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  • 101.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi, CS.
    Raghad, Bakhsh
    Johansson, Linda
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi, CS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Stroop facilitation in tinnitus patients: An experiment conducted via the World Wide Web2005Inngår i: Cyberpsychology & Behavior, ISSN 1094-9313, E-ISSN 1557-8364, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 32-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to play an important role in tinnitus. In the present study, tinnitus participants were administered an emotional Stroop test via the Internet, incorporating words related to tinnitus concerns. In line with previous research using this Web-based version of the emotional Stroop test, faster color naming was demonstrated for concern-relevant words relative to neutral words. The present results thus provided support for a role for cognitive factors that are important for the understanding of tinnitus. However, future research is warranted in order to clarify the precise mechanisms involved in tinnitus-related Stroop effects. 1© Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  • 102.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ritterband, Lee
    University of Virginia Health System.
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    A primer for the assessment, diagnosis and delivery of Internet interventions for (mainly) panic disorder. Lessons learned from our research groups.2008Inngår i: Clinical Psychologist, ISSN 1328-4207, E-ISSN 1742-9552, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 1-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [ar]

    With the advent of the Internet, delivered assessment applications are likely to make a difference in clinical psychology and in health care in general. The purpose of the present paper was to present an overview of the authors' experience regarding Internet administration of diagnostic interviews, questionnaires, and information processing tests. A conclusion is made that psychiatric assessments via the Internet are not yet to be recommended, but that questionnaire assessments are likely to generate equivalent or even superior data quality than traditional paper and pencil administration. Finally, the use of Internet-delivered tests of information processing is commented upon. Although these tests have been influential in theory development in clinical psychology, large-scale dissemination of tests has been slowed down by the need for laboratory facilities. Internet administration can provide new opportunities to administer tests from the patient's own home.

  • 103.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Sweden; UCL, England.
    Shafran, Roz
    UCL, England.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden; UCL, England.
    Long-term effects of internet-supported cognitive behaviour therapy2018Inngår i: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, ISSN 1473-7175, E-ISSN 1744-8360, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 21-28Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Internet-supported and therapist-guided cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) is effective for a range of problems in the short run, but less is known about the long-term effects with follow-ups of two years or longer.Areas covered: This paper reviews studies in which the long-term effects of guided ICBT were investigated. Following literature searches in PubMed and other sources meta-analytic statistics were calculated for 14 studies involving a total of 902 participants, and an average follow-up period of three years. Studies were from Sweden (n=11) or the Netherlands (n=3). Long-term outcome studies were found for panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, mixed anxiety and depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, pathological gambling, stress and chronic fatigue. The duration of the treatments was usually short (8-15weeks). The pre-to follow-up effect size was Hedges g=1.52, but with a significant heterogeneity. The average symptom improvement across studies was 50%. Treatment seeking in the follow-up period was not documented and few studies mentioned negative effects.Expert commentary: While effects may be overestimated, it is likely that therapist-supported ICBT can have enduring effects. Long-term follow-up data should be collected for more conditions and new technologies like smartphone-delivered treatments.

  • 104.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sarkohi, Ali
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bjärehed, Jonas
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Effects of Two Forms of Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Depression on Future Thinking2013Inngår i: Cognitive Therapy and Research, ISSN 0147-5916, E-ISSN 1573-2819, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 29-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if future thinking would change following two forms of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for major depression. A second aim was to study the association between pre-post changes in future thinking and prepost changes in depressive symptoms.

    Background: Effects of psychological treatments are most often tested with self-report inventories and seldom with tests of cognitive function.

    Method: We included data from 47 persons diagnosed with major depression who received either e-mail therapy or guided self-help during 8 weeks. Participants completed the future thinking task (FTT), in which they were asked to generate positive and negative events that they thought were going to happen in the future and rated the events in terms of emotion and likelihood. The FTT was completed before and after treatment. Data on depressive symptoms were also collected.

    Results: FTT index scores for negative events were reduced after  treatment. There was no increase for the positive events. Change scores for the FTT negative events and depression symptoms were significantly correlated.

