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  • 101.
    Karlsson, Emeli
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Stadig, Therese
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Logistiska åtgärder för reducering av avvikelser i en försörjningskedja: En fallstudie av Volkswagen Group Sverige AB:s distribution av reservdelar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Utredningen syftar till att ta fram åtgärdsförslag för att reducera antalet leveransanmärkningar avseende uteblivna leveranser för Volkswagen Group Sverige AB:s distribution av reservdelar till återförsäljare. Genom att utföra en kartläggning av material- och informationsflödet kan problem i leveranskedjan identifieras och utifrån en utredning kring dessorsaker kan i ett vidare steg lämpliga åtgärdsförslag formuleras.

    Parts Logistics (hädanefter VPL) är verksamma inom Volkswagen Group Sverige AB:s eftermarknad och distribuerar reservdelar till omkring 250 återförsäljare i Sverige, Fin-land och Norge. Varje dag levererar VPL 15 000 orderrader med reservdelar och tillbehör till bilmärkena Volkswagen Personbilar, Volkswagen Transportbilar, Audi, Skoda, SEAT och Porsche. VPL har identifierat avvikelser gällande leveranserna till återförsäljarna vilka de anser är av stor vikt att utreda, då felfria leveranser av reservdelar är centralt för kundnöjdhet hos såväl återförsäljare som slutkunder inom servicemarknaden. Avvikelserna benämns internt som leveransanmärkningar och av de rapporterade leveransanmärkningarna utgörs 32 procent av fall då en orderrad inte levereras i tid alternativt helt uteblir. Dessa fall kallas internt för Ej levererat och motsvarar den typ av leveransanmärkning som förekommer i störst utsträckning på VPL.

    Rapportens teoretiska referensram inkluderar teori inom tre huvudområden som anses nödvändiga för den vidare utredningen. Eftermarknaden utgör ett av huvudområdena vilket dels inkluderar generell teori om eftermarknaden och dess karakteristik men även ett ramverk anpassat för den aktuella utredningen. Vidare utgör även kartläggning ett huvudområde i den teoretiska referensramen vilket inkluderar en beskrivning över hur en kartläggning bör utföras utifrån ett flertal olika teorier. I den aktuella utredningen är även förbättringsarbete ett centralt teoriområde, vilket därav utgör det tredje huvudområdet. Med utgångspunkt i VPL:s nuvarande situation och i inhämtad teori kunde uppgiften preciseras utifrån ett antal huvudfrågor, underfrågor samt detaljfrågor vilka fungerar som ett hjälpmedel för den vidare utredningen. 

    Utifrån kartläggningen av leveranskedjan samt erhållen data från VPL kunde ett antal scenarion formuleras vilka motsvarar de olika sätt som leveransanmärkningar av typen Ej levererat kan uppstå. Genom en dataanalys avseende de formulerade scenarierna kunde det konstateras att störst andel leveransanmärkningar av typen Ej levererat orsakas av utebliven plockning på VPL. Med utgångspunkt i en vidare utredning kring orsakerna till förekomsten av utebliven plockning kunde rotorsaken till problemet fastställas, vilken anses vara en kombination av brist på teknologi samt avsaknad av strukturerat förbättringsarbete i verksamheten. Utifrån de identifierade rotorsakerna till problemet formuleras rekommendationer inkluderades två åtgärdsförslag som förväntas reducera antalet uteblivna leveranser. VPL rekommenderas dels att införa mer teknologi i verksamheten för att säkerställa att plockning utförs. Ett införande av teknologi såsom scanning och RFID skulle dels reducera förekomsten av utebliven plockning men även eliminera moment som är kritiska avseende uppkomsten av andra avvikelser i leveranskedjan. Vidare rekommenderas även VPL att införa strukturerat förbättringsarbete vilket innebär ett aktivt arbete med att åtgärda och långsiktigt förebygga förekomsten av avvikelser i verksamheten.

  • 102.
    Karltun, Anette
    et al.
    Jonköping University, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Karltun, Johan
    Jonköping University, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Berglund, Martina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    HTO - A complementary ergonomics approach2017Inngår i: APPLIED ERGONOMICS, ISSN 0003-6870, Vol. 59, s. 182-190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of human factors and ergonomics constitutes a strong potential in systems analysis, design and improvement. However, it is difficult to communicate its potential value. This paper addresses how the human-technology-organization (HTO) concept can be defined and supports the understanding, communication and development of the systems character and potential of human factors and ergonomics. Empirical examples from the authors experiences of working with the HTO concept in Ramp;D and teaching are illustrated, including its usefulness as: 1) a conceptual model; 2) an analysis framework; 3) a meta methodology; 4) a pedagogical tool; and 5) a design tool. The use of HTO provides guidance on how the system can be designed to better support health, individual and systems performance. It is further suggested that there is a strong potential for developing the theory, applications and methodological aspects of HTO. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 103.
    Kurilova, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Remanufacturing challenges and possible lean improvements2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, s. 3225-3236Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is a viable way to prolong the useful life of an end-of-use product or its parts. Despite its economic, environmental, and social benefits, remanufacturing is associated with many challenges related to core (used product or its part) availability, timing and quality. The aim of this paper is to study how lean production could be used to tackle remanufacturing process challenges and contribute to shorter lead times. To meet this aim, we conducted a literature review and case studies of four remanufacturing companies. The case companies remanufacturing challenges were: (1) a lack of material requirements planning system, (2) poor core information, (3) a lack of core material, (4) poor spare parts information, (5) a lack of spare parts material, (6) insufficient quality management practices, (7) large inventories, (8) stochastic remanufacturing processes, (9) a lack of supply-demand balance, and (10) insufficient automation. These challenges contribute to long and variable remanufacturing process lead times. To tackle remanufacturing challenges, seven lean-based improvements with a major effect on improvements in lead time were suggested: standard operations, continuous flow, Kanban, teamwork, employee cross-training, layout for continuous flow, and supplier partnership. Providing that the suggested improvements are implemented, a possible lead time reduction of 83-99 per cent was projected. 

  • 104.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Poksińska, Bonnie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lean improvements in remanufacturing: solving information flow challenges2017Inngår i: QMOD proceedings, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - One efficient way to prolong the functional life of used products is remanufacturing. Compared to manufacturing, remanufacturing is a complex industrial process due to among other things high product variability, low production volumes and uncertain quality of returned used products. Remanufacturers are dependent on product information from Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM), but that information is often not shared. Remanufacturers struggle to access or develop lacking product information and need a strategy to address information flow challenges. Lean could be a suitable strategy to improve the information flow. Therefore, the purpose of the paper is to identify and suggest Lean improvements to address remanufacturer’s information flow challenges.

    Methodology/Approach - Based on a case study of a filling machine remanufacturer, this paper discusses the information flow challenges and Lean-based solutions. The data was collected through a three-hour focus group interview combined with a Value Stream Mapping (VSM) method with the participation of seven company employees representing sales, logistics, quality, maintenance and production departments.

    Findings - Two key information flow challenges were identified at the company: a lack of available product data and miscommunication with the OEM, and poor internal information sharing. The analysis of the identified challenges and improvement ideas created a platform for developing Lean-based solutions:1) developing standard operations through instruction checklists and kitting areas;2) boosting supplier and customer relations through six best partnering practices; and3) developing people and teams through teamwork and training.

    Originality/Value of paper – All industries have their own specific challenges and development needs. This paper focuses on information flow challenges in remanufacturing. Original product information is often not shared, even when the remanufacturer has a contract with the OEM. Only few remanufacturers work with Lean today, but Lean could be a strategy to address the information flow challenges. This paper contributes to the knowledge on how Lean could be applied in the remanufacturing context.

  • 105.
    Langstrand, Jostein
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    An introduction to value stream mapping and analysis2016Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Value stream mapping (VSM) is a method for illustrating and analyzing the logic of a production process. The terminology stems  from the metaphor of the production process as a steady stream of products where value is added for each step that the products take down stream. This metaphor and the  terminology also strengthen the notion of continuous flow as the ultimate form of production–at least in terms of efficiency...

  • 106.
    Langstrand, Jostein
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund Teivik, Rebecca
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kvalitet i upphandling: En studie vid tekniska kontoret i Norrköpings kommun2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Offentlig upphandling syftar till att genom konkurrensutsättning av inköp i offentlig verksamhet generera goda affärer med skattefinansierade medel. Uppföljning av offentliga upphandlingsavtal är dock eftersatt hos många upphandlande myndigheter. Otydliga och otillräckliga krav på anbudsgivare, resursbrist samt bristande rutiner bidrar till bristande uppföljning och detta får allvarliga konsekvenser eftersom uppföljning av de krav som ställts i upphandlingar är förutsättningar för att erhålla god upphandlingskvalitet.

    Denna studie undersöker hur upphandlingskvaliteten i offentlig upphandling kan säkerställas och förbättras samt hur uppföljningen av denna kvalitet kan understödja detta arbete. Rapporten undersöker även hur användning av nyckeltal kan understödja uppföljningarbetet och därmed bidra en bättre upphandlingskvalitet. Flertalet intervjuer har använts för att samla djupgående information från upphandlingsverksamheten, vilka faktorer som är viktiga att ta hänsyn till i upphandlingarna för att generera god kvalitet och vilka problem som finns. En enkätundersökning har också genomförts för att styrka de argument som framkom vid intervjuerna.

    Med stöd i den litteraturstudie som genomförts identifierades flera faktorer som påverkar kvaliteten i offentliga upphandlingar. Centralt är att möjliggöra för en optimal användning av de resurser som finns och att prioritera uppföljningsarbetet i större utsträckning. Detta kräver fler stickprov för att samla information från upphandlingarna och för att återfå kontroll över upphandlingsavtalen. Fler stickprovskontroller kan i sin tur generera en direkt positiv påverkan på kvaliteten i upphandlingarna eftersom incitamenten för leverantörerna att hålla en god kvalitet på sitt arbete därmed blir fler. Med fler kontroller följer också värdefull information om processen som kan användas internt för att öka det organisatoriska lärandet samt inleda en god spiral som möjliggör kontinuerliga förbättringar av såväl upphandlingskvalitet som uppföljningsarbete.

    Utifrån detta har förslag på tio konkreta nyckeltal tagits fram. Nyckeltalen relateras till fyra mätperspektiv vilka kallas Goda affärer, Relationer, Interna processer samt Lärande och utveckling. Mätetalen bör sammanställas på regelbunden basis, exempelvis varje vecka eller månad. Dessa nyckeltal kompletterar varandra och flera av dem kan med fördel presenteras tillsammans vid jämförelser över tid för att illustrera resultatet av förändringar och för att skapa motivation genom visualisering av åstadkomna förbättringar.

