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  • 101.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Concepts of Health, Well-being and Welfare as Applied to Animals: A Philosophical Analysis of the Concepts with the Regard to the Differences Between Animals2008Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is an analysis of the use and definition of the concepts health, well-being and welfare within the field called “the science of animal health and welfare”. The materials used are a literature survey of the field, qualitative interviews with Swedish veterinary surgeons and a study of the concepts in legislation concerning animals in England, Germany and Sweden. The main emphasis has been on theoretical definitions explicitly stated in the different texts or in the interviews. Two ways of distinguishing between animals are used: according to species and according to the role that animals have for humans. As a result it becomes salient whether the definitions have limits with regard to species or role.

    In the thesis a great number of definitions of the three concepts are interpreted, compared and criticised. As a result a limited number of definitions have been categorised and collected into clusters which fulfil minimal requirements of consistency and practicability.

    The analysis supports the use of all three concepts – health, well-being and welfare – since they are all needed for making crucial distinctions in the science of animal health and welfare.

  • 102.
    Lerner, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindblad, Anna
    Karolinska Institute.
    Algers, Bo
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science.
    Lynoe, Niels
    Karolinska Institute.
    Veterinary surgeons attitudes towards physician-assisted suicide: an empirical study of Swedish experts on euthanasia2011Inngår i: JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ETHICS, ISSN 0306-6800, Vol. 37, nr 5, s. 295-298Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To examine the hypothesis that knowledge about physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and euthanasia is associated with a more restrictive attitude towards PAS. Design A questionnaire about attitudes towards PAS, including prioritisation of arguments pro and contra, was sent to Swedish veterinary surgeons. The results were compared with those from similar surveys of attitudes among the general public and physicians. Participants All veterinary surgeons who were members of the Swedish Veterinary Association and had provided an email address (n=2421). Main outcome measures Similarities or differences in response pattern between veterinary surgeons, physicians and the general public. Results The response pattern among veterinary surgeons and the general public was almost similar in all relevant aspects. Of the veterinarians 75% (95% CI 72% to 78%) were in favour of PAS, compared with 73% (95% CI 69% to 77%) among the general public. Only 10% (95% CI 5% to 15%) of the veterinary surgeons were against PAS, compared with 12% (95% CI 5% to 19%) among the general public. Finally, 15% (95% CI 10% to 21%) of veterinarians were undecided, compared with 15% (95% CI 8% to 22%) among the general public. Physicians had a more restrictive attitude to PAS than the general public. Conclusions Since veterinary surgeons have frequent practical experience of euthanasia in animals, they do have knowledge about what euthanasia really is. Veterinary surgeons and the general public had an almost similar response pattern. Accordingly it seems difficult to maintain that knowledge about euthanasia is unambiguously associated with a restrictive attitude towards PAS.

  • 103.
    Lerner, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle.
    Late breeding of Wood Pigeon Columba palumbus at Linköping, southern Sweden2008Inngår i: Ornis Svecica, ISSN 1102-6812, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 127-128Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    [No abstract available]

  • 104.
    Lewander, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gao, Jingfang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Carstensen, John
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Arbman, Gunnar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Kirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Kirurgi- och onkologicentrum, Kirurgiska kliniken i Östergötland med verksamhet i Linköping, Norrköping och Motala.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Kirurgi- och onkologicentrum, Onkologiska kliniken US.
    NF-κB p65 phosphorylated at Serine-536 is an independent prognostic factor in Swedish colorectal cancer patientsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: NF-κB transcription factor protein family has diverse cellular and biological functions, and post-translational modification is important to regulate these functions. An important site of phosphorylation of p65 subunit is at Serine-536 (phospho-Ser536-p65), and this phosphorylation is involved in regulation of transcriptional activity, nuclear localization and protein stability. In this study, we investigated a phospho-Ser536-p65 in colorectal cancers and its relationship to clinicopathological factors of the patients.

    Materials and Methods: Expression of phospho-Ser536-p65 was examined by using immunohistochemistry in 203 primary colorectal cancers, 156 normal mucosa specimens and 18 metastases in the lymph nodes.

    Results: The expression of phospho-Ser536-p65 increased from normal mucosa to primary tumour (p<0.0001). Further, the increased expression of phospho-Ser536-p65 in the cytoplasm of the primary tumours correlated with worse survival of the patients independent of gender, age, tumor location, stage and differentiation (p=0.04, hazard ratio 1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.47).

    Conclusion: The NF-κB p65 subunit phosphorylated at Serine-536 is anindependent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer patients.

  • 105.
    Lewander, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gao, Jingfang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Carstensen, John
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Arbman, Gunnar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Kirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken ViN.
    Zhang, Hong
    University of Skövde.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Onkologiska kliniken US.
    NF-kappa B p65 phosphorylated at serine-536 is an independent prognostic factor in Swedish colorectal cancer patients2012Inngår i: International Journal of Colorectal Disease, ISSN 0179-1958, E-ISSN 1432-1262, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 447-452Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The NF-kappa B transcription factor protein family has diverse cellular and biological functions, and posttranslational modification is important to regulate these functions. An important site of phosphorylation of NF-kappa B p65 subunit is at serine-536 (phospho-Ser536-p65), and this phosphorylation is involved in regulation of transcriptional activity, nuclear localization, and protein stability. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanIn this study, we investigated expression of phospho-Ser536-p65 in colorectal cancers and its relationships with clinicopathological factors. The expression of phospho-Ser536-p65 was examined by immunohistochemistry in 203 primary colorectal cancers, 156 normal mucosa specimens, and 18 metastases in the lymph nodes. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe expression of phospho-Ser536-p65 increased from normal mucosa to primary tumor (p andlt; 0.0001). Further, the increased expression of phospho-Ser536-p65 in the cytoplasm of the primary tumors correlated with worse survival of the patients independently of gender, age, tumor location, stage, and differentiation (p = 0.04; hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% CI 1.03-3.47). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe NF-kappa B p65 subunit phosphorylated at serine-536 is an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer patients.

