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  • 101.
    HU, J
    et al.
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    AN ENZYME ELECTRODE FOR GLUCOSE CONSISTING OF GLUCOSE-OXIDASE IMMOBILIZED AT A BENZOQUINONE-MODIFIED CARBON ELECTRODE1991In: Analytical Letters, ISSN 0003-2719, E-ISSN 1532-236X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 15-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an amperometric enzyme electrode for the analysis of glucose. The glucose sensor utilised adsorbed benzoquinone on a carbon electrode to mediate electron transfer from glucose oxidase. A linear response to 0-15 mM glucose was observed. The electrodes response to glucose, its pH profile and the effect of temperature are presented.

  • 102.
    Imani, Roghayeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Iglič, Aleš
    Biophysics Laboratory, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Turner, Anthony P.F.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrochemical detection of DNA damage through visible-light-induced ROS using mesoporous TiO2 microbeads2014In: Electrochemistry communications, ISSN 1388-2481, E-ISSN 1873-1902, Vol. 40, p. 84-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid detection of DNA damage could serve as a basis for genotoxicity studies of new bio-nanoconjugations. A novel TiO2 bio-nanoconjugation, consisting of mesoporous TiO2 microbeads, dopamine (DA) and ss-DNA, was constructed on fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass (FTO) and used for the detection of DNA damage in the photocatalytic reaction of TiO2 under visible light. Stable mesoporous TiO2 microbeads films were coated on FTO by the doctor-blade method; dopamine with oxygen containing ligands, was tightly coupled to the titanium surface prepaired under phase coordination. Specific single-strands of DNA were electronically linked to TiO2 by using a dopamine bridge. DNA damage, caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) that were photogenerated through the photocatalytic reaction, was detected with square wave voltammetry (SWV) by recording the catalytic oxidation current of [Ru(NH3)6]3 +, an intercalated electroactive probe. The ability of antioxidant to protect DNA against damage in the photocatalytic reaction was also tested.

  • 103.
    Imani, Roghayeh
    et al.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Elect Engn, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; [ 2 ] Univ Ljubljana, Fac Hlth Sci, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia .
    Pazoki, M
    Uppsala Univ, Angstrom Lab, Dept Chem, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Boschloo, G ()
    Uppsala Univ, Angstrom Lab, Dept Chem, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Turner, Anthony (Contributor)
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kralj-Iglič, V (Contributor)
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Hlth Sci, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Iglič, Ales
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Elect Engn, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Band edge engineering of TiO2@DNA nanohybrids and implications for capacitive energy storage devices.2015In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 7, no 23, p. 10438-10448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Novel mesoporous TiO2@DNA nanohybrid electrodes, combining covalently encoded DNA with mesoporous TiO2 microbeads using dopamine as linker, were prepared and characterised for application in supercapacitors. Detailed information about donor density, charge transfer resistance and chemical capacitance, which have important role in the performance of an electrochemical device, were studied by electrochemical methods. The results indicated the improvement of electrochemical performance of TiO2 nanohybrid electrode by DNA surface functionalisation. A supercapacitor was constructed from TiO2@DNA nanohybrids with PBS as electrolyte. From the supercapacitor experiment, it was found that the addition of DNA played an important role in improving the specific capacitance (Cs) of the TiO2 supercapacitor. The highest Cs value of 8 F/g was observed for TiO2@DNA nanohybrids. The nanohybrid electrodes were shown to be stable over long-term cycling, retaining 95% of their initial specific capacitance after 1500 cycles.

  • 104.
    Jaffari, SA
    et al.
    ; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Novel hexacyanoferrate(III) modified graphite disc electrodes and their application in enzyme electrodes .1.1997In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 12, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a novel procedure for the electrochemical modification of graphite disc electrodes with potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) using cyclic voltammetry. Cyclic voltammograms of the modified electrodes in 0.1 M potassium chloride showed two redox couples, at 0.22 and 0.148V and at 0.923 and 0.798 V. These redox potentials correspond to those cited for Prussian blue type films. These modified electrodes exhibited excellent stability during repeated potential cycling in 0.1 M potassium chloride with no difference in peak heights between the second and thirtieth scans. We used glucose oxidase as the model enzyme to investigate application of these novel modified graphite disc electrodes in the development of biosensors. The resulting glucose sensors exhibited a response to glucose at potentials as low as 450 mV vs. saturated calomel electrode with a linear range up to 1.5 mM glucose and sensitivity of 50 +/- 10 nA mM(-1) cm(-2) (geometric area). The modified graphite disc electrodes displayed an electrocatalytic effect on hydrogen peroxide with sensitivity of 0.70 mu A mM(-1) cm(-2) (geometric area). The effect of ascorbic acid, 4-acetamidophenol and uric acid, common interferents found in blood, is also reported. (C) 1996 Published by Elsevier Science Limited

  • 105.
    JAFFARI, SA
    et al.
    ; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    RECENT ADVANCES IN AMPEROMETRIC GLUCOSE BIOSENSORS FOR IN-VIVO MONITORING1995In: Physiological Measurement, ISSN 0967-3334, E-ISSN 1361-6579, Vol. 16, no 1Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical biosensors for glucose, based on the specific glucose oxidizing enzyme glucose oxidase, have generated considerable interest. Several commercial devices based on this principle have been developed and are widely used for in vitro monitoring of glucose e.g. in hospitals, doctors surgeries and for home monitoring by patients themselves. A significant advance in the application of biosensor technology would be the development of portable, implantable sensors which could continuously indicate the blood glucose concentration, enabling swift corrective action to be taken by the patient. This review highlights recent developments in amperometric glucose biosensors for in vivo monitoring and also considers the remaining barriers which need to be overcome to enable successful introduction of an implantable sensor.

  • 106.
    Jiang, TS
    et al.
    University Florence, Dipartimento Chim, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; Hunan Normal University, Life Science Coll, Changsha 410081, Hunan, Peoples R China; Cranfield University, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Minunni, M
    University Florence, Dipartimento Chim, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; Hunan Normal University, Life Science Coll, Changsha 410081, Hunan, Peoples R China; Cranfield University, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Wilson, P
    University Florence, Dipartimento Chim, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; Hunan Normal University, Life Science Coll, Changsha 410081, Hunan, Peoples R China; Cranfield University, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Zhang, J
    University Florence, Dipartimento Chim, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; Hunan Normal University, Life Science Coll, Changsha 410081, Hunan, Peoples R China; Cranfield University, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Mascini, M
    University Florence, Dipartimento Chim, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; Hunan Normal University, Life Science Coll, Changsha 410081, Hunan, Peoples R China; Cranfield University, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Detection of TP53 mutation using a portable surface plasmon resonance DNA-based biosensor2005In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 20, no 10, p. 1939-1945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A DNA-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor has been developed for the detection of TP53 mutation using the inexpensive and commercially available instrument, SPREETA (TM) SPR-EVM-BT, from Texas Instruments. A direct immobilisation procedure, based on the coupling of thiol-derivatised oligonucleotide probes (Probe-C6-SH) to bare gold sensor surfaces, was optimized using synthetic oligonucleotides. Hybridisation reactions between the immobilised probe and a short sequence (26 mer) complementary, non-complementary and one-point mutation DNA were then investigated. The main analytical parameters of the sensor system were studied in detail including selectivity, sensitivity, reproducibility and analysis time. Finally, the sensor system was successfully applied to polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified real samples, DNA extracted from both normal, wild-type, (Jurkat) and mutated (Molt 4), carrying the mutation at codon 248 of the TP53 cell lines. The results obtained demonstrate that the DNA-based SPR biosensor was able to distinguish sequences present in the various samples that differ only by one base; and hence, it appears to be a strong candidate technique for the detection of gene mutation. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 107.
    Karimian, N
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zavar, M H A
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Chamsaz, M
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On/off-switchable electrochemical sensor for folicacid based on molecularly imprinted technology.2013In: Electrochemistry communications, ISSN 1388-2481, E-ISSN 1873-1902, Vol. 36, p. 92-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of smart polymers with molecular imprinting offers a powerful tool to design more effective sensors and medical devices. In this study, a temperature sensitive amine-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) block with (N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide) cross-linker along with o-phenylenediamine was electropolymerised on a gold electrode in the presence of folic acid (FA) as template to produce an on/off-switchable molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) affinity sensor for folic acid. Differential pulse voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterise the FA-imprinted layer. Incubation of the MIP-modified electrode with FA resulted in a suppression of the ferro/ferricyanide redox process. The highest sensitivity of this temperature gated on/off-switchable folic acid sensor was achieved at 22 °C. Such switchable affinity materials offer considerable potential for the design of highly selective and controllable biosensors and immunoassays.