    Conclusions: We conclude that ICBT may lead to decreased negative future thinking and that changes in depression symptoms correlate to some extent with reductions in negative future thinking.

  • 105.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS).
    Svedling, L
    Veilord, A
    Andersson, F
    Sleman, O
    Sarkohi, A
    Claesson, E
    Westin, V
    Eriksson, T
    Lamminen, M
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS).
    Internetbehandling kontra gruppbehandling vid egentlig depression. Krävs mer behandling och får vissa deltagare snabba plötsliga förbättringar?2007Inngår i: Svenska Läkaresällskapets Rikstämma,2007, Katrineholm: Hygiena , 2007, s. 94-94Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 106.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Titov, Nickolai
    Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Advantages and limitations of Internet-based interventions for common mental disorders2014Inngår i: World Psychiatry, ISSN 1723-8617, E-ISSN 2051-5545, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 4-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several Internet interventions have been developed and tested for common mental disorders, and the evidence to date shows that these treatments often result in similar outcomes as in face-to-face psychotherapy and that they are cost-effective. In this paper, we first review the pros and cons of how participants in Internet treatment trials have been recruited. We then comment on the assessment procedures often involved in Internet interventions and conclude that, while online questionnaires yield robust results, diagnoses cannot be determined without any contact with the patient. We then review the role of the therapist and conclude that, although treatments including guidance seem to lead to better outcomes than unguided treatments, this guidance can be mainly practical and supportive rather than explicitly therapeutic in orientation. Then we briefly describe the advantages and disadvantages of treatments for mood and anxiety disorders and comment on ways to handle comorbidity often associated with these disorders. Finally we discuss challenges when disseminating Internet interventions. In conclusion, there is now a large body of evidence suggesting that Internet interventions work. Several research questions remain open, including how Internet interventions can be blended with traditional forms of care.

  • 107.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Titov, Nickolai
    Macquarie Univ, Australia.
    Dear, Blake F.
    Macquarie Univ, Australia.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; UCL, England.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Internet-delivered psychological treatments: from innovation to implementation2019Inngår i: World Psychiatry, ISSN 1723-8617, E-ISSN 2051-5545, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 20-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet interventions, and in particular Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT), have existed for at least 20 years. Here we review the treatment approach and the evidence base, arguing that ICBT can be viewed as a vehicle for innovation. ICBT has been developed and tested for several psychiatric and somatic conditions, and direct comparative studies suggest that therapist-guided ICBT is more effective than a waiting list for anxiety disorders and depression, and tends to be as effective as face-to-face CBT. Studies on the possible harmful effects of ICBT are also reviewed: a significant minority of people do experience negative effects, although rates of deterioration appear similar to those reported for face-to-face treatments and lower than for control conditions. We further review studies on change mechanisms and conclude that few, if any, consistent moderators and mediators of change have been identified. A recent trend to focus on knowledge acquisition is considered, and a discussion on the possibilities and hurdles of implementing ICBT is presented. The latter includes findings suggesting that attitudes toward ICBT may not be as positive as when using modern information technology as an adjunct to face-to-face therapy (i.e., blended treatment). Finally, we discuss future directions, including the role played by technology and machine learning, blended treatment, adaptation of treatment for minorities and non-Western settings, other therapeutic approaches than ICBT (including Internet-delivered psychodynamic and interpersonal psychotherapy as well as acceptance and commitment therapy), emerging regulations, and the importance of reporting failed trials.

  • 108.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Topooco, Naira
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Havik, Odd
    University of Bergen, Norway; Haukeland Hospital, Norway.
    Nordgreen, Tine
    University of Bergen, Norway; Haukeland Hospital, Norway.
    6 Internet-supported versus face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for depression2016Inngår i: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, ISSN 1473-7175, E-ISSN 1744-8360, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 55-60Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Major depression and depressive symptoms are highly prevalent and there is a need for different forms of psychological treatments that can be delivered from a distance at a low cost. In the present review the authors contrast face-to-face and Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for depression. A total of five studies are reviewed in which guided ICBT was directly compared against face-to-face CBT. Meta-analytic summary statistics were calculated for the five studies involving a total of 429 participants. The average effect size difference was Hedges g=0.12 (95% CI: -0.06-0.30) in the direction of favoring guided ICBT. The small difference in effect has no implication for clinical practice. The overall empirical status of clinician-guided ICBT for depression is commented on and future challenges are highlighted. Among these are developing treatments for patients with more severe and long-standing depression and for children, adolescents and the elderly. Also, there is a need to investigate mechanisms of change.