  • 106.
    Liden, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Ohlen, Joakim
    University of Gothenburg.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Friberg, Febe
    University of Gothenburg.
    Ways of talking about illness and prognosis in palliative cancer care consultations-two interactional frames2010Inngår i: SUPPORTIVE CARE IN CANCER, ISSN 0941-4355, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 399-408Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to describe how interaction about changes in illness and prognosis was shaped by participants in outpatient palliative cancer care consultations. The data collection involved six video-recorded consultations at an outpatient oncology unit at a university hospital in Sweden. The interactions were studied by means of discourse analysis. Inclusion criteria for the patients were gastro-intestinal cancer and receiving palliative care. The sample included three men and three women, aged 54-70, with various metastasised gastro-intestinal tumours. Significant others (SOs) were included where patients brought one to the consultation. Three male consultants aged 55-59 participated. In palliative care consultations, the person-to-person and the patient-professional conversation frames were found to be in use as patients, SOs and physicians talked about the patients illness and prognosis. Within the patient-professional frame, three interactional patterns were found: the patient emphasising emotional experiences of illness or well-being and the physicians responding by toning down strategies, patients asking direct questions and getting straight answers and finally interaction marked by cautiousness and avoidances. Within the person-person frame, the interactions were described as: playful talk, collegial talk and existential talk. When patients shared their personal interpretations of illness and prognosis, their narrative was more enhanced by the person-to-person frame than the patient-professional frame. Finding out if and how patients and SOs want to express their worries and finding a balance between the interactional patterns that occur are ethical challenges which health professionals must face. Since patients and SOs may restrain their emotional experiences, investigating grounded ways of overcoming these difficulties is imperative.

  • 107.
    Lindberg, Malou
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Allmänmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Foldemo, Anniqa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Wiréhn, Ann-Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Differences in prescription rates and odds ratios of antidepressant drugs in relation to individual hormonal contraceptives: A nationwide population-based study with age-specific analyses2012Inngår i: European journal of contraception & reproductive health care, ISSN 1362-5187, E-ISSN 1473-0782, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 106-118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To examine, among young women, the association of individual hormonal contraceptives, within two broad groupings, with antidepressant therapy. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods In a nationwide register-based study, we examined the prescription rates of antidepressant drugs in relation to individual combined hormonal and progestin-only contraceptives among Swedish women aged 16-31 years (N = 917,993). Drug data were obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register for the period 1 July 2005-30 June 2008. Data on the total population of women aged 16-31 in 2008 were obtained from the Total Population Register of Statistics Sweden. The proportion of women using both hormonal contraception and antidepressants, and odds ratios (ORs) for antidepressant use for hormonal contraceptive users versus non-users, were calculated, the latter by logistic regression, for each formulation. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults The highest antidepressant OR in all age groups, particularly in the 16-19 years age group, related to medroxyprogesterone-only, followed by etonogestrel-only, levonorgestrel-only and ethinylestradiol/norelgestromin formulations. Oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol combined with lynestrenol or drospirenone had considerably higher ORs than other pills. ORs significantly lower than 1 were observed when ethinylestradiol was combined with norethisterone, levonorgestrel or desogestrel. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion The association between use of hormonal contraceptives and antidepressant drugs varies considerably within both the combined hormonal contraceptive and the progestin-only groups.

  • 108.
    Liss, Per-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle.
    Hard choices in public health: The allocation of scarce resources2003Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 156-157Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 109.
    Liss, Per-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle.
    The significance of the goal of health care for the setting of priorities2003Inngår i: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 161-169Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the article is to argue for the significance of a clarified goal of health care for the setting of priorities. Three arguments are explored. First, assessment of needs becomes necessary in so far as the principle of need should guide the priority-setting. The concept of health care need includes a goal component. This component should for rational reasons be identical with the goal of health care. Second, in order to use resources efficiently it is necessary to assess the effects of health care. It is not, however, a question of assessing whether there is an effect but a question of assessing whether there is the right effect. And what constitutes the right effect can only be determined in relation to the goal of the enterprise. Third, the health sector involves several groups of actors such as politicians, administrators, doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, educationists and patients. It is common knowledge that successful teamwork requires an understanding of a common goal. The article ends with an example of a goal chosen from ethics.

  • 110.
    LIU, ZHI
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    A Study of the Relationship between Socialization Tactics, Motives to Study and Mental Health in Chinese College Students2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    College students constitute a particular social group that carries hopes and expectations from both parents and society. However, in recent years there have been  reports about increasing problems in many universities in China: students suspension from school, skipping classes, or even committing suicide,. As social isolation, anxiety, fragility etc are possible reasons, the importance of university student’s mental health has been taken seriously more and more. University students’ socialization refers to the process in which college students grow up into independent and mature individuals by learning social and culture knowledge. From social perspective, on one hand, they still need to learn professional knowledge, on the other hand, they have to construct a good philosophy for themselves, a correct world outlook and value conception. This study mainly explores undergraduate students’ mental health in relation to socialization tactics and motives to study. That means that the focus of this survey is not on the degree of socialization, but on the tactic the students have chosen to get into the university society.

    In this study totally 120 students were examined via two questionnaires, the University Personality Inventory(UPI) introduced from Japan, and the combined Motives to Study and Socialization Tactics questionnaire from Israel. Both of them  passed homogeneity testing. The 120 students were from four universities, two  located in Hangzhou city and two in Beijing. Statistical analysis including correlation analysis, multiple regression and t-test, showed that motives to study had little to do with students’ mental health, while scholastic and collegiate socialization tactics were associated with good mental health of the students. There was no big difference in study motives and socialization tactics between the male and the female students in this study.

  • 111.
    Lorefelt, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Socialmedicin och folkhälsovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Wiréhn, Ann-Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Wilhelmsson, Susan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Nutritional status and health care costs for the elderly living in municipal residential homes — An intervention study2011Inngår i: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 92-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    The aim was to study the effect of individualised meals on nutritional status among older people living in municipal residential homes and to compare the results with a control group. An additional aim was to estimate direct health care costs for both groups.

    SETTING:

    Six different municipal residential homes in the south-east of Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS:

    Older people living in three residential homes constituted the intervention group n=42 and the rest constituted the control group n=67.

    INTERVENTION:

    A multifaceted intervention design was used. Based on an interview with staff a tailored education programme about nutritional care, including both theoretical and practical issues, was carried through to staff in the intervention group. Nutritional status among the elderly was measured by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), individualised meals were offered to the residents based on the results of the MNA. Staff in the control group only received education on how to measure MNA and the residents followed the usual meal routines.

    MEASUREMENTS:

    Nutritional status was measured by MNA at baseline and after 3 months. Cost data on health care visits during 2007 were collected from the Cost Per Patient database.