  • 107.
    Langstrand, Jostein
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lundqvist, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och sociologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Att leda förändring: från förhandling till realisering2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att leda förändring är bland de svåraste uppgifterna en ledare kan ta sig an, och ungefär två tredjedelar av alla förändringsinitiativ misslyckas. Vår ambition med den här rapporten är att bidra till att förmedla några råd som vi har hämtat från erfarna förändringsledare och därmed bidra till att hjälpa presumtiva förändringsledare att förutse och planera för de utmaningar som kommer under förändringsarbetets gång.

    Rapporten bygger på en intervjustudie där 14 erfarna förändringsledare har delat med sig av sina erfarenheter av att leda förändringsprocesser i olika verksamheter – både offentligt och privat. Vi har identifierat gemensamma mönster i deras beskrivningar och sammanfattat dessa genom att beskriva en generisk förändringsprocess som bestående av fyra olika faser som vi har kallat initiering, förankring, genomförande och uppföljning.

    En central slutsats från den här studien är att ledarbeteenden behöver anpassas till den fas som förändringsarbetet befinner sig i. Detta innebär att förändringsarbete kräver ledare som är flexibla i sitt ledarskap och har en förmåga att ta olika roller allt eftersom förändringen fortskrider. Till exempel krävs ett konsensussökande ledarskap inledningsvis, och senare i processen går kraven över till ett mer resultatorienterat och ibland auktoritärt ledarskap.

    Vi presenterar en modell som ger en övergripande beskrivning av vilka ledarbeteenden som bör kopplas till respektive förändringsfas. Modellen är tänkt att fungera som ett verktyg för att uppmärksamma vilka situationer som kan uppkomma i en förändringsprocess och vilka roller och ledarbeteenden som en ledare bör vara beredd på. Vår modell kan därmed hjälpa ledare att bli bättre förberedda för förändringsarbetet, och förhoppningsvis bidra till att öka sannolikheten för lyckade förändringsinsatser.

  • 108.
    Lindgren, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Fjellström, Frida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Bättre leveransförmåga genom samordning i standardiserade vårdförlopp: Hur ska Diagnostikcentrum vara tillgängliga i bröstprocessen?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to investigate how Diagnostikcentrum should be available and coordinated with other care givers to achieve satisfactory delivery capability in cancer patient pathways.The availability refers to how Diagnostikcentrum should participate in the process. In whatway and with what recourses. The aim is to contribute to the process and its possibility ofgiving the patients care in time. Diagnostikcentrum performs diagnostic results and provides Region Östergötland with resources and competences in laboratory medicine and visual- and functional medicine. Diagnostics are the basis for investigating and giving the patient a correctdiagnosis. One area where Diagnostikcentrum is very much involved is in the cancer care.(Diagnostikcentrum, 2017)

    In Sweden, cancer have been increasing in recent years and the increase is expected to continue.This means there is a great need for a strategy for how cancer care should be conducted.(Cancerfonden, 2017) To improve the cancer care and shorten the lead times, cancer patientpathways have been introduced in Sweden. The purpose of a cancer patient pathway is that the patients should experience a well-organized, comprehensive and professional care without excessive waiting times (Cancercentrum, 2017). This report aims to investigate the cancerpatient pathway for breast cancer. In the process of breast cancer there are many different caregivers involved. A few from Diagnostikcentrum within different clinics. At present, thereis no knowledge if Diagnostikcentrum is being properly coordinated or involved in the correctway with this clinics and other caregivers.

    The research began with a literature review to gather research that were relevant to the study. For example, literature linked to process orientation, Supply Chain Management and delivery capacity. The literature covers the areas both from a traditional manufacturing perspective aswell as how these theories can be applied in health care. A flow mapping was carried out to gain an understanding of the care process for breast cancer. Based on this, an analysis of the process showed several areas of improvements such as sub-optimisation, bottlenecks and uncertainties.

    Delivery capacity for the breast process was defined based on literature and of the case study.The definition of delivery capacity was formulated as following. That 80 percent of the patientsgiven care in the cancer patient pathway for breast cancer should receive an investigation within 28 days. Based on that definition, it was later examined how well the process is performing today. The result was not positive and great opportunities for improvement exist. In present, only 41 percent of the patients receive an investigation for breast cancer in time. Based on the literature review, proposals were made for the coordination of the process.Such proposals included increased integration, collaboration and information sharing with the goal of achieving delivery capacity in the long term.

    Finally, suggestions that showed how Diagnostikcentrum can be available and contribute togreater coordination and compliance in the care process were made. The proposals imply that through adaptation to demand, increased flexibility and adaption to each other and the process the flow can be improved. Other suggestions include how to manage bottlenecks and iterations as well as dividing the lead time within the process, avoid sub-optimization through safer delivery times and finally improve measurement within the care process.

  • 109.
    Lorén, Kersti
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Ett genusperspektiv i det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet: När arbetsmiljöinspektören informerar och inspirerar - vad gör arbetsgivaren?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsmiljöverket fick ett särskilt uppdrag av regeringen, att arbeta med kvinnors arbetsmiljö 2011-2016. Några av de viktigaste insikterna som kom fram i det arbetet var att:Det krävs ett genusperspektiv för att synliggöra vad som ger arbetsrelaterad ohälsa.Kvinnor och män har olika villkor och arbetsmiljörisker eftersom svensk arbetsmarknad är uppdelad.Män och kvinnor gör ofta olika saker, även inom samma yrke, vilket innebär olika belastningar.Både män och kvinnor i kvinnokodade sektorer råkar ut för arbetsrelaterad ohälsa. Det är inte en fråga om kön utan om exponering.Varje år kring 8 mars mellan 2012 och 2016 genomförde Arbetsmiljöverket den så kallade 8 mars-aktiviteten med syfte att informera om hur arbetsmiljön kan bli bättre för både kvinnor och män med ett genusperspektiv i det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet.Syftet med detta arbete var att undersöka om arbetsgivare genomfört någon aktivitet efter att arbetsmiljöinspektören informerat om vikten av ett genusperspektiv i det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet och i så fall vilka förutsättningar som behövdes för att en aktivitet skulle äga rum.Studien inleddes med en enkätstudie som skickades till alla arbetsgivare som haft besök i 8 mars-aktiviteten 2016. De arbetsgivare som följt upp arbetsmiljöinspektörernas information med en aktivitet av något slag följdes upp i en intervjustudie.Resultatet visade att arbetsgivarna ansåg att frågan var relevant,att arbetsgivarna uppskattade informationen och att de blev inspirerade av arbetsmiljöinspektören, att den viktigaste faktorn för att en aktivitet skulle äga rum var att den var inplanerad redan innan och att kunskaperna arbetsgivaren fick gick att använda i den aktiviteten.Den viktigaste förutsättningen för arbetsgivarna för att genomföra en aktivitet med bäring på genusperspektivet i det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet tycks ha varit att tiden för detta varit inplanerad redan innan inspektionen. Arbetsmiljöinspektören bidrog med nya idéer och inspiration till flera sätt att sprida eller ta sig an frågan. Den viktigaste slutsatsen av studien är frågan om det skulle kunna vara en framgångsfaktor att i kraven som inspektörerna ställer synliggöra att anställda är både kvinnor och män och att de i lika hög grad ska omfattas av det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet.

  • 110.
    Lunde Dinesen, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms Stadsmission.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Huddén, Petter
    Bring Frigo.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Bring Frigo.
    Affärsmodell för logistiksystem för överskottslivsmedel: På väg mot en cirkulär ekonomi för matsvinn2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en slutredovisning för det Vinnova finansierade utvecklingsprojektet ”Affärsmodell för logistiksystem för överskottslivsmedel - På väg mot en cirkulär ekonomi för matsvinn”. Projektet genomfördes från oktober 2017 till augusti 2018 i samarbete mellan Stockholms Stadsmission, Linköpings universitet och Bring Frigo.

    Syftet med detta projekt har varit att framta koncept och affärsmodell för ett nationellt logistiksystem för redistribution av funktionellt livsmedelssvinn. Utvecklingen har skett i nära dialog med systemets användare: sociala organisationer, livsmedelsbranschen och transportsektorn. En affärsmodell är en förutsättning för att möjliggöra långsiktig hållbarhet för en storskalig och effektiv lösning för överskottslivsmedel i Sverige.

    Vi vill rikta ett stort tack till alla de företag och organisationer som under projektets gång bidragit med input och feedback: Aon, Arla, Arvid Nordquist, Atria, Axfood, Bergendahls, Brave Business 2030, Coop, CSCMP, Elvenite, Findus, Food2Change, Frälsningsarmén, GS1, Hela Människan, Know IT, Kronfågel, Lantmännen, Länsförsäkringar, Lidl, Martin & Servera, Menigo, Polar Cape, PostNord, Räddningsmissionen, PwC, Svensk Dagligvaruhandel, Svenska Retursystem, Sveriges Stadsmissioner, Värmestugan Helsingborg och Unilever. Vidare vill vi tacka forskare och examensarbetare vid Linköpings Universitet som medverkat inom ramen för projektet och som bl.a. medverkat vid arbetsmöten, stöttat med kunskap kring uppbyggnad av affärsmodeller, samt hjälpt till i framtagande av olika former av information. Vi vill också tacka anställda inom Stockholms Stadsmission som har bidragit med information och kunskap om befintlig redistribution, kommunikations stöd, inputs på möten och workshops samt praktiskt hjälp i samband med dessa.

  • 111.
    Malmström, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bergstrand, Kristin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Substans i maktbalans: Maktpositionering av Ericssons leverantörer2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien har utförts på företaget Ericssons avdelning för strategiskt inköp och syftar till att utforma en inköpsportfölj som kan positionera maktbalansen mellan Ericsson och dess leverantörer. Undersökningen utförs på tre olika kategorier inom inköp; Hardware, Logistics och R&D Consultancy Services. Studien ger även förslag på strategier som kan appliceras för att flytta maktbalansen till en mer fördelaktig position. För att kunna utforma en maktpositioneringsmodell undersöker studiens författare vad som orsakar och kännetecknar makt i en kund- och leverantörsrelation, samt vilken påverkan de identifierade faktorerna tycks ha.

    Ericsson är ett globalt företag som är världsledande inom kommunikationsteknologi. Inköp av produkter och tjänster står för en ansenlig del av organisationens kostnader, varpå inköpsarbetet blir av stor betydelse. Varje leverantör har en ansvarig kontaktperson på Ericsson och ett omfattande arbete med leverantörerna förekommer. Ericsson anser att ett hjälpmedel som kan fastställa maktpositionen kan underlätta vid förhandlingar och på sikt bidra till att Ericsson kan utvinna mer värde från sin leverantörsbas.

    Studien är kvalitativ av undersökande karaktär och utgörs av litteraturstudier i kombination med intervjuer. En enkätundersökning har genomförts på Supplier Relationship Managers på Ericsson och deras svar har analyserats mot teorier i litteraturen. Undersökningen identifierar sex stycken områden, faktorer, som antas utgöra grunden för en viss maktbalans. Genom att ta hänsyn till dessa faktorer kan Ericsson faktabaserat fastställa sin maktposition gentemot en leverantör och applicera förflyttningsstrategier för att ändra maktbalansen om så önskas.

