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  • 101.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Local authorities' approaches to standardised environmental management systems2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim with this thesis is to create a broader understanding of how the EMS tool works in local authorities. This means to study whether EMS is a useful tool for managing the environmental impact from the local authorities' activities and by highlighting its strengths and weaknesses as a tool. EMS is a tool that is used on a voluntary basis that aims at improving organisations' environmental performance. There are several standards for designing EMSs; however, this thesis focuses on EMSs designed according to the principles of the international standard ISO 14001 and the EU regulation Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). The standards are based on a wide range of requirements. If these requirements are fulfilled, the organisation can choose to get its EMS certified by a third party. The EMS tool is frequently used in the private sector, and it is sometimes argued that it is designed for private (industrial) organisations. However, local authorities worldwide have shown an increased interest in EMSs since the mid 1990s. The EMS use in the private sector has been subject to some critique. For example, there is a risk that the tool is used only to get another certificate in order to increase their legitimacy, which means that there is a risk that the environmental issues are neglected. Until now, little academic research has been conducted concerning EMS use in local authorities. Therefore, it is interesting to study what approaches local authorities have to EMSs.

    Mainly Swedish local authorities have been studied for this thesis. Many Swedish local authorities have been using EMSs for a fairly long time, which means that they have a certain amount of experience from this using tool. The local authorities' approaches to EMS use have been studied from several perspectives using postal surveys, interviews, and case study methodology. This means that the research has a strong empirical foundation.

    The EMS use in Swedish local authorities is fairly common, since almost half of them are in the process of implementing EMSs in all or some of their departments. The main reason for implementing EMSs is to improve the structure of their environmental management. The local authorities often use ISO 14001 and/or EMAS as inspiration and design the EMSs according to their local conditions and ambitions, thus certification of the EMSs is seldom an aim. Although many local authorities seem to use EMSs in a reflective and sensible way, several barriers or difficulties - for example, maintaining continuity and ensuring follow-up of the environmental improvements - have been discovered. Furthermore, the EMSs that are being implemented often exclude environmental impact related to their exercise of authority since it is difficult and abstract. Including environmental impact related to these activities is often seen as a matter of maturity. To develop the organisations' EMSs, internal and external communication and interaction is experienced as very important. Such issues contribute to the EMS maturity processes, since the local authorities find new inspiration, knowledge, and motivation to further develop the EMS processes and, as a consequence, improve their environmental performance.

    Delarbeid
    1. Mapping Environmental Management Systems Initiatives in Swedish Local authorities - a national survey
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Mapping Environmental Management Systems Initiatives in Swedish Local authorities - a national survey
    2002 (engelsk)Inngår i: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, E-ISSN 1535-3966, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 107-115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Nearly half of all Swedish local authorities use environmental management systems (EMSs) in their environmental work. This was shown in the postal survey that is the basis for this paper. The survey was conducted in September 2000 among all 289 local authorities in Sweden, generating an 81% return rate. It was performed in order to gain an understanding of how common it is to implement EMSs in local authorities, how far in the EMS process they have come and what organizations are objects of EMS implementation. It proved to be primarily the technical organizations that have adopted this kind of work and it is most common that these kinds of organization use a third party validation. ISO 14001 is the most frequently used standard but, in general, standards are used only as guidelines when designing EMSs, which means that certification/registration is not an overall objective among Swedish local authorities.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    John Wiley & Sons, 2002
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13594 (URN)10.1002/csr.17 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-06-02 Laget: 2005-06-02 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-23
    2. Implementation of Standardised Environmental Management Systems in Swedish Local Authorities; reasons, expectations and some outcomes
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Implementation of Standardised Environmental Management Systems in Swedish Local Authorities; reasons, expectations and some outcomes
    2002 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, Vol. 5, nr 6, s. 443-448Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental issues have become increasingly important in Swedish local authorities during the last decade. This has been shown as almost half of the local authorities are implementing environmental management systems (EMSs) in their organisations as a voluntary commitment to improve their environmental efforts. In the autumn 2000, a national postal survey to learn more about EMS implementation in Swedish local authorities was carried out. The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons behind Swedish local authorities’ EMS implementation, what the local authorities expect EMS implementation to bring to their organisations, what environmentally related outcomes they have observed, and how the EMS work is co-ordinated. Although Swedish local authorities often have ambitious plans for EMS implementation, few resources are allocated for this purpose, which means, in fact, that EMS implementation is not a high priority. Our study showed that the chief reason for implementing EMSs was of organisational origin (such as bringing order to the environmental efforts), although EMS implementation is often viewed as an environmental project. This paper also discusses the problems surrounding the fact that EMSs are viewed as projects and not as continuous processes that are integrated into the organisation.

    Emneord
    Local authority; Environmental management system (EMS); EMAS; ISO 14001
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13595 (URN)10.1016/S1462-9011(02)00090-4 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-06-02 Laget: 2005-06-02 Sist oppdatert: 2011-05-02
    3. Development of the Use of Standardised Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) in Local Authorities
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Development of the Use of Standardised Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) in Local Authorities
    2005 (engelsk)Inngår i: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 144-156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Local authorities have used EMSs to structure their environmental efforts for some time now, and this paper studies the development over time of the use of EMSs in some Swedish local authorities. The analyses depart from three development indicators: dissemination of the EMS work, the progress in the EMS cycle and the use of EMS standards. The results show that EMSs are more widely used within the local authorities today compared with a few years ago. Before, it was mainly the technical sector that was subject to EMS implementation, but today there is a stronger emphasis on the successfulness of EMS implementation in departments within the soft sector. The study also shows that local authorities have shifted from using ISO 14001 and/or EMAS to using less formal, often locally adapted and designed standards. The paper concludes by discussing the usefulness of standards for EMS implementation in local authorities.

    Emneord
    local authority, EMS, dissemination, progress, use of standards
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13596 (URN)10.1002/csr.80 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-06-02 Laget: 2005-06-02 Sist oppdatert: 2011-05-02
    4. Different Approaches to Standardized Environmental Management Systems in Local Authorities - Two Case Studies in Gothenburg and Newcastle
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Different Approaches to Standardized Environmental Management Systems in Local Authorities - Two Case Studies in Gothenburg and Newcastle
    2004 (engelsk)Inngår i: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 48-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Local authorities have shown an increased interest in committing to voluntary environmental commitment. This paper analyses the use of one of them, standardized environmental management systems (EMSs). It examines how local authorities approach EMS implementation, using two case studies in two European cities, Newcastle City Council (UK) and Gothenburg City Council (Sweden). The research departs from four research topics: drivers; strategy for EMS implementation; integration, dissemination and acceptance; future development of the EMS work. The case study cities' EMS approaches are analysed starting from the three pillars of institutions: the regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive. The analyses reveal that both Newcastle and Gothenburg mainly use a normative approach to EMS implementation; however, there is a regulative inclination in Newcastle's approach. It has also been noted that there is a difference between the standards (e.g. ISO 14001 and EMAS) and the actual use of the standards. The standards are fairly regulative while the application of the standards varies from organization to organization.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13597 (URN)10.1002/csr.54 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-06-02 Laget: 2005-06-02 Sist oppdatert: 2011-05-02
    5. Managing indirect environmental impact within local authorities' standardized environmental management systems
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Managing indirect environmental impact within local authorities' standardized environmental management systems
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Local Environment, ISSN 1354-9839, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 73-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Many local authorities use standardized environmental management systems (EMSs) to improve their environmental management. These authorities often find it difficult to manage environmental impact caused by their exercise of authority i.e. indirect environmental impact (IEI) within their EMSs. Since this is connected to their core activities, it is important to understand how IEI could be more efficiently managed with respect to EMS work. The purpose for this paper is to study if and how IEI could be managed within the framework of EMS. In this study we have identified two different approaches to managing IEI. Because managing IEI is complex, it is often ignored when initiating EMSs or managed by explicitly avoid mentioning the concept. Managing IEI is seen as a matter of maturity within the organization. The paper concludes with a discussion regarding a developed definition of IEI and how management of IEI could be facilitated.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13598 (URN)10.1080/13549830601098271 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-06-02 Laget: 2005-06-02 Sist oppdatert: 2014-10-29
    6. Potential Benefits of Combining Environmental Management Tools in a Local Authority Context
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Potential Benefits of Combining Environmental Management Tools in a Local Authority Context
    2004 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, ISSN 1464-3332, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 131-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are many environmental management tools available to support integration of environmental perspectives in decision-making processes. However, a single tool is seldom the answer to all queries. This paper shows potential benefits of using a combination of different environmental management tools in a local authority context. Three environmental management tools used in Swedish local authorities are examined — Substance Flow Analyses (SFA), Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), and Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) — from mainly a theoretical point-of-view. The tools are positioned according to their key characteristics, and their individual contribution to environmental management in local authorities is explored. For the local authorities, a combination of tools allows decision-makers to integrate experience from individual projects to overall environmental management, which helps decision-makers to deal with some of the challenges that different environmentalmanagement situations require.

    Emneord
    Substance flow analysis, strategic environmental assessment, environmental management systems, integration, environmental management, local authorities
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13599 (URN)10.1142/S1464333204001663 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-06-02 Laget: 2005-06-02 Sist oppdatert: 2011-05-02
  • 102.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andréen, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Local spatial planning processes and integration of sustainability perspective through a broad systems perspective and systematic approach2018Inngår i: Handbook of Sustainability Science and Research / [ed] Walter Leal Filho, Cham: Springer, 2018, s. 567-580Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities play an important role in forwarding sustainability. In Sweden,municipalities have a monopoly on spatial planning and are, therefore, keyactors for developing sustainable cities. Through integrating sustainabilityconcerns early in the planning processes they have a significant possibility tohave an impact on other actors’ towards increased sustainability. The aim of thispaper is to discuss a process for how sustainability concerns can be addressed inmunicipalities’ spatial planning. It is based on experiences from an on-goingplanning process in Linköping, Sweden. There is a rapid increase in the numberof index-based assessment and planning tools for sustainable cities (e.g.BREEAM communities, LEED neighbourhood, CASBEE-City). In Sweden,there is a newly developed tool: Citylab action, which has clear connections tothe UN sustainable development goals. However, from a city planningperspective the existing tools are often complex and lack conformity with othermunicipal processes. There is therefore a need for municipalities to reflect onwhich tools that are useful, what the local needs for support are, and to developinclusive and broad planning processes with a broad systems perspective inwhich actor involvement is key, and where the city’s overall strategies andpolicies, as well as national and international goals, are clearly disseminated.

  • 103.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Development of the Use of Standardised Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) in Local Authorities2005Inngår i: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 144-156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Local authorities have used EMSs to structure their environmental efforts for some time now, and this paper studies the development over time of the use of EMSs in some Swedish local authorities. The analyses depart from three development indicators: dissemination of the EMS work, the progress in the EMS cycle and the use of EMS standards. The results show that EMSs are more widely used within the local authorities today compared with a few years ago. Before, it was mainly the technical sector that was subject to EMS implementation, but today there is a stronger emphasis on the successfulness of EMS implementation in departments within the soft sector. The study also shows that local authorities have shifted from using ISO 14001 and/or EMAS to using less formal, often locally adapted and designed standards. The paper concludes by discussing the usefulness of standards for EMS implementation in local authorities.

  • 104.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Different Approaches to Standardized Environmental Management Systems in Local Authorities - Two Case Studies in Gothenburg and Newcastle2004Inngår i: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 48-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Local authorities have shown an increased interest in committing to voluntary environmental commitment. This paper analyses the use of one of them, standardized environmental management systems (EMSs). It examines how local authorities approach EMS implementation, using two case studies in two European cities, Newcastle City Council (UK) and Gothenburg City Council (Sweden). The research departs from four research topics: drivers; strategy for EMS implementation; integration, dissemination and acceptance; future development of the EMS work. The case study cities' EMS approaches are analysed starting from the three pillars of institutions: the regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive. The analyses reveal that both Newcastle and Gothenburg mainly use a normative approach to EMS implementation; however, there is a regulative inclination in Newcastle's approach. It has also been noted that there is a difference between the standards (e.g. ISO 14001 and EMAS) and the actual use of the standards. The standards are fairly regulative while the application of the standards varies from organization to organization.