  • 108.
    Karimian, Najmeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
    Hossein Arbab Zavar, Mohammad
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
    Chamsaz, Mahmoud
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
    Ashraf, Narges
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Tekidag AB, UCS, Linköping, Sweden.
    A potential-gated molecularly imprinted smart electrode for nicotinamide analysis2015In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, no 44, p. 35089-35096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Triggered surface responsiveness paves the way for smart sensor technologies that not only have tunable retention, but also provide sensing through a built-in programming of electrode material. In this study, we report a potential-gated electrochemical sensor for determination of nicotinamide (NAM) based on a molecularly imprinted overoxidised polypyrrole electrode. The sensitive layer was prepared by electropolymerisation of pyrrole on a glassy carbon electrode in the presence of NAM as a template molecule, followed by alkali extraction. Electrochemical methods were used to monitor the processes of electropolymerisation, template removal and binding in the presence of a [Fe(CN)(6)](3-)/[Fe(CN)(6)](4-) redox couple as an electrochemical probe. Several factors affecting the performance of the MIP-modified electrode were investigated and optimized. The peak current of the ferro/ferricyanide couple decreased linearly with successive addition of NAM in the concentration range 0.9 x 10(-6) to 9.9 x 10(-3) M with a detection limit of 1.7 x 10(-7) M (S/N = 3). The molecularly-imprinted polymer (MIP) electrode had excellent recognition capability for NAM compared to structurally related molecules. Moreover, the reproducibility and repeatability of the NAM-imprinted electrode were all found to be satisfactory. The results from sample analysis confirmed the applicability of the NAM-imprinted electrode to reusable quantitative analysis in commercial pharmaceutical samples.

  • 109.
    Karimian, Najmeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Turner, Anthony P.F.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrochemical evaluation of troponin T imprinted polymer receptor2014In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 59, p. 160-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The selective detection and quantification of macromolecular targets is a fundamental biological mechanism in nature. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been identified as one of the most promising synthetic alternatives to bioreceptors. However, expanding this methodology towards selective recognition of bulky templates such as proteins appears to be extremely challenging due to problems associated with removal of the template from the polymeric network. In this study, polymer imprinted with troponin T (TnT) was assessed using electrochemical methods and the influence of various extraction methods, including conventional immersion extraction, thermal annealing and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, on the binding characteristics of the troponin-to-imprinted polymer receptor was elucidated. Cyclic voltammetric deposition of o-phenylenediamine (o-PD) film in the presence of TnT as a template was performed in acetate buffer (0.5 M, pH 5.2) on a gold substrate. Solvent extraction of the target molecule was optimised and followed by subsequent washing with water. The electrochemistry of a ferro/ferricyanide probe was used to characterise the TnT MIP receptor film. The incubation of the TnT MIP receptor-modified electrode with respect to TnT concentration resulted in a suppression of the ferro/ferricyanide redox current. The dissociation constant (KD) was calculated using a two-site model of template affinity for the TnT MIP receptor. The synthetic TnT MIP receptor had high affinity for TnT with a KD of 2.3×10−13 M.

  • 110.
    Karimian, Najmeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A smart potential-gated mimetic electrode for nicotinamide analysis2016In: Biosensors 2016 – The World Congress on Biosensors, Gothenburg, Sweden, 25-27 May 2016, Elsevier, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 111.
    Karimian, Najmeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hossein Arbab Zavar, Mohammad
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran .
    Chamsaz, Mahmoud
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran .
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An ultrasensitive molecularly-imprinted human cardiac troponin sensor2013In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 50, p. 492-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiac troponin T (TnT) is a highly sensitive cardiac biomarker for myocardial infarction. In this study, the fabrication and characterisation of a novel sensor for human TnT based on a molecularly-imprinted electrosynthesised polymer is reported. A TnT sensitive layer was prepared by electropolymerisation of o-phenylenediamine (o-PD) on a gold electrode in the presence of TnT as a template. To develop the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), the template molecules were removed from the modified electrode surface by washing with alkaline ethanol. Electrochemical methods were used to monitor the processes of electropolymerisation, template removal and binding. The imprinted layer was characterised by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The incubation of the MIP-modified electrode with respect to TnT concentration resulted in a suppression of the ferro/ferricyanide redox process. Experimental conditions were optimised and a linear relationship was observed between the peak current of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-)/[Fe (CN)(6)](4-) and the concentration of TnT in buffer over the range 0.009-0.8 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 9 pg/mL. The TnT MIP sensor was shown to have a high affinity to TnT in comparison with nonimprinted polymer (NIP) electrodes in both buffer and blood serum.

  • 112.
    Karimiana, Naymeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zavarb, M H A
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Chamsazb, M
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On/off-switchable folic acid sensor using molecularly imprinted smart polymer electrode2014In: 24thAnniversary World Congress on Biosensors – Biosensors 2014, Elsevier, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, much attention has been focused on the development of controlled switchable surfaces, also known as “smart surfaces”, which switch their physicochemical properties in response to external stimuli [1]. Switching of a surface based on temperature can be realised using thermo-sensitive polymers, which undergo a phase transition at the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), where their behavior switches between hydrophobic and hydrophilic [2]. LCST modulation can be achieved by copolymerisation with other monomers in order to produce a LCST close to physiological temperature. Thus, it could be useful in controllable, temperature-responsive bio-switches for biomedical and biotechnology applications [3]. The combination of smart polymers with molecular imprinting offers a powerful tool to design more effective sensors and medical devices. In this study, a temperature sensitive amine-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) block with (N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide) cross-linker along with o-phenylenediamine was electropolymerised on a gold electrode in the presence of folic acid (FA) as template to produce an on/off-switchable molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) affinity sensor for folic acid. Differential pulse voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterise the FA-imprinted layer. Incubation of the MIP-modified electrode with FA resulted in a suppression of the ferro/ferricyanide redox process. The highest sensitivity of this temperature gated on/off-switchable folic acid sensor was achieved at 22 ºC. Such switchable affinity materials offer considerable potential for the design of highly selective and controllable biosensors and immunoassays.