    Faktorerna som huvudsakligen påverkar maktbalansen är Marknadssituation, Leverantörens beroende, Ericssons beroende, Leverantörens fördelar, Ericssons fördelar och Leverantörens informationsövertag. Då dessa aspekter är svåra att mäta har en ytterligare nedbrytning av faktorerna gjorts, med avsikten att fånga mer detaljer i relationen. Inträdesbarriärer, alternativa leverantörer, kvalitet och betydelse som kund är exempel på viktiga maktdrivare i en kund- leverantörsrelation. Resultatet visar också att faktorerna har så pass olika betydelse, inom de olika kategorierna som studien utförts på, att det inte rekommenderas att utforma en generell modell för samtliga av Ericssons leverantörer.

    Förflyttningsstrategier som rekommenderas då leverantörsmakten ska ökas och Ericssons makt bibehållas är att investera i gemensamma projekt, minska antalet leverantörer och att fördjupa samarbetet. Är istället målet att öka Ericssonmakten och behålla leverantörsmakten kan Ericsson exempelvis öka sin inköpsvolym från leverantören. Ska leverantörsmakten istället minska rekommenderas Ericsson att introducera fler leverantörer till produkten, att öka standardiseringen på produkten samt att införskaffa produktinformation.

    Genom användandet av studiens inköpsportfölj tros Ericssons strategiska inköpsavdelning kunna fördjupa sin förståelse kring vad som orsakar att ett maktförhållande ser ut som det gör, samt hur en leverantörsrelation kan bli så gynnsam som möjligt.

  • 112.
    Marcusson, Jan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Medicinska och geriatriska akutkliniken.
    Nord, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Rörelse och Hälsa.
    Alwin, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Dannapfel, Petra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Thomas, Kristin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sverker, Annette M.
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Rörelse och Hälsa.
    Olaison, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Socialt arbete. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Cedersund, Elisabet
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen Åldrande och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kelfve, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen Åldrande och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen Åldrande och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hellstrom, Ingrid
    Norrkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Kullberg, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Socialt arbete. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Böttiger, Ylva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk farmakologi.
    Dong, Huan-Ji
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för fysioterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Wass, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Lyth, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Ledningsstab Region Östergötland, Enheten för forskningsstöd.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Ledningsstab Region Östergötland, Enheten för forskningsstöd.
    Proactive healthcare for frail elderly persons: study protocol for a prospective controlled primary care intervention in Sweden2019Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, nr 5, artikkel-id e027847Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The provision of healthcare services is not dedicated to promoting maintenance of function and does not target frail older persons at high risk of the main causes of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of a proactive medical and social intervention in comparison with conventional care on a group of persons aged 75 and older selected by statistical prediction.

    Methods and analysis In a pragmatic multicentre primary care setting (n=1600), a prediction model to find elderly (75+) persons at high risk of complex medical care or hospitalisation is used, followed by proactive medical and social care, in comparison with usual care. The study started in April 2017 with a run-in period until December 2017, followed by a 2-year continued intervention phase that will continue until the end of December 2019. The intervention includes several tools (multiprofessional team for rehabilitation, social support, medical care home visits and telephone support). Primary outcome measures are healthcare cost, number of hospital care episodes, hospital care days and mortality. Secondary outcome measures are number of outpatient visits, cost of social care and informal care, number of prescribed drugs, health-related quality of life, cost-effectiveness, sense of security, functional status and ability. We also study the care of elderly persons in a broader sense, by covering the perspectives of the patients, the professional staff and the management, and on a political level, by using semistructured interviews, qualitative methods and a questionnaire.

    Ethics and dissemination Approved by the regional ethical review board in Linköping (Dnr 2016/347-31). The results will be presented in scientific journals and scientific meetings during 2019–2022 and are planned to be used for the development of future care models.

  • 113.
    Markovic, Gabriela
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Schult, Marie-Louise
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Bartfai, Aniko
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL: A FEASIBILITY STUDY OF THE APPLICATION OF TIME-SERIES MEASUREMENT IN EARLY NEUROREHABILITATION AFTER ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY2017Inngår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 49, nr 2, s. 128-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Progress in early cognitive recovery after acquired brain injury is uneven and unpredictable, and thus the evaluation of rehabilitation is complex. The use of time-series measurements is susceptible to statistical change due to process variation. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of using a time-series method, statistical process control, in early cognitive rehabilitation. Method: Participants were 27 patients with acquired brain injury undergoing interdisciplinary rehabilitation of attention within 4 months post-injury. The outcome measure, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, was analysed using statistical process control. Results: Statistical process control identifies if and when change occurs in the process according to 3 patterns: rapid, steady or stationary performers. The statistical process control method was adjusted, in terms of constructing the baseline and the total number of measurement points, in order to measure a process in change. Conclusion: Statistical process control methodology is feasible for use in early cognitive rehabilitation, since it provides information about change in a process, thus enabling adjustment of the individual treatment response. Together with the results indicating discernible subgroups that respond differently to rehabilitation, statistical process control could be a valid tool in clinical decision-making. This study is a starting-point in understanding the rehabilitation process using a real-time-measurements approach.

  • 114.
    Martin, Jason
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Quality Management Competencies-in-use: exploring competence and practice perspectives on quality management work2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality management is an established, widespread and well-researched management concept. Yet, surprisingly little research can be found on understanding the potential for action that is required in order to perform quality management work. The field of quality management has a strong emphasis not only on a customer and supplier focus (external), but also on a process focus (internal). This creates a constant challenge in the way in which quality management is conceived and realised. Another challenge is reflected in current research that describes the need for conceptual change in quality management due to extensive ongoing changes in society and the business environment. The nature and pace of technological development, coupled with changes in social behaviour, continuously bring out new customer needs and new ways for customers to interact with the producers of goods and services. This requires adaptive and innovative approaches for organisations, in order to stay competitive and relevant.

    This thesis uses competence-based and practice-based perspectives to better understand the requirements placed on quality management in meeting these challenges. It investigates what quality management work is and what properties must exist, in terms of competence and practice, in order to make quality management work possible. The purpose of this thesis is, therefore, to explore how the theoretical perspectives of competence and practice can contribute to an increased understanding of what is required to perform quality management work. Three research questions are posed and answered. The first research question concerns the nature of quality management work and how its key factors may be characterised; the second research question deals with competencies of quality management and how these are interrelated with quality management work; the third research question concerns how the interplay between quality management competencies can be understood. The research questions are answered by interpreting the findings of five papers included in the thesis, using a conceptual framework.

    The results of the thesis suggest two main directions of quality management work: expansive and adaptive quality management work. Expansive work is characterised by explorative practice, radical change to existing processes or the development of new processes, a logic of development, an orientation towards development and innovation, a striving to increase external efficiency and a striving to increase process variation. Adaptive work is characterised by exploitative practice, incremental change to existing processes, a logic of performance, an orientation towards goals and productivity, a striving towards internal efficiency and a striving to decrease process variation. Quality management competencies relate to quality management work in combining role dependency and discretion. Role dependency signifies the potential and capability to assume multiple role-responsibilities. Discretion is the ‘freedom of movement’ for quality practitioners to engage in practices and choose quality management work directions according to task and situation. The interplay between quality management competencies is understood as the combined effects of two competence antecedents: individual and/or collective dispositions to change and learning. This thesis extends research on quality management by increasing our knowledge and understanding of the requirements needed, not only to select and perform existing quality management practices, but also to adopt and engage in practices where emergence is accommodated by ambidexterity.

    Delarbeid
    1. Four facets of learning in performance measurement
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Four facets of learning in performance measurement
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, ISSN 1741-0401, E-ISSN 1758-6658, Vol. 67, nr 9, s. 1608-1624Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the role of learning in performance measurement. Design/methodology/approach – We develop a theoretical framework combining workplace learning theory with purposes of performance measurement. We elaborate this framework empirically by identifying critical incidents from a case set within a context containing a broad range of different performance measurement activities. Finally, we discuss the results and the possible implications for using our theoretical framework in order to better understand facets of learning regarding the design of performance measurement. Findings – Workplace learning theory provides a deeper understanding of how the mechanisms of performance measurements support control or improvement purposes. We propose a tentative framework for learning as a driver for performance measurement and four facets of learning are identified: reproductive, rule-oriented, goal-oriented and creative learning. Research limitations/implications – The empirical material is limited to the healthcare context and further studies are needed in order to validate the findings in other settings. Practical implications – We argue that all managers must consider what kind of learning environment and what kind of learning outcomes best serve the interests of their organisation. Purposeful and carefully designed organisational arrangements and learning environments are more likely to induce intended learning outcomes. Originality/value –Previous connections between the fields of ‘performance measurement’ and ‘workplace learning’ often lack any deeper conceptualisations or problematisations of the concept of learning. In this paper, we provide a more nuanced discussion about the process of learning in performance measurement, which may provide a basis for further research and scholarly attention.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
    Emneord
    Performance measurement, workplace learning, control, improvement, adaptive learning, developmental learning.
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152037 (URN)10.1108/IJPPM-11-2017-0320 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-10-17 Laget: 2018-10-17 Sist oppdatert: 2019-10-21bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Fit for purpose?: Exploring competence in quality management
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Fit for purpose?: Exploring competence in quality management
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 317-333Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to use competence theory to explore the fit between actual competencies of quality management practitioners and the perception of quality management competence needs in organisations. 

    Design/methodology/approach –This paper is based on a cross-case quantitative study design featuring a survey of quality management practitioners (n= 249) within eight large Swedish organisations. The research instrument was a questionnaire covering seven themes within quality management. The analysis is based on descriptive statistics.

    Findings –The results show that while the perception of formal quality management competence may seem sufficient, the evolving nature of quality management requires knowledge, skills and attitudes that are also apt for more external and explorative perspectives. There is a bias towards competence for exploitative quality management rather than explorative quality management.  Organisational logics preserving and possibly reinforcing a perceived “competence lag” in organisations are identified and described.

    Originality/value – Few empirical studies within quality management explore the competencies required for quality management practices. This paper contributes to quality management research in providing arguments for adopting competence theory as a foundation for organising current and future quality management work.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019
    Emneord
    quality management, practitioner, competence, task, professional
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160707 (URN)10.1108/IJQSS-06-2018-0054 (DOI)000486488600001 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-10-03 Laget: 2019-10-03 Sist oppdatert: 2019-10-21bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Towards a quality management competence framework: exploring needed competencies in quality management
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Towards a quality management competence framework: exploring needed competencies in quality management
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose Few empirical studies have focused on what quality management practitioners actually do, with even fewer studies focusing on what it actually takes to do quality management work, i.e. the competencies of quality management. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a competence-based terminology for describing general competencies of quality management work in organisations and to create a competence framework in order to understand what is needed to be a quality management practitioner.

    Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on an embedded, qualitative multiple-case study design incorporating four Swedish large size organisations where designated quality management practitioners (n= 33) were selected and interviewed.