  • 109.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS).
    Veilord, A
    KI KI.
    Svedling, L
    CS / IBL LiU.
    Andersson, F
    CS / IBL LiU.
    Sleman, O
    CS / IBL LiU.
    Westin, Vendela
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Clason, E
    CS / IBL LiU.
    Sarkohi, Ali
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Lamminen, M
    Specialistläkarna Specialistläkarna.
    Eriksson, T
    Specialistläkarna Specialistläkarna.
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS).
    Randomized trial of Internet delivered CBT versus group CBT, with the inclusion of a preference arm, stepped care and assessment of sudden gains2007Inngår i: The third meeting of the International Society for Research on Internet Interventions,2007, Charlottesville: ISRII , 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 110.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Waara, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Malmaeus, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Internet-based exposure treatment versus one-session exposure treatment of snake phobia: a randomized controlled trial2013Inngår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 284-291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the authors compared guided Internet-delivered self-help with one-session exposure treatment (OST) in a sample of snake phobic patients. A total of 30 patients were included following a screening on the Internet and a structured clinical interview. The Internet treatment consisted of four weekly text modules which were presented on a web page, a video in which exposure was modelled, and support provided via Internet. The OST was delivered in a three-hour session following a brief orientation session. The main outcome was the behavioural approach test (BAT), and as secondary measures questionnaires measuring anxiety symptoms and depression were used. Results showed that the groups did not differ at post-treatment or follow-up, with the exception of a significant interaction for the BAT in favour of the OST. At post-treatment, 61.5% of the Internet group and 84.6% of the OST group achieved a clinically significant improvement on the BAT. At follow-up, the corresponding figures were 90% for the Internet group and 100% for the OST group (completer sample). Within-group effect sizes for the Snake Phobia Questionnaire were large (d = 1.63 and d = 2.31 for the Internet and OST groups, respectively, at post-treatment). It is concluded that guided Internet-delivered exposure treatment is a potential treatment option in the treatment of snake phobia, but that OST probably is better.

  • 111.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS).
    Westin , Vendela
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Understanding tinnitus distress: Introducing the concepts of moderators and mediators2008Inngår i: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 47, nr S2, s. S106-S111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We focus this theoretical paper on a neglected distinction in tinnitus research between moderators and mediators of tinnitus distress. A moderator variable is one that influences the strength of a relationship between two other variables. In the paper we propose that several variables might act as moderators of tinnitus distress. Degree of hearing loss, arousal, insomnia, characteristics of tinnitus, noise sensitivity, and a range of psychological factors such as personality and perceived control are discussed as potential moderators. We then move on to mediator variables. A mediator variable is one that explains the relationship between the two other variables, and must by definition be caused by a predictor, and then mediate between the predictor and the dependent variable. We propose that stress levels (caused by tinnitus), classical conditioning, selective attention towards tinnitus, and psychological acceptance of tinnitus (versus experiential avoidance) might be mediators of distress. We encourage more research on moderators and mediators of tinnitus distress, as these will help illuminate treatment protocols and how they might work.

  • 112.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Westöö, Johan
    Johansson, Linda
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi, CS.
    Cognitive bias via the Internet: A comparison of web-based and standard emotional Stroop tasks in social phobia2006Inngår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 55-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is accumulating evidence to suggest that social phobia is associated with attentional bias for words related to social threat. Information processing in individuals with social phobia (n = 87) was investigated in the present study using 2 versions of the emotional Stroop task. Results from a standard emotional Stroop task indicated delayed colour naming of socially threatening words relative to neutral words, in line with previous research, whereas results from a Web-based emotional Stroop task indicated a facilitation effect, with faster manual indication of colour choice for socially threatening words than for neutral words. Possible explanations for these contrasting findings and issues for further research are discussed. © 2006 Taylor & Francis.