  • 113.
    Kashefi-Kheyrabadi, Leila
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Isfahan, Iran.
    Mehrgardi, Masoud
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Isfahan, Iran.
    Wiechec, Emilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Turner, Anthony P.F.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ultrasensitive detection of human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells using a label-free aptasensor2014In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 86, no 10, p. 4956-4960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liver cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and has no effective cure, especially in later stages. The development of a tangible protocol for early diagnosis of this disease remains a major challenge. In the present manuscript, an aptamer-based, label-free electrochemical biosensor for the sensitive detection of HepG2, a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, is described. The target cells are captured in a sandwich architecture using TLS11a aptamer covalently attached to a gold surface and a secondary TLS11a aptamer. The application of TLS11a aptamer as a recognition layer resulted in a sensor with high affinity for HepG2 cancer cells in comparison with control cancer cells of human prostate, breast and colon tumours. The aptasensor delivered a wide linear dynamic range over 1 × 102 – 1 × 106 cell/mL, with a detection limit of 2 cell/mL. This protocol provides a precise method for sensitive detection of liver cancer with significant advantages in terms of simplicity, low cost, and stability.

  • 114.
    Khun, Kimleang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mansor, N. A.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Electrochemical Dopamine Sensor Based on the ZnO/CuO Nanohybrid Structures2014In: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ISSN 1533-4880, E-ISSN 1533-4899, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 6646-6652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The selective detection of dopamine (DA) is of great importance in the modern medicine because dopamine is one of the main regulators in human behaviour. In this study, ZnO/CuO nanohybrid structures, grown on the gold coated glass substrate, have been investigated as a novel electrode material for the electrochemical detection of dopamine. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were used for the material characterization and the obtained results are in good agreement. The selective determination of dopamine was demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric experiments. The amperometric response was linear for dopamine concentrations between 1.0 x 10(-3) and 8.0 mM with a sensitivity of 90.9 mu A mM(-1) cm(-2). The proposed dopamine biosensor is very stable, selective over common interferents as glucose, uric acid and ascorbic acid, and also good reproducibility was observed for seven electrodes. Moreover, the dopamine sensor exhibited a fast response time of less than 10 s. The wide range and acceptable sensitivity of the presented dopamine sensor provide the possible application in analysing the dopamine from the real samples.

  • 115. Kor, Kamalodin
    et al.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zarei, K
    Atabati, M
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mak, Martin
    Combining structure responsive probes and lateral-flow test; a simple and rapid approach miRNA-21 detection2015In: 2nd International Congress on Biosensors – BiosensorTR2015, 10-12 June 2015, Izmir, Turkey., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Kor, Kamalodin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zarei, Kobra
    School of Chemistry, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran.
    Atabati, Morteza
    School of Chemistry, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Structurally responsive oligonucleotide-based single-probe lateral-flow test for detection of miRNA-21 mimics2016In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 408, no 5, p. 1475-1485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A single-probe strip test for the rapid and sensitive detection of miRNA-21 mimics is reported herein. Highly specific structurally responsive bi-functional, thiol and biotin, DNA/LNA oligonucleotide probes (molecular beacons-MB) were designed and conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) (i.e. biotin-MB-AuNPs). The proposed design had the ability to modulate the accessibility of the biotin group as a function of the presence of a miRNA target allowing the interaction of the boilable with the streptavidin test zone only in the presence of the miRNA-21 mimics. For quantitative evaluation, images of the strip tests were recorded using a flatbed scanner (Epson Perfection V370 Photo). The colour intensities of the test zones of the strip tests were analysed with the ImageJ software (Scion Corp., USA) and quantified as a function of pixel intensity. The response of the strip test was linear over the range 0.5 to 20 nM miRNA-21 (limit of detection of 115 pM) and showed good reproducibility (intra and inter CVs below 8 %); furthermore, the assay was shown to be highly selective, discriminating other interference miRNAs mimics (e.g. miRNA-221 and miRNA-205). Finally, the proposed strip test was used for detection of miRNA-21 mimics in spiked serum samples, demonstrating its potential for point-of-care clinical applications. Main advantages of the single-probe strip test design are its versatility, simplicity and robustness, which can be easily extended to other miRNA targets by tuning the sequence of the single probe. Furthermore, the use of the structurally responsive single probe is particularly relevant in the case of short-length targets, such as miRNA, whereas a conventional sandwich approach might require a careful control of assay conditions such as hybridization temperature and salt concentration

  • 117.
    Korpan, Yaroslav I.
    et al.
    Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics NAS of Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    El'skaya, A.V.
    Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics NAS of Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Metabolomics on Electrodes – A New Evolutionary Step in Sensing and Sensitivity.2017In: European Advanced Materials Congress 2017, VBRI , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Kroger, S
    et al.
    CEFAS, Lowestoft NR33 0HT, Suffolk, England; Cranfield University, Bedford MK45 4DT, England; .
    Piletsky, S
    CEFAS, Lowestoft NR33 0HT, Suffolk, England; Cranfield University, Bedford MK45 4DT, England; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Biosensors for marine pollution research, monitoring and control2002In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 45, no 12-jan, p. 24-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurement of ecological, climatic and anthropogenic changes underpins the formulation of effective management strategies for sustainable use and protection of the marine environment. Sensors are traditionally used in marine studies to determine physical parameters, but there is increasing demand for real-time information about chemical and biological parameters. These parameters are currently measured in samples collected at sea and subsequently analysed in the laboratory. Biosensors fuse the exquisite sensitivity and specificity of living systems with the processing power of microelectronics to deliver simple, inexpensive measurement systems for use in the field or deployment in situ. While their potential for use in the marine environment is enormous, much published work to date has focussed on applications in freshwater and wastewater. Marine applications pose a substantial challenge in the robustness required for remote application, but recent developments in portable medical devices and receptor design suggest that these demands can now be realistically tackled. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 119.
    Kroger, S
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Setford, SJ
    Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Assessment of glucose oxidase behaviour in alcoholic solutions using disposable electrodes1998In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 368, no 3, p. 219-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solvent resistant screen-printed three-electrode devices were employed to assess the behaviour of free and immobilised glucose oxidase in water-miscible organic solvent/aqueous buffer mixtures. Three alcoholic solvents were examined, methanol, ethanol and isopropanol. A rhodinised-carbon electrocatalyst was employed to facilitate hydrogen peroxide oxidation at a decreased operating potential. The devices had a linear response range of 1-10 mU GOX and allowed detection of down to 2 x 10(-14) mol GOX. The measurement of 0-1 (v/v) glucose in 30% (v/v) ethanol was achieved in 2 min using these highly storage-stable enzyme electrodes. Such devices are likely to have widespread applications in the diagnostic and on-line monitoring fields where rapid analysis in alcoholic matrices is desirable. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 120.
    Kroger, S
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Setford, SJ
    Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Electrochemical assay method for the rapid determination of oxidase enzyme activities1998In: Biotechnology techniques, ISSN 0951-208X, E-ISSN 1573-6784, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 123-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard photometric method for the determination of oxidase enzyme activity is compared with an electrochemical approach, involving the use of cheap, disposable screen-printed electrodes. Development and characterisation of the electrochemical device is reported. The electrochemical approach is demonstrated to be advantageous, particularly with regard to speed, ease-of-use, chemicals required and decentralisation of analysis.