    RESULTS:

    Nutritional status improved and body weight increased after 3 months in the intervention group. Thus, primary health care costs constituted about 80% of the total median cost in the intervention group and about 55% in the control group.

    CONCLUSION:

    With improved knowledge the staff could offer the elderly more individualised meals. One of their future challenges is to recognise and assess nutritional status among this group. If malnutrition could be prevented health care costs should be reduced.

  • 112.
    Lumma-Sellenthin, Antje
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Medical students' attitudes towards group and self-regulated learning2012Inngår i: International Journal of Medical Education, ISSN 2042-6372, E-ISSN 2042-6372, Vol. 3, s. 46-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The study is aimed at exploring the association between beginning students' attitudes towards group learning and their awareness of learning strategies, to demographic variables and their exposure to problem-based or mixed curricula.

    Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional design included students (N = 351) from two medical schools with lecture-based and two with problem-based curricula from Germany and Sweden. Gender, age, personal and parents' practice experience within health care were assessed. A questionnaire was designed for measuring attitudes towards group and individual learning, awareness of learning strategies was assessed with the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory. The t-test for independent groups was applied to compare dependent variables between personal factors, and multivariate statistics to compare medical schools.

    Results: Students' personal work experience correlated with self-regulation (t(333) = -3.307; p = 0.001) and group learning experience (t(341) = -2.971; p = 0.003). Students from the German problem-based curriculum reported most experience with group learning (largest mean difference compared to the German lecture-based curriculum = 1.45 on a Likert scale from 1 to 7; SE = 0.181; p < 0.001), and were better at regulating their learning strategies than students from the Swedish lecture-based school (mean difference 0.18; SE = 0.181; p = 0.034).

    Conclusions: Students' clinical experience seemed to benefit self-regulation skills. Problem-based teaching methods and early interprofessional education appear to be favorable learning conditions for the development of professional skills.

  • 113.
    Lumma-Sellenthin, Antje
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Students’ attitudes towards learning communication skills: correlating attitudes, demographic and metacognitive variables2012Inngår i: International Journal of Medical Education, ISSN 2042-6372, E-ISSN 2042-6372, Vol. 3, s. 201-208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study aimed at exploring the relationship of students' attitudes towards learning communication skills to demographic variables, metacognitive skills, and to the appreciation of patient-oriented care.

    Methods: The cross-sectional survey study involved first- and third-term students from two traditional and two problem-based curricula (N= 351). Demographic variables, attitudes towards communication skills learning, patient orientation, and awareness of learning strategies were assessed. Differences in attitude measures were assessed with t-tests and univariate comparisons. With multiple linear regressions predictor variables of students' attitudes towards communication skills learning and patient-oriented care were identified.

    Results: A positive attitude towards learning communica-tion skills was predicted by a caring patient orientation, self-regulation of learning strategies, and female gender (R2= 0.23; F (9,310) = 9.72; p < 0.001). Students' caring patient orientation was predicted by their attitudes towards learning communication skills, female gender, and higher age (R2= 0.23; F (9,307) = 13.48; p < 0.001). Students from a traditional curriculum were least interested in learning communication skills (F (3, 346) = 26.75; p <0.001).

    Conclusions: Students' attitudes towards learning communication skills and their caring patient orientation are interrelated. However, communication skills are considered as more positive by students with good self-regulatory skills. Early training of self-regulation and the training of communication skills in mixed-gender groups are recommended.

  • 114.
    Lumma-Sellenthin, Antje
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Talking with patients and peers: Medical students difficulties with learning communication skills2009Inngår i: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 31, nr 6, s. 528-534Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patient-centered communication skills, such as an empathic attitude towards patients and a holistic perspective on health, are difficult to acquire. Designing effective courses requires better understanding of the difficulties that students perceive with learning to talk with patients Aims: The study aimed at exploring students common difficulties with learning patient-centered communication skills. Methods: Group discussions about student-patient interviews were videotaped and analyzed with regard to issues that students perceived as difficult and to their reflections about these difficulties. Results: The students reported feeling intrusive as they explored the patients psychosocial situation. They avoided being empathic and felt insecure about coping adequately with emotionally loaded topics. Their difficulties were mainly due to insufficient understanding of the functional relations between psychosocial issues and health conditions. Moreover, students were insecure concerning the function of affective feedback in the diagnostic process. However, the group discussions generated a language for analyzing and structuring interviews that helped develop the students professional identities. Conclusions: Students experienced moral qualms about applying major aspects of patient-centered interviewing. Instruction in communication skills should aim at filling the students knowledge gaps and fostering their awareness and expression of emotional perceptions. Long-term relationships with patients could help develop patient-centered communication.

  • 115.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle.
    Analysing our qualms about "designing" future persons: Autonomy, freedom of choice, and interfering with nature2007Inngår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 407-416Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Actually possible and conceivable future uses of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and germ-line genetic intervention in assisted reproduction seem to offer increasing possibilities of choosing the kind of persons that will be brought to existence. Many are troubled by the idea of these technologies being used for enhancement purposes. How can we make sense of this worry? Why are our thoughts about therapeutic genetic interventions and non-genetic enhancement (for instance education) not accompanied by the same intuitive uneasiness? I argue that the concepts of autonomy and freedom of choice, typically invoked to delimit the morally acceptable uses of reproductive technologies, cannot fully answer these questions. Instead, I suggest that an alternative answer might begin with reflections on the notion of interfering with nature. Drawing on Martin Heidegger's critique of modern technology and Hans Jonas's moral philosophy, I outline an argument that attempts to capture what might be particularly troubling about the idea of "designing" future persons. At the core of the argument is the suggestion that enhancing selections and modifications on embryos might be bound up with an instrumentalising, non-responsive perspective on the future persons into which they are intended to grow. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  • 116.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Back to the future: Habermas's "The Future of Human Nature"2007Inngår i: The Hastings center report, ISSN 0093-0334, E-ISSN 1552-146X, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 4-5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 117.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Good Parents, Better Babies: An Argument about Reproductive Technologies, Enhancement and Ethics2008Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a contribution to the bioethical debate about new and possibly emerging reproductive technologies. Its point of departure is the intuition, which many people seem to share, that using such technologies to select non-disease traits – like sex and emotional stability - in yet unborn children is morally problematic, at least more so than using the technologies to avoid giving birth to children with severe genetic diseases, or attempting to shape the non-disease traits of already existing children by environmental means, like education. The study employs philosophical analysis for the purpose of making this intuition intelligible and judging whether it is justified.