    Findings A quality management competence framework incorporating four main quality management competence dimensions is presented: the human, the methods & process, the conceptual and the contextual competence dimensions. Four generic quality management role responsibilities are also posited: centralised & strategic, centralised & operational, local & strategic and local & operational role responsibilities. The competencies and role responsibilities are discussed in relation to the notion of emergent quality management and the emerging need of more integrative and business excellence-oriented quality management.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Routledge, 2019
    Emneord
    quality management, practitioner, competencies, responsibility, professional
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154423 (URN)10.1080/14783363.2019.1576516 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061326972 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-02-11 Laget: 2019-02-11 Sist oppdatert: 2019-10-21bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. The roles of quality departments and their influence on business results
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The roles of quality departments and their influence on business results
    Vise andre…
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the various roles of quality departments and investigates whether their roles have different effects on business results. Based on a survey of quality managers in 211 Swedish organisations, the analysis identifies four roles of quality departments: firefighters, auditors, process improvers, and orchestrators. The roles vary in their predominant adoption of Quality Management practices ranging from a narrow scope focusing on quality management systems to a broader scope based on multiple practices. An analysis was performed to identify how each of the identified roles influences business results. The results show that quality departments with a broad focus that combines both explorative and exploitative quality practices contribute the most to business results.

    Emneord
    quality management, quality department, quality practices, roles, business results
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159880 (URN)10.1080/14783363.2019.1643713 (DOI)000479397100001 ()2-s2.0-85070271441 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-08-27 Laget: 2019-08-27 Sist oppdatert: 2019-10-21
  • 115.
    Martin, Jason
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gremyr, Ida
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fit for purpose?: Exploring competence in quality management2019Inngår i: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 317-333Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to use competence theory to explore the fit between actual competencies of quality management practitioners and the perception of quality management competence needs in organisations. 

    Design/methodology/approach –This paper is based on a cross-case quantitative study design featuring a survey of quality management practitioners (n= 249) within eight large Swedish organisations. The research instrument was a questionnaire covering seven themes within quality management. The analysis is based on descriptive statistics.

    Findings –The results show that while the perception of formal quality management competence may seem sufficient, the evolving nature of quality management requires knowledge, skills and attitudes that are also apt for more external and explorative perspectives. There is a bias towards competence for exploitative quality management rather than explorative quality management.  Organisational logics preserving and possibly reinforcing a perceived “competence lag” in organisations are identified and described.

    Originality/value – Few empirical studies within quality management explore the competencies required for quality management practices. This paper contributes to quality management research in providing arguments for adopting competence theory as a foundation for organising current and future quality management work.

  • 116.
    Martin, Jason
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och sociologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gremyr, Ida
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Wallo, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och sociologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Towards a quality management competence framework: Exploring needed competencies in quality management2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose –Several studies and recent reports address emerging and expanding needs for Quality Management (QM) impacting the professional practices and activities and maybe also the conceptual underpinnings of QM. An integrative approach for QM, facilitating both operational and strategic leverage has been described as becoming increasingly more important. However, few empirical studies have focused on what QM professionals actually do with even fewer studies focusing on what it actually takes to do QM-work, i.e. the competencies of QM.

    The purpose of this paper is thus to extend the conceptual understanding of QM by introducing an activity and practice-based terminology for describing competencies of QM work in contemporary Swedish organisations and to create a conceptual competence framework suited for successful QM.

    Design/methodology/approach –This paper is based on a cross-case qualitative study design incorporating four Swedish large size organizations where designated QM professionals (n= 34) were targeted, selected and interviewed.

    Findings –Four generic QM roles are posited: centralised & strategic, centralised & operational, decentralised & strategic and decentralised & operational roles. A QM competence framework incorporating four essential QM competence dimensions is presented: the human, the contextual, the methods & process and the development competence dimensions. Competencies are discussed in relation to the “production dilemma” of QM and the emerging need of more integrative and business excellence-oriented QM.

  • 117.
    Martin, Jason
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gremyr, Ida
    Division of Service Management and Logistics, Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wallo, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och sociologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Towards a quality management competence framework: exploring needed competencies in quality management2019Inngår i: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose Few empirical studies have focused on what quality management practitioners actually do, with even fewer studies focusing on what it actually takes to do quality management work, i.e. the competencies of quality management. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a competence-based terminology for describing general competencies of quality management work in organisations and to create a competence framework in order to understand what is needed to be a quality management practitioner.

    Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on an embedded, qualitative multiple-case study design incorporating four Swedish large size organisations where designated quality management practitioners (n= 33) were selected and interviewed.

    Findings A quality management competence framework incorporating four main quality management competence dimensions is presented: the human, the methods & process, the conceptual and the contextual competence dimensions. Four generic quality management role responsibilities are also posited: centralised & strategic, centralised & operational, local & strategic and local & operational role responsibilities. The competencies and role responsibilities are discussed in relation to the notion of emergent quality management and the emerging need of more integrative and business excellence-oriented quality management.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2020-08-06 15:35
  • 118.
    Martin, Jason
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ida, Gremyr
    Chalmers tekniska högskola .
    Fit for purpose? Critical competencies and roles in quality management2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The practice of quality management (QM) is transforming and the number, scope and complexity of QM tasks and related QM practices is increasing beyond what could be described as traditional QM. There is currently an ambiguity as to what constitutes a QM professional and the competencies needed to be one. The purpose of this study is to understand if QM professionals are equipped to support contemporary QM work by exploring their competencies, roles and practices in contemporary organizations.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on a survey of QM professionals (n= 249) within eight Swedish large size organizations, surveyed in the fall of 2016 (response rate 81 per cent). The questionnaire covered 7 themes within QM and key results covering competencies and practices were extracted and analysed.

    Findings – The study shows that there is a difference between the levels of perceived formal competencies and levels of informal competencies with the QM professionals in the studied organizations. The most prominent role feature of a QM professional is that of a QM tools and methods specialist. However, though this mainly internally focused role is still in demand, a more strategic and externally focused role is also identified as becoming more in demand.

    Research limitations/implications – The survey data is presented with descriptive statistics. Further studies are needed to extend the results in a more in-depth analysis.

    Practical implications –There is a need for a structured approach in identifying QM competencies and practices for two overall QM roles: QM specialist and QM generalist. Ambitions to create and maintain ambidexterity necessitates both specialist competencies and generalist competencies to balance and harmonize exploitative and explorative organizational capabilities.

    Originality/value This study extends research on the competencies and practices of QM professionals, evaluating the purpose and practices of QM through the experiences of a large number of QM professionals.

  • 119.
    Martin, Jason
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Wallo, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och sociologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Kock, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och sociologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Four facets of learning in performance measurement2018Inngår i: International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, ISSN 1741-0401, E-ISSN 1758-6658, Vol. 67, nr 9, s. 1608-1624Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the role of learning in performance measurement. Design/methodology/approach – We develop a theoretical framework combining workplace learning theory with purposes of performance measurement. We elaborate this framework empirically by identifying critical incidents from a case set within a context containing a broad range of different performance measurement activities. Finally, we discuss the results and the possible implications for using our theoretical framework in order to better understand facets of learning regarding the design of performance measurement. Findings – Workplace learning theory provides a deeper understanding of how the mechanisms of performance measurements support control or improvement purposes. We propose a tentative framework for learning as a driver for performance measurement and four facets of learning are identified: reproductive, rule-oriented, goal-oriented and creative learning. Research limitations/implications – The empirical material is limited to the healthcare context and further studies are needed in order to validate the findings in other settings. Practical implications – We argue that all managers must consider what kind of learning environment and what kind of learning outcomes best serve the interests of their organisation. Purposeful and carefully designed organisational arrangements and learning environments are more likely to induce intended learning outcomes. Originality/value –Previous connections between the fields of ‘performance measurement’ and ‘workplace learning’ often lack any deeper conceptualisations or problematisations of the concept of learning. In this paper, we provide a more nuanced discussion about the process of learning in performance measurement, which may provide a basis for further research and scholarly attention.

  • 120.
    Martin, Jason
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Wallo, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och sociologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kock, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och sociologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Performance measurement as a driver for learning and improvement in organizations2016Inngår i: 23rd EurOMA Conference, Trondheim, June 17-22, 2016, Trondheim: NTNU, Department of Production and Quality Engineering and the Department of Industrial Economics and Technology Management , 2016, s. 117-117, artikkel-id PMM-5-2Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to better understanding about levels of learning found in the practices of performance measurement. We create a conceptual model merging established workplace learning theory with operations management purposes of performance measurement. By integrating discretion and organizational logics we interconnect purposes of either control or improvement with four levels of workplace learning: Reproductive, rule-oriented, goal-oriented and creative learning. We empirically elaborate our model using case related critical incidents involving performance measurements. The findings suggest that a conceptual understanding of workplace learning theory meliorates the design and practice of performance measurements for improvement purposes.

  • 121.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Learning to be greener: A longitudinal perspective of retailers’ relationships with logistics providers2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 122.
    Martinsen, Uni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Exploring retailers’ learning towards greener supply chains2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    In order for retailers to decrease environmental impact from logistics, there is a need for a better understanding of what can be done from a retailer perspective in their relationships with logistics service providers (LSPs). This paper aims to explore how retailers can learn in order to become more environmentally sustainable in their relationships with LSPs.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper is based on an in-depth, single case study of a Swedish retailer. The paper relies on learning theories, which are applied to the case study that is of longitudinal nature and covers a period of six years. 

    Findings

    Findings indicate that there are different ways to learn in order to improve environmental sustainability in relationships with LSPs. Specifically, both single- and double-loop learning is of relevance. In terms of what can be learnt, the results suggest a number of different learning items that have potential to contribute to a decrease in environmental impact.

    Research limitations/implications

    This paper presents a first attempt to categorise different ways of learning for retailers who want to improve their environmental sustainability in relationships with LSPs. Deeper analysis is needed to understand if the learning items can be divided into more specific categories, such as different types of environmental practices (e.g. technological or managerial).

    Practical implications

    The results will provide retailers with a better understanding of how to take the next step in terms of greening their relationships with LSPs. Environmentally ambitious LSPs can, in turn, benefit from deeper insight into their customers’ internal work and take action based on this knowledge.

    Original/value

    Due to its longitudinal approach and the application of theory on organisational learning, this paper offers a novel perspective on retailers’ strive in increasing environmental sustainability in relationships with LSPs.

  • 123.
    Martinsen, Uni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rogerson, Sara
    SSAP.
    Vendela, Sant'en
    SSAP.
    The impact of power balances and trust on modal shift possibilities2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    For logistics to become environmentally sustainable, modal shift from road to more energy-efficient alternatives, such as rail and sea, is needed. Power balances and trust between actors may drive and hinder the collaboration needed to induce change. The purpose is to increase the understanding of how power balances and trust between shippers and transport providers influence a change from road to more environmentally sustainable modes of transport.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This paper combines theoretical perspectives with preliminary interviews with both shippers and transport providers involved in modal shift. Theoretically, it builds on change management principles and two inter-organisational perspectives, namely power and trust.   