  • 121.
    Kroger, S
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Setford, SJ
    Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Immunosensor for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in aqueous organic solvent soil extracts1998In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 70, no 23, p. 5047-5053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a simple electrochemical immunoassay procedure for the field-based quantification of the herbicide 2,4-D in methanolic soil extracts is presented. The sensor utilizes a competitive immunoassay format incorporating an immobilized antigen complex at the surface of a disposable screen-printed working electrode element, The extent of glucose oxidase-labeled antibody binding td the antigen-electrode is determined amperometrically and is related to sample analyte concentration. The performance of the sensor is assessed in buffer, 30% methanol, and methanolic soil extracts. The device is capable of quantifying 2,4-D in all three matrixes at the low ppm level with coefficient of variation values of 6.2-33.6%. The causes of the variation observed in the sensor response indifferent soil matrixes are examined and improvements proposed. The sensor, tested in parallel with a commercial 2,4-D immunoassay test kit, yields comparable quantitative data and detection limits while exhibiting greater assay simplicity.

  • 122.
    Kroger, S
    et al.
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Solvent-resistant carbon electrodes screen printed onto plastic for use in biosensors1997In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 347, no 02-janArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A three electrode design using solvent resistant materials is reported, enabling the production of screen printed electrodes for use in biosensor applications involving water-miscible organic solvents. Heat stabilised polyester sheets were used as base materials in combination with carbon basal tracks and an epoxy-based polymer protective coating. The new electrodes avoid problems with solvent induced baseline shifts displayed by conventional screen-printed electrodes. The material for the underlying basal track has been changed from silver to carbon ink to reduce the number of materials involved in the production and avoid possible interferences. In addition, the design is readily applied in biosensor applications. Different methods for the incorporation of a rhodium catalyst are discussed. The application of the electrode system modified with the rhodium catalyst for the amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide in different concentrations of methanol, isopropanol and ethanol is demonstrated.

  • 123.
    Kroger, S
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; University Lund, Centre Chemistry, Department Pure and Appl Biochem, S-22100 Lund, Sweden; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Mosbach, K
    Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; University Lund, Centre Chemistry, Department Pure and Appl Biochem, S-22100 Lund, Sweden; .
    Haupt, K
    Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; University Lund, Centre Chemistry, Department Pure and Appl Biochem, S-22100 Lund, Sweden; .
    Imprinted polymer based sensor system for herbicides using differential-pulse voltammetry on screen printed electrodes1999In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 71, no 17, p. 3698-3702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sensor system for the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid has been developed based on specific recognition of the analyte by a molecularly imprinted polymer and electrochemical detection using disposable screen-printed electrodes. The method involves a competitive binding step with a nonrelated electrochemically active probe. For batch binding assays, imprinted polymer particles are incubated in suspension with the analyte and the probe, followed by centrifugation and quantification of the unbound probe in die supernatant. Two different compounds, namely 2,4-dichlorophenol and homogentisic acid, were tested as potential electroactive probes. Both compounds could be conveniently detected by differential-pulse voltammetry on screen-printed, solvent-resistant three-electrode systems having carbon working electrodes. Whereas 2,4-dichlorophenol showed very high nonspecific binding to the polymer, homogentisic acid bound specifically to the imprinted sites and thus allowed calibration curves for the analyte in the micromolar range to be recorded. An integrated sensor was developed by coating the imprinted polymer particles directly onto the working electrode. Following incubation of the modified electrode in a solution containing the analyte and the probe, the bound fraction of the probe is quantified. This system provides a cheap, disposable sensor for rapid determination of environmentally relevant and other analytes.

  • 124.
    Kyprianou, Dimitris
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England.
    R. Guerreiro, Antonio
    Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England.
    Chianella, Iva
    Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England.
    V. Piletska, Elena
    Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England.
    A. Fowler, Steven
    Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England.
    Karim, Kal
    Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England.
    J. Whitcombe, Michael
    Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England.
    P. F. Turner, Anthony
    Cranfield University, UK.
    A. Piletsky, Sergey
    Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England.
    New reactive polymer for protein immobilisation on sensor surfaces2009In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 1365-1371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immobilisation of biorecognition elements on transducer surfaces is a key step in the development of biosensors. The immobilisation needs to be fast, cheap and most importantly should not affect the biorecognition activity of the immobilised receptor. A novel protocol for the covalent immobilisation of biomolecules containing primary amines using an inexpensive and simple polymer is presented. This tridimensional (3D) network leads to a random immobilisation of antibodies on the polymer and ensures the availability of a high percentage of antibody binding sites. The reactivity of the polymer is based on the reaction between primary amines and thioacetal groups included in the polymer network. These functional groups (thioacetal) do not need any further activation in order to react with proteins, making it attractive for sensor fabrication. The novel polymer also contains thiol derivative groups (disulphide groups or thioethers) that promote self-assembling on a metal transducer surface. For demonstration purposes the polymer was immobilised on Au Biacore chips. The resulting polymer layer was characterised using contact angle meter, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ellipsometry. A general protocol suitable for the immobilisation of bovine serum albumin (BSA), enzymes and antibodies such as polyclonal anti-microcystin-LR antibody and monoclonal anti-prostate specific antigen (anti-PSA) antibody was then optimised. The affinity characteristics of developed immunosensors were investigated in reaction with microcystin-LR, and PSA. The calculated detection limit for analytes depended on the properties of antibodies. The detection limit for microcystin-LR was 10 ng mL(-1) and for PSA 0.01 ng mL(-1). The non-specific binding of analytes to synthesised polymers was very low. The polymer-coated chips were stored for up to 2 months without any noticeable deterioration in their ability to react with proteins. These findings make this new polymer very promising for the development of low-cost, easy to prepare and sensitive biosensors. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 125.
    Kyprianou, Dimitris
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Cranfield MK34 0AL, Beds, England.
    R. Guerreiro, Antonio
    Cranfield University, Cranfield MK34 0AL, Beds, England.
    Nirschl, Martin
    Siemens AG Munich, Corp Technology, D-81739 Munich, Germany.
    Chianella, Iva
    Cranfield University, Cranfield MK34 0AL, Beds, England.
    Subrahmanyam, Sreenath
    Cranfield University, Cranfield MK34 0AL, Beds, England.
    P. F. Turner, Anthony
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Piletsky, Sergey
    Cranfield University, Cranfield MK34 0AL, Beds, England.
    The application of polythiol molecules for protein immobilisation on sensor surfaces2010In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 1049-1055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The immobilisation of bio-receptors on transducer surfaces is a key step in the development of biosensors. The immobilisation needs to be fast, cheap and most importantly should not affect the biorecognition activity of the immobilised receptor. The development of a protocol for biomolecule immobilisation onto a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor surface using inexpensive polythiol compounds is presented here. The method used here is based on the reaction between primary amines and thioacetal groups, formed upon reaction of o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) and thiol compounds. The self-assembled thiol monolayers were characterised using contact angle and XPS. The possibility to immobilise proteins on monolayers was assessed by employing BSA as a model protein. For the polythiol layers exhibiting the best performance, a general protocol was optimised suitable for the immobilisation of enzymes and antibodies such as anti-prostate specific antigen (anti-PSA) and anti Salmonella typhimurium. The kinetic data was obtained for PSA binding to anti-PSA and for S. typhimurium cells with a detection limit of 5 x 10(6) cells mL(-1) with minimal non-specific binding of other biomolecules. These findings make this technique a very promising alternative for amine coupling compared to peptide bond formation. Additionally, it offers opportunity for immobilising proteins (even those with low isoelectric point) on neutral polythiol layers without any activation step. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 126.
    Li, He
    et al.
    Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China and University of Jinan, China.
    He, Jing
    University of Jinan, China.
    Li, Songjun
    Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrochemical immunosensor with N-doped graphene-modified electrode for label-free detection of the breast cancer biomarker CA 15-32013In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 43, p. 25-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly sensitive and label-free detection of the biomarker carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) remains a challenge in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Here, a novel electrochemical immunosensor capable of sensitive and label-free detection of CA 15-3 is reported. This unique immunosensor, equipped with a highly conductive graphene (i.e., N-doped graphene sheets)-modified electrode, exhibited significantly increased electron transfer and high sensitivity toward CA 15-3. This novel immunosensor, with a low detection limit of 0.012U/mL, worked well over a broad linear range of 0.1-20U/mL. Unlike conventional immunosensors, which usually involve complicated label processing and time-consuming separations, the use of highly conductive graphene avoids the need for labels and is simple in nature. The strategy developed for this immunosensor provides a promising approach for clinical research and diagnostic applications.