    Different ways in which the moral problems posed by reproductive technologies are often framed in bioethical debates are criticised as inadequate for this task. In particular, it is argued that the intuition cannot fully be made sense of in terms of harm to the children that such technologies help create.

    The study attempts to elaborate an alternative to that broadly consequentialist approach, by drawing on Martin Heidegger’s philosophy of technology, Hans Jonas’s ethics, and Aristotle’s practical philosophy, as it has been received and developed in the hermeneutical tradition. It is suggested that reproductive choices, unlike decisions for already born children, are characterised by a peculiar one-sidedness: the future child appears to the parents as something wholly theirs to decide about, not as a concrete other with whom they must interact in a responsive and attuned way. This is problematic because it means that such choices cannot call upon the particularised moral understanding only gained in interpersonal encounters. In particular, it makes them easily shaped by various tendencies, to which parents are always susceptible, to relate to children in instrumentalising ways, and at risk of reinforcing such tendencies. However, this does not mean that all uses of reproductive technologies are equally troubling. When selecting against severe disease the parents can rely on a widely shared illness experience to escape the dangers that one-sidedness involves. It is concluded that the intuition under discussion, thus explicated and in some ways qualified, makes sense morally.

  • 118.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Misunderstanding, continued2012Inngår i: IRB: Ethics and Human Research, ISSN 0193-7758, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 19-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 119.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    (Mis)Understanding Exploitation2011Inngår i: IRB: Ethics and Human Research, ISSN 0193-7758, Vol. 33, nr 2, s. 1-5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The term exploitation is notoriously hard to define. Yet it is frequently invoked to frame moral concerns about clinical research. Recently, a group of influential authors have proposed a so-called “non-exploitation framework” for the ethics of randomized controlled trials that appears to address these concerns. In this paper, I challenge one basic assumption of that framework: the idea that non-exploitation in research requires participants to be protected from excessive risks, understood as risks that are not outweighed by the benefits that the research is expected to lead to. Drawing on examples of exploitation in other contexts, I show that this idea has highly counterintuitive implications. I conclude that the non-exploitation framework obscures concerns about exploitation in biomedical research rather than clarifying them.   

  • 120.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Phenomenology, cosmetic surgery, and complicity2014Inngår i: Feminist phenomenology and medicine / [ed] Kristin Zeiler & Lisa Folkmarson Käll, Albany: State University of New York, 2014, s. 81-99Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 121.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Reproductive technologies and the question of the child's future freedom2009Inngår i: Ethics, law and society, vol. 4 / [ed] Holm, S.J., Gunning, J. & Kenway, I., Aldershot: Ashgate, 2009, s. 279-288Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the second volume in a series exploring key issues in ethics, law and society, published in association with the Cardiff Centre for Ethics, Law and Society. This volume presents a selection of papers and commentaries on topics in bioethics, ethics and society, and business and professional ethics. Multidisciplinary in approach, the work will be a valuable resource for all those concerned with contemporary ethical issues.

  • 122.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Reprogenetics and the ‘Parents Have Always Done It’ Argument2011Inngår i: The Hastings center report, ISSN 0093-0334, E-ISSN 1552-146X, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 43-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In debates about the ethics of so-called reprogenetic technologies one often comes across the following line of reasoning. Parents have always shaped their children’s characteristics through rearing and education; such shaping is morally acceptable or even required; choosing children’s characteristics by means of reprogenetic technologies is just like shaping these characteristics through rearing and education; hence reprogenetic child shaping should also be considered morally acceptable or required. This argument suffers from several weaknesses. Above all, it rests on a mistaken analogy. Reprogenetic child shaping is in fact not at all like rearing and education. The difference between the two practices, and the moral salience of that difference, can be brought out with the help of two related approaches insufficiently explored in contemporary bioethics: hermeneutics and Aristotelian practical philosophy.

  • 123.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Taking advantage of injustice2013Inngår i: Social Theory and Practice, ISSN 0037-802X, E-ISSN 2154-123X, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 557-580Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    What, if anything, is wrong with taking advantage of people’s unjust circumstances when they both benefit from and consent to the exchange? The answer, some believe, is that such exchanges are wrongfully exploitative. I argue that this answer is incomplete at best, and I elaborate a different one: to take advantage of injustice is to become complicit in its reproduction. I also argue that the case for third-party interference with mutually beneficial and consensual exchanges, while normally considered weak, is strengthened once these exchanges are understood as implicated in broader unjust structures.

  • 124.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Trading hair, trading cadaver tissue: On the ethics of commodifying bodily sacrifices and gifts2012Inngår i: The body as gift, resource, and commodity: exchanging organs, tissues, and cells in the 21st century / [ed] Martin Gunnarson & Fredrik Svenaeus, Huddinge: Södertörn Högskola , 2012, s. 296-320Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from three metaphors—the body as gift, resource, and commodity—the book explores the contemporary exchange of organs, tissues, and cells. Although the gift is the sanctioned metaphor for donating parts of the body, the underlying perspective from the side of states, authorities, and the medical establishment often seems to be that the body shall be understood as a resource. But medicine, as some of the contributors to this book show, is not sealed off from the market economy. Increasingly, therefore, body parts become commodities on legal as well as illegal markets. The chapters of the book are arranged in a way that presents, one after the other, the three metaphors of the body, starting with the body as gift, proceeding by way of the body as resource, and ending in the body as commodity. Although all three metaphors as ways of conceptualizing and making use of the human body can be found throughout human history, the present drive of commercialization will increasingly force us to identify and scrutinize the way these metaphors are used. Not only in addressing the fascinating question of what kind of an object (subject) the human body is, but also in trying to decipher what interests lurk behind the use of the metaphors in question when claiming that human bodies, organs, tissues, and cells are gifts, resources or commodities. The ambition of this volume is to address and remedy the need of a hermeneutics not only of depth, but also of suspicion, in the case of organ transplantation and other medical technologies involving the transfer of human tissues and cells.