  • 105.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    From Environmental Management Systems to Sustainability Managenment Systems in Swedish Local Authorities2008Inngår i: Facilitating Sustainable Innovations: Sustainable Innovation as a Tool for Regional Development,2008, 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 106.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Implementation of Standardised Environmental Management Systems in Swedish Local Authorities; reasons, expectations and some outcomes2002Inngår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, Vol. 5, nr 6, s. 443-448Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental issues have become increasingly important in Swedish local authorities during the last decade. This has been shown as almost half of the local authorities are implementing environmental management systems (EMSs) in their organisations as a voluntary commitment to improve their environmental efforts. In the autumn 2000, a national postal survey to learn more about EMS implementation in Swedish local authorities was carried out. The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons behind Swedish local authorities’ EMS implementation, what the local authorities expect EMS implementation to bring to their organisations, what environmentally related outcomes they have observed, and how the EMS work is co-ordinated. Although Swedish local authorities often have ambitious plans for EMS implementation, few resources are allocated for this purpose, which means, in fact, that EMS implementation is not a high priority. Our study showed that the chief reason for implementing EMSs was of organisational origin (such as bringing order to the environmental efforts), although EMS implementation is often viewed as an environmental project. This paper also discusses the problems surrounding the fact that EMSs are viewed as projects and not as continuous processes that are integrated into the organisation.

  • 107.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Managing indirect environmental impact within local authorities' standardized environmental management systems2007Inngår i: Local Environment, ISSN 1354-9839, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 73-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many local authorities use standardized environmental management systems (EMSs) to improve their environmental management. These authorities often find it difficult to manage environmental impact caused by their exercise of authority i.e. indirect environmental impact (IEI) within their EMSs. Since this is connected to their core activities, it is important to understand how IEI could be more efficiently managed with respect to EMS work. The purpose for this paper is to study if and how IEI could be managed within the framework of EMS. In this study we have identified two different approaches to managing IEI. Because managing IEI is complex, it is often ignored when initiating EMSs or managed by explicitly avoid mentioning the concept. Managing IEI is seen as a matter of maturity within the organization. The paper concludes with a discussion regarding a developed definition of IEI and how management of IEI could be facilitated.

  • 108.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mapping Environmental Management Systems Initiatives in Swedish Local authorities - a national survey2002Inngår i: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, E-ISSN 1535-3966, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 107-115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nearly half of all Swedish local authorities use environmental management systems (EMSs) in their environmental work. This was shown in the postal survey that is the basis for this paper. The survey was conducted in September 2000 among all 289 local authorities in Sweden, generating an 81% return rate. It was performed in order to gain an understanding of how common it is to implement EMSs in local authorities, how far in the EMS process they have come and what organizations are objects of EMS implementation. It proved to be primarily the technical organizations that have adopted this kind of work and it is most common that these kinds of organization use a third party validation. ISO 14001 is the most frequently used standard but, in general, standards are used only as guidelines when designing EMSs, which means that certification/registration is not an overall objective among Swedish local authorities.

  • 109.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Miljöledningssystem och miljöhänsyn i fysisk planering - arbetsnotat från fallstudier i sex svenska kommuner2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 110.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Towards sustainability management systems in three Swedish local authorities2009Inngår i: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 14, nr 8, s. 721-732Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the development towards sustainability management systems (SMSs) in three Swedish local authorities. Many local authorities have extensive experience in using standardised Environmental Management Systems (EMSs). Recently EMSs have extended their reach by widening the scope of the systems including other dimensions of sustainable development. Case studies have been performed in three of the most EMS-experienced local authorities in Sweden. These authorities have extended their EMSs into a sustainability management approach in different ways. This paper discusses the development, possible contributions, and constraints with this development. Expanding EMSs into SMSs can be seen as a learning process in which a larger systems perspective leads to increased awareness that the management system becomes limited by only managing environmental issues. Expanding the EMSs into SMSs may lead to a more complete view of the organisation's total impact on nature and society, and issues that need to be managed.

  • 111.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Region Östergötland.
    Implementing the global sustainable goals (SDGs) into municipal strategies applying an integrated approach2018Inngår i: Handbook of Sustainability Science and Research / [ed] Walter Leal Filho, Springer, 2018, s. 301-316Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The UN emphasises the importance of collaboration and integrated approaches to effectively implement the SDGs. Much of the action will have to take place locally where municipalities will play an important role in coordinating the efforts towards SDG fulfilment. They are constant local actors close to citizens and they can also influence other actors through their strategies. This paper reflects on how the SDGs can be integrated into existing strategies in order to avoid parallel non-effective processes and to avoid the risk of the SDGs to become marginalised. Furthermore, the paper discusses roles and preconditions of municipalities in the SDG implementation process. This study focuses the implementation of the SDGs into a regional municipality’s strategic planning and management, Region Östergötland, Sweden. The challenges and opportunities connected to implementing the SDGs will be problematized, and the paper gives recommendations on how this type of organisations can implement the SDGs taking advantage from qualities in already existing management and working procedures.

  • 112.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tyskeng, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Carlsson, Annica
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Potential Benefits of Combining Environmental Management Tools in a Local Authority Context2004Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, ISSN 1464-3332, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 131-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are many environmental management tools available to support integration of environmental perspectives in decision-making processes. However, a single tool is seldom the answer to all queries. This paper shows potential benefits of using a combination of different environmental management tools in a local authority context. Three environmental management tools used in Swedish local authorities are examined — Substance Flow Analyses (SFA), Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), and Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) — from mainly a theoretical point-of-view. The tools are positioned according to their key characteristics, and their individual contribution to environmental management in local authorities is explored. For the local authorities, a combination of tools allows decision-makers to integrate experience from individual projects to overall environmental management, which helps decision-makers to deal with some of the challenges that different environmentalmanagement situations require.

  • 113.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle, Sjukgymnastik.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Employees at recycling centres in Sweden - Risks and Conditions,2005Inngår i: Nordic Ergonomics Society NES 37th Annual Conference,2005, 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 114.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för fysioterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Perspectives on recycling centres and future developments2016Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 57, s. 17-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this paper is to draw combined, all-embracing conclusions based on a long-term multidisciplinary research programme on recycling centres in Sweden, focussing on working conditions, environment and system performance. A second aim is to give recommendations for their development of new and existing recycling centres and to discuss implications for the future design and organisation. Several opportunities for improvement of recycling centres were identified, such as design, layout, ease with which users could sort their waste, the work environment, conflicting needs and goals within the industry, and industrialisation. Combining all results from the research, which consisted of different disciplinary aspects, made it possible to analyse and elucidate their interrelations. Waste sorting quality was recognized as the most prominent improvement field in the recycling centre system. The research identified the importance of involving stakeholders with different perspectives when planning a recycling centre in order to get functionality and high performance. Practical proposals of how to plan and build recycling centres are given in a detailed checklist. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 115.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Sjukgymnastik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Division of Ergonomics, STH, Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Richard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Sjukgymnastik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Joint investigation of working conditions, environmental and system performance at recycling centres - development of instruments and their usage2010Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 336-346Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling is a new and developing industry, which has only been researched to a limited extent. This article describes the development and use of instruments for data collection within a multidisciplinary research programme "Recycling centres in Swede - working conditions, environmental and system performance". The overall purpose of the programme was to form a basis for improving the function of recycling centres with respect to these three perspectives and the disciplines of: ergonomics, safety, external environment, and production systems. A total of 10 instruments were developed for collecting data from employees, managers and visitors at recucling centres, including one instrument for observing visitors. Validation tests were performed in several steps. This, along with the quality of the collected data, and experience from the data collection, showed that the instruments and methodology used were valid and suitable for their purpose.

  • 116.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Sjukgymnastik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Industriell ergonomi, KTH.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    STFI-Packforsk AB.
    Planera, utforma och driva en återvinningscentral2009Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok baserar sig på de forskningsresultat och erfarenheter som kommit fram inom forskningsprogrammet ”Framtidens återvinningscentral” som är ett multidiciplinärt forskningsprogram som drivits vid Linköpings universitet under åren 2002-2007.Boken vänder sig till alla som är involverade vid planering, byggnation, ombyggnation och drift av återvinningscentraler. Dessa kan vara ansvariga inom kommuner, arkitekter, konsulter, arbetsledare på återvinningscentral, skyddsombud, fackliga förtroendemän med flera.

  • 117.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle, Sjukgymnastik.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    STFI-Packforsk AB.
    Återvinningscentralen - sorteringsplats, arbetsplats, mötesplats2008Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 118.
    Englund, Andreas
    et al.
    Innovatum Technology Park.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Market barriers for environmental innovations2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes market barriers experienced by Swedish innovators in start-up companies early in the process of bringing environmental innovations to the market. The studied innovators are mainly active in a business-to-business market that often involves capital-intensive industry sectors and large companies are seen as important customers. Most of the market barriers identified can be related to customer relations. The innovators experience their customers’ negative attitudes and unwillingness to try new technologies as major barriers. Furthermore, they perceived their customers to be conservative and reluctant to take risks. These barriers may be relevant in most innovation developments although they may be more articulated for environmental innovations since such innovations mostly evolve in emerging industries and since capital-intensive industry sectors dominate the area. Measures to stimulate diffusion of environmental innovation are discussed, including ways to encourage customers to test new technologies and to see the adoption of the innovation as worth the perceived risks.

  • 119.
    Eriksson, Linnea
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Runevad, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Evaluating digestate processing methods at Linköping biogas plant: A resource efficient perspective2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Production of biogas is one of several alternatives to meet sustainable energy solutions and waste management. However, managing the by-product (digestate) can be problematic with its high handling costs. Digestate from wet co-digestion biogas plants contains large volumes of water, causing high transportation costs and low concentration of the valuable nutrients. An alternative to try and reduce the associated costs is by processing the digestate. Processing the digestate for volume reduction allow for more economic and resource efficient ways of handling the product.

    This master thesis was performed on an initiative from Tekniska verken AB and address digestate handling from Linköping biogas plant, a large co-digestion biogas plant in Sweden. The project aimed to find a feasible, more resource efficient management of their digestate by looking at digestate processing alternatives.The approach systematically evaluated a large number of processing techniques by both literature and communication with TvAB or experts. A selection of techniques were further evaluated were studies in laboratory and a market analysis on digestate provided complementary information, aiding the economical evaluation. Results suggest that processing by centrifuge is a viable, economic option when digestate management is costly and a liquid fraction can be recirculated in the process. It has the potential to significantly reducing digestate management costs. Other processing alternatives may be beneficial if transportation distance can be greatly reduced and/or synergies can be found, but the findings in this project suggest that only treatment with centrifuge is of interest.

    The results are subject to a number of conditions (such as size of the plant) and assumptions (such as recirculation of a liquid fraction) and therefore need individual adaption to be applicable at any specific plant. Conclusive remarks are that although site specific conditions affect the choice of processing, a project such as this may help reducing the necessary time spent on evaluation. Both research process and results may provide valuable findings for similar evaluations in any industry.

  • 120.
    Ersson, Carolina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Conditions for resource-efficient production of biofuels for transport in Sweden2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation has continued to increase worldwide and fossil-fuel dependency is strong which leads to a number of problems, e.g. increased emissions of green-house gases (GHG) and risks related to energy security. Biofuels have until now been one of the few renewable alternatives which have been able to replace fossil fuels on a large scale. The biofuel share in relation to the total use of fuel in the transportation sector is still small, but in many places in the world political targets are set to increase the share of renewable fuels, of which biofuels are supposed to be an important part. Within the European Union targets for renewable energy have been set, including within the transportation sector, where 10% shall come from renewable sources by 2020 according to the EU Renewable Energy Directive (EU RES). Biofuels also need to fulfill the sustainability criteria in the EU RES, to be regarded as renewable. Depending on how biofuels are produced their resource efficiency varies, and the differences in environmental and economic performance can for instance be significant.