  • 127.
    Li, Sogjun
    et al.
    School of Materials Science & Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.
    Cao, ShunshengCranfield University, UK / Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.Piletsky, SergeyBiotechnology Center, Cranfield University, UK.Turner, AnthonyLinköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Molecularly Imprinted Catalysts: principle, synthesis and applications2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecularly Imprinted Catalysts: Principle, Synthesis, and Applications is the first book of its kind to provide an in-depth overview of molecularly imprinted catalysts and selective catalysis, including technical details, principles of selective catalysis, preparation processes, the catalytically active polymers themselves, and important progress made in this field. It serves as an important reference for scientists, students, and researchers who are working in the areas of molecular imprinting, catalysis, molecular recognition, materials science, biotechnology, and nanotechnology.Comprising a diverse group of experts from prestigious universities and industries across the world, the contributors to this book provide access to the latest knowledge and eye-catching achievements in the field, and an understanding of what progress has been made and to what extent it is being advanced in industry.

  • 128.
    Li, Songjun
    et al.
    Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China.
    Cao, Shunsheng
    Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China.
    Piletsky, Sergey
    University of Leicester, UK.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Foreward2015In: Molecularly Imprinted Catalysts : Principle, Synthesis and Applications / [ed] Li, S., Cao, S., Piletsky, S.A. and Turner, A.P.F., Elsevier, 2015, p. xvii-xixChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 129.
    Li, Songjun
    et al.
    Central China Normal University.
    Ge, Yi
    Cranfield University.
    Piletsky, Sergey A
    Cranfield University.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Zipper-Like On/Off-Switchable Molecularly Imprinted Polymer2011In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 21, no 17, p. 3344-3349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A zipper-like on/off-switchable molecularly imprinted polymer is reported. This unique imprinted polymer was composed of template-imprinted polymeric networks that incorporate zipper-like interactions between poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) and poly(2-acrylamide-2-methyl propanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS). This polymer showed marginal recognition ability towards the imprint species under low temperature conditions, due to the interpolymer interaction between PAAm and PAMPS, which inhibited access to the imprinted networks. In contrast, at relatively high temperatures (such as 40 degrees C), the polymer demonstrated significant molecular recognition ability towards the imprint species resulting from the dissociation of the interpolymer complexes of PAAm and PAMPS, which enabled access to the imprint networks. Unlike previously reported PNIPAm-based imprinted polymers, which demonstrate alterable molecular recognition simply because of the thermosensitive hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of PNIPAm, this polymer employed a zipper-like supramolecular architecture between PAAm and PAMPS, thereby enabling switchable molecular recognition.

  • 130.
    Li, Songjun
    et al.
    Central China Normal University.
    Ge, Yi
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Wang, Shenqi
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Turner, Anthony P.F.
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Piletsky, Sergey A.
    Cranfield University, UK.
    ‘On/off’-switchable catalysis by a smart enzyme-like imprinted polymer2011In: Journal of Catalysis, ISSN 0021-9517, E-ISSN 1090-2694, Vol. 278, no 2, p. 173-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘On/off’-switchable catalysis by a smart enzyme-like imprinted polymer is reported. This unique imprinted polymer was composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-containing p-nitrophenyl phosphate-imprinted networks that exhibited temperature-dependent hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity. At a relatively low temperature (such as 20 °C), this polymer was capable of vigorous catalysis for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate due to its hydrophilic networks, which enabled access to the imprinted framework. On the contrary, at higher temperatures (such as 40 °C), this polymer demonstrated poor catalysis resulting from its dramatically increased hydrophobicity, which inhibited access to the imprinted sites. Unlike previously reported imprinted polymers which lack adjustable networks, this novel imprinted polymer employed thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) networks, thus enabling the switchable catalysis.

  • 131.
    Li, Songjun
    et al.
    Central China Normal University.
    Ge, Yi
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Catalytic and Positively Thermosensitive Molecularly Imprinted Polymer2011In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 1194-1200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A catalytic and positively thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymer is reported. This unique imprinted polymer was composed of 4-nitrophenyl phosphate-imprinted networks that exhibited a thermosensitive interpolymer interaction between poly(2-trifluoromethylacrylic acid) (PTFMA) and poly(1-vinylimidazole) (PVI), which contains catalytically active sites. At a relatively low temperature (such as 20 degrees C), this imprinted polymer did not demonstrate significant catalytic activity for the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate due to the interpolymer complexation between PVI and PTFMA, which blocked access to the active sites of PVI and caused shrinking of the polymer. Conversely, at higher temperatures (such as 40 degrees C), this polymer showed significant catalytic activity resulting from the dissociation of the interpolymer complexes between PVI and PTFMA, which facilitated access to the active sites of PVI and inflated the polymer. Unlike previously reported poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based molecularly imprinted polymers, which demonstrated decreased molecular recognition and catalytic activity with increased temperatures, i.e., negatively thermosensitive molecular recognition and catalysis abilities, this imprinted polymer exploits the unique interpolymer interaction between PVI and PTFMA, enabling the reversed thermal responsiveness.

  • 132.
    Li, Songjun
    et al.
    School of Materials Science & Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.
    Zhu, Maiyong
    School of Materials Science & Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.
    Whitcombe, Michael J.
    Department of Chemestry, Unversity of Leicester, UK.
    Piletsky, Sergey A.
    Department of Chemestry, Unversity of Leicester, UK.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Enzyme-Like Catalysis: principle, design and applications2015In: Molecularly imprinted polymers for enzyme-like catalysis : principle, design and applications / [ed] Sogjun Li, Cao Shunsheng, Sergey Piletsky, Anthony Turner, Elsevier, 2015, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective catalysis remains a significant challenge owing to the lack of a generic protocol suitable for the preparation of selective catalytic materials. A promising approach is to translate the principle of enzyme catalysis for the design of new catalytic materials. Known as a “key-to-lock” technology, molecular imprinting provides a promising perspective by helping create in a straightforward manner binding sites that possess enzyme-like catalytic ability with but higher stability. In this chapter, we focus on discussing some key issues involved in active molecularly imprinted polymers from catalytic applications. The similarity and difference between preparing conventional molecularly imprinted polymers and catalytic imprinted polymers are highlighted. Other aspects relating to the principle, design, and future outlook of catalytic molecularly imprinted polymers are also discussed.