  • 125.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Zeiler, Kristin
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle.
    Cultural Norms, the Phenomenology of Incorporation and the Experience of Having a Child Born with Ambiguous Sex.2010Inngår i: Social Theory and Practice, ISSN 0037-802X, E-ISSN 2154-123X, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 133-156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 126.
    Malmvall, Bo-Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Mölstad, Sigvard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Darelid, Johan
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Ryhov Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Hiselius, A.
    National Corporation of Swedish Pharmacies, Ryhov Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, L
    Pediatric Outpatient Clinic, Eksjö Primary Care Center, Eksjö, Sweden.
    Swanberg, J.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Ryhov Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Åbom, P-E
    Department of Communicable Disease Control, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Reduction of antibiotics sales and sustained low incidence of bacterial resistance: report on a broad approach during 10 years to implement evidence-based indications for antibiotic prescribing in Jönköping County, Sweden2007Inngår i: Quality Management in Health Care, ISSN 1063-8628, E-ISSN 1550-5154, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 60-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Increased prevalence of resistance in major pathogens decreases the possibility to treat common infectious conditions. In the beginning of the 1990s, resistant pneumococci spread among children in southern Sweden, which alarmed both the profession and the medical authorities. We describe the measures taken to curb the spread of resistance and to reduce the use of antibiotics in outpatient care.

    Method: A national organization, Strama (Swedish Strategic Programme for the Rational Use of Antimicrobial Agents and Surveillance of Resistance), was initiated in 1994 and a regional committee was formed in Jönköping County in 1995. A multifaceted program was started aiming at reducing antibiotic use in the county by 25% and that the prevalence of resistant pneumococci should not increase.

    Results: The efforts by the Jönköping County committee has resulted in a 31% total reduction of the consumption of antibiotic drugs in primary care between 1993 and 2005 and a 50% reduction among children aged 0 to 4 years. There has been no increase in the prevalence of resistant pneumococci or Haemophilus influenzae in the county. The decrease in antibiotic use was greater than the average in Sweden.

    Conclusion: Our regional efforts have been successful. This has probably been achieved by a sustained strategy including repeated campaigns in the media, information to the profession, implementation of guidelines, and feedback to the profession on data on antibiotic prescribing and resistance. We believe it is of outmost importance not only to inform the profession but also the public on the limited effects of antibiotics in most respiratory tract infections.

  • 127.
    Michaelsen, Katherine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Tema hälsa och samhälle.
    Integrative Medicine: Cooperation or Polarization?: Integrating complementary and alternative medical practice in a biomedical environment: theory and practice.2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Alongside the complementary and alternative medicine movements, a new concept is emerging: integrative medicine. Though more and more authors have begun to use this term, they use it to refer to widely varying concepts of health care. This study begins with a theoretical look at integration and continues with an examination of current integrative efforts. These general discussions are followed by the presentation of the situation in Sweden, and at the Vidarklinik in particular. Finally the study turns to an empirical study investigating the communication between the Vidarklinik and the outside biomedical system. The research suggests a much more comprehensive picture of integrative medicine than those put forward by most authors and finds that to create and maintain an integrative system, all the levels of health care must be actively engaged in the system and the entire spectrum of care must be coordinated for the patient. Attempts at integration are found in diverse local efforts, which are all limited by lack of cooperation between different levels of health care. The study of communication at the Vidarklinik in Sweden illustrates that communication is crucial between all levels of health care in order for even relatively localised efforts in integration, and further that various factors limit whom various individuals and groups can communicate with, while in-person dialogue mitigates some of these factors.

  • 128.
    Neubeck, Anna-Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Prodromal Phase of What?: A Metapsychiatric Analysis of the Prodromal Phase of Schizophrenia2008Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Prodromes of schizophrenia or prodromes of psychosis are a relatively new and expanding field of interest in psychiatric research. They are seen by some researchers as the initial symptom of having schizophrenia and have become a crucial topic in early psychosis research and intervention.

    In this thesis current psychiatric research publications were analysed and eleven prospectively psychotic patients were interviewed. The research publications analysed were applyed on the information given by the patients, and the analysis showed that it was easy to find prodromes or prodrome-like phenomena in all the collected interviews. In addition a second analysis was performed on the material, a phenomenological psychological analysis, showing a more subject-oriented dimension of the interviews. This led to a further aim, analysing what explanations could be given of these phenomena.

    There are probably many possibilities of getting the diagnosis of schizophrenia, but the examples in this study show that long-term abuse, often sexual actually can trigger psychiatric conditions corresponding to the definition of “prodromes of schizophrenia” according to some psychiatric publications as well as “schizophrenia” according to DSM

    and ICD. This means that trauma and/or neglect proved to be a likely partial causal condition of the prodrome- like phenomena or schizophrenia to occur.

    However, trauma has not been shown to be a necessary condition for the occurrence of prodrome-like phenomena or schizophrenia.

    In the discussion of the results some consequences deriving from using different interpretations and explanations of the phenomena are analysed, for example using the prodromes of psychosis for the assessments of a coming psychosis, especially schizophrenia. I emphasize, because of the results of the phenomenological case analyses, the value of several dimensions of understanding prodrome-like phenomena as well as schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like conditions, especially as early as the initial phase.

  • 129.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle, Tema hälsa och samhälle.
    John, Carstensen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Mortality among male and female smokers in Sweden2000Inngår i: Norweigian Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0803-4206, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 78-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 130.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle, Tema hälsa och samhälle.
    John, Carstensen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Pershagen, Göran
    Karolinska Institute.
    Mortality among male and female smokers in Sweden: A 33 year follow up2001Inngår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 55, nr 11, s. 825-830Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Study objective - It is still unclear if men and women are equally susceptible to the hazards of tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to examine smoking-related mortality among men and women.

    Design - In 1963 a questionnaire concerning tobacco smoking habits was sent out to a random sample from the 1960 Swedish census population. Date and cause of death have been collected for the deceased in the cohort through 1996.

    Setting - Sweden

    Participants - The survey included a total of 27 841 men and 28 089 women, aged 18-69 years. The response rate was 93.1% among the men and 95.4% among the women.

    Main results - After adjustment for age and place of residence positive associations were found between cigarette smoking and mortality from ischaemic heart disease, aortic aneurysm, bronchitis and emphysema, cancer of the lung, upper aerodigestive sites, bladder, pancreas in both men and women, but not from cerebrovascular disease. When the effect of amount of the cigarette consumption was considered, female smokers displayed e.g. slightly higher relative death rates from ischaemic heart disease. However, no statistically significant gender differential in relative mortality rates was observed for any of the studied diseases.