    Findings

    The results suggest that power balances and trust do indeed have an influence on the probability of modal shift possibilities, albeit they have different impact during the different phases of change.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable)

    This paper is mainly conceptual, but draws on insights from preliminary interviews with shippers and transport providers. Case studies of companies or dyads that have changed from road to rail or sea would be fruitful to validate the findings presented in this abstract.

    Practical implications (if applicable)

    Actors, whether being transport providers or shippers, that want to initiate a change toward modal shift, can benefit from the findings. Specifically, they illuminate power bases and different forms of trust that can have a direct impact on modal shift being realised or not.

    Original/value

    Contrary to previous research, this paper offers a novel perspective of modal shift by analysing power balances and trust between transport providers and shippers.

    Keywords: Modal shift, power bases, environmentally sustainable logistics, supply chain collaboration.

     

    1. Purpose of this paper

    For logistics to become environmentally sustainable, modal shift from road to more energy-efficient alternatives, such as rail and sea, is needed (Regeringskansliet, 2018). This is a preferable choice in the direction of reducing both climate impact from transportation, as well as congestion on roads. Since de-speeding logistics is found to be a cost-effective way to decrease CO2 emissions (McKinnon, 2016), rail and sea transport should be an attractive option for companies striving towards environmental sustainability.

    In the light of this, it is somewhat discouraging to find that a shift on modes from road to rail and sea is slow. One reason for this slow progress is that decisions regarding which mode of transport to use are not taken by individual actors. On the contrary, several actors influence the decision, which makes the decision-making process more complicated. Key actors are companies sending and receiving goods (shippers) and transport providers, that arrange and execute the transport. This paper takes its starting-point in these two groups of actors: the shipper and the transport provider. Shippers are of large relevance as they are the ones with a demand of transports and with requirements linked to these. Influencing factors underlying the choice of transport are cost, transport quality, transport time and reliability (Flodén et al., 2017). Transport providers, on the other hand, respond to shippers demands, as a majority of shippers sub-contract their transport operations through a third party (Lammgård and Andersson, 2014). 

    To obtain modal shift in shippers’ supply chains to a larger extent, change is needed. Such change requires the participation of both shippers and transport providers and interaction between them is a prerequisite for success. Two critical change management principles, influencing the interaction between actors, are power and trust. Power balances between actors may both drive and hinder the collaboration necessary to induce change. At the same time, trust is likely to be of importance as an enabler for modal shift. The purpose of this paper is to increase the understanding of how power balances and trust between shippers and transport providers influence a change from road to more environmentally sustainable modes of transport.

    2.  Design/methodology/approach

    This paper combines theoretical perspectives with preliminary interviews with both shippers and transport providers involved in modal shift. Theoretically, it builds on change management principles and two inter-organisational perspectives, namely power and trust. Firstly, organisational change can be divided into three phases: unfreeze, change and refreeze (Fawcett et al., 2012). In this paper, two of these phases – the unfreeze and refreeze phase - are in focus, as they are the ones where power and trust are most likely to influence the potential for modal shift.

     

    Power is suggested to entail "the ability to evoke a change in another's behavior" (Gaski, 1984, p. 10). Power is relationship-specific and an actor with high power over another in one relationship, might be at a power disadvantage in another relationship. Power can be said to stem from power bases possessed by the actors in a relationship. A commonly applied framework for such bases is the one suggested by French and Raven (1959), who propose five power bases: reward, coercive, expert, referent and legitimate power. Reward power means an ability to mediate rewards to a target actor; coercive instead includes punishment to that target; expert power means a skill or knowledge desired by the target; referent power occurs when the target values identification with the source, and; legitimate power entails a belief by the target that the source has a natural right to influence. In addition to these five power bases, supply chain position is suggested to be of relevance and not covered by French and Raven (1959). According to Kähkönen and Lintukangas (2010), customers often have power over suppliers.

     

    Trust can be defined as “an expectation held by an agent that its trading partner will behave in a mutually acceptable manner” (Sako and Helper, 1998, p. 388). According to Sako (1992), there are three different types of trust: contractual, competence and goodwill. Contractual trust means a belief that collaborating actors will stay true to the contract, while competence trust entails a belief that a collaborating actor has the ability to conduct specific tasks. Finally, goodwill trust occurs when actors are willing to exceed the expected contractual agreements. The three types of trust can be said to be levels of trust, where contractual trust is the lowest level, but as relationships develop, trust also can develop and turn into competence trust or goodwill trust.

     

    Empirically, the paper relies on preliminary findings from interviews with shippers and transport providers. The interviews have focused on actor collaboration for modal shift to take place and have identified both possibilities and difficulties in the different stages of change that modal shift entails.

    3.  Findings 

    The results suggest that power balances and trust do indeed have an influence on the probability of modal shift possibilities, albeit they have different impact during the different phases of change. In the unfreeze phase, the initiating actor needs to have power advantage over the other actor, as this appears to be necessary for change to take place. In other words, modal shift does not appear to happen by itself, and therefore some degree of power advantage is needed. The power advantage appears to derive mainly from expert power, coercive power or supply chain position. Interestingly, these power bases can be of different relevance depending on whether the initiating actor is the transport provider or the shipper in a relationship between the two actors. Further, some level of trust between the transport provider and the shipper is needed, but especially in the case of new relationships, this trust is not likely to be more than in the form of contract trust.

     

    As change has been done and the next step is the refreeze phase, the challenge lies in maintaining the model shift. Here, trust becomes of higher importance than power. If competence trust or even goodwill trust have developed, there is high likelihood of a long-term change. However, if trust has not developed and sufficiently, there might instead be a high likelihood of the change to sustain.

    4.  Research limitations/implications

    This paper is mainly conceptual, but draws on insights from preliminary interviews with shippers and transport providers. Case studies of companies or dyads that have changed from road to rail or sea would be fruitful to validate the findings presented in this abstract. 

    5.  Practical implications

    Actors, whether being transport providers or shippers, that want to initiate a change toward modal shift, can benefit from the findings. Specifically, they illuminate power bases and different forms of trust that can have a direct impact on modal shift being realised or not.

    6.   Originality/value  Contrary to previous research, this paper offers a novel perspective of modal shift by analysing power balances and trust between transport providers and shippers.

  • 124.
    Matjaz, Maletic
    et al.
    University of Maribor, Slovenia.
    Maletic, Damjan
    University of Maribor, Slovenia.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dahlgaard-Park, Su Mi
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gomiscek, Bostjan
    University of Maribor, Slovenia; University of Wollongong Dubai, U Arab Emirates.
    Effect of sustainability-oriented innovation practices on the overall organisational performance: an empirical examination2016Inngår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 27, nr 9-10, s. 1171-1190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One major means to address corporate sustainability practices in organisations are sustainability-oriented innovation practices, which tend to result in significantly improved products, services, processes or even management systems. Prior research has widely discussed the relevant issues about integrating sustainability aspects into innovation process; however, little empirical research has been conducted to analyse the link between sustainability-oriented innovation practices and the overall organisational performance. This paper addresses this gap by exploring the underlying structure of sustainability-oriented innovation practices as well as their effects on the particular performance dimensions (i.e. economic performance, quality performance, innovation performance, environmental performance and social performance). The large-scale web-based survey yielded 266 usable responses encompassing both the manufacturing and service industries across 5 countries: Germany, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia and Spain. The results of the regression analysis demonstrate that sustainability-oriented innovation practices are positively related with the overall organisational performance. The empirical evidence suggests that when organisations strongly emphasise sustainability practices, they can improve both economic and non-financial performance. From a practical perspective, the findings of the study may provide a clue regarding how organisations can embed sustainability aspects in their innovation processes with the aim of improving their performance.

  • 125.
    Mazzocato, Pamela
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Unbeck, Maria
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Gustaf Skoldenberg, Olof
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Thor, Johan
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Unpacking the key components of a programme to improve the timeliness of hip-fracture care: a mixed-methods case study2015Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 23, nr 93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Delay to surgery for patients with hip fracture is associated with higher incidence of post-operative complications, prolonged recovery and length of stay, and increased mortality. Therefore, many health care organisations launch improvement programmes to reduce the wait for surgery. The heterogeneous application of similar methods, and the multifaceted nature of the interventions, constrain the understanding of which method works, when, and how. In complex acute care settings, another concern is how changes for one patient group influence the care for other groups. We therefore set out to analyse how multiple components of hip-fracture improvement efforts aimed to reduce the time to surgery influenced that time both for hip-fracture patients and for other acute surgical orthopaedic inpatients. Methods: This study is an observational mixed-methods single case study of improvement efforts at a Swedish acute care hospital, which triangulates control chart analysis of process performance data over a five year period with interview, document, and non-participant observation data. Results: The improvement efforts led to an increase in the monthly percentage of hip-fracture patients operated within 24 h of admission from an average of 47 % to 83 %, with performance predictably ranging between 67 % and 98 % if the process continues unchanged. Meanwhile, no significant changes in lead time to surgery for other acute surgical orthopaedic inpatients were observed. Interview data indicated that multiple intervention components contributed to making the process more reliable. The triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data, however, indicated that key changes that improved performance were the creation of a process improvement team and having an experienced clinician coordinate demand and supply of surgical services daily and enhance pre-operative patient preparation. Conclusions: Timeliness of surgery for patients with hip fracture in a complex hospital setting can be substantially improved without displacing other patient groups, by involving staff in improvement efforts and actively managing acute surgical procedures.

  • 126.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Snyder, Hannah
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Helkkula, Anu
    Hanken School Econ, Finland.
    Hogan, Suellen J.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Anderson, Laurel
    Arizona State University, AZ USA.
    The changing role of the health care customer: review, synthesis and research agenda2017Inngår i: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 28, nr 1Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to synthesize findings from health care research with those in service research to identify key conceptualizations of the changing role of the health care customer, to identify gaps in theory, and to propose a compelling research agenda. Design/methodology/approach - This study combines a meta-narrative review of health care research, and a systematic review of service research, using thematic analysis to identify key practice approaches and the changing role of the health care customer. Findings - The review reveals different conceptualizations of the customer role within the ten key practice approaches, and identifies an increased activation of the role of the health care customer over time. This change implies a re-orientation, that is, moving away from the health care professional setting the agenda, prescribing and delivering treatment where the customer merely complies with orders, to the customer actively contributing and co-creating value with service providers and other actors in the ecosystem to the extent the health care customer desires. Originality/value - This study not only identifies key practice approaches by synthesizing findings from health care research with those in service research, it also identifies how the role of the health care customer is changing and highlights effects of the changing role across the practice approaches. A research agenda to guide future health care service research is also provided.

