with how a network of firms should manage its innovation processes. Based on the review of some 50 literature, the paper explains the methodologies adopted in an on-going project to study these issues. Discussions include differences with development of an integration of products/services within a single firm.

  • 147.
    Östlin, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Managing Functional Sales Systems - Important Aspects for Making Functional Sales an Effective Business System2005In: 10th International Conference of Sustainable Innovation,,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 148.
    Östlin, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mähl, M.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lean Remanufacturing: a Study Regarding Material Flow2008Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 149.
    Östlin, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Business drivers for remanufacturing2008In: Proceedings of CIRP Life Cycle Engineering Seminar , 15th edition, Sidney, Australia, 2008, p. 581-586Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the aim is to explore what drives companies to get involved in the remanufacturing operations. In the previous research there have been numerous case studies that partly have addresses the issue of why a company is getting involved in remanufacturing. A main conclusion from this study is that the motives for remanufacturing a product are very case-dependent e.g. in what industry sector the company have business in and what product type being remanufactured. In this study it is found that there are mainly three general business drivers for remanufacturing. These are: profit, company policy and the environmental drivers. For remanufacturing to be successful, these drivers are crucial, although it does not propose that all of theses drivers have to be present for a successful remanufacturing system. When combining the profit, policy and environmental factors there is a great potential for a win-win-win situation, meaning that the customer gets a quality product at a lower price, the manufacturer reduces their manufacturing costs and the environment gains from a lower environmental impact.

  • 150.
    Östlin, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Importance of Closed Loop Supply Chain Relationships for Product Remanufacturing2008In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 115, no 2, p. 336-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is an industrial process where used products are restored (remanufactured) to useful life. In comparison to manufacturing, remanufacturing has some general characteristics that complicate the supply chain and production system. For example, a company must collect the used products from the customers, and thus the timing and quality of the used products are usually unknown. Remanufacturing companies are dependent on customers to return used products (cores). In this paper, seven different types of closed-loop relationships for gathering cores for remanufacturing have been identified. The relationships identified are ownership-based, service-contract, direct-order, deposit-based, credit-based, buy-back and voluntary-based relationships. Building theory around these different types of relationships, several disadvantages and advantages are described in the paper. By exploring these relationships, a better understanding can be gained about the management of the closed-loop supply chain and remanufacturing.

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    FULLTEXT02
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