    The aim of this thesis is to describe and analyze conditions for a development towards increased and more resource-efficient production of biofuels in Sweden. The conditions have been studied from a regional resource perspective and from a biofuel producer perspective since it has been assumed that the producers are in possession of important knowledge, and potentially will play an important role in future biofuel development. The concept of resource efficiency used in this thesis includes an environmental and economic perspective as well as an overall societal dimension to some extent. The region of Östergötland in Sweden was used for the assessment of the resourcefocused biofuel potential for the year 2030, where two scenarios based on assessments regarding socio-technical development in relation to regional resources were used. The scenarios were based on semi-structured interviews with biofuel actors, literature studies and information from experts in the field. In the EXPAN (Expansion) scenario a continued development in line with the current one was assumed, but also an increased availability of feedstock primarily within the agricultural and waste sectors (also including byproducts from industry) for biofuel production. In the INNTEK (Innovation and Technology development) scenario greater technological progress was assumed to also enable the use of some unconventional feedstock besides increased available arable land and improved collection/availability of certain feedstock. Biomass feedstock from four categories was included in the potential: waste, agriculture, forestry and aquatic environments. One important feedstock which was not included in this study, but which is often included in studies of potential, is lignocellulosic material from the forest. This choice was also supported by the regional actors who judged it as less probable that there will be any large-scale use of such feedstock for biofuels in this region within the given timeframe. Regarding arable land available for biofuel production a share of 30% was assumed at maximum in the region, of which 15% is already used for cereal production for ethanol fuel. On these additional 15% assumed to be available for biofuel production year 2030, ley cropping for production of biogas was assumed in this study. Aquatic biomass is often not included in biofuel potentials. Here, algae were assumed to be a potentially interesting substrate for biogas production since harvesting algae in for instance the Baltic Sea could be seen as a multifunctional measure, i.e., contributing additional environmental benefits such as reducing eutrophication. Based on the assumption that the energy need in the transportation sector will be the same in 2030 as in 2010, up to 30% could be substituted with biofuels in the EXPAN scenario and up to 50% in the INNTEK scenario, without seriously conflicting with other interests such as food or feed production. In the study of potential, production systems for biogas production were   prioritized since such systems were judged to have a large potential for resource efficiency. This is because they have a big capacity to utilize by-products and waste as feedstock, and also because they can contribute to closing the loops of plant nutrients, seen as an important goal in society, if the digestate is returned to arable land.

    The utilization of by-products and waste however in many cases requires cooperation between different actors in society. Within the research field of industrial symbiosis, cooperation regarding material and energy flows is studied from different perspectives, e.g. how such cooperation between actors evolves and to what extent such cooperation can contribute to improving the environmental and economic performance of systems. Both these perspectives are interesting in relation to biofuels since production often involves a large number of energy- and material flows at the same time as resource efficiency is important. How the producers organize the production when it comes to feedstock, energy, by-products and products and what influences this is therefore interesting to study. In this thesis four biofuel producers of three different biofuels (ethanol, biodiesel and biogas) on the Swedish market were studied, focusing on how they organize their biofuel production in terms of e.g. their material and energy flows, and how they intend to organize it in the future. The study is based on semi-structured interviews with the biofuel producers as well as literature studies. In all the cases, a number of areas of material and energy flow cooperation were identified and it could also be concluded that there had been some change regarding these patterns over time. Looking into the future a clear change of strategy was identified in the ethanol case and partly also in the biodiesel case where a development towards improved valorisation and differentiation of by-product flows was foreseen. If such a “biorefinery” strategy is realized, it can potentially improve the economic viability and resource efficiency in these biofuel producers. In the biogas cases, instead a strategy to lower the costs for feedstock through the use of lower quality feedstock was identified. This strategy also has a potential to increase economic viability and improve the resource efficiency. However, the success of this strategy is to a large extent dependent on how the off-set of the biofertilizer can be arranged regarding the economic challenges that the biogas producers’ experience, and yet no strategy for implementation regarding this was identified. The EU Renewable Energy Directive was mentioned in relation to most cooperation projects and therefore regarded as an important critical factor. All of the studied companies also struggle to be competitive, for which reason the importance of the direct economic aspects of cooperation seems to increase.

    Delarbeid
    1. Biofuels for transportation in 2030: feedstock and production plants in a Swedish county
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Biofuels for transportation in 2030: feedstock and production plants in a Swedish county
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 379-395Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This paper gives insight into whether biofuels for road transport can play an important role in a Swedish county in the year 2030, and contributes to knowledge on how to perform similar studies.

    Methodology: A resource-focused assessment, including feedstock from the waste sector, agricultural sector, forestry sector and aquatic environments, partially considering technological and economic constraints.

    Results: Two scenarios were used indicating that biofuels could cover almost 30 and 50%, respectively, of total energy demand for road transport.

    Conclusion: Without compromising food security, this study suggests that it is possible to significantly increase biofuel production, and to do this as an integrated part of existing society, thereby also contributing to positive societal synergies.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102371 (URN)10.4155/bfs.13.23 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-12-09 Laget: 2013-12-09 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13
    2. Connectedness and its dynamics in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Connectedness and its dynamics in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 269-295Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Connectedness through cooperation with other sectors regarding feedstock, energy, products and by-products is important for environmental performance of industrial production. The aim of this study is to provide a better understanding of the level of connectedness in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry, involving producers of ethanol, biogas and biodiesel. In interviews, the CEOs of four important companies provided information about current strategies, historic and planned development. The production systems are dynamic and have changed significantly over time, including material and energy exchanges between traditionally separate industries. Interesting development was noted where revised business strategies have led to changed cooperation structures and thus altered material and energy flows. Fuel and raw material prices are very influential and all of the respondents said that political decisions to a large extent affect their competitiveness and emphasised the importance of clear long-term institutional conditions, ironically very much in contrast to the current situation within EU and Sweden.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    InderScience Publishers, 2015
    Emneord
    biofuels, biogas, ethanol, biodiesel, industrial ecology and symbiosis, synergies, material and energy flows, connectedness, resource efficiency
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123223 (URN)10.1504/PIE.2015.073416 (DOI)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Merknad

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-12-08 Laget: 2015-12-08 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 121.
    Ersson, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Biofuels for transportation in 2030: feedstock and production plants in a Swedish county2013Inngår i: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 379-395Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This paper gives insight into whether biofuels for road transport can play an important role in a Swedish county in the year 2030, and contributes to knowledge on how to perform similar studies.

    Methodology: A resource-focused assessment, including feedstock from the waste sector, agricultural sector, forestry sector and aquatic environments, partially considering technological and economic constraints.

    Results: Two scenarios were used indicating that biofuels could cover almost 30 and 50%, respectively, of total energy demand for road transport.

    Conclusion: Without compromising food security, this study suggests that it is possible to significantly increase biofuel production, and to do this as an integrated part of existing society, thereby also contributing to positive societal synergies.

  • 122.
    Ersson, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Connectedness and its dynamics in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry2015Inngår i: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 269-295Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Connectedness through cooperation with other sectors regarding feedstock, energy, products and by-products is important for environmental performance of industrial production. The aim of this study is to provide a better understanding of the level of connectedness in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry, involving producers of ethanol, biogas and biodiesel. In interviews, the CEOs of four important companies provided information about current strategies, historic and planned development. The production systems are dynamic and have changed significantly over time, including material and energy exchanges between traditionally separate industries. Interesting development was noted where revised business strategies have led to changed cooperation structures and thus altered material and energy flows. Fuel and raw material prices are very influential and all of the respondents said that political decisions to a large extent affect their competitiveness and emphasised the importance of clear long-term institutional conditions, ironically very much in contrast to the current situation within EU and Sweden.

  • 123.
    Ersson, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Vision för biodrivmedel i Östergötland: Tillgång på regionala råvaror och principer för en resurseffektiv produktion år 20302012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary focus in this study is availability of local feedstock for biofuels for transportation. A basic assumption is that we need to increase the availability of all renewable fuels amongst which biofuels are one, to have a chance to reach the political goals and visions that are set for the Swedish transportation sector in the period up to year 2030. In the region of Östergötland biofuels are estimated to be a renewable alternative with good potential why we chose to focus on this. The aim of this study is threefold, to map a potential feedstock for biofuels for transportation, to elucidate characteristic principles of resource efficient biofuel production and to discuss and sketch a synoptic strategy of biofuel production plants for realizing the potential feedstock. The study takes off from an ”a priori construct” of potential sources of feedstock in Östergötland developed together with a group of experts. Further on a literature and an interview study with actors in the biofuel sector is performed to derive both quantitative and qualitative data for the mapping of the potential feedstock. The potential is further analyzed through scenario building. Two different scenarios are built for the year 2030, EXPAN (The expansion scenario) and INNTEK (The innovation- and technique development scenario). The potential of scenario INNTEK is assumed to be a bit more uncertain than the potential of scenario EXPAN since the realization of the potential requires some specific technological break-through whilst the EXPAN scenario requires technological development that is expected to be more closely achievable, but above all a better steering and allocation of available resources. The scenarios does not include any feedstock from forestry since the technological break-through required to get biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass viable until the year 2030 is not expected to happen soon enough. The potential of scenario EXPAN amounted to almost 40% of todays need for fuel in the transportation sector in Östergötland while INNTEK reached just over 50%. The agricultural sector is found to be the most important sector for producing a potential feedstock for biofuels and, but the forest industry is also considered to be important although lignocellolosic biomass from the forest is not considered for the potential feedstock. Since the resources from agriculture is estimated to be a major part of the potential feedstock for biofuels in Östergötland a sensitivity analysis on the share of cropland used for production of raw material for biofuel production  is performed where the share is varied between 30-60%. In the scenarios EXPAN and INNTEK a share of 30% of the available cropland in Östergötland is used. Further the three principles characterizing resource efficient production of biofuels is described: energy cascading, biofuels cascading and value rising utilization of resources. Since the transition towards usage of biofuels is partly an environmental driven process it is important to develop resource efficient systems where the environmental pressure is minimized. The most important policy measure for biofuels for transportation today, the European Renewable Directive (RED), is fostering only production of biofuels with low emissions of greenhouse gases and is not taking any of the other added values often associated with biofuels into consideration. An important bottle-neck when it comes to realization of the biofuel potential is estimated to be the establishment of new production plants. In the report an idea sketch is presented where a number of plants which would realize about 700 GWh (1000 GWh including tall oil) beyond the 500 GWh that is produced at present. From the starting point where Östergötland is estimated to be considering potential feedstock and production conditions biofuels are estimated to be an obvious track to go in the transition towards a bigger share of renewable fuels. A continued expansion and development of the existing production plants in Händelö, Norrköping and in Linköping is desirable, but to reach the political goals that have been set for the next 20 years also completely new production plants are required at several locations in the region.

  • 124.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Is enhanced landfill mining profitable?2018Inngår i: ISWA 2018 Book of Proceedings, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2018, s. 240-245Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The shift from linear to circular economy has steered the change in perception about landfills. From final to temporary waste storage, landfills are considered as technospheric stocks of resources that can be recovered through innovative technologies in the concept of enhanced landfill mining (ELFM). At present, most ELFM projects are in pilot-scale and it remains as a proof of concept. Economic feasibility is one of the primary considerations that must be satisfied prior to its full-scale realization. Several economic assessments were conducted in recent years but there is no systematic synthesis of these studies to date. The aim of this review is to compile various empirical insights of previous economic assessments of ELFM in relation to the employed methodological choices. With pre-defined exclusion criteria, 15 studies were selected in this review. For the empirical part, the identified main economic drivers for costs are separation and sorting, thermal treatment and transportation, while for benefits are material sales, recovered land and energy sales. In more than half of the studies, the costs exceeded the benefits concluding that ELFM is not profitable.  The few potentially profitable cases mainly depend on varying the system conditions defined by market prices and regulations. These require changes that are more radical, if not impossible. For the method part, costs and benefits are accounted at different levels of aggregation, scope and scale—that is from process to sub-process level, from private to societal economics, and from laboratory to pilot scale, respectively. As most studies are based on pilot scale, if not purely conceptual, data estimation mainly depends on extrapolation from these pilot projects or on direct adoption of secondary data. In spite of the expected uncertainties in model, scenario and parameter, less than half of the studies employed sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. With it being neglected, their results can be considered to have a weak reliability for practical use in a full-scale ELFM project implementation. A need for systematic framework for early-stage assessment is highlighted to capture both stochastic and epistemic uncertainties. Process and system upscaling with exploratory scenario development, and participatory data collection in ranges rather than in absolute terms are some of the suggested approaches to generate results with a certain level of confidence. In this way, the future economic assessments of ELFM can veer away from simple profitability assessments. Instead, it focuses on knowledge development despite the limited information that is inherent to emerging concepts. Most importantly, it provides reliable information that can be used as a decision-support for various stakeholders such as project managers, technology developers, and policy makers towards the advancement of ELFM.