  • 127.
    McLean, Richard S
    et al.
    School of Management and Languages, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Anthony, Jiju
    School of Management and Languages, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Failure of Continuous Improvement initiatives in manufacturing environments:: A systematic review of the evidence2017Inngår i: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 28, nr 3-4, s. 219-237Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous Improvement initiatives put in place the necessary elements to allow an organisation to identify and implement improvements on an ongoing basis. Structured approaches to quality and process improvement started with total quality managenment, and developed with Lean Manufacturing, Six Sigma, and Lean Six Sigma. Despite the benefits these can bring, Continuous Improvement efforts are consistently reported to have a high failure rate. Research, however, regularly focuses on success factors rather than directly addressing failures, and as a result, failure factors are currently fragmented. The objective of this paper is to provide a systematic literature review detailing why Continuous Improvement initiatives within manufacturing environments may fail. The paper describes the systematic review protocol followed and reasoning associated. From the 72 journal articles selected, it is evident that initiatives can fail due to a multitude of individual variables. The main contribution of the paper is the grouping of these under eight core themes: Motives & Expectations, Culture & Environment, Management Leadership, Implementation Approach, Training, Project Management, Employee Involvement Levels, and Feedback & Results. The findings provide insight regarding the complexity of organisational change involving Continuous Improvement implementation. The need for future research to develop the themes into a framework is also discussed.

  • 128.
    Mindus, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi.
    Incorporating fixed assets in supply chain finance - An untapped lever to shareholder value2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 129.
    Navarro, Priscilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cronemyr, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greening logistics by introducing process management: A viable tool for freight transport companies going green2018Inngår i: Supply Chain Forum: an International Journal, ISSN 1625-8312, E-ISSN 1624-6039, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 204-218Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While the usage of process management within the freight transport industry is unknown and presumed low, it has been used within other sectors as an efficient approach for dealing with and fulfilling customer demands as well as environmental requirements. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how process management can enhance a customer focused greening in the transport and logistics sector. We present a literature review of the intersections of process management, freight transport and environmental sustainability. Furthermore, we conducted a case study of how two environmentally ambitious Swedish freight transport companies use process management to enhance environmental sustainability. We found that environmentally ambitious freight transport companies do not proactively use process management, and that workshops with topical experts and practitioners can be a way for introducing process management to enhance environmental sustainability in such companies.

  • 130.
    Navarro, Priscilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cronemyr, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Using Process Management within Green Logistics – A case study2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    While Process Management has not commonly been used within the freight transport business, it has been used within other sectors as an efficient approach for dealing with and fulfilling customer demands as well as environmental requirements. The purpose of the current paper is to present a case study of how Swedish freight transport companies use Process Management to enhance environmental sustainability.

    Methodology/Approach

    We developed a case study with two environmentally ambitious Swedish freight transport companies. Information was collected by interviews, observations and workshops. We also studied three larger freight transport companies. The analysis is a comparison between empirical findings and literature.

    Findings

    Environmentally ambitious freight transport companies do not proactively use Process Management, and workshops with topical experts and practitioners can be a way for introducing Process Management to enhance environmental sustainability in such companies.

    Research Limitation/implication

    The results will be the basis for propositions for further research, and for practical implications for transport companies.

    Originality/Value of the paper

    A previous study of the intersection between Process Management and Green Logistics identified a void in literature, which makes this paper unique. Academically, this paper contributes to filling that void. Practically, the paper is useful for freight transport practitioners with interest in increasing sustainability in their operations.

  • 131.
    Navarro, Priscilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cronemyr, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    What is the potential of process management to enhance sustainability in the freight transport sector?2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The freight transport sector largely contributes to the environmental footprint, and the freight transport industry lacks practical tools for implementing green initiatives. Process Management is an efficient approach for fulfilling customer demands as well as environmental requirements within other sectors. This paper presents a literature review of Process Management activities within the freight transport sector, with emphasis on environmental sustainability. While Green Logistics and Process Management are established academic research disciplines, there is little research found in the intersection between the two. Hence, there is a need for future research in this field.

  • 132.
    Nordeman, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Sundbäck, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    An analysis on the benefits of information sharing in multi-echelon inventory control models2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With growing markets and customers being geographically spread out, more pressure is put on a company’s logistics processes and their inventory structures are becoming more complex. This puts more pressure on the inventory control solution provided by a company like IFS, that supports their customers with inventory control through the Inventory Planning and Replenishment module in IFS Applications. As their customers’ supply chains grow larger, their inventory structures become more complex the next step is to find a solution for the IPR module more suitable in a called multi-echelon structure, i.e. several tiers of stock locations, such as local, regional and central warehouses.

     

    The purpose of this study is to compare a reorder point model with a solution suitable in a multi-echelon setting and investigate how they are able to manage uncertainties with service level targets.

     

    A literature study was performed, to find previous research on inventory control in multi-echelon inventory systems. In the literature study, the importance of coordination and information sharing between the echelons was emphasized and used as a focus when finding a suitable multi-echelon model. To answer the purpose a theoretical model was formulated from the findings in previous research, with a replenishment method suitable in a multi-echelon environment. The inventory control models also included lot sizing method and a safety mechanism, where the difference between the models were their respective replenishment policy. The theoretical model was based on the replenishment method Distribution Requirements Planning (DRP), as it enables information sharing, coordination and synchronization of the supply chain, while the other inventory control model uses the Reorder Point method (ROP).

     

    As information sharing was emphasized in previous research on multi-echelon systems, and the main difference between the two inventory control models is the information sharing in the DRP model, the important question to be answered with the comparison is; what effects and benefits can be achieved through information sharing in a multi-echelon inventory system? The two inventory control models were then simulated in Excel and exposed to even demand and seasonal variations in an inventory structure with three echelons and four sites, see figure below. When analyzing the results three evaluation criteria were used; difference in service levels, average inventory levels and if there were signs of overstocking in the regional and central warehouse, i.e. if the system was exposed to the bullwhip effect.  

    The analysis was carried out based on the criteria above and divided into three sections. First, differences between the models for even demand were investigated. The same procedure followed for seasonal demand, identifying differences and what caused them. Findings were then summed up at the end of the chapter. For even demand, differences were small and sharing information does not give large benefits. Under seasonal demand though, sharing information proved to be very beneficial, reducing average inventory held in the system by 60%, compared to not sharing information. This because sharing information together with synchronizing eliminates the bullwhip effect.

     

    By testing different standard deviations, changing lead times and order quantities, using forecast or being blind to forecast, the robustness of the conclusions drawn from the analysis was put to the test. Carrying out a sensitivity analysis on the models served two purposes. First, finding more evidence promoting the benefits of synchronizing the supply chain and how important it is that the shared information is correct, otherwise the benefits are reduced. The second purpose was to validate that the models performed as expected when changing input data.

     

    The conclusions were the following:

     

    • Information sharing enables synchronization of the supply chain
    • Synchronization allows for reaching higher service levels with lower inventory levels

     

    Findings suggest that by sharing information, which must be the first step, synchronizing the inventory system is possible. It is the synchronization that creates the real benefits, such as higher service levels and lower inventory levels. However, the quality and accuracy of the shared information was found to play an important role. Sharing inaccurate or wrong information increase the risk of the system starting to suffer from the bullwhip effect, resulting in higher inventory levels and lower service levels.

  • 133.
    Olsson, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Tidsdriven ABC-kalkylering inom tredjepartslogistik: Tillämpningar för att driva produktivitet hos PostNord Logistics TPL i Norrköping2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    PostNord Logistics TPL AB (PostNord) är en av de största aktörerna inom tredjepartslogistik i Norden. Vid däcklagret i Norrköping står PostNord för logistikaktiviteter i samband med inleveranser, lagring, förädling och utleveranser åt flera återförsäljare. Personalkostnader är den överlägset största kostnadsposten och därför fokuserar ledningen på produktivitet, exempelvis genom effektivisering och högre precision vid bemanningsplanering. Studiens syfte var därför att utveckla en kostnadsmodell baserat på tidsdriven ABC-kalkylering för den operativa verksamheten i däcklagret, som kan tillämpas för att stödja PostNords arbete med att driva produktivitet. Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing (TDABC) är en metodik för att uppskatta åtgången av resurser som personal och maskiner för olika transaktioner, produkter eller kunder. Genom att modellera aktiviteter i tidsekvationer som bygger på tidsuppskattningar är det möjligt att visa vad som påverkar tidsåtgång.

    Tidsekvationer för de tre aktiviteterna montering, lossning och inlagring utvecklades. Tillvägagångsättet bestod av avstämningar och bearbetning av data, regressionsanalyser, tidsstudier, intervjuer, observationer samt färdigställande och verifiering av kostnadsmodeller i Excel. De färdiga kostnadsmodellerna uppvisade både rimlighet och lovande precision dag-för-dag. Därefter utvecklades fyra användargränssnitt; what-if analyser för montering, lossning och inlagring samt bemanningsplanering för montering. Via användbarhetstester inspirerade av tänka-högt-metoden visades att verktygen var användbara och att de förväntas kunna stödja arbetet med att driva produktivitet i form av effektivisering och bemanningsplanering.

    I litteraturen finns ett uttalat behov av vidare studier av metodiken TDABC, inklusive designprocessen för TDABC och specifikt framtagning av tidsuppskattningar för tidsekvationerna. Den här studien bidrar till metodiken på följande fyra sätt. 1) En övergripande metod (process) för tidsdriven ABC-kalkylering som framtida studier kan använda. 2) Lärdomar kring specifika aspekter av den övergripande metoden som intervjuer, avstämningar och bearbetning av data samt användning av regressionsanalyser och tidsstudier. 3) Exempel på egenskaper hos den färdiga kostnadsmodellen och implikationer av dem. 4) Anvisningar gällande viktiga val (ställningstaganden) för modelleringen av tidsekvationer och implikationer av dem.

  • 134.
    Olsson, Olle Viktor
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Aronsson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Middle management involvement in handling variable patient flows2017Inngår i: Management Research Review, ISSN 2040-8269, E-ISSN 2040-8277, Vol. 40, nr 9, s. 1007-1024Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to explore the involvement of middle management in forming strategies tomanage variable acute patient flows at a hospital.Design/methodology/approach – Empirical evidence from a university hospital was gathered viainterviews, internal documents, observation and participation in meetings. The role of middle management inthe development of strategies was analyzed using literature on middle management involvement.Findings – In managing variable acute patient flows, middle management adopts a number of roles andbehavioral characteristics that have been previously described in research. The role of facilitator is the mostprominent, with middle managers prioritizing individual goals and strategies for the clinical departments thatthey manage before their collective responsibility for hospital performance. Unclear responsibilities andmandates within the organization, together with a lack of hospital-wide strategies concerning how the acutepatient flow should bemanaged, are contributing factors to this behavior.Research limitations/implications – The research is based on an explorative, single case studymethodology. Future research assessing the extent of different middle management roles in health care, inwhich more empirical data and quantitative analysis is conducted, is encouraged.Practical implications – There is a need for top management to establish long-term goals to enhancemiddle management roles when developing strategies for managing variable patient flows.Originality/value – Middle management involvement in developing strategies for managing variablepatient flows is a novel topic for research. The interface and division of tasks between top and middlemanagement is crucial for successful strategies in managing variable patient flows.