  • 113.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Waern, Margda
    Lovande behandling vid borderlinestörning2006Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 103, s. 3188-3190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Borderline personlighetsstörning (BPD) kännetecknas av ett genomgående mönster av instabilitet i regleringen av känslor, bristande impulskontroll, relationsproblem och låg självkänsla. Självskadande beteenden och självmordsförsök är vanliga. Dialektisk beteendeterapi (DBT) är en form av kognitiv beteendeterapi som utvecklats för självmordsbenägna patienter med BPD. I DBT ingår beteendeförändrande tekniker och metoder för att lära sig acceptera känslor. Behandlingen ges i form av individualterapi med telefonstöd och gruppterapi samt genomförs i flera steg, där självskadande och terapistörande beteenden prioriteras. Enligt SBUs granskning är det vetenskapliga stödet DBT begränsat (Evidensstyrka 3) och främst avgränsat till minskning av självskadande beteende.

  • 114.
    Areàn, Patricia A
    et al.
    University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    Ly, Kien Hoa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mobile technology for mental health assessment.2016Inngår i: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, ISSN 1294-8322, E-ISSN 1958-5969, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 163-169Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment and outcome monitoring are critical for the effective detection and treatment of mental illness. Traditional methods of capturing social, functional, and behavioral data are limited to the information that patients report back to their health care provider at selected points in time. As a result, these data are not accurate accounts of day-to-day functioning, as they are often influenced by biases in self-report. Mobile technology (mobile applications on smartphones, activity bracelets) has the potential to overcome such problems with traditional assessment and provide information about patient symptoms, behavior, and functioning in real time. Although the use of sensors and apps are widespread, several questions remain in the field regarding the reliability of off-the-shelf apps and sensors, use of these tools by consumers, and provider use of these data in clinical decision-making.

  • 115. Asplund, Robert Persson
    et al.
    Jäderlind, Anna
    Björk, Isabel Höijer
    Ljótsson, Brjánn
    Carlbring, Per
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi.
    Experiences of internet-delivered and work-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for stress: A qualitative study.2019Inngår i: Internet interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 18, artikkel-id 100282Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Stress is one of the major challenges of modern society, causing significant costs and personal problems. In the recent decade a growing body of research has provided support for the efficacy of internet interventions for stress. However, few studies have focused on how participants experience internet interventions for stress.

    Method: The current study was a qualitative follow-up study of an internet-delivered and work-focused cognitive behavioral treatment for stress. The aim was to capture participants' experiences of the treatment and their views on effects on health and well-being. Participants were selected from a controlled study (n = 27), using a criterion-based sampling approach selecting those participants who had completed all treatment modules. Nine semi-structured interviews were held, and the material was analyzed using Thematic Analysis.

    Results: The results indicated that most of the participants experienced positive effects on their mental health and well-being in both life and at work. All participants emphasized the importance of having access to therapist support. In line with previous research, participants found the intervention to be extensive and demanding and expressed the need for extended treatment time and therapist support.

    Conclusions: Considering the limitations of the present study, future research could examine the feasibility of reducing the length of each session, extending deadlines and increasing therapist support. This could improve treatment efficacy and further enhance utilization in the target population.