  • 125.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University; Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology.
    Arsénio, André Marques
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology.
    Scholten, Lisa
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology.
    Hu, Mingming
    Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University.
    Economic Assessment of Faecal Sludge Management and Sewer-Based Sanitation System in Maputo, Mozambique2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 126.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Van Passel, Steven
    Department of Engineering Management, Faculty of Applied Economics, University of Antwerp, BE-2000 Antwerp, Belgium.
    Van Acker, Karel
    Department of Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, BE-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    The economic and environmental performance of a landfill mining project from the viewpoint of an industrial landfill owner2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining, 5-6 February, 2018, Mechelen, Belgium / [ed] Peter Tom Jones and Lieven Machiels, Leuven, Belgium: University of Leuven , 2018, s. 389-396Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Commission’s circular economy strategy pushes for a higher recycling rate and a more long-term waste management practice.1 Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM) can contribute to this agenda as a better landfill management option, by shifting the landfill paradigm from dumping or as end-storage of waste to resource recovery or as temporary storage of resources.2-4 Through ELFM, landfills becomes a secondary source of both material (Waste-to-Material, WtM) and energy (Waste-to-Energy, WtE) with the use of innovative technologies.3,4

    Several studies explored the environmental and/or economic aspects of ELFM having different scopes and objectives. Some cover the entire process value chain while others additionally focused on comparing technological choices for WtE,5–7 WtM,8,9 and even ELFM waste valorisation.10 Furthermore, for the economic assessment, regulation-related costs and benefits as landfill taxes, gate fees and green certificates5,11,12 are also accounted for. Regarding the identification of economic hotspots, many of these studies concluded similar processes to be important. However, most of these studies were based on either hypothetical cases, or real cases but with small-scale excavation and separation using non-sophisticated set-ups, which are not likely to be used for large-scale processing. Hence, more uncertainty is expected from the lack of actual ELFM demonstration projects.

    The aim of this study is to analyse the main contributing factors that influence environmental and economic performance of ELFM, considering the landfill owner’s viewpoint. The study is based on a real case of excavation and subsequent separation in an existing stationary facility. Specifically, the influence of the prevailing system conditions is investigated as defined by the current legislation and the market situation.

  • 127.
    Ewerlöf, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Modig, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Value Creation and Decreased Environmental Impact through Circular Economy-based Offerings: A Product-Service System Case Study2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis answers how a circular economy-based offering can be designed for increased value creation and decreased environmental impact, compared to a current offering. The study concerns a case company and their current offering of a fire safety solution, namely a 6 kg powder fire extinguisher. The concept Product-Service Systems is used as a base for the research and a foundation of the result.Throughout the study, the method Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used as a tool to evaluate and compare the current and the suggested solution in the sense of environmental sustainability amongst different impact categories. It provides a holistic perspective within the study which has been proven by theory to be an important factor when providing a circular economy-based offering. Another important factor is customising the offering to the specific case. This is attended to through an investigation of the company characteristics, the current offering and provider and customer values to find opportunities for the suggested solution. Opportunities found was e.g. a demand for an environmentally sustainable solution and existing infrastructure which can create valuein the future.The process includes, apart from the LCAs, interviews, a workshop at the case company and a survey addressed to end users. The use of visualisation tools such as actors map and Product-Service Blueprint benefits the understanding of both current and suggested solution and provides insights, evaluation and possible improvements. A cost calculation is made to evaluate if the solution is financially making business sense to the provider. Through this thesis, a circular economy-based solution which designs out waste is found. It is proven through the study and LCAs that this solution decreases the investigated environmental impact categories compared to the current existing solution. The suggested solution is based on a refilling process for circulating material which is established through the thesis to be theoretically feasible, hence needs consideration in order to be implementable in reality and make business sense to the provider.

  • 128.
    Fakhri, Akram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Possibility of Integrated Product Service Engineering for a Swedish Utility Supplier toward Economic and Environmental Sustainability2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The energy demand of today, with increasing population and the price of fossil fuels in one hand and consequent environmental issues such as climate change and global warming on the other hand, has resulted in global consideration concerning increasing energy efficiency in distribution network. Integrated product/service engineering (IPSE) has been frequently applied to propose integrated product/service offering at different physical product manufacturing companies. However, it has not been utilized at utility providers. Therefore, this project applies IPSE, at a Swedish utility provider to introduce new ideas of business models with the aims of increasing energy efficiency in the distribution network with means of new technologies and energy policy instruments.

    Literature survey on IPSE methods to choose the most appropriate method was followed by literature review on smart grid and new technologies as means for utility provider to increase energy efficiency in distribution network. Different IPSE methods has been discussed and investigated recently. For this thesis, however, PSS Layer method was applied to answer the research questions such as customer needs, new technologies, involved actors, the flow of information and service between actors, life cycle activities, associated services, contracts and finances.

    Then, interviews with experts at Göteborg Energi AB were implemented to investigate customer demands, available new technologies, economic and technical opportunities and barriers.

    Five different integrated product/service proposals by providing the nine dimension of PSS Layer method were designed. In each model, new actors and technologies were introduced to increase value for both customer and utility provider.

    As discussion, first, it was shown that the findings in designing new business models at GBE could be generalized to the most of Swedish utility providers. Second, the five proposals with their impacts on GBE were presented and the main aspects of each integrated product/service proposals were discussed. Then, the keys to tackle the problem by designers were described. Finally, the feasibility of the results by PSS layer method was assessed by comparing the method with theory.

    Organizing workshops with the attendance of involved actors was recommended to add more details to the proposed business models. For further research, cost-benefit analysis and life cycle assessment were important to analyze the feasibility of proposals.

  • 129.
    Fallde, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Towards a sustainable socio-technical system of biogas for transport: the case of the city of Linköping in Sweden2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 17-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the development of biogas for transport in the municipality of Linköping, Sweden, is studied in order to contribute to a better understanding of the conditions for socio-technical transitions towards sustainability. Linköping municipality, 1976 [kommunfullmäktige] Motion om utredning angående eldrivna fordon. Dnr 1976.278. Using concepts from multi-level perspectives and socio-technical perspectives on system builders, the study focuses on three time periods: During the first time period (1976–1994), a niche for biogas developed amongst dedicated actors in small networks representing energy and public transport within the municipality. That is, biogas was entirely connected to the vision of a ‘green’ public transport. Second, between the years of 1994 and 2001, the biogas producing company acted as a system builder and initiated a large-scale biogas production through close cooperation in networks with other actors. As a result, biogas reached a phase of technological maturity and also gained some support from national investment programs. Finally, from 2001 the expansion of biogas became clearer as the biogas production spread into a regional arena but also reached for new customers, like personal cars. Unforeseen spin-offs like the formation of new private companies and development of research were important results of the transition. Thereby, the transition is a move towards a new socio-technical regime. A conclusion from the study is that the development of biogas was highly influenced by national support and pressure, but was mainly driven by local actors – system builders – that could steer the processes and had endurance as well as capability to mobilize resources in order to fulfill their purposes.

  • 130.
    Fargnoli, Mario
    et al.
    ‘Sapienza’ University of Rome.
    Haber, Nicolas
    ‘Sapienza’ University of Rome.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    PSS Modularization: A Customer Driven Integrated Approach2019Inngår i: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 57, nr 13, s. 4061-4077Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The shift from product ownership to integrated solutions (Product-Service Systems (PSSs)) is expected to lead to a highercustomer satisfaction in many cases compared to providing products and services separately. PSS providers are requiredto add more value to the products they offer, as well as to augment and diversify the services related to these products.To deal with this complex task, this paper proposes a practical methodology to support manufacturers in designingservices related to the proper functioning of their products fulfilling customers’ needs and expectations. This approach isbased on the synergic use of Quality Function Deployment for PSS (QFDforPSS), Axiomatic Design (AD) and theservice blueprint tools, providing a correlation between the customers’ expectations, the PSS components and the PSSmodules. The methodology was verified by means of a service modularisation for PSS at a company operating in thebiomedical sector. While the proposed approach needs to be validated through further studies in different contexts, itspositive results in reducing both the risk of overdesigning and the possibility of creating design conflicts can contributepractically to the scientific knowledge on the development of integrated solutions.

  • 131.
    Fargnoli, Mario
    et al.
    Dept. Precision Engineering The University of Tokyo.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Coordinating Ecodesign Methods in Early Stages of Industrial Product Design2008Inngår i: International Journal of Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing, ISSN 1095-807X, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 35-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolution of the concept of environmental sustainability in the industrial world has brought to light the importance assigned to the first stages of the product development, i.e. the early-phase design activities. It is of common knowledge that decisions made in these phases allow the products- optimization from the performances point of view, as well as more competitiveness on the market, drastically reducing the costs related to subsequent modifications and corrections of the product during the manufacturing phases or even after its introduction in the market. Ecodesign certainly represents the most effective design approach for the achievement of such goals. A large number of tools proposed in the recent years is an indicator of the great attention paid to such problems. However, the use of such tools by designers is still partial or not well organized, particularly in SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises). The research work carried out is an attempt to the solution of these difficulties. This paper proposes a design procedure, consisting in the integration of several design tools in a framework of a general nature aimed at reducing the gap between theory and practice. The study, performed throughout the development of a case study, analyzed the -usability- of the Ecodesign methods, and underlined their efficiency and effectiveness when used in a synergic way.

  • 132.
    Fargnoli, Mario
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering , “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Uncovering differences and similarities among Quality Function Deployment based methods in Design for X: benchmarking in different domains2017Inngår i: Quality Engineering, ISSN 0898-2112, E-ISSN 1532-4222, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 690-712Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability for a product or a service to meet customer needs and requirements efficiently before its market launch is a key-point in design and development activities. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) represents one of the most powerful design methods to achieve such a goal.This study investigates the QFD-based methods proposed in the last two decades, whose use in different ambits of Design for X (DfX) is reported to be effective.We selected most common QFD based methods, analysing how designers can implement and coordinate them in design activities effectively throughout their application to an identical case study.

  • 133.
    Fazle Rabbi, Ahmed
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hossain, Rubayet
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Analyzing the gap between Swedish governmental export support programs and cleantech firm’s expectations2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Given the present situation of environmental problems, clean technologies or cleantech is considered a way of reaching global sustainability and at the same time also seen as an engine of economic growth and fulfilling commitments to social and environmental welfare. Under this background, Swedish cleantech sector have not achieved that much commercial success yet that they are supposed to be while maintaining a reputation of top technological innovative country. The Swedish cleantech sector is dominated by small medium-sized firms (SMEs) and often limited to resources at their disposition. Thus, the Swedish government has designed various policies and export support programs to promote this sector but somehow firms could not reach up to them. Hence, it has become necessary to study the Swedish cleantech firms in order to analyze the existing gap. The purpose of this study is to run an investigation about individual cleantech firms and analyze how they are experiencing Swedish governmental export support programs. On the other hand, this study has also tried to find out what firms really expect from these programs so that it will help to reduce the gap.

    Based on the study of four cases and one independent interview, the study has shown two different scenarios. In one hand, micro level SMEs specially which are in initial phase of their internationalization process cannot reach up to governmental export support programs due to high acquiring cost and inflexible pre-requirements. On the other hand, small level SMEs which are in mature phase of their internationalization process have faced completely reverse experience than initial phase micro firms but not satisfied with the provided service quality. The study has also revealed that firms with relatively new technology face problems to get support from governmental agencies due to uncertain market performance. The study has further showed, this is not always the high acquiring cost and inflexible conditions, participation in governmental export support programs is also depend on firm’s owns mindset and their business strategy. So, in order to reduce the gap between Swedish governmental export support programs and cleantech firms’ expectations, the studied firms have suggested to implement a proper business model that fits into each type of firms’ needs based on their position in the internationalization process, create a separate institution or agency and Science Park that only deals with cleantech firms issues, and co-operation among the different state cleantech firms and the universities.