  • 135.
    Onufrey, Ksenia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berglund, Martina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Digital tools for self-study and examination2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization and increased use of information and communication technology (ICT) are major change processes taking place in engineering education today. Self-study and examination are areas with high potential for beneficial use of digital ICT tools. Some advantages with such tools are that students' can continuously assess their own learning in relation to the course objectives while they also can provide an opportunity to meet the teachers' needs to control how the students absorb the course material. Moreover, automatic provision of quick or instant feedback through digital tools can stimulate students’ commitment and active learning and allow students greater flexibility in their learning process, with tests that can be conducted online regardless of time and space and can be repeated as needed. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how different types of ICT-based self-study and examination practices can be implemented in courses on topics such as project management, product development, and entrepreneurship, and build a knowledge base necessary for future systematic implementation of digital examinations. Our study is based on an educational development project at Linköping University, where we tested and evaluated different models and approaches for digital knowledge testing in a number of selected courses.We discuss both positive and potentially problematic aspects of the use of digital tools and conclude that successful implementation is dependent on well-planned integration of such tools into the overall course where different types of activities enhance each other. Thus, this study connects the areas of digital self- study and examination and provides examples of first steps on the way towards implementation of ICT-based examination practices.

  • 136.
    Oskarsson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Förbättrat lärande i utredningsmetodik2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta pedagogiska utvecklingsprojekt var att öka förståelsen för hur vi i undervisningen kan stötta studenternas lärande i utredningsmetodik.

    Efter att inledningsvis studerat litteratur om utredningsmetodik, interv-juades representanter för olika avdelningar på LiU, där studenterna arbe-tar med utredningsprojekt som ligger inom ramen för ovanstående be-skrivning. Intervjuer på 45-90 minuter genomfördes med representanter för sju avdelningar, från tre av LiUs institutioner. En specificering av res-pondenterna finns i bilaga 1. Intervjuerna spelades in med respondenter-nas samtycke.

    Utifrån intervjuerna valdes en kurs ut som case för djupare studier. Denna kurs följdes under projektets gång genom diskussioner med exami-nator och andra involverade lärare, samt genom enkäter riktade till kurs-deltagarna. Upplevda problem med kursen identifierades, förändringar genomfördes och följdes upp under två kursgenomföranden.

  • 137.
    Oskarsson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Total Cost Analysis in Logistics: Practical Execution, Learning, and Teaching in Higher Education2019Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost is considered a crucial factor in much decision-making in private and public organisations. Therefore, the ability to calculate total estimated costs for different alternatives is important. However, such total cost analysis is a challenging task. Providing students with the knowledge and skills needed for total cost analysis is therefore relevant in several disciplines within higher education.

    Within logistics management, total cost analysis is for decades by several scholars regarded as a ‘cornerstone’, a fundamental part of the discipline. However, except for describing the basic steps and presumptions, the literature does not give much support concerning how to conduct such analyses, or which the difficulties associated with total cost analysis are. This blank space in literature is not limited to the logistics discipline, it stretches throughout many disciplines. Neither does literature cover how to teach to support students’ learning of total cost analysis.

    Hence, to address the lack of research, the purpose of this thesis was formulated as follows: To contribute to the understanding of conducting, learning, and teaching total cost analysis.

    Three research questions were shaped to address each part of the purpose: conducting, learning and teaching.

    RQ1 What challenges are connected to the process of conducting total cost analysis?

    RQ2 What thresholds are there for learning how to conduct total cost analysis?

    RQ3 How can total cost learning be supported by suitable educational methods?

    The research questions are connected to each other in the sense that the challenges of conducting total cost analysis (RQ1) indicate within which areas total cost learning is difficult, and thereby where thresholds are to be investigated (RQ2). Further, knowledge about the learning thresholds is needed to discuss suitable educational activities (RQ3).

    The research was conducted by a combination of literature reviews and multiple case studies at four Higher Education Institutions, where both teachers and students were approached. The findings for RQ1 were developed in an abductive procedure walking back and forth between literature and cases. A twelve-step process for total cost analysis was defined, and specific challenges associated for each of these steps. Regarding learning thresholds (RQ2), perceived difficulties with learning total cost analysis were identified in the case studies. These difficulties were then analysed against threshold characteristics available in literature. This resulted in the identification of four total cost learning thresholds. Literature on constructivist-based teaching was used to suggest teaching methods to support learning (RQ3). These types of activities proved to match the ones most appreciated by teachers and students in the studied cases. The twelve-step process provides a more structured and holistic view of total cost analysis than previously available in the logistics literature. The description of challenges with conducting total cost analysis is novel, not only within logistics, but also generally, why this is a major contribution from this research. Aspects regarding teaching and learning connected to logistics, and to total cost analysis, are very sparsely addressed in literature, which makes the findings concerning learning thresholds and teaching methods valuable.

    The findings are believed to be useful for different stakeholders. First and foremost, teachers can use the findings for designing programs, courses, and course modules which cover the important aspects of total cost analysis with help from educational activities supporting the students’ learning. Second, for organisations where total cost analyses are conducted, the suggested process with its steps and associated challenges can be used to achieve better total cost analyses, and in turn more substantiated decisions. In the longer perspective, better education on total cost analysis at Higher Education Institutions will further strengthen the total cost competence in organisations, thereby improving the total cost-related decision making.

    Total cost analysis is not unique for the logistics discipline. Although focus in the study has been on Higher Education Institutions providing logistics courses, the findings are to a high extent believed to be relevant also for other disciplines dealing with total cost analysis.  

  • 138.
    Oskarsson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Using Open-Ended Cases to Enhance Active Learning2017Inngår i: Transforming patterns through thescholarship of teaching and learning, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 139.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Hemilä, Jukka
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Paras, Manoj K.
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Creating value through reverse logistics in a multi-echelon used clothing chain2016Inngår i: The Proceedings of 21st International Symposium on Logistics (ISL 2016): Sustainable Transport and Supply Chain Innovation / [ed] KS Pawar and KM Tsai, Nottingham, UK: Centre for Concurrent Enterprise, Nottingham University Business School , 2016, s. 349-359Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper:

    Reverse logistics (RL) in retail value chains is an increasingly emerging phenomenon yet under - explored in research ( Bernon et al., 2011 ) . T he literature becomes shallow er wh ile discussing the "process" of val ue creation in such context . Given the inherent complexity and differentiated value creation in many RL networks ( Schenkel et al., 2015 ) , e.g. in used clothing, such values are consti tuted by different actors by prioritizing and committing their strategic resources for developing distinct rent - earning competencies. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to explore how differential value is created by firms embedded in a multi - echelon reverse value chain for used clothing, by successfully exploiting multi - level (intra - and inter - firm) resources, via various underlying rent-earning mechanisms.

    Design/methodology/approach:

    An explorative case study approach is adopted in r everse clothing value chain context to investigate  the  take - back  scheme  that includes multiple  actor  types  and  also  spa ns globally . An abductive research process is adopted along two stages; Stage 1 (proposes a new theoretical framework on “how” value is c reated in reverse value chains based on resource - based (RB) and relational rent - earning views to exploit various RL attributes or capabilities)  and  Stage  2  (seeks  real - life  case  observations  to  explore  the  empirical reality), and finally systematically com bining these knowledge. Data is collected through s emi - structured interviews, observation and documented notes and reports, conducted with various actors, viz. retailers, social enterprises (charities and non - profit  retailers),  commercial  brokers/sorters, and  specialized  sorting  firms  from India.

    Findings

    Differentiated  values  are  created by the  actors  in volved  with  multi - echelon  take - back n e twork . The  RB  and  relational  theories  underpin  the  rent - earning  mechanisms  further highlighting several key ways to sustain this value. The VRIO model in the RB theory ( Barney and Clark, 2007 ) shows how value is created within firm  boundaries .  The  relational  view  highlights  four  rent - earning  mechanisms: relational  asset  specificity  and  information  sharing  for  the  success  o f  cost - neutral take - back  agreement , along  with resource  and  capability  complementarities  and  trust in  the relation ship . Together  they  provide  understanding  of  the entire  “process”  of  rent generation.

    Value:

    This research  contribute to  exploring the “process” of rent - earning generated by  critical intra - and inter - organizational enablers of value creation in complex RL networks.

    Practical implications:

    The paper improves the understanding of the key mechanism for value creation for actors working wit hin the used clothing chain.

  • 140.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Högskolan i Borås, Sweden.
    Sustainable value creation through new industrial supply chains in apparel and fashion2017Inngår i: 17TH WORLD TEXTILE CONFERENCE AUTEX 2017: SHAPING THE FUTURE OF TEXTILES, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2017, Vol. 254, artikkel-id 202007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the inter-organizational value creation, in apparel supply chain context, through circularity and digitalization for sustainability, by gathering evidences from vivid research experiences. It can be highlighted that inter-organizational value creation in both circular- and digital- apparel supply chains largely builds upon a variety of collaborative initiatives, and among a range of included members. Knowledge co-evolvement and business co-development, end-to-end integration and information transfer, and open networks are crucial to such collaborations – making development of new supply chain structures a metacapability of apparel firms in the changing industrial landscape.

  • 141.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    Borås Högskola, Borås, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Paras, Manoj
    Borås Högskola, Borås, Sweden.
    Multidimensional value creation through different reverse supply chain relationships in used clothing sector2019Inngår i: Supply chain management, ISSN 1359-8546, E-ISSN 1758-6852, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 729-747Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper aims to purport deeper understanding of, and instigate theoretical elaboration to, multidimensional value created through different reverse supply chain (RSC) relationships.

    Design/methodology/approach

    By capturing the relationships (and their differences) constituted and embedded in three “extreme” case studies from global used clothing supply chain, the sources of multidimensional values are explored in line with Dyer and Singh’s (1998) relational theory.

    Findings

    In the RSC, when downstream relationships are typically more opportunistic, value is created using inter-personal ways of knowledge sharing and through use of informal safeguards. In contrast, the upstream RSC relationships are more symbiotic, and value is created through more seamless (and routinized) knowledge sharing practices, and additional use of more formal transaction-specific controls or financial incentives as safeguarding instruments.

    Research limitations/implications

    The use of consolidated case studies may affect the consistency in the findings presented. Another limitation relates to deriving propositions per each source presented in relational theory.

    Practical implications

    Practitioners particularly from industries whose global RSCs include different natures of relationships and multiple value incentives can be benefited through this study.

    Originality/value

    The paper extends the original sources of value creation prescribed in relational theory by contextualizing them in RSCs. It depicts how multidimensional values are created relationally by dyadic partners as the nature of relationship differs between upstream and downstream.