  • 133.
    Liu, Yu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sichuan Agriculture University, Peoples R China.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhao, Maojun
    Sichuan Agriculture University, Peoples R China.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Processable enzyme-hybrid conductive polymer composites for electrochemical biosensing2018In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 100, p. 374-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new approach for the facile fabrication of electrochemical biosensors using a biohybrid conducting polymer was demonstrated using glucose oxidase (GOx) and poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as a model. The biohybrid conducting polymer was prepared based on a template-assisted chemical polymerisation leading to the formation of PEDOT microspheres (PEDOT-MSs), followed by in-situ deposition of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) and electrostatic immobilisation of glucose oxidase (GOx) to form water processable GOx-PtNPs-PEDOT-MSs. The morphology, chemical composition and electrochemical performance of the GOx-PtNPs-PEDOT-MS-based glucose biosensor were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, zeta potential and electrochemical measurements, respectively. The biosensor delivered a linear response for glucose over the range 0.1-10 mM (R-2 = 0.9855) with a sensitivity of 116.25 mu A mM(-1) cm(-2), and limit of detection of 1.55 mu M (3 x SD/sensitivity). The sensitivity of the developed PEDOT-MS based biosensor is significantly higher (2.7 times) than the best reported PEDOT-based glucose biosensor in the literature. The apparent Michaelis Menten constant (K-m(app)) of the GOx-PtNPs-PEDOT-MS-based biosensors was calculated as 7.3 mM. Moreover, the biosensor exhibited good storage stability, retaining 97% of its sensitivity after 12 days storage. This new bio-hybrid conducting polymer combines the advantages of micro-structured morphology, compatibility with large-scale manufacturing processes, and intrinsic biocatalytic activity and conductivity, thus demonstrating its potential as a convenient material for printed bioelectronics and sensors.

  • 134.
    Liu, Yu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sichuan Agr Univ, Peoples R China.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhao, Maojun
    Sichuan Agr Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wing Cheung, Mak
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Facile synthesis of highly processable and water dispersible polypyrrole and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) microspheres for enhanced supercapacitive performance2018In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 99, p. 332-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much recent work has focused on improving the processibility and electrocapacitive performance of conducting polymer-based materials for energy related applications. The key mechanism of conducting polymers as supercapacitor materials is driven by the rapid charging and discharging processes that involve mass transport of the counter ions insertion/ejection within the polymer structure, where ion diffusion is usually the limiting step on the efficiency of the conducting polymer capacitor. Here, we report a facile method for the green fabrication of polypyrrole microspheres (PPy-MSs) and poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) microspheres (PEDOT-MSs) with good processability, intact morphology and large active surface for enhanced ion interchange processes, without using surfactant and highly irritant or toxic organic solvents during the synthetic process. The structure and morphology of the PPy-MSs and PEDOT-MSs were characterized by means of SEM, EDX, TEM and FTIR. Both PPy-MSs and PEDOT-MSs showed intact microsphere structures with greatly improved water dispersity and processability. More importantly, facilated by the large active surface and inter-microsphere space for ions diffusion, both the PPy-MSs and PEDOT-MSs showed a signiciantly enhanced electrical capacitive performance of 242 F g(-1) and 91.2 F g(-1), repsectively (i.e. 10 and 1.51 times in specific capacitance than the randomly structured PPy and PEDOT). This innovative approach not only addresses fundamental issues in fabrication of high performance processable microstructured conducting polymers, but also makes progress in delivering water processable conducting polymers that could be potentially used for fabrication of printed electronic devices.

  • 135.
    Lotierzo, M
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Bedford MK45 4DT, England; Department Plant Science, D-85350 Freising Weihenstephan, Germany; .
    Henry, OYF
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Bedford MK45 4DT, England; Department Plant Science, D-85350 Freising Weihenstephan, Germany; .
    Piletsky, S
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Bedford MK45 4DT, England; Department Plant Science, D-85350 Freising Weihenstephan, Germany; .
    Tothill, I
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Bedford MK45 4DT, England; Department Plant Science, D-85350 Freising Weihenstephan, Germany; .
    Cullen, D
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Bedford MK45 4DT, England; Department Plant Science, D-85350 Freising Weihenstephan, Germany; .
    Kania, M
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Bedford MK45 4DT, England; Department Plant Science, D-85350 Freising Weihenstephan, Germany; .
    Hock, B
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Bedford MK45 4DT, England; Department Plant Science, D-85350 Freising Weihenstephan, Germany; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Surface plasmon resonance sensor for domoic acid based on grafted imprinted polymer2004In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 145-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film for domoic acid (DA) was synthesised by direct photo-grafting onto a gold chip suitable for a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based bioanalytical instrument system, the BlAcore 3000(TM). The gold surface was first functionalised with a self-assembled monolayer of 2-mercaptoethylamine and subsequent carbodiimide chemistry was performed for covalent attachment of the photoinitiator, 4,4-azobis(cyanovaleric acid). This ensured that the formation of the MIP thin film, comprising 2-(diethyl amino) ethyl methacrylate as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker, occurred only at the surface level. Optimisation and control over the grafting procedure were achieved using contact angle measurements and atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging. The surface grafting resulted in the formation of thin and homogeneous MIP film with thickness of 40 nm. A competitive binding assay was performed with free DA and its conjugate with horseradish peroxidase, which was used as a refractive label. The sensor was evaluated for its sensitivity, cross-reactivity, and robustness by using a BlAcore 3000(TM). Likewise, monoclonal antibodies acting as natural receptors for the toxin were studied with the same BlAcore system. Results of a comparison between the artificial and natural receptors are reported. In contrast to monoclonal antibodies, the regeneration of MIP chip did not affect its recognition properties and continuous measurement was possible over a period of at least 2 months. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 136.
    Loughran, MG
    et al.
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; UNIV MISSISSIPPI,MED CTR,DEPT BIOCHEM,JACKSON,MS 39216; .
    Hall, JM
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; UNIV MISSISSIPPI,MED CTR,DEPT BIOCHEM,JACKSON,MS 39216; .
    Davidson, VL
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; UNIV MISSISSIPPI,MED CTR,DEPT BIOCHEM,JACKSON,MS 39216; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Ammonium ion requirement and stability of methanol dehydrogenase TTF TCNQ electrodes1996In: The Analyst, ISSN 0003-2654, E-ISSN 1364-5528, Vol. 121, no 11, p. 1711-1715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ammonium ion requirement and stability of quinoprotein methanol dehydrogenases were investigated with a view to incorporating them in enzyme electrodes for alcohol. This involved consideration of the effect of temperature and polyelectrolytes on enzyme stability. A packed cavity electrode was constructed using the organic conducting salt TTF-TCNQ (tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane). Methanol dehydrogenase isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans was more stable than the enzyme isolated from Methylophilus methylotrophus and was successfully used for repeated assay in packed cavity electrodes without significant loss in current output. These investigations also showed that, contrary to suggestions in the literature, ammonium ions are necessary for efficient re-oxidation of methanol dehydrogenase at the organic conducting salt electrode.