    Conclusions - Women and men in this Swedish cohort seem equally susceptible to the hazards of smoking, when the gender differential in smoking characteristics is accounted for. Although the cohort under study is large, there were few female smokers in the high consuming categories and the relative risk estimates are therefore accompanied by wide confidence intervals in these categories.

  • 131.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i östra Östergötland, Primärvården i östra länsdelen.
    Scheike, Morten
    Engblom, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Karlsson, Lars-Göran
    Mölstad, Sigvard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Åkerlind, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Örtoft, Kjell
    Nylander, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Chest pain and ischaemic heart disease in primary care2003Inngår i: British Journal of General Practice, ISSN 0960-1643, Vol. 53, nr 490, s. 378-382Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chest pain is the main symptom of first presentation with ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Little is known about the incidence of IHD among patients consulting the general practitioner (GP) for chest pain.

    Aims: To estimate the occurrence of IHD among patients consulting for chest pain, to study the results of the bicycle exercise test, and to estimate the incidence of IHD in the population.

    Design of study: Prospective descriptive study.

    Setting: Three primary health centres in south-eastern Sweden

    Method: All patients without a current IHD diagnosis, aged 20 to 79 years, and consulting for a new episode of chest pain, were included consecutively. The outcome was classified as IHD, possible IHD or not IHD, according to the results of a postal questionnaire, an exercise test or hospital care. Data from the hospital registry on patients with a diagnosis of IHD were analysed retrospectively.

    Results: Out of 38 075 GP consultations, 577 (1.5%) were for chest pain. IHD was diagnosed in 41 (8%) of the chest pain patients, in 41 (83%) the diagnosis was excluded, and in 50 (9%) the diagnosis was judged as being uncertain. Even though the diagnostic criteria were strict, the exercise tests led to a diagnostic conclusion in 77% of the cases, most frequently a normal test result. Combining data from primary and hospital care, the yearly incidence of IHD was 6.5 diagnosed per 1000 inhabitants (aged 20 to 79 years old).

    Conclusion: The incidence of a new episode of chest pain bringing the patient to the GP was low. Eight per cent of the patients received an IHD diagnosis, and in 9% further investigation or clinical assessment is needed.

  • 132.
    Nodenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Begreppet arbetsförmåga2009Inngår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 86, nr 3, s. 220-228Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several causes and reasons to why a person lack the ability to take a job or to perform his or her tasks at the work place. Even though nearly all these causes and reasons are well-known, we lack a way of systematicly analysing them. There is a need to understand how they are empirically and logically related to each other. As a reslut of such an analysis we can classify the conditions of work ability and thereby more easily distinguish between different types of reduced work ability. This article is an attempt to contribute to such an analysis.

  • 133.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ability, Competence and Qualification: Fundamental Concepts in the Philosophy of Disability2009Inngår i: Philosophical Reflections on Disability / [ed] Ralston, D. Christopher; Ho, Justin, Dordrecht: Springer , 2009, 1, s. 37-54Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This project draws together the diverse strands of the debate regarding disability in a way never before combined in a single volume. After providing a representative sampling of competing philosophical approaches to the conceptualization of disability as such, the volume goes on to address such themes as the complex interplay between disability and quality of life, questions of social justice as it relates to disability, and the personal dimensions of the disability experience. By explicitly locating the discussion of various applied ethical questions within the broader theoretical context of how disability is best conceptualized, the volume seeks to bridge the gap between abstract philosophical musings about the nature of disease, illness and disability found in much of the philosophy of medicine literature, on the one hand, and the comparatively concrete but less philosophical discourse frequently encountered in much of the disability studies literature. It also critically examines various claims advanced by disability advocates, as well as those of their critics. In bringing together leading scholars in the fields of moral theory, bioethics, and disability studies, this volume makes a unique contribution to the scholarly literature, while also offering a valuable resource to instructors and students interested in a text that critically examines and assesses various approaches to some of the most vexing problems in contemporary social and political philosophy.

  • 134.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Action, capacité et santé2012Inngår i: Philosophie de la médecine: Santé, maladie pathologie / [ed] È. Giroux et M. Lemoine, Paris: Librarie Philosophique J. Vrin, 2012, 1, s. 265-296Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 135.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle.
    Commentary on Wim Dekkers's and Marcel Olde Rikkert's: "What is a genetic disease? The example of Alzheimer's Disease", and Stephen Tyreman's2006Inngår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 317-319s. 317-319Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 136.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Comments:Standard circumstances and vital goals: comments on Sridhar Venkatapuram’s critique2013Inngår i: Bioethics, ISSN 0269-9702, E-ISSN 1467-8519, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 280-284Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a reply to Venkatapuram's critique in his article Health, Vital Goals, Capabilities, this volume. I take issue mainly with three critical points put forward by Venkatapuram with regard to my theory of health. (1) I deny that the contents of my vital goals are relative to each community or context, as Venkatapuram claims. There is no conceptual connection at all between standard circumstances and vital goals, as I understand these concepts. (2) Venkatapuram notes that I stop short of filling the framework of vital goals with any content and thereby make my concept of health less concrete. I reply that some vital goals are indeed universal, viz. the ones which are necessary conditions for survival. Many other vital goals are individual and cannot therefore be included in a universal list. (3) Venkatapuram claims that my definition of vital goals is too broad, since it entails that some persons without any disease can be regarded as ill. However, in my understanding health is a relational concept from a state of complete health to a state of maximal illness. In this framework, a minor reduction of a state of complete health does not entail illness. This article also contains a comparison between my theory of health and Martha Nussbaum's theory of capabilities for dignity.

  • 137.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    CZym jest zdrowie2008Inngår i: Krytyka Lekarska, Vol. 1, s. 45-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 138.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Der Gegensatz zwischen naturalistischen und holistischen Theorien von Gesundheit und Krankheit2012Inngår i: Das Gesunde, das Kranke und die Medizinethik: Moralische Implikationen des Krankheitsbegriffs / [ed] Markus Rothhaar & Andreas Frewer, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2012, 1, s. 89-104Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 139.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Die Begriffe der Gesundheit und der Erkrankung: Eine erneute Betrachtung2012Inngår i: Krankheitstheorien / [ed] Thomas Schramme, Berlin: Suhrkamp Verlag, 2012, 1, s. 223-238Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 140.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Dignity2012Inngår i: Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics / [ed] Ruth Chadwick,Peter Singer and Dan Callahan, Elsevier, 2012, 2, s. 800-806Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics, Second Edition addresses both the physiological and the psychological aspects of human behavior.  Carefully crafted, well written, and thoroughly indexed, the encyclopedia helps users-whether they are students just beginning formal study of the broad field or specialists in a branch of psychology-understand the field and how and why humans behave as we do.