  • 134.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Industrial Ecology and Development of Production Systems: Analysis of the CO2  Footprint of Cement2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This research is an attempt to create a comprehensive assessment framework for identifying and assessing potential improvement options of cement production systems.

    From an environmental systems analysis perspective, this study provides both an empirical account and a methodological approach for quantifying the CO2 footprint of a cement production system. An attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed to analyze the CO2 footprint of several products of a cement production system in Germany which consists of three dierent plants. Based on the results of the LCA study, six key performance indicators are dened as the basis for a simplied LCA model. This model is used to quantify the CO2 footprint of dierent versions of the cement production system.

    In order to identify potential improvement options, a framework for Multi-Criteria Assessment (MCA) is developed. The search and classication guideline of this framework is based on the concepts of Cleaner Production, Industrial Ecology, and Industrial Symbiosis. It allows systematic identication and classication of potential improvement options. In addition, it can be used for feasibility and applicability evaluation of dierent options. This MCA is applied both on a generic level, reecting the future landscape of the industry, and on a production organization level re ecting the most applicable possibilities for change. Based on this assessment a few appropriate futureoriented scenarios for the studied cement production system are constructed. The simplied LCA model is used to quantify the CO2 footprint of the production system for each scenario.

    By integrating Life Cycle Assessment and Multi-Criteria Assessment approaches, this study provides a comprehensive assessment method for identifying suitable industrial developments and quantifying the CO2 footprint improvements that might be achieved by their implementation.

    The results of this study emphasis, although by utilizing alternative fuels and more ecient production facility, it is possible to improve the CO2 footprint of clinker, radical improvements can be achieved on the portfolio level. Compared to Portland cement, very high reduction of CO2 footprint can be achieved if clinker is replaced with low carbon alternatives, such as Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS) which are the by-products of other  industrial production. Benchmarking a cement production system by its portfolio product is therefore a more reasonable approach, compared to focusing on the performance of its clinker production.

    This study showed that Industrial Symbiosis, that is, over the fence initiatives for material and energy exchanges and collaboration with nontraditional partners, are relevant to cement industry. However, the contingent nature of these strategies should always be noted, because the mere exercise of such activities may not lead to a more resource ecient production system. Therefore, in search for potential improvements, it is important to keep the search horizon as wide as possible, however, assess the potential improvements in each particular case. The comprehensive framework developed and applied in this research is an attempt in this direction.

    Delarbeid
    1. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 272-281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and the manufacture of which causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with rather linear resource flows to more synergistic alternatives where industrial byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    In co-operation with the global cement producing company CEMEX a research project has been carried out to contribute to a better understanding of the CO2 performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The focus has been on Cluster West, which is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany.

    This paper is the first in a series of three, all of which are included in this special issue. It has two main aims. The first is to carry out an attributional LCA and compare three different cement products produced in both linear and synergistic production setups. This has been done for cradle to gate, focusing on CO2-eq emissions for Cluster West. The second aim of this part is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to compare different versions of the production system based on the information of a few parameters.

    The attributional LCA showed that cement products that contain a large proportion of byproducts, in this case, ground granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry, had the lowest unit emissions of CO2-eq. The difference between the lowest emission product (CEM III/B) and the highest (CEM I) was about 66% per tonne. A simplified LCA model based on six key performance indicators, instead of approximately 50 parameters for the attributional LCA, was established. It showed that Cluster West currently emits about 45% less CO2-eq per tonne of average product compared to 1997. The simplified LCA model can be used effectively to model future changes of both plants and products (which is further discussed in part II and part III).

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Cement production, Life Cycle Assessment, CO2 emissions, Modeling Performance indicators
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105939 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.083 (DOI)000356194300028 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-04-15 Laget: 2014-04-15 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 282-291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production is among the largest anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and there is considerable pressure on the cement industry to reduce these emissions. In the effort to reduce CO2 emissions, there is a need for methods to systematically identify, classify and assess different improvement measures, to increase the knowledge about different options and prioritize between them. For this purpose a framework for assessment has been developed, inspired by common approaches within the fields of environmental systems analysis and industrial symbiosis. The aim is to apply a broad systems perspective and through the use of multiple criteria related to technologies and organization strategies facilitate informed decision-making regarding different CO2 performance measures in the cement industry.

    The integrated assessment framework consists of two parts: a generic and a case-specific part. It is applied to a cement production cluster in Germany called Cluster West, consisting of three cement plants owned by CEMEX. The framework can be used in different ways. It can be used as a tool to perform literature reviews and categorize the state-of-the-art knowledge about options to improve the CO2 performance. It can also be used to assess options for the cement industry in general as well as for individual plants.

    This paper describes the assessment framework, the ideas behind it, its components and the process of carrying out the assessment. The first part provides a structured overview of the options for improvement for the cement industry in general, while the second part is a case-specific application for Cluster West, providing information about the feasibility for different categories of measures that can reduce the CO2 emissions. The overall impression from the project is that the framework was successfully established and, when applied, facilitated strategic discussions and decision-making. Such frameworks can be utilized to systematically assess hundreds of different measures and identify the ones most feasible and applicable for implementation, within the cement industry but also possibly in other sectors. The results demonstrated that even in a relatively synergistic and efficient production system, like Cluster West, there are opportunities for improvement, especially if options beyond “production efficiency” are considered.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    industrial ecology, cement, CO2 emissions, industrial symbiosis, environmental assessment framework, integrated assessment
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105940 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.103 (DOI)000356194300029 ()
    Merknad

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-04-15 Laget: 2014-04-15 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 145-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production contributes to extensive CO2 emissions. However, the climate impact can vary significantly between different production systems and different types of cement products. The market is dominated by ordinary Portland cement, which is based on primary raw materials and commonly associated with combustion of vast amounts of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of Portland cement can be described as a rather linear process. But there are alternative options, for example, involving large amounts of industrial byproducts and renewable energy which are more cyclic and thus can be characterized as relatively “synergistic”.

    The main purpose of this article is to study how relevant the leading ideas of industrial symbiosis are for the cement industry based on a quantitative comparison of the CO2 emissions from different cement production systems and products, both existing and hypothetical. This has been done by studying a group of three cement plants in Germany, denoted as ClusterWest, and the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products. Based on this analysis and literature, it is discussed to what extent industrial symbiosis options can lead to reduced CO2 emissions, for Cluster West and the cement industry in general.

    Utilizing a simplified LCA model (“cradle to gate”), it was shown that the CO2 emissions from Cluster West declined by 45% over the period 1997e2009, per tonne of average cement. This was mainly due to a large share of blended cement, i.e., incorporation of byproducts from local industries as supplementary cementitious materials. For producers of Portland cement to radically reduce the climate impact it is necessary to engage with new actors and find fruitful cooperation regarding byproducts, renewable energy and waste heat. Such a development is very much in line with the key ideas of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis, meaning that it appears highly relevant for the cement industry to move further in this direction. From a climate perspective, it is essential that actors influencing the cement market acknowledge the big difference between different types of cement, where an enlarged share of blended cement products (substituting clinker with byproducts such as slag and fly ash) offers a great scope for future reduction of CO2 emissions.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Cement, CO2 emissions, Life cycle assessment (LCA), Industrial symbiosis Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105941 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.086 (DOI)000356194300015 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-04-15 Laget: 2014-04-15 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 135.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Systems Analysis for Eco-Industrial Development: Applied on Cement and Biogas Production Systems2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Our industrial systems are not sustainable—a major challenge which demands several types of responses. Eco-industrial development can be seen as such a response, with the goal to establish industrial systems that are both ecological and economical. Industrial Ecology is another closely related response. It is based on the idea that natural systems can be used to understand how to design sustainable industrial systems, for example, by shifting from linear industrial processes to cyclic systems, where waste streams can be avoided or minimized through utilization as raw materials for other processes. In this thesis, the possible contributions of industrial ecology/symbiosis to eco-industrial development are investigated through the use of systems analysis approaches. Two systems analysis methods are used: life-cycle assessment and multi-criteria analysis. These methods are applied on two types of industrial systems: cement and biogas.

    Cement is among the most used materials in the world with extensive resource consumption and environmental impact, manifested for example by the high levels of CO2 emissions. Multi-criteria analysis was used to identify, classify, and assess different measures to improve the climate performance of cement production, while life-cycle assessment was employed to quantify the CO2 emissions. Combined, multi-criteria analysis and life-cycle assessment were used for an integrated assessment of different eco-industrial development paths. Most of the feasible and resource-efficient improvement measures were related to utilization of secondary resources, for example minimizing the clinker content of the cement by replacing it with by-products from steel and iron manufacturing, or using refuse-derived fuels. Effective utilization of these secondary raw materials and fuels can be achieved through industrial symbiosis.

    Biogas is viewed as part of a larger transition towards a bio-based economy where resources—bio-materials and bio-energy—are used in a cascading, circular, and renewable manner. Multi-criteria analysis was used to assess the feasibility and resource efficiency of using different types of biomass as feedstock for biogas and biofertilizer production. In addition to aspects such as renewable energy and nutrient recycling, cost efficiency, institutional conditions, environmental performance, the potential per unit, and the overall potential were considered. In another study, life-cycle assessment was used to analyze the environmental performance of biogas production from source-sorted food waste using a dry digestion process. The study showed that the performance of this dry process is superior to most of the existing wet biogas processes in Sweden. The critical sources of uncertainty and their impact on the overall performance of the system were analyzed. Factors influencing methane production, as well as processes related to soil after the digestate is applied as biofertilizer on land, have the greatest influence on the performance of these systems.

    For both cement and biogas systems industrial symbiosis involving collaboration and better utilization of local/regional secondary resources, can result in resource-efficient eco-industrial development. Life-cycle assessment and multi-criteria approaches can serve as two complementary methods for investigating the feasibility, potential, and resource efficiency of different development paths. These approaches can provide input into decision-making processes and lead to more informed decisions.

    Delarbeid
    1. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 272-281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and the manufacture of which causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with rather linear resource flows to more synergistic alternatives where industrial byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    In co-operation with the global cement producing company CEMEX a research project has been carried out to contribute to a better understanding of the CO2 performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The focus has been on Cluster West, which is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany.

    This paper is the first in a series of three, all of which are included in this special issue. It has two main aims. The first is to carry out an attributional LCA and compare three different cement products produced in both linear and synergistic production setups. This has been done for cradle to gate, focusing on CO2-eq emissions for Cluster West. The second aim of this part is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to compare different versions of the production system based on the information of a few parameters.

    The attributional LCA showed that cement products that contain a large proportion of byproducts, in this case, ground granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry, had the lowest unit emissions of CO2-eq. The difference between the lowest emission product (CEM III/B) and the highest (CEM I) was about 66% per tonne. A simplified LCA model based on six key performance indicators, instead of approximately 50 parameters for the attributional LCA, was established. It showed that Cluster West currently emits about 45% less CO2-eq per tonne of average product compared to 1997. The simplified LCA model can be used effectively to model future changes of both plants and products (which is further discussed in part II and part III).

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Cement production, Life Cycle Assessment, CO2 emissions, Modeling Performance indicators
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105939 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.083 (DOI)000356194300028 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-04-15 Laget: 2014-04-15 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 282-291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production is among the largest anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and there is considerable pressure on the cement industry to reduce these emissions. In the effort to reduce CO2 emissions, there is a need for methods to systematically identify, classify and assess different improvement measures, to increase the knowledge about different options and prioritize between them. For this purpose a framework for assessment has been developed, inspired by common approaches within the fields of environmental systems analysis and industrial symbiosis. The aim is to apply a broad systems perspective and through the use of multiple criteria related to technologies and organization strategies facilitate informed decision-making regarding different CO2 performance measures in the cement industry.

    The integrated assessment framework consists of two parts: a generic and a case-specific part. It is applied to a cement production cluster in Germany called Cluster West, consisting of three cement plants owned by CEMEX. The framework can be used in different ways. It can be used as a tool to perform literature reviews and categorize the state-of-the-art knowledge about options to improve the CO2 performance. It can also be used to assess options for the cement industry in general as well as for individual plants.