  • 137.
    Loughran, MG
    et al.
    ; .
    Hall, JM
    ; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Development of a pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) mediated glucose oxidase enzyme electrode for detection of glucose in fruit juice1996In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 8, no 10, p. 870-875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrochemistry of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was examined and the coupling of PQQ with glucose oxidase was studied at different pH values. Optimal interaction between PQQ and glucose oxidase was observed at pH 3.5. Results from these studies enabled construction of PQQ-glucose oxidase-modified enzyme electrodes for the detection of glucose in Ribena blackcurrant juice. The corresponding amperometric determination of glucose was in good agreement with results obtained using commercial enzymatic test kits supplied by Boehringer Mannheim and Sigma Diagnostics.

  • 138.
    LOUGHRAN, MG
    et al.
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; UNIV MISSISSIPPI,MED CTR,DEPT BIOCHEM,JACKSON,MS 39216; .
    HALL, JM
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; UNIV MISSISSIPPI,MED CTR,DEPT BIOCHEM,JACKSON,MS 39216; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    DAVIDSON, VL
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; UNIV MISSISSIPPI,MED CTR,DEPT BIOCHEM,JACKSON,MS 39216; .
    AMPEROMETRIC DETECTION OF HISTAMINE AT A QUINOPROTEIN DEHYDROGENASE ENZYME ELECTRODE1995In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 10, no 07-jun, p. 569-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methylamine dehydrogenase, a tryptophan tryptophyl quinone (TTQ) containing quinoprotein, catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of primary aliphatic monoamines and diamines to their respective aldehydes and ammonia. This paper reports the construction and characterization of an enzyme electrode capable of detecting histamine and methylamine at +200 mV versus a saturated calomel reference electrode. The methylamine dehydrogenase isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans was used in conjunction with the insoluble mediator tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) to construct enzyme electrodes which will potentially provide simple rapid analysis of histamine without the need for the extensive sample pretreatments currently required in HPLC and GLC analysis. The linear response of this amperometric sensor, between 0 and 200 mu M, correlates well with elevated histamine levels predominant in patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia, whilst the observed limit of detection, 4.8 mu M, compares favourably with the lower limits of detection reported for a potentiometric histamine sensitive enzyme electrode.

  • 139.
    Lucarelli, F
    et al.
    University Florence, Dipartimento Chim, I-50019 Florence, Italy; Cranfield University, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Marrazza, G
    University Florence, Dipartimento Chim, I-50019 Florence, Italy; Cranfield University, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Mascini, M
    University Florence, Dipartimento Chim, I-50019 Florence, Italy; Cranfield University, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Carbon and gold electrodes as electrochemical transducers for DNA hybridisation sensors2004In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 515-530Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genosensor technology relying on the use of carbon and gold electrodes is reviewed. The key steps of each analytical procedure, namely DNA-probe immobilisation, hybridisation, labelling and electrochemical investigation of the surface, are discussed in detail with separate sections devoted to label-free and newly emerging magnetic assays. Special emphasis has been given to protocols that have been used with real DNA samples. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All fights reserved.

  • 140.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lateral-flow technology: from visual to instrumental.2016In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 79, no SI, p. 297-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lateral-flow tests were first launched commercially in 1984, as a simple urine-based pregnancy test for home use. The simplicity of the visual readout delivered by the basic lateral-flow format proved to be a very popular. However, the recent apparently unstoppable trend towards portable and wearable technology is driving the lateral-flow strip towards an industrial interface that will enable it to interface with big data and expert systems, and where ready transmission of data is essential. In this review, we chart the inevitable evolution of the visually-read lateral-flow strip to more advanced instrumented versions and consider the future of this very flexible approach to delivering simple affinity assays. We examine recent labelling strategies, the relative merits of optical and electrochemical transducers and explore the evolution of recognition elements that are now being incorporated into these systems.

  • 141.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cheung, K.Y.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Orban, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lee, C-J
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Theranostic Contact Lens for Modulation and Detection of Viral Infection2017In: 26th Anniversary World Congress on Biosensors (Biosensors), Elsevier, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 142.
    Mascini, M
    et al.
    University Florence, I-50121 Florence, Italy; Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Special Issue - G. Guilbault Honorary Issue - Preface2003In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 18, no 03-feb, p. 109-110Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 143.
    Meglinski, IV
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Sch Engn, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Varejka, M
    Cranfield University, Sch Engn, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Woodman, AC
    Cranfield University, Sch Engn, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Piletsky, SA
    Cranfield University, Sch Engn, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Laser ice scaffolds modeling for tissue engineering2005In: LASER PHYSICS LETTERS, ISSN 1612-2011, Vol. 2, no 9, p. 465-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tissue engineering is one of the most exciting and rapidly growing areas in biomedical engineering that offers vast potential for changing traditional approaches to meeting many pharmaceutics and critical health care needs. Currently the bottle-neck area in this multidisciplmiary field appears to be materials and fabrication technology for the design of artificial extracellular matrices/scaffolds that support culturing and growth of new tissue. We have shown that stable relief structures can be created and maintained in the bulk of ice by continuous s canning with computer-guided IR CO2 laser. The optimal laser beam intensity and fluence rate distribution within the ice sample, as well as the rate of scanning were estimated based on the Monte Carlo model utilized physical/optical properties of ice. The results of numerical simulation are agreed well with the observed experimental results of thermo-coupling measurements and obtained microscopic images.

  • 144.
    Mijangos, Irene
    et al.
    Institute of BioScience and Technology, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedfordshire, UK.
    Navarro-Villoslada, Fernando
    Institute of BioScience and Technology, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedfordshire, UK.
    Guerreiro, Antonio
    Institute of BioScience and Technology, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedfordshire, UK.
    Piletska, Elena
    Institute of BioScience and Technology, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedfordshire, UK.
    Chianella, Iva
    Institute of BioScience and Technology, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedfordshire, UK.
    Karim, Kal
    Institute of BioScience and Technology, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedfordshire, UK.
    Turner, Anthony
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Piletsky, Sergey
    Institute of BioScience and Technology, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedfordshire, UK.
    Influence of initiator and different polymerisation conditions on performance of molecularly imprinted polymers2006In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 381-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of polymers was imprinted with (-)-ephedrine using two different initiators. A chemometrics approach was used to optimise experiments aimed at analysis of the interplay of parameters such as polymerisation time, temperature and percentage of initiator. The results presented demonstrate the importance of keeping the right balance between these various parameters of polymerisation conditions. It is shown that enhancing one single parameter such as polymer rigidity does not necessarily improve polymer performance. In general it could be concluded that MIPs should be synthesised over a long period of time using low concentration of initiator and low temperature. The best selectivity was achieved for polymers prepared by photo-initiation with 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone as initiator.