    The work is an all-encompassing reference providing a comprehensive and definitive review of the field. A broad and inclusive table of contents ensures detailed investigation of historical and theoretical material as well as in-depth analysis of current issues. Several disciplines may be involved in applied ethics: one branch of applied ethics, for example, bioethics, is commonly explicated in terms of ethical, legal, social, and philosophical issues.  Editor-in-Chief Ruth Chadwick has put together a group of leading contributors ranging from philosophers to practitioners in the particular fields in question, to academics from disciplines such as law and economics.

    The 376 chapters are divided into 4 volumes, each chapter falling into a subject category including Applied Ethics;  Bioethics; Computers and Information Management; Economics/Business; Environmental Ethics; Ethics and Politics; Legal; Medical Ethics; Philosophy/Theories;  Social; and Social/Media.

    • Concise entries (ten pages on average) provide foundational knowledge of the field
    • Each article will features suggested readings pointing readers to additional sources for more information, a list of related websites, a 5-10 word glossary and a definition paragraph, and cross-references to related articles in the encyclopedia
    • Newly expanded editorial board and a host of international contributors from the US, Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom
    • The 376 chapters are divided into 4 volumes, each chapter falling into a subject category including Applied Ethics; Bioethics; Computers and Information Management; Economics/Business; Environmental Ethics; Ethics and Politics; Legal; Medical Ethics; Philosophy/Theories; Social; and Social/Media
  • 141.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Dignity in Care for Older People2009Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of quality of life has for several decades been well-established in ethical debate about health care and the care of older people. Dignity in Care for Older People highlights the notion of dignity within the care of the elderly, focusing on the importance of theoretical concepts. Primarily based on a Research Project, Dignity and Older Europeans, funded by the European Commission, this book provides a thorough investigation of the concept of dignity and related concepts such as quality of life and autonomy. It includes a chapter devoted to the dignity of human embodiment, emphasizing the importance of the notion of the lived body in the context of elderly care. As a result of the conceptual study a model of dignity emerges in which four variants of dignity stand out: dignity of merit, dignity as moral status, dignity of identity and Menschenwurde (the specifically human value). From this follows a discussion of how these variants of dignity can be used in characterizing the care of the elderly. The notions of dignity and dignified care are discussed particularly in relation to demented persons and dying persons. The book also contains a chapter on the dignity of the dead person. International in focus, Dignity in Care for Older People provides a contemporary discussion of the care of older people, and will be of use to qualified nurses and social care practitioners working with older people, as well as those on ethics and gerontology courses

  • 142.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Filosofi och medicin: från Platon till Foucault2012 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 143.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Health and Welfare in Animals and Humans2011Inngår i: Acta Biotheoretica, ISSN 0001-5342, E-ISSN 1572-8358, Vol. 59, nr 2, s. 139-152Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences.

  • 144.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Om Ingemar Hedenius: Vördad filosof och älskad inspektor2009Inngår i: Vestrogothica, Vol. 25, s. 59-73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 145.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    On Concepts and Theories of Addiction2010Inngår i: Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology, ISSN 1071-6076, E-ISSN 1086-3303, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 27-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article "A Liberal Account of Addiction" is a good piece of analytic philosophy applied to psychiatry. It is well-informed both with regard to empirical matters and philosophical conceptualization. The arguments are often—but, as I will show, not always—quite convincing. The conclusions of the paper also have crucial consequences for practice, for the treatment of patients, and for social policy.

    The authors argue that current scientific understandings of the problem of addiction are fundamentally flawed. They distinguish between two main positions in science: The Disease View and the Willpower View. According to the Disease View, drug-seeking behavior is the direct result of some physiological change in the drug seeker's brain. According to the Willpower View, the addict is no longer rational; he or she uses drugs as a result of a fundamentally non-voluntary process.

    The authors dismiss the Disease View in the following way. They first note that drug addicts are in many ways rational planners. The addicts may have to think a lot to find the best ways to find the heroin, cigarettes, or alcohol, and they normally act according to this planning. They are not in any simple sense "caused" to act in a particular way. Moreover, referring to recent neurological literature, the authors note that the changes caused by drug addiction—which have to do with activating reward pathways in the brain—are identical with the outcomes of many other human activities that we do not call addiction. "In fact, any pleasurable experience causes dopamine to be released within the brain, activating these reward pathways" (Foddy and Savulescu 2010, 4). These experiences can be the result of coffee drinking, sexual activity, and physical exercise. Thus, the physical changes in the brain are not effects peculiar to the pharmacology of the drugs; they are instead the effects of the pleasure that the subject has experienced.

  • 146.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle.
    On the goals of medicine, health enhancement and social welfare2001Inngår i: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 15-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bengt Brulde in his article "The Goals of Medicine. Towards a Unified Theory'' has proposed a normative theory of the goals of medicine within which the concept of quality of life plays a crucial role. In Brulde's analysis, however, the very concept of medicine is deliberately left quite vague and it is therefore difficult to see how the goals of medicine are related to the goals of closely allied enterprises such as health promotion and social welfare. In this reply I therefore propose an analysis of these related conceptual areas. I do this mainly in two respects. (1) Following the nomenclature in a previously published article (Nordenfelt, 1998) I propose a systematic conceptual framework for all varieties of health enhancement and distinguish different notions of medicine within this framework. A consequence of this analysis is, for instance, that the means and also the immediate goals of medicine in its broadest sense are more diversified than the means and immediate goals of medicine in its narrowest sense. (2) From this position I expand the topic further by comparing medicine and health enhancement with social welfare and try to trace the basic features between - as well as the common properties of - these different enterprises.