  • 116. Austin, David
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi, CS.
    Richards, Jeff
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Internet administration of three commonly used questionnaires in panic research: equivalence to paper administration in Australian and Swedish samples of people with panic disorder2006Inngår i: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 6, s. 25-39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 117.
    Baguley, David
    et al.
    Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals, in the NHS Foundation Trust..
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hyperacusis: Mechanisms, Diagnosis, and Therapies2007 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Baguley and Andersson have created a definitive resource on hyperacusis which summarizes present knowledge from both psychological and auditory neuroscience perspectives for a clinical audiology audience. Hyperacusis is a troublesome symptom which is attracting increasing interest from clinicians and researchers alike. Hyperacusis: Mechanisms, Diagnosis, and Therapies summarizes and critically reflects upon present knowledge, including insights from auditory neuroscience, psychology and clinical audiology. The implications for therapy are made explicit, and the treatment options available are discussed. The authors, Dr. David Baguley (Cambridge, UK) and Professor Gerhard Andersson (Linkoping, Sweden), are well-known experts in the field, and have published widely on hyperacusis and related topics. Their multi-disciplinary collaboration considers hyperacusis in a reflective and innovative manner.Show more Show less Hyperacusis is a troublesome symptom which is attracting increasing interest from clinicians and researchers alike. Hyperacusis: Mechanisms, Diagnosis, and Therapies summarizes and critically reflects upon present knowledge, including insights from auditory neuroscience, psychology and clinical audiology. The implications for therapy are made explicit, and the treatment options available are discussed. The authors, Dr. David Baguley (Cambridge, UK) and Professor Gerhard Andersson (Linköping, Sweden), are well-known experts in the field, and have published widely on hyperacusis and related topics. Their multi-disciplinary collaboration considers hyperacusis in a reflective and innovative manner.

  • 118.
    Baguley, David
    et al.
    Cambridge University, UK.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    McFerran, Don
    Consultant Otolaryngologist, Colchester, Essex, UK.
    McKenna, Laurence
    Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, London, UK.
    Tinnitus: a multidisciplinary approach2013 (oppl. 2)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Tinnitus: A Multidisciplinary Approachprovides a broad account of tinnitus and hyperacusis, detailing the latest research and developments in clinical management, incorporating insights from audiology, otology, psychology, psychiatry and auditory neuroscience. It promotes a collaborative approach to treatment that will benefit patients and clinicians alike.

    The 2nd edition has been thoroughly updated and revised in line with the very latest developments in the field. The book contains 40% new material including two brand new chapters on neurophysiological models of tinnitus and emerging treatments; and the addition of a glossary as well as appendices detailing treatment protocols for use in an audiology and psychology context respectively.

  • 119.
    Baldwin, Scott A
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA.
    Murray, David M
    Division of Epidemiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.
    Shadish, William R
    School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts, University of California, Merced, Merced, California, USA.
    Pals, Sherri L
    Department of Psychology, University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.
    Holland, Jason M
    VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.
    Abramowitz, Jonathan S
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Atkins, David C
    Center for the Study of Health and Risk Behaviors, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    Carlbring, Per
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Carroll, Kathleen M
    Division of Substance Abuse, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
    Christensen, Andrew
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Eddington, Kari M
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA.
    Ehlers, Anke
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Feaster, Daniel J
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.
    Keijsers, Ger P J
    Behaviour Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Koch, Ellen
    Department of Psychology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, Michigan, USA.
    Kuyken, Willem
    Mood Disorders Centre, School of Psychology, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Lange, Alfred
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Lincoln, Tania
    Department of Psychology, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
    Stephens, Robert S
    Department of Psychology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.
    Taylor, Steven
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Trepka, Chris
    Bradford District NHS Care Trust, Bradford, United Kingdom.
    Watson, Jeanne
    Department of Adult Education, Community Development and Counselling Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Intraclass correlation associated with therapists: estimates and applications in planning psychotherapy research.2011Inngår i: Cognitive behaviour therapy, ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 15-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is essential that outcome research permit clear conclusions to be drawn about the efficacy of interventions. The common practice of nesting therapists within conditions can pose important methodological challenges that affect interpretation, particularly if the study is not powered to account for the nested design. An obstacle to the optimal design of these studies is the lack of data about the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), which measures the statistical dependencies introduced by nesting. To begin the development of a public database of ICC estimates, the authors investigated ICCs for a variety outcomes reported in 20 psychotherapy outcome studies. The magnitude of the 495 ICC estimates varied widely across measures and studies. The authors provide recommendations regarding how to select and aggregate ICC estimates for power calculations and show how researchers can use ICC estimates to choose the number of patients and therapists that will optimize power. Attention to these recommendations will strengthen the validity of inferences drawn from psychotherapy studies that nest therapists within conditions.