  • 145.
    Mishra, Prashant
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Institute Adv Mat, Teknikringen 4A,Mjärdevi Science Pk, S-58330 Linkoping, Sweden; University of Free State, South Africa.
    Lakshmi, G. B. V. S.
    Inter University of Accelerator Centre, India.
    Mishra, Sachin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Institute Adv Mat, Teknikringen 4A,Mjärdevi Science Pk, S-58330 Linkoping, Sweden; University of Free State, South Africa.
    Avasthi, D. K.
    Amity University, India.
    Swart, Hendrik C.
    University of Free State, South Africa.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mishra, Yogendra K.
    University of Kiel, Germany.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Institute Adv Mat, Teknikringen 4A,Mjardevi Science Pk, S-58330 Linkoping, Sweden; Vinoba Bhave Research Institute, India.
    Electrocatalytic biofuel cell based on highly efficient metal-polymer nano-architectured bioelectrodes2017In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 39, p. 601-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy based devices are rapidly gaining significant research interest because of growing quest for future alternative energy resources, but most of the existing technologies suffer from poor electron transfer and slow mass transport, which hinder the fabrication of realistic high-power devices. Using a versatile strategy, here we have demonstrated the fabrication of nanoparticle-polymer framework based bioelectrocatalytic interfaces which facilitate a high mass-transport and thus offers the simple construction of advanced enzyme-based biofuel cells. It has been shown that a gold nanoparticle-structured polyaniline network can be effectively used as an electrical cabling interface providing efficient electron transfer for bio-anode and cathode. The resulting bioelectrodes are capable of excellent diffusional mass-transport and thus can easily facilitate the design of new and highly efficient membrane-less advanced bioenergy devices. The biofuel cell delivers a high-power density of about 2.5 times (i.e., 685 mu W cm(-2)) and open circuit voltage of 760 mV compared to conventional conducting polymer-based biofuel cells.

  • 146.
    Mishra, Sachin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.
    Ashaduzzaman, M.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Mishra, Prashant
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.
    Swart, H.C.
    Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Vinoba Bhave Research Institute, Sirsa Road, Saidabad, Allahabad, India.
    Stimuli-enabled zipper-like graphene interface for auto-switchable bioelectronics.2017In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 89, p. 305-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene interfaces with multi-stimuli responsiveness are of particular interest due to their diverse super-thin interfacial behaviour, which could be well suited to operating complex physiological systems in a single miniaturised domain. In general, smart graphene interfaces switch bioelectrodes from the hydrophobic to hydrophilic state, or vice versa, upon triggering. In the present work, a stimuli encoded zipper-like graphene oxide (GrO)/polymer interface was fabricated with in situ poly(N-isopropylacrylamide–co–diethylaminoethylmethylacrylate), i.e., poly(NIPAAm–co–DEAEMA) directed hierarchical self-assembly of GrO and glucose oxidase (GOx). The designed interface exhibited reversible on/off-switching of bio-electrocatalysis on changing the pH between 5 and 8, via phase transition from super hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The study further indicated that the zipper-like interfacial bioelectrochemical properties could be tuned over a modest change of temperature (i.e., 20–40 °C). The resulting auto-switchable interface has implications for the design of novel on/off-switchable biodevices with ‘in-built’ self-control.

  • 147.
    Mishra, Sachin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ashaduzzaman, Md
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Tekidag AB UCS Mjärdevi Science Park, Sweden.
    Stimuli-enabled zipper-like graphene oxide/ polymer interfaces for labile switching of bioelectronics2016In: Biosensors 2016 – The World Congress on Biosensors, Gothenburg, Sweden, 25-27 May 2016, Elsevier, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 148.
    MORRIS, NA
    et al.
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; PAISLEY COLL TECHNOL,DEPT BIOL,PAISLEY PA1 2BE,RENFREW,SCOTLAND; UNILEVER RES,COLWORTH LAB,SHARNBROOK MK44 1LQ,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    CARDOSI, MF
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; PAISLEY COLL TECHNOL,DEPT BIOL,PAISLEY PA1 2BE,RENFREW,SCOTLAND; UNILEVER RES,COLWORTH LAB,SHARNBROOK MK44 1LQ,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    BIRCH, BJ
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; PAISLEY COLL TECHNOL,DEPT BIOL,PAISLEY PA1 2BE,RENFREW,SCOTLAND; UNILEVER RES,COLWORTH LAB,SHARNBROOK MK44 1LQ,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    AN ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPILLARY FILL DEVICE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GLUCOSE INCORPORATING GLUCOSE-OXIDASE AND RUTHENIUM(III) HEXAMINE AS MEDIATOR1992In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes a coulometric measurement device for glucose based on thin-layer bulk electrolysis. The analysis is carried out in a specially constructed cell, the electrochemical capillary fill device, which has a total volume of less than 20-mu-l. Once the sample enters the cell by capillary action, the freeze-dried assay components (glucose oxidase, ruthenium (III) hexamine, buffer salts, etc.) become solubilized and quickly disperse throughout the volume of the cell. After a period of one min, the time taken for the enzyme catalyzed oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid to reach completion, a potential step is applied and the current transient, resulting from the oxidation of reduced mediator at the working electrode, integrated over a period of 60 s. From the resultant charge value, the concentration of glucose in the sample can be unambiguously determined. The response of the sensor is both linear and accurate over the range 2-30 mM, which covers the normally accepted range for blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. The second order rate constant for the reaction between reduced glucose oxidase and ruthenium (III) hexamine was evaluated by conducting a numerically based analysis that was designed to separate the diffusional and catalytic components of current transients.

  • 149.
    Mousavisani, Seyedeh Zeinab
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Eletroanalytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
    Raoof, Jahan-Bakhsh
    Eletroanalytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ojani, Reza
    Eletroanalytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Label-free DNA sensor based on diazonium immobilisation for detection of DNA damage in breast cancer 1 gene2018In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 264, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical DNA biosensors offer simple and rapid tools for detection of DNA sequences or damaged genes associated with human disease. The performance of electrochemical DNA sensors is critically dependent on the quality of the DNA immobilisation. Many DNA biosensors have been focused on studying DNA hybridisation preformed under relatively mild assay conditions, while the development of stable DNA biosensors to study DNA damage under a much harsher condition typically in the presence of reactive oxygen species is more challenging. In this article, we developed an electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a stable diazonium-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) for the detection of damage in DNA sequences related to the BRCA1 gene by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The successful preparation of the DNA sensor was confirmed by FTIR-ATR, contact angle and electrochemical measurements. The DNA sensor exhibited good reproducibility and high stability and could also have potential for investigation of the glutathione antioxidant effect. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 150. Newman, J. D.
    et al.
    Turner, Anthony
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Biosensors for monitoring glucose2004In: Sensors in medicine and health care / [ed] P. Å. Öberg, Tatsuo Togawa and Francis A. Spelman, Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2004, p. 45-78Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to remarkable developments in the field of sensors along with miniaturization, sophisticated microsensors are part of many  aspects of 21st century medicine and health care. Turning sensor inputs of all kinds into defined electrical signals that can be  interpreted and acted upon by both stationary and portable medical  equipment as well as implants, sensors find many applications monitoring blood pressure, heart rates, glucose levels and many other parameters by which human health can be evaluated.         

    They also serve as key components in modern imaging equipment as well as operating equipment for minimally invasive surgery, catheters and other applications.         

    Taken as a whole, Sensors Applications covers all major fields of application for commercial sensors, as well as their manufacturing techniques and major types. Strong emphasis is placed   on microsensors, microsystems and integrated electronic sensor  packages rather than bulk equipment. Each of the individual volumes is tailored to the needs and queries of readers from the relevan branches of industry and research.

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