  • 147.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Philosophy of Medicine; 5 Questions2011Inngår i: Philosophy of Medicine; 5 Questions / [ed] Jan Kyrre Berg Olsen Friis, Peter Rossel; Michael Slot Norup, Milton Keynes UK: Automatic press , 2011, s. 143-162Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Philosophy of Medicine: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on five provoking questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in field. They present us with their views on philosophy of medicine, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of philosophy of medicine and how their work fits in these respects. Interviews with Vilhjálmur Árnason, Daniel Callahan, Arthur L. Caplan, Ruth Chadwick, Bill (KVM) Fulford, Henk ten Have, Bjørn Hofmann, Søren Holm, Ingvar Johansson, Niels Lynøe, Ruth Macklin, Lennart Nordenfelt, Onora O'Neill, Peter Rossel, Udo Schuklenk

  • 148.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Quality of Life, Health and Happiness1993Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The basic work for this book was carried out during the spring of 1989 in Edinburgh, where I had been granted a research position at The Institute for Advanced Studies in the Humanities. I should like to express here my indebtedness to the Institute for the opportunity thus afforded me. I should also like to say how very grateful I am for the stimulating conversations I had there with Professor Timothy Sprigge and Dr. Elizabeth Telfer. Dr. Telfers’s own treatise Happiness (1980) has been a major influence on my view of the questions involved.

    The basic view of health and illness presented in this book is more fully set out in my On the Nature of Health (1987).

    As in the case of my previous larger projects, I have received a great amount of support and may wise comments from Professor Ingmar Pörn, Helsinki. Three Danish experts – Anton Aggernaes, Erik Ostenfeld and Peter Sandøe – have made valuable comments. Professor Heng ten Have, Nijmegen, has improved my reading of the philosophy of Jeremy Bentham. I should also like to thank my colleagues at the Department of Health and Society, University of Linköping, for helping me to avoid a number of the pitfalls that can so easily stumble into when it comes to a treatise like this. Especially I should like to mentioned Per-Erik Liss, Ingemar Nordin and Bo Petersson, all three of whom have read and commented on the entire manuscript.

    A Swedish version of this book, Livskvalitet och hälsa, came out in 1991. I have been made quite a number of corrections and additions, one type of addition being replies to critical points made in reviews of the Swedish version.

    I should like to thank Malcolm Forbes for valuable help putting my English into publishable condition.

    Linköping, May 1993

    Lennart Noredenfelt

  • 149.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Samtal om hälsan: En dialog om hälsans natur1996Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok är skriven i dialogens form. Den utgör ett försök att förmedla resultatet av ett forskningsarbete i en annan form än den traditionellt akademiska. Det är dock en form som har antika anor och som under klassisk tid användes särskilt för att förmedla filosofiska kunskaper. Min egen forskning är filosofisk, och de idéer jag vill förmedla har många gånger kommit till i ett slags dialogsituation, antingen en äkta dialog med en kollega eller vän, eller en inre dialog med en fiktiv samtalspartner. På ett sätt är dialogen därför den mes naturliga formen för presentation både av filosofiska problem och av filosofiska lösningsförslag.

    I boken ställs många frågor kring hälsans natur och andra närbesläktade begrepp. Svaren överensstämmer i allt väsentligt med mina egna åsikter idag. Jag har emellertid för läsbarhetens skull inte alltid skrivit så precist och omständligt som en analytisk filosof förväntas göra i en akademisk avhandling. Jag uppfyller sådana krav något bättre i skrifter som On the Natur of Health (1987, 1995), Quality of Life and Happiness (1993) och Action, Ability and Health (under utgivning). Den forskare som vill kritiskt granska mina idéer bör därför i första hand uppsöka dessa skrifter. Avsikten med denna bok har inte varit att presentera mina teorier och resultat för forskarsamhället. Min huvudavsikt har istället varit att på ett någorlunda lättläst och livfullt sätt förmedla tankar om så abstrakta ting som begreppen hälsa och lycka till en större publik. Här och var har detta intressant nog inneburit att jag har gått längre i mina analyser än jag gjort i de vetenskapliga skrifterna.

    Mina ambitioner på det litterära planet är mycket blygsamma. Jag inbillar mig inte att jag genom ett enkelt knep som att skriva i dialogform skall kunna närma mig dialogens stora mästare Platon och Cicero. Jag har därför inte heller försökt beskriva en bakgrund eller ett sammanhang där dessa samtal utspinner sig. Läsaren kan tänka sig att de äger rum i ett seminarierum, eller kanske ännu hellre under filosofiska promenader i natursköna miljöer som den bohuslänska kusten, det öländska allvaret eller den lappländska fjällvärlden. Jag har funnit att skådandet av öppna vidder har varit befruktande för filosofisk reflektion.

    I dialogerna uppträder två personer benämnda I och F. ”I” står helt enkelt för intervjuaren, ”F” för filosofen. Saken är inte alltid så enkel att F är mitt alter ego. Några gånger har jag krupit in under intervjuarens skinn. Läsaren kan kanske ana när jag h yser dubier om mina egna åsikter. Oftast är dock I en person utanför mig själv. Ibland har I varit förkroppsligad i någon av de många personer som jag mött som handledare eller föreläsare om hälsans filosifi.

    Som alla vetenskapliga författare idag har jag fått kämpa med användningen av personliga pronomina när jag avser att tala om en människa i allmänhet och inte om en människa av ett bestämt kön. Jag använder ömsom ”han” ömsom ”hon” i dessa sammanhang,. Det är min förhoppning att jag lyckats med detta utan att resultatet har blivit vare sig förvirrande eller könsdiskriminerande.

    Linköping våren 1996

    Lennart Nordenfelt

  • 150.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The concept of animal welfare: a philosopher’s view2009Inngår i: Welfare of Production Animals: Assessment and Management of Risks / [ed] Frans J.M Smulders and Bo Algers, Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers , 2009, 1, s. 29-44Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This book, the fifth in the series 'Food Safety Assurance and Veterinary Public Health', has been conceived by a total of 33 internationally recognised experts from 11 different countries in Europe and from the USA, Canada and Australia, with backgrounds ranging from veterinary medicine, animal science, biology and microbiology to psychology, philosophy and ethics. It provides an up-to-date overview of the science of animal welfare and its assessment, of options for the assessment and management of risks for the welfare of production animals, and of the ramifications these may have for the safety of foods of animal origin.This Volume is targeted at veterinary practitioners, official veterinarians in a control function, animal and food scientists, welfare scientists, students in animal welfare, auditing and inspection officials and risk managers at all levels of animal production.Other publications in the Food Safety Assurance and Veterinary Public Health series are: * Volume 1. Food safety assurance in the pre-harvest phase * Volume 2. Safety assurance during food processing * Volume 3. Risk management strategies: monitoring and surveillance * Volume 4. Towards a risk-based chain control

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