  • 120.
    Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie
    et al.
    Leiden University, Netherlands; Leiden Institute Brain and Cognit, Netherlands.
    van Steenbergen, Henk
    Leiden University, Netherlands; Leiden Institute Brain and Cognit, Netherlands.
    Nienke Pannekoek, J.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Fouche, Jean-Paul
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Lochner, Christine
    UCT MRC Unit Anxiety and Stress Disorders, South Africa; University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Hattingh, Coenraad J.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Cremers, Henk R.
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mansson, Kristoffer N. T.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Engman, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Sweden; Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Straube, Thomas
    University of Munster, Germany.
    Peterburs, Jutta
    University of Munster, Germany.
    Klumpp, Heide
    University of Illinois, IL USA; University of Illinois, IL USA.
    Luan Phanp, K.
    University of Illinois, IL USA; University of Illinois, IL USA.
    Roelofs, Karin
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands; Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Veltman, Dick J.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    van Tol, Marie-Jose
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Stein, Dan J.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa; UCT MRC Unit Anxiety and Stress Disorders, South Africa.
    van der Wee, Nic J. A.
    Leiden University, Netherlands; Leiden Institute Brain and Cognit, Netherlands.
    Voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysis of brain structure in social anxiety disorder2017Inngår i: NeuroImage: Clinical, ISSN 0353-8842, E-ISSN 2213-1582, Vol. 16, s. 678-688Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent and disabling mental disorder, associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity. Previous research on structural brain alterations associated with SAD has yielded inconsistent results concerning the direction of the changes in graymatter (GM) in various brain regions, as well as on the relationship between brain structure and SAD-symptomatology. These heterogeneous findings are possibly due to limited sample sizes. Multisite imaging offers new opportunities to investigate SAD-related alterations in brain structure in larger samples. An international multi-center mega-analysis on the largest database of SAD structural T1-weighted 3T MRI scans to date was performed to compare GM volume of SAD-patients (n = 174) and healthy control (HC)-participants (n = 213) using voxel-based morphometry. A hypothesis-driven region of interest (ROI) approach was used, focusing on the basal ganglia, the amygdala-hippocampal complex, the prefrontal cortex, and the parietal cortex. SAD-patients had larger GM volume in the dorsal striatum when compared to HC-participants. This increase correlated positively with the severity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms. No SAD-related differences in GM volume were present in the other ROIs. Thereby, the results of this mega-analysis suggest a role for the dorsal striatum in SAD, but previously reported SAD-related changes in GM in the amygdala, hippocampus, precuneus, prefrontal cortex and parietal regions were not replicated. Our findings emphasize the importance of large sample imaging studies and the need for meta-analyses like those performed by the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium.

  • 121.
    Becker, Jan
    et al.
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Untere Zahlbacher Str. 8, 55131 Mainz, Germany.
    Zwerenz, Rüdiger
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Untere Zahlbacher Str. 8, 55131 Mainz, Germany.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frederick, Ronald J.
    Center for Courageous Living, 9300 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite #520, Beverly Hills, CA 90212, USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Beutel, Manfred E.
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Untere Zahlbacher Str. 8, 55131 Mainz, Germany.
    Using a transdiagnostic, psychodynamic online self-help intervention to maintain inpatient psychosomatic treatment effects: Study protocol of a feasibility study2016Inngår i: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 5, s. 30-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Online self-help interventions have proven to be effective in treating various specific mental disorders, mainly depression and anxiety. Knowledge regarding their acceptance, efficacy, and usefulness in addition to inpatient or outpatient psychotherapy is limited. Therefore, we plan to evaluate an affect-focused, transdiagnostic, psychodynamic online self-help intervention following inpatient psychotherapy for mixed diagnoses in a feasibility study to determine acceptance, satisfaction, and preliminary estimates of efficacy.