    This paper describes the assessment framework, the ideas behind it, its components and the process of carrying out the assessment. The first part provides a structured overview of the options for improvement for the cement industry in general, while the second part is a case-specific application for Cluster West, providing information about the feasibility for different categories of measures that can reduce the CO2 emissions. The overall impression from the project is that the framework was successfully established and, when applied, facilitated strategic discussions and decision-making. Such frameworks can be utilized to systematically assess hundreds of different measures and identify the ones most feasible and applicable for implementation, within the cement industry but also possibly in other sectors. The results demonstrated that even in a relatively synergistic and efficient production system, like Cluster West, there are opportunities for improvement, especially if options beyond “production efficiency” are considered.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    industrial ecology, cement, CO2 emissions, industrial symbiosis, environmental assessment framework, integrated assessment
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105940 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.103 (DOI)000356194300029 ()
    Merknad

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-04-15 Laget: 2014-04-15 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 145-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production contributes to extensive CO2 emissions. However, the climate impact can vary significantly between different production systems and different types of cement products. The market is dominated by ordinary Portland cement, which is based on primary raw materials and commonly associated with combustion of vast amounts of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of Portland cement can be described as a rather linear process. But there are alternative options, for example, involving large amounts of industrial byproducts and renewable energy which are more cyclic and thus can be characterized as relatively “synergistic”.

    The main purpose of this article is to study how relevant the leading ideas of industrial symbiosis are for the cement industry based on a quantitative comparison of the CO2 emissions from different cement production systems and products, both existing and hypothetical. This has been done by studying a group of three cement plants in Germany, denoted as ClusterWest, and the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products. Based on this analysis and literature, it is discussed to what extent industrial symbiosis options can lead to reduced CO2 emissions, for Cluster West and the cement industry in general.

    Utilizing a simplified LCA model (“cradle to gate”), it was shown that the CO2 emissions from Cluster West declined by 45% over the period 1997e2009, per tonne of average cement. This was mainly due to a large share of blended cement, i.e., incorporation of byproducts from local industries as supplementary cementitious materials. For producers of Portland cement to radically reduce the climate impact it is necessary to engage with new actors and find fruitful cooperation regarding byproducts, renewable energy and waste heat. Such a development is very much in line with the key ideas of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis, meaning that it appears highly relevant for the cement industry to move further in this direction. From a climate perspective, it is essential that actors influencing the cement market acknowledge the big difference between different types of cement, where an enlarged share of blended cement products (substituting clinker with byproducts such as slag and fly ash) offers a great scope for future reduction of CO2 emissions.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Cement, CO2 emissions, Life cycle assessment (LCA), Industrial symbiosis Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105941 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.086 (DOI)000356194300015 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-04-15 Laget: 2014-04-15 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part I: A Multi-Criteria Approach
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part I: A Multi-Criteria Approach
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, s. 373-387Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework is developed for assessing the suitability of producing biogas from different types of biomass (feedstocks). This framework allows learning about the limitations and opportunities for biogas development and more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. The framework is reasonably comprehensive, yet it is simple enough to be used by practitioners. It could help to minimize the risk of sub-optimization or neglecting important risks or opportunities. This article, the first of two associated articles, is focused on the framework itself. The framework is applied to assess the suitability of producing biogas from “stickleback”, which is a non-edible fish in the Baltic Sea region. In the companion article (Part II), four other feedstocks are assessed, namely ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste.

    This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2017
    Emneord
    multi-criteria analysis, biogas, biofertilizer, biomass, strategic decision-making, resource efficiency
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130775 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.01.019 (DOI)000401881300036 ()
    Prosjekter
    BRC-RP2 (system projects, multi-criteria analysis of biogas solutions)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Energy AgencyLinköpings universitet
    Merknad

    At the time of the thesis presentation was this publication a manuscript.

    Funding agencies: Energy Agency of Sweden, Linkoping University

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-08-23 Laget: 2016-08-23 Sist oppdatert: 2017-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part II: Results for Strategic Decision Making
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part II: Results for Strategic Decision Making
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, s. 388-404Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. Biogas is a biofuel that can contribute to a more renewable and local energy system. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework, which is proposed in a companion article (Part II), is used to assess the suitability of four types of feedstocks for producing biogas (considering Swedish conditions). The assessed feedstocks are ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste. The results have synthesized and structured a lot of information, which facilitates considerably for those that want an overview and to be able to review several different areas simultaneously. Among the assessed feedstocks, biogas production from household food waste and ley is the most straightforward. For straw and farmed blue mussels, there are more obstacles to overcome including some significant barriers. For all feedstock there are challenges related to the institutional conditions. The assessment contributes to the knowledge about sustainable use of these feedstocks, and the limitations and opportunities for biogas development. It supports more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2017
    Emneord
    multi-criteria analysis, biogas, ley crops, straw, blue mussel, food waste
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130776 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.01.020 (DOI)000401881300037 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Energy AgencyLinköpings universitet
    Merknad

    At the time of the thesis presentation was this publication a manuscript.

    Funding agencies: Energy Agency of Sweden; Linkoping University

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-08-23 Laget: 2016-08-23 Sist oppdatert: 2017-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    6. Life-Cycle Assessment and Uncertainty Analysis of Producing Biogas from Food Waste: A Case-Study of the First Dry-Process Biogas Plant in Sweden
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Life-Cycle Assessment and Uncertainty Analysis of Producing Biogas from Food Waste: A Case-Study of the First Dry-Process Biogas Plant in Sweden
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion of source-sorted food waste is increasing in Sweden. Traditionally, all large-scale co-digestion plants in Sweden, including the ones which digest food waste, are based on wet process. In this article life-cycle assessment (LCA) is used in order to investigate the environmental performance of the first dry-process biogas plant based on source-sorted municipal food waste in Sweden. The environmental performance of this plant is compared with existing typical plants which are based on wet process. Biogas production systems are complex, and there are knowledge gaps and large uncertainties regarding some of the processes. Most existing biogas LCA studies do not take into account these uncertainties and use single values in their life-cycle inventories. In this study uncertainty propagation in LCA of biogas production system is performed and the results are discussed in order to gain system-level insights on the main factors that influence the performance of producing biogas from food waste and the key uncertainties. An attributional process-based LCA model is used to study the global warming potential, eutrophication potential, acidification potential, and non-renewable cumulative energy demand of producing biogas from food waste. A reference case is used which is based on an actual biogas plant in Sweden which uses dry process for treating source-sorted food waste. For the wet process, this case is altered using Swedish literature data on wet digestion systems. For uncertainty management, a combination of approaches, including possibility/fuzzy intervals and stochastic distributions are used. Possibility/fuzzy intervals are used for data collection, but they are translated into probability distributions and Monte Carlo simulation. A simple method for quantifying the uncertainties of the LCA results is used, so the critical uncertainties can be assessed, compared, and discussed. In addition, several key performance indicators were introduced to complement the LCA results.The results of the LCA and KPIs show that using dry process for processing of food waste has a better or comparable environmental performance compared to most existing (wet-process) biogas plants in Sweden. When uncertainties are considered, two systems are more comparable. Regardless of the choice of wet or dry process for treatment of food waste, there are large uncertainties in the non-technical parts of the system which are less dependent to the technical choices or scenario assumptions. Decision-makers who are interested in using biogas systems for treatment of source sorted food waste, should take dry process into consideration. From an energy and environmental perspective, dry process can have good or better performance compared to many existing plants which are based on the wet process. This is mainly due to simpler pretreatment and digestate management. Taking into account the uncertainties (knowledge gaps, and variabilities) in assessing and comparing the performance of biogas production from food waste, provides a more realistic picture of their strengths and weaknesses. Since some of the impacts (and benefits such as carbon sequestration) of using food waste for biogas production and its digestate as biofertilizer lies in areas with high uncertainties, communication of these benefits to wider socio-political actors can play an important role for the development of biogas from food waste in Sweden, because many of the benefits of biogas solutions are not visible when analyzed by LCA approaches that do not take into account these uncertainties.

    Emneord
    life-cycle assessment, key performance indicators, uncertainty analysis, food waste, biogas, dry process
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130774 (URN)
    Prosjekter
    BRC-RP3 (system quantification projects)-Biogas from Food waste
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Energy AgencyLinköpings universitet
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-08-23 Laget: 2016-08-23 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 136.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part I: A Multi-Criteria Approach2017Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, s. 373-387Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework is developed for assessing the suitability of producing biogas from different types of biomass (feedstocks). This framework allows learning about the limitations and opportunities for biogas development and more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. The framework is reasonably comprehensive, yet it is simple enough to be used by practitioners. It could help to minimize the risk of sub-optimization or neglecting important risks or opportunities. This article, the first of two associated articles, is focused on the framework itself. The framework is applied to assess the suitability of producing biogas from “stickleback”, which is a non-edible fish in the Baltic Sea region. In the companion article (Part II), four other feedstocks are assessed, namely ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste.

    This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

  • 137.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Marshall, Richard
    Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry: a case study of a German cement production cluster2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Justification of the paper

    Industrial activities such as cement production are among the largest sources of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions and there are ongoing efforts to reduce the CO2 emissions attributed to them. In order to effectively improve climate performance of cement production, it is essential to systematically identify, classify, and evaluate various improvement measures and implement the most effective and feasible measures.

    This has been done in this article by developing an assessment framework based on concepts of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis which creates an structure for seeking and evaluating the performance and feasibility of various CO2 improvement measures. The developed framework has a wide system perspective, takes a wide range of CO2 improvement measures, and treats all material, and energy flows within the industry as potentially useful resources. This framework is applied in practice for assessing the most feasible measures to apply within the Cluster West in Germany, consisting of three cement plants that are owned by the multinational company CEMEX.

    Purpose

    Use the concepts of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis and develop an assessment framework for aggregating, categorizing, and evaluating various CO2 improvement measures for a given production system. In addition, apply this framework on an actual cement production system and summarize the results both in qualitative and quantitative terms.

    Theoretical framework

    The assessment framework developed in this article is based on the concepts of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis: (1) study of the flows of material and energy in production systems is important, (2) emphasizing on the importance of studying industrial systems in integration with their surrounding systems, not as isolated entities, and (3) in an industrial ecosystem no material and energy stream should be treated as waste and all material and energy streams are potentially useful inputs for other industrial processes.

    Results

    The result is an assessment framework which can be used to systematically gather, classify and evaluate different CO2 improvement measures for cement production. This framework consists of two parts: (1) generic assessment and (2) site-specific assessment of CO2 improvement measures. The first part considers general aspects of the measures such as level of Industrial Symbiosis (i.e. degree of connectedness which is required for their implementation), the potential of each measure for reducing CO2 emissions, and their technological maturity. The second part assesses the feasibility of the measures regarding the conditions of a specific cement producing system. Aspects such as organizational applicability, technical and infrastructural applicability, and the existing level of implementation of each measure are considered.

    The framework is also applied on three cement plants in Germany (owned by CEMEX) referred to as the Cluster West and the results of the assessment are summarized.

    Conclusions

    As demonstrated in the case of Cluster West, the assessment framework developed in this article can be used by a cement producing companies such as CEMEX in order to systematically assess hundreds of measures and identify the most feasible and applicable ones for implementing on each of their cement production plants.

    Lessons learned during development of this assessment framework, may be used when approaching industrial systems other than cement production.

  • 138.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 282-291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production is among the largest anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and there is considerable pressure on the cement industry to reduce these emissions. In the effort to reduce CO2 emissions, there is a need for methods to systematically identify, classify and assess different improvement measures, to increase the knowledge about different options and prioritize between them. For this purpose a framework for assessment has been developed, inspired by common approaches within the fields of environmental systems analysis and industrial symbiosis. The aim is to apply a broad systems perspective and through the use of multiple criteria related to technologies and organization strategies facilitate informed decision-making regarding different CO2 performance measures in the cement industry.

    The integrated assessment framework consists of two parts: a generic and a case-specific part. It is applied to a cement production cluster in Germany called Cluster West, consisting of three cement plants owned by CEMEX. The framework can be used in different ways. It can be used as a tool to perform literature reviews and categorize the state-of-the-art knowledge about options to improve the CO2 performance. It can also be used to assess options for the cement industry in general as well as for individual plants.