  • 142.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Multidimensional value creation through different reverse supply chain relationships in used clothing sector2019Inngår i: Supply chain management, ISSN 1359-8546, E-ISSN 1758-6852, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 729-747Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This paper aims to purport deeper understanding of, and instigate theoretical elaboration to, multidimensional value created through different reverse supply chain (RSC) relationships. Design/methodology/approach By capturing the relationships (and their differences) constituted and embedded in three "extreme" case studies from global used clothing supply chain, the sources of multidimensional values are explored in line with Dyer and Singhs (1998) relational theory. Findings In the RSC, when downstream relationships are typically more opportunistic, value is created using inter-personal ways of knowledge sharing and through use of informal safeguards. In contrast, the upstream RSC relationships are more symbiotic, and value is created through more seamless (and routinized) knowledge sharing practices, and additional use of more formal transaction-specific controls or financial incentives as safeguarding instruments. Research limitations/implications - The use of consolidated case studies may affect the consistency in the findings presented. Another limitation relates to deriving propositions per each source presented in relational theory. Practical implications - Practitioners particularly from industries whose global RSCs include different natures of relationships and multiple value incentives can be benefited through this study. Originality/value The paper extends the original sources of value creation prescribed in relational theory by contextualizing them in RSCs. It depicts how multidimensional values are created relationally by dyadic partners as the nature of relationship differs between upstream and downstream.

  • 143.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Shen, Bin
    Donghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Circular fashion supply chain management: exploring impediments and prescribing future research agenda2019Inngår i: Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, ISSN 1361-2026, E-ISSN 1758-7433, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 298-307Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 144.
    Persson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Persson, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Undersökning av kostnader som uppstår vid tillverkning av flera produktvarianter: En studie utförd på Axis Communications2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens företag lägger ner allt mer tid och resurser på att utöka variantfloran i deras produktsortiment. Syftet är att nå ut till ett bredare segment av kunder samtidigt som företaget behåller en konkurrenskraftig position på marknaden. Vid framtagning av nya produkter ställs Axis Communications ofta inför utmaningen att ta beslut om att tillverka en eller flera varianter. I dagsläget tas beslut om att tillverka fler varianter i produktsortimentet utifrån priset på direkt material och försäljningsvolymen för varje variant. Axis Communications saknar därmed kunskap om vilka ytterligare faktorer som påverkas när beslut om variantskapande ska tas.

    Syftet med studien är att ta fram en beräkningsmodell som kan användas som beslutsunderlag vid analys av kostnader i att tillverka mer än en produktvariant. För att besvara syftet har studien genomfört två fallstudier utifrån två olika produkter i Axis Communications produktsortiment. Den första fallstudien analyserar nuläget av tillverkningen hos Axis Communications kontraktstillverkare där kostnader som påverkas av att flera varianter tillverkas identifieras och beräknas. Den andra fallstudien är en fiktivt fallstudie där de identifierade kostnaderna beräknas på nytt men då endast en variant tillverkas och resterande varianter tagits bort. Därefter utfördes en analys på hur de identifierade kostnaderna påverkas vid tillverkning av endast en variant.

    Utifrån litteraturstudier har de kostnader som påverkas i samband med att flera varianter tillverkas identifierats. Vidare har även processkartläggningar samt ett studiebesök hos en av Axis Communications kontraktstillverkare genomförts där ytterligare relevanta kostnader identifierats och bekräftats av personer med bred kunskap inom området. De kostnader som identifierats i studien och som därmed ansett påverkas mest av att variantfloran förändras är följande:

    Direkta särkostnader

    • Direkt material
    • Lagerföringskostnader
    • Ställkostnader
    • Fixtur- och verktygskostnader

    Indirekta särkostnader

    • Kvalitetskostnader
    • Time to Market

    Investeringskostnader

    • Resurskostnader för utveckling av mekanik
    • Resurskostnader för utvecklig av elektronik
    • Certifieringskostnader
    • Verktygskostnader
    • Kostnader för test av produktion
    • Kostnader för framtagning av prototyper

    Resultatet för direkt material visade att det går att utgå från ett medelvärde av priset för direkt material samt den prognostiserade försäljningsvolymen per variant för att skapa sig en första uppfattning om hur mycket variantskapande egentligen kostar.

    Lagerföringskostnaden visade sig också påverkas vid tillverkning av endast en variant. Lagerföringskostnaden minskade i lagret för komponenter men ökade samtidigt i färdigvarulagret eftersom att det endast är den dyrare varianten med avseende på direkt material som tillverkas då det är den variant som har samtliga funktioner jämfört med resterande varianter.

    Ställkostnaden eliminerades helt då ställtiderna som uppstår vid byte av varianter i tillverkningen försvann. Vidare så halverades kostnaderna för fixturer och verktyg. Kvalitetskostnaden visade sig vara svårare att kvantifiera, dock gick det att inse att desto högre volym som tillverkas av en variant desto fortare når varianten de uppsatta kvalitetsmålen vilket i sin tur bidrar till lägre kvalitetskostnader. Dessutom innebär ett lägre antal varianter i en och samma produktionslina att hanteringen blir lättare då bland annat risken för felmontering minskar. Det blir även lättare att identifiera, prioritera samt åtgärda fel som kan tänkas uppstå i produktionslinan. Det leder i sin tur till att kvalitetskostnaderna minskar.

    Time to Market påverkades också när endast en variant tillverkades. Även om Time to Market inte direkt kan ses som en kostnad utan snarare som ett intäktsbortfall, påvisade studien att det går fortare att få fram produkterna på marknaden om antalet varianter minskar. Slutligen studerades olika investeringskostnader som går att koppla till tillverkningen av flera varianter och resultatet visade på att det går att minska investeringskostnaderna om endast en variant tillverkas.

    Utifrån resultatet från de två fallstudierna utformades en beräkningsmodell åt Axis Communications som ska hjälpa företaget med att ta beslut om variantskapande. Beräkningsmodellen lyfter fram de kostnader som påverkas mest av en förändring i variantfloran tillsammans med en beskrivning av hur kostnaderna ska beräknas. Med hjälp av beräkningsmodellen kan Axis Communications beslut om variantskapande underlättas jämfört med hur de tar beslut idag.

  • 145.
    Poksinska, Bozena Bonnie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lean healthcare: what is the contribution to quality of care?2015Inngår i: Management innovations for health care organizations: adopt, abandon or adapt? / [ed] Anders Örtenblad, Carina Abrahamson Löfström, Rod Sheaff, New York: Routledge, 2015, s. 209-226Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter aims to present how Lean has been adopted by healthcare provider organizations in hospital and primary care settings, and to discuss the implications for quality of care. Could Lean be the management innovation that helps healthcare organizations tackle their current challenges? How is Lean adopted in healthcare? What are the opportunities and limitations of adopting a production-based system to an advanced service system such as healthcare? The findings and conclusions presented in this chapter are based on six years of research on the practices and outcomes of adopting Lean in hospital units and primary care centers in Sweden.

  • 146.
    Poksinska, Bozena Bonnie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lean Healthcare: What Is the Contribution to Quality of Care?2015Inngår i: Management Innovations for Healthcare Organizations: Adopt, Abandon or Adapt? / [ed] Anders Örtenblad; Carina Abrahamson Löfström; Rod Sheaff, New York: Routledge, 2015, s. 119-133Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 147.
    Poksinska, Bozena Bonnie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Cronemyr, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik.
    Measuring quality in elderly care: possibilities and limitations of the vignette method2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 148.
    Poksinska, Bozena Bonnie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fialkowska-Filipek, Malgorzata
    Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Engström, Jon
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Does Lean healthcare improve patient satisfaction?: A mixed-method investigation into primary care2017Inngår i: BMJ Quality and Safety, ISSN 2044-5415, E-ISSN 2044-5423, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 95-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Lean healthcare is claimed to contribute to improved patient satisfaction, but there is limited evidence to support this notion. This study investigates how primary-care centres working with Lean define and improve value from the patient's perspective, and how the application of Lean healthcare influences patient satisfaction.

    Methods This paper contains two qualitative case studies and a quantitative study based on results from the Swedish National Patient Survey. Through the case studies, we investigated how primary-care organisations realised the principle of defining and improving value from the patient's perspective. In the quantitative study, we compared results from the patient satisfaction survey for 23 primary-care centres working with Lean with a control group of 23 care centres not working with Lean. We also analysed changes in patient satisfaction over time.

    Results Our case studies reveal that Lean healthcare implementations primarily target efficiency and little attention is paid to the patient's perspective. The quantitative study shows no significantly better results in patient satisfaction for primary-care centres working with Lean healthcare compared with those not working with Lean. Further, care centres working with Lean show no significant improvements in patient satisfaction over time.

    Conclusions Lean healthcare implementations seem to have a limited impact on improving patient satisfaction. Care providers need to pay more attention to integrating the patient's perspective in the application of Lean healthcare. Value needs to be defined and value streams need to be improved based on both the knowledge and clinical expertise of care providers, and the preferences and needs of patients.

  • 149.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cronemyr, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Measuring quality in elderly care: possibilities and limitations of the vignette method2017Inngår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 28, nr 9-10, s. 1194-1207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Listening to citizens is seen as an important source of information about public service performance. In Sweden, to secure the quality of elderly care, the National Board of Health and Welfare conducts a yearly survey of in-home elderly care services and nursing homes. A central problem of the existing survey methodology is the interpersonal incomparability of survey responses due to differences in preferences and health conditions. One way to deal with this problem is to use the survey methodology with anchoring vignettes. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the possibilities and limitations of using anchoring vignettes as a general survey method and specifically to test the method for measuring elderly care quality. The vignettes were developed interactively with professionals working in elderly care and evaluated with 1600 users of in-home elderly care services and nursing homes. The results showed that anchoring vignettes reduce the impact of respondents personal characteristics on survey results. In general, anchoring vignettes give more robust answers that reduce the problem of incomparability. However, anchoring vignettes increase the complexity of the questionnaire and have limited value in elderly care. Our results indicate that the method might be applicable when using healthier and younger respondents.

  • 150.
    Potra, Sabina Alina
    et al.
    Polytech University of Timisoara, Romania.
    Izvercian, Monica
    Polytech University of Timisoara, Romania.
    Pavel Pugna, Adrian
    Polytech University of Timisoara, Romania.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The HWWP, a refined IVA-Kano model for designing new delightful products or services2017Inngår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 28, nr 1-2, s. 104-117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For the last decade, companies have tried to survive in a continuous competitive global marketplace with informed and demanding customers for first-time-right delightful products and services. The present paper tries to answer the simple corporate question How to design a new product for customer delight? by exploring the relevant design requirements managers need to take into consideration for corporate strategic decision-making. After examining the ongoing debate regarding the theory of attractive quality, the Health Weapon Wealth Prospect (HWWP) model is proposed for new product or service design, which relates Maslows hierarchy of needs with the Kano methodology, importance of customer wants and the customer satisfaction coefficient. The result represents a theoretical contribution to the further development of the Kano model and a starting point for future explanatory research.

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