    Methods

    The intervention is based on the book “Living Like You Mean It” by Ronald J. Frederick (2009) and the Swedish adaption by Johansson and colleagues (2013). The book was translated into German and thoroughly revised using parts of the Swedish adaption and additional tasks from their intervention. In a pilot phase, corrections concerning comprehensibility of the content and exercises were made based on patient's feedback. In the second step, we developed a website presenting the German adaption in eight units. In the third step, at least N = 66 patients from the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy will be recruited for a feasibility study. Patients are randomized into two groups. The intervention group (IG) will receive ten weeks of access to the online self-help intervention together with weekly therapeutic feedback on their progress. The wait-list control group (WLC) will receive access to the intervention for ten weeks as well, but without therapeutic feedback and with a ten-week delay. We will conduct assessments at the beginning of the intervention of the IG (T0), the end of the intervention of the IG (T1), two months later (only IG, T2), and at the end of the intervention of the WLC (T3). The primary outcome is satisfaction with the treatment as measured by the ZUF-8 at T1 and T3 respectively. Secondary outcome measures include emotional competence, depression, anxiety, and quality of life.

    Conclusion

    We expect insight into the usefulness and acceptance of an online self-help intervention used to maintain inpatient treatment effects. Furthermore, we await both groups to benefit from the participation in the intervention. Pre- post and between subject differences will be used as estimate effect sizes to calculate the necessary sample size for a larger efficacy trial.

  • 122.
    Bendelin, N
    et al.
    CS / IBL LiU.
    Dahl, J
    CS / IBL LiU.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS).
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn.
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS).
    Upplevelser av internetbaserad depressionsbehandling med kognitiv beteendeterapi. En kvalitativ studie2006Inngår i: Svenska Läkaresällskapets Rikstämma,2006, Katrieneholm: Hygiena , 2006, s. 86-86Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 123.
    Bendelin, Nina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Internet-delivered aftercare following multimodal rehabilitation program for chronic pain: a qualitative feasibility study2018Inngår i: Journal of Pain Research, ISSN 1178-7090, E-ISSN 1178-7090, Vol. 11, s. 1715-1728Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Methods for delivering aftercare to help chronic pain patients to continue practice self-management skills after rehabilitation are needed. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) has the potential to partly fill this gap given its accessibility and emphasis on self-care. Methods for engaging and motivating patients to persist throughout the full length of treatment are needed. The aim of this study was to describe how chronic pain patients work in an ICBT program, through their descriptions of what is important when they initiate behavior change in aftercare and their descriptions of what is important for ongoing practice of self-management skills in aftercare. Patients and methods: Following a multimodal rehabilitation program, 29 chronic pain patients participated in a 20-week-long Internet-delivered aftercare program (ACP) based on acceptance-based cognitive behavioral therapy. Latent content analysis was made on 138 chapters of diary-like texts written by participants in aftercare. Results: Attitudes regarding pain and body changed during ACP, as did attitudes toward self and the future for some participants. How participants practiced self-management skills was influenced by how they expressed motivation behind treatment goals. Whether they practiced acceptance strategies influenced their continuous self-management practice. Defusion techniques seemed to be helpful in the process of goal setting. Mindfulness strategies seemed to be helpful when setbacks occurred. Conclusion: Self-motivating goals are described as important both to initiate and in the ongoing practice of self-management skills. Experiencing a helpful effect of acceptance strategies seems to encourage participants to handle obstacles in new ways and to persist throughout treatment. Research on whether tailored therapist guidance might be helpful in stating self-motivating goals and contribute to ongoing practice of self-management skills is needed.

  • 124.
    Bendelin, Nina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Internet treatment of chronic pain: Results and predictors of two RCT’s2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 125.
    Bendelin, Nina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gerdle, Björn
    The role of acceptance in increased functioning in chronic pain: When, how and why does change occur?2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 126.
    Bendelin, Nina
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Dahl, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umea University.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Experiences of guided Internet-based cognitive-behavioural treatment for depression: A qualitative study2011Inngår i: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 11, nr 107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ackground: Internet-based self-help treatment with minimal therapist contact has been shown to have an effect in treating various conditions. The objective of this study was to explore participants views of Internet administrated guided self-help treatment for depression. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 strategically selected participants and qualitative methods with