    This paper describes the assessment framework, the ideas behind it, its components and the process of carrying out the assessment. The first part provides a structured overview of the options for improvement for the cement industry in general, while the second part is a case-specific application for Cluster West, providing information about the feasibility for different categories of measures that can reduce the CO2 emissions. The overall impression from the project is that the framework was successfully established and, when applied, facilitated strategic discussions and decision-making. Such frameworks can be utilized to systematically assess hundreds of different measures and identify the ones most feasible and applicable for implementation, within the cement industry but also possibly in other sectors. The results demonstrated that even in a relatively synergistic and efficient production system, like Cluster West, there are opportunities for improvement, especially if options beyond “production efficiency” are considered.

  • 139.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leonard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 272-281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and the manufacture of which causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with rather linear resource flows to more synergistic alternatives where industrial byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    In co-operation with the global cement producing company CEMEX a research project has been carried out to contribute to a better understanding of the CO2 performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The focus has been on Cluster West, which is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany.

    This paper is the first in a series of three, all of which are included in this special issue. It has two main aims. The first is to carry out an attributional LCA and compare three different cement products produced in both linear and synergistic production setups. This has been done for cradle to gate, focusing on CO2-eq emissions for Cluster West. The second aim of this part is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to compare different versions of the production system based on the information of a few parameters.

    The attributional LCA showed that cement products that contain a large proportion of byproducts, in this case, ground granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry, had the lowest unit emissions of CO2-eq. The difference between the lowest emission product (CEM III/B) and the highest (CEM I) was about 66% per tonne. A simplified LCA model based on six key performance indicators, instead of approximately 50 parameters for the attributional LCA, was established. It showed that Cluster West currently emits about 45% less CO2-eq per tonne of average product compared to 1997. The simplified LCA model can be used effectively to model future changes of both plants and products (which is further discussed in part II and part III).

  • 140.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leonard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Utilizing LCA and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry: a case study of a cement production cluster in Germany2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with a rather linear production to more synergistic alternatives where byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    This article has two main aims, where the first is to carry out a LCA and compare three different cement products, involving both linear and synergistic ones to further explore this issue. This has been done from cradle to gate, focusing on climate impact, where the case is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany. The second aim is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to assess additional production alternatives based on the information of a few parameters.

    The more comprehensive LCA showed that cement products with a high share of byproducts, in this case granulated blast furnace slag from the steel industry, had the best climate performance. The difference between the best (CEM III/B) and worst (CEM I) cement product, regarding global warming potential, was about 66%. A simplified LCA model was developed and the research team could apply it to compare the present production with the situation in 1997 and also with possible future production systems. This simplified LCA model was based on 6 key performance indicators, instead of more than 50 parameters, which was the case for the comprehensive LCA model. For example, the simplified model showed that the CO2 emission related to a virtual average product of the production cluster was reduced about 49 % in the period from 1997 to 2009.

  • 141.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Biogas Research Center.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Yufang, Guo
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Yonghui
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Liu, Yuxian
    Linköpings universitet. Guangzhou University Research Center on Urban Sustainable Development, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Masuda, Laura Shizue Moriga
    Institute of Biology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich-Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rohracher, Harald
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Trygg, Kristina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Fagen
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Biogas Potential for Improved Sustainability in Guangzhou, China: A Study Focusing on Food Waste on Xiaoguwei Island2019Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of rapid development in China and the growth of megacities, large amounts of organic wastes are generated within relatively small areas. Part of these wastes can be used to produce biogas, not only to reduce waste-related problems, but also to provide renewable energy, recycle nutrients, and lower greenhouse gases and air polluting emissions. This article is focused on the conditions for biogas solutions in Guangzhou. It is based on a transdisciplinary project that integrates several approaches, for example, literature studies and lab analysis of food waste to estimate the food waste potential, interviews to learn about the socio-technical context and conditions, and life-cycle assessment to investigate the performance of different waste management scenarios involving biogas production. Xiaoguwei Island, with a population of about 250,000 people, was chosen as the area of study. The results show that there are significant food waste potentials on the island, and that all studied scenarios could contribute to a net reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Several socio-technical barriers were identified, but it is expected that the forthcoming regulatory changes help to overcome some of them.

  • 142.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Broström, Anders
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköpings University, Jönköping.
    Hultman, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lööf, Hans
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Metzger, Jonathan
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University och Ratio.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Avfall kan omvandlas till en ny resurs2016Inngår i: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, , s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Om gruv- och stålindustrin menar allvar med att öka det egna medvetandet om vad som är cirkulärt, så måste omställningen börja nu. Det skriver debattörer i en slutreplik om kalkbrytningen på Gotland. Publicerad 29 januari 2016

  • 143.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Broström, Anders
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköpings University, Jönköping.
    Hultman, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lööf, Hans
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Metzger, Jonathan
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University och Ratio.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ojnareskogen en möjlighet för industrin2016Inngår i: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, , s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett Natura 2000-område på Gotland – som sätter stopp för kalkbrytning – kan öppna upp för en omställning av svensk basindustri. Kalk är viktig för industrin. Men mineralerna behöver inte nödvändigtvis tas från jordskorpan, skriver nio forskare.

  • 144.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mejía Dugand, Santiago
    Päivärinne, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A corridor striving for sustainability - Reflecting upon PhD education at a Swedish University2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present an overview of interdisciplinary research from Ph.D. students working at the Division of Environmental Technology and Management at Linköping University, Sweden. Each of the Ph.D. students addresses the overall challenge of sustainability transitions in their research, although the themes and content of research varies considerably between individuals, encompassing research on actors, networks, products, materials, services and systems from the public and private sector, operating locally, regionally, nationally and internationally. The scientific literature and methods used to frame and conduct studies varies considerably within the group, as does the individual focus on immediate issues of sustainability.

  • 145.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Life-Cycle Assessment and Uncertainty Analysis of Producing Biogas from Food Waste: A Case-Study of the First Dry-Process Biogas Plant in SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion of source-sorted food waste is increasing in Sweden. Traditionally, all large-scale co-digestion plants in Sweden, including the ones which digest food waste, are based on wet process. In this article life-cycle assessment (LCA) is used in order to investigate the environmental performance of the first dry-process biogas plant based on source-sorted municipal food waste in Sweden. The environmental performance of this plant is compared with existing typical plants which are based on wet process. Biogas production systems are complex, and there are knowledge gaps and large uncertainties regarding some of the processes. Most existing biogas LCA studies do not take into account these uncertainties and use single values in their life-cycle inventories. In this study uncertainty propagation in LCA of biogas production system is performed and the results are discussed in order to gain system-level insights on the main factors that influence the performance of producing biogas from food waste and the key uncertainties. An attributional process-based LCA model is used to study the global warming potential, eutrophication potential, acidification potential, and non-renewable cumulative energy demand of producing biogas from food waste. A reference case is used which is based on an actual biogas plant in Sweden which uses dry process for treating source-sorted food waste. For the wet process, this case is altered using Swedish literature data on wet digestion systems. For uncertainty management, a combination of approaches, including possibility/fuzzy intervals and stochastic distributions are used. Possibility/fuzzy intervals are used for data collection, but they are translated into probability distributions and Monte Carlo simulation. A simple method for quantifying the uncertainties of the LCA results is used, so the critical uncertainties can be assessed, compared, and discussed. In addition, several key performance indicators were introduced to complement the LCA results.The results of the LCA and KPIs show that using dry process for processing of food waste has a better or comparable environmental performance compared to most existing (wet-process) biogas plants in Sweden. When uncertainties are considered, two systems are more comparable. Regardless of the choice of wet or dry process for treatment of food waste, there are large uncertainties in the non-technical parts of the system which are less dependent to the technical choices or scenario assumptions. Decision-makers who are interested in using biogas systems for treatment of source sorted food waste, should take dry process into consideration. From an energy and environmental perspective, dry process can have good or better performance compared to many existing plants which are based on the wet process. This is mainly due to simpler pretreatment and digestate management. Taking into account the uncertainties (knowledge gaps, and variabilities) in assessing and comparing the performance of biogas production from food waste, provides a more realistic picture of their strengths and weaknesses. Since some of the impacts (and benefits such as carbon sequestration) of using food waste for biogas production and its digestate as biofertilizer lies in areas with high uncertainties, communication of these benefits to wider socio-political actors can play an important role for the development of biogas from food waste in Sweden, because many of the benefits of biogas solutions are not visible when analyzed by LCA approaches that do not take into account these uncertainties.

  • 146.
    Feizaghaei, Roozbeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Improving climate performance of cement production: Developing an assessment framework and applying it to a CEMEX cement production cluster in Germany2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    It is very likely that human being is contributing to the process of global warming. Industrial activities such as cement production are among the largest sources of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, there are ongoing efforts to reduce the CO2 emissions attributed to the cement production. In order to be able to systematically identify, classify, and evaluate the most effective, applicable, and feasible CO2 improvement measures, it is essential to have an assessment framework, which has an environmental management perspective. Such a framework should be able to cover the widest range of potential CO2 improvement measures, therefore it has to have a wide system perspective and consider all material, and energy flows within the industry as useful resources.

    The first part of this thesis uses the concepts of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis as the supporting theoretical concepts for developing such assessment framework. The framework has semi-qualitative approach for assessing different measures and is developed in two parts: (1) generic and (2) site-specific assessment. The first part considers general aspects of the measures such as level of Industrial Symbiosis (i.e. complexity of business approach), the potential of each measure for reducing CO2 emissions, and their technological maturity. The second part assesses the feasibility of the measures regarding the conditions of a specific cement producing system. Aspects such as organizational applicability, technical and infrastructural applicability, and the existing level of implementation of each measure are considered.

    In the second part of this thesis, the developed framework is applied on a selected cement production system which is a cluster composed of three cement plants in Germany (owned by CEMEX) referred to as the Cluster West. The result of the assessment provides insights about the state-of-the-art of CO2 improvement measures in cement industry in general and also demonstrates which of these measures are most (or least) suited for development in the Cluster West. The production system of the Cluster West has effectively applied CO2 improvement measures in areas such as producing blended cement products, using alternative fuels (and renewable fuels) for clinker production. In addition, its clinker production (the Kollenbach plant that is part of the Cluster West) has relatively good energy efficiency. According to the results of the assessment, CO2 improvement measures such as co-generation (producing electricity from excess heat of the plant), using renewable fuels, using alternative materials for clinker production, and increasing the usage of alternative fuels are among the most applicable choices for further implementation.

  • 147.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Exploring the state of the art in urban sustainability literature – what do recent articles reveal?Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the sustainable development of human settlements has emerged as a critical challenge. Urban sustainability has become a popular and widely-used term, reflecting the concept’s importance and relevance. This study presents a critical review of articles discussing urban sustainability published during 2011-2012.The study is exploratory and aims to stimulate discussion by examining the themes and content of recent articles to consider how the concept of urban sustainability is framed and used by scholars from different disciplines. The study provides insights into both the “real-world” practice of urban sustainability, as observed and reported by academics, and the academic practice of studying urban sustainability.The study proceeds as follows: a short Introduction presents background information motivating the study. Subsequently, the Method used to conduct the study is described, along with possible Limitations. The Results of the study follow. These illustrate the increasing number of articles discussing urban sustainability and present an overview of the approaches and analytical tools used by authors, along with (in general terms) the themes and topics addressed in their studies.The Results are followed by deeper Analysis of the texts and their contents, structured around four themes which emerge from the literature review. Following the Analysis, a Discussion reflects upon its findings and offers insights into the potential for future contributions that may enhance the study of urban sustainability, with particular reference to urban sustainability governance and the study of organizational aspects, processes and levels of participation. Specific research needs are summarised in the Conclusions.

  • 148.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    National infrastructure, small towns and sustainable mobility – experiences from policy and strategy in two Swedish municipalities2017Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 60, nr 9, s. 1660-1682Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the implications of improved access to national rail and roadinfrastructure for urban planning and land use in two small Swedish towns. The promotion of sustainable mobility is considered a strategic objective at the municipal level, yet the study questions the extent to which national investments, and increased access to regional labour markets, support local efforts to increase sustainable mobility. The results indicate that municipalities struggle to adopt coherent approaches to increasing sustainable mobility and continue to develop physical plans that induce use of motor vehicles, a trend reinforced by national investments in road infrastructure in peri-urban areas.

  • 149.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sustainability · Strategy · Space – exploring influences on governing for urban sustainability in municipalities2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The pursuit of urban sustainability is considered central to sustainable development and is a key objective of the global Sustainable Development Goals (2015) and the New Urban Agenda (2016). This thesis aims to contribute to debates on urban sustainability by providing insights as to the role of actors participating in processes of governing for urban sustainability, with particular focus on the municipal organisation.

    The thesis employs an interdisciplinary approach to illustrate divergent approaches to governing for urban sustainability, with reference to empirical studies of strategic planning processes in municipalities in selected North-western European countries – Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands.

    These studies address themes including climate change, sustainable transport and multi-level governance. The thesis provides a broad overview of theoretical discussions related to governing, strategy and planning, the role of actors in governing for urban sustainability, and the particular importance of climate change as a challenge for urban sustainability.

    A number of research gaps are identified and addressed in two research questions, focusing on the organisation and practice of processes of governing for urban sustainability, and the factors influencing actors participating in such processes. The thesis responds to these research questions with reference to five appended papers, which illustrate different dimensions of governing for urban sustainability.

    The first paper concerns the organisation of processes to develop energy and climate strategies in Swedish municipalities, and the second paper highlights the experiences of actors participating in such processes. The third paper presents results from a survey illustrating the expectations of stakeholders active in governing transport in the city of Norrköping, Sweden.

    In the fourth paper, the development and implementation of policies aiming for sustainable transport and urban sustainability in Basel, Switzerland, are discussed. In the final paper, cooperation through transnational municipal networks is explored with reference to the World Ports Climate Declaration, an initiative of the city of Rotterdam.

    The thesis confirms the presence of five factors – capacity, mandate, resources, scope and will – that shape the “strategy space” of actors and play an important role in conditioning the form and content of processes of governing for urban sustainability. The thesis suggests that the ways in which a municipal organisation perceive and mobilise the five factors will strongly determine the extent of its sustainability strategy space.

    In sum, municipal organisations and other actors participating in processes of governing for urban sustainability need to mobilise the five factors and expand their strategy space, in order to achieve vertical and horizontal alignment of strategic objectives and facilitate implementation that delivers transformative change.

    Delarbeid
    1. Sustainable energy and climate strategies: lessons from planning processes in five Swedish municipalities
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Sustainable energy and climate strategies: lessons from planning processes in five Swedish municipalities
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 213-221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish municipalities have traditionally had significant powers and played a major role in implementing national energy strategies. This paper describes the factors influencing development of municipal climate and energy plans in five Swedish municipalities and assesses the relevance and importance of these factors from theoretical and practical perspectives. The questions raised in the paper are: what are the characteristics of municipal climate and energy planning processes in the five municipalities, do these municipalities include stakeholders in the process, if so how, and do the stakeholders influence the content of strategies? Results suggest that a number of factors influence the development of municipal climate and energy strategies and their content. These include the importance of a clear, shared vision and engaged politicians; the size and organisational structure of the municipality and its willingness and capability to act; the organisation of the process and extent to which stakeholders not only have been involved but also felt included; the need for clarity about financial aspects, such as planned financing of implementation; and the need for greater clarity concerning selection of targets and their relevance to global climate and energy trends. The study and its results may be used to inform policy-makers on the national and local levels about factors influencing municipal energy planning and also contribute to a discussion on benefits and problems of involving stakeholders and citizens in the strategic work to reduce climate impacts and energy consumption.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Energy and climate strategies, municipalities, stakeholders, planning processes
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104464 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.08.001 (DOI)000356194300022 ()
    Prosjekter
    HEKSA - Sustainable Energy and Climate Strategies
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-02-17 Laget: 2014-02-17 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Stakeholder participation in municipal energy and climate planning – experiences from Sweden
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Stakeholder participation in municipal energy and climate planning – experiences from Sweden
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 272-289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the factors influencing stakeholder participation in municipal energy and climate planning, together with stakeholder experiences of participation in such processes. The article presents findings from a survey of 60 Swedish municipalities and detailed case studies of energy and climate planning in five Swedish municipalities to explore which stakeholders are involved, how and why they are involved, and the impacts of participation on both stakeholder experiences. The results of this study provide insight into the role of stakeholders in municipal energy and climate planning.The study proceeds as follows: the Introduction is followed by a discussion of theoretical perspectives on stakeholder participation and energy and climate planning. The Methods used to conduct the study are presented, followed by Results and Analysis. In the subsequent Discussion, the authors propose a conceptual approach that may assist municipalities in development of energy and climate strategies. The Analysis and Discussion inform Conclusions in which the authors advocate early and active stakeholder engagement in energy and climate strategy planning and emphasise the possible utility of their conceptual approach in supporting stakeholder participation.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Taylor & Francis, 2016
    Emneord
    Energy and climate strategies; municipalities; participation; stakeholders
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104465 (URN)10.1080/13549839.2014.946400 (DOI)000378168000002 ()
    Prosjekter
    HEKSA - Sustainable Energy and Climate Strategies
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Merknad

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-02-17 Laget: 2014-02-17 Sist oppdatert: 2018-03-09bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Contesting sustainability in urban transport — perspectives from a Swedish town
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Contesting sustainability in urban transport — perspectives from a Swedish town
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Natural resources forum (Print), ISSN 0165-0203, E-ISSN 1477-8947, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 15-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from a document study, survey, and workshops held in a Swedish municipality. The empirical focus of the study is on the role of transport in municipal planning and transport's potential contribution to urban sustainability in the municipality. The case study highlights a problem familiar to many municipalities — a transport sector largely dependent on fossil fuel private vehicles that generates significant impacts on the climate and environment, along with other economic and social costs. However, despite awareness of these negative impacts, it is difficult to implement measures to reduce the use of private vehicles and enable a transition towards a sustainable transport sector. In Sweden, municipalities have exclusive planning monopolies and an extensive range of other powers. Despite this, many municipalities are struggling to reduce car dependency and enable sustainable mobility. This paper questions the extent to which the municipality and its governance processes are capable of contributing toward sustainable development, both locally and globally, in the absence of radical measures. In particular, the paper considers why, despite having adopted objectives to promote sustainable mobility, does the municipality struggle with the implementation of measures to enable sustainable mobility? Why is there a difference between words and actions?

    Emneord
    Municipalities; sustainable development; transport; mobility; decision-making; governance
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114291 (URN)10.1111/1477-8947.12061 (DOI)000351775600003 ()
    Prosjekter
    Hållbara Norrköping
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-02-17 Laget: 2015-02-17 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-04
    4. Sustainable mobility as Swiss cheese?: Exploring influences on urban transport strategy in Basel
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Sustainable mobility as Swiss cheese?: Exploring influences on urban transport strategy in Basel
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Natural resources forum (Print), ISSN 0165-0203, E-ISSN 1477-8947, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 143-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the development and implementation of strategies for sustainable mobility in Basel, Switzerland. Basel (Bâle, Basilea, Basle) has been identified as a ‘relatively successful’ practitioner of sustainable mobility, with an urban form that is not only conducive to walking and cycling, but also has an extensive public transport system and high levels of commuting using these sustainable modes of transport. With a low share of journeys by motor vehicles compared to many other European cities – combined with a legally-binding objective to reduce vehicle traffic by a further 10% from 2010 to 2020 – Basel appears to be a forerunner with regard to sustainable mobility policy and practice. Five years after this objective was passed into law – following a public vote, as Basel is part of the Swiss confederation and practices direct democracy – this study aims to assess the extent of policy implementation and reflect on challenges and opportunities for the future. The paper presents findings from a series of interviews with stakeholders in Basel on the theme of sustainable mobility. Key questions include: is it possible to develop coherent strategies and policies to further reduce the role of motor vehicles and in doing so, achieve a modal shift? How does participation in a direct democracy influence strategy and policy development and outcomes? Do compromises and trade-offs mean strategies and policies promoting sustainable mobility are, like Swiss cheese, riddled with holes? By illustrating challenges and opportunities when advancing sustainable mobility in a participative culture, the study provides insights for policymakers and researchers in other contexts. Among the conclusions is an emphasis on the importance of committed individuals capable of expanding the ‘strategy space’ of processes. Participation provides one such opportunity, yet may also generate divergent or contradictory trends causing incrementalism. A rapid transition to sustainable mobility is thus likely to require increased politicisation of the topic by both politicians and civil servants.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    John Wiley & Sons, 2016
    Emneord
    Sustainable mobility, governance, strategy, policy, participation, direct democracy, Canton Basel-Stadt
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129371 (URN)10.1111/1477-8947.12093 (DOI)000393051100002 ()
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: Goteborg Energi; Riksbyggens Jubileumsfond Den Goda Staden; Vinnova (Verifiering for Samverkan)

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-06-17 Laget: 2016-06-17 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-28
    5. The role of port cities and transnational municipal networks in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on land and at sea from shipping - an assessment of the World Ports Climate Initiative
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The role of port cities and transnational municipal networks in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on land and at sea from shipping - an assessment of the World Ports Climate Initiative
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 75, s. 271-277Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008, 55 of the world's largest ports voluntarily adopted the World Ports Climate Declaration (WPCD) and the International Association of Ports and Harbours committed to long-term work on implementation through the World Ports Climate Initiative (WPCI). This article assesses the work of WPCI since 2008 and makes five recommendations that, if implemented, could support efforts to reduce the climate and environmental impacts of port operations and international shipping. In particular, as the impetus for the WPCD came from a port city – Rotterdam – and their engagement with a transnational municipal network – the C40 Large Cities Climate Leadership Group – the paper considers the role of cities and transnational municipal networks in governance, and the potential for cities to play a more active and influential role in the maritime sector. The article presents an overview of literature on the role and function of transnational municipal networks, the background and development of the WPCD, analysis of the work of WPCI, and a discussion concerning the potential of cities and transnational municipal networks to support and add value to WPCI or similar initiatives in the maritime sector. This informs the conclusions and recommendations to marine policy-makers and port stakeholders.

    Emneord
    Ports; Shipping;Transnational municipal networks; Climate change; Governance
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123628 (URN)10.1016/j.marpol.2015.12.012 (DOI)000391904500032 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-01-01 Laget: 2016-01-01 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-10bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 150.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sustainable mobility as Swiss cheese?: Exploring influences on urban transport strategy in Basel2016Inngår i: Natural resources forum (Print), ISSN 0165-0203, E-ISSN 1477-8947, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 143-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the development and implementation of strategies for sustainable mobility in Basel, Switzerland. Basel (Bâle, Basilea, Basle) has been identified as a ‘relatively successful’ practitioner of sustainable mobility, with an urban form that is not only conducive to walking and cycling, but also has an extensive public transport system and high levels of commuting using these sustainable modes of transport. With a low share of journeys by motor vehicles compared to many other European cities – combined with a legally-binding objective to reduce vehicle traffic by a further 10% from 2010 to 2020 – Basel appears to be a forerunner with regard to sustainable mobility policy and practice. Five years after this objective was passed into law – following a public vote, as Basel is part of the Swiss confederation and practices direct democracy – this study aims to assess the extent of policy implementation and reflect on challenges and opportunities for the future. The paper presents findings from a series of interviews with stakeholders in Basel on the theme of sustainable mobility. Key questions include: is it possible to develop coherent strategies and policies to further reduce the role of motor vehicles and in doing so, achieve a modal shift? How does participation in a direct democracy influence strategy and policy development and outcomes? Do compromises and trade-offs mean strategies and policies promoting sustainable mobility are, like Swiss cheese, riddled with holes? By illustrating challenges and opportunities when advancing sustainable mobility in a participative culture, the study provides insights for policymakers and researchers in other contexts. Among the conclusions is an emphasis on the importance of committed individuals capable of expanding the ‘strategy space’ of processes. Participation provides one such opportunity, yet may also generate divergent or contradictory trends causing incrementalism. A rapid transition to sustainable mobility is thus likely to require increased politicisation of the topic by both politicians and civil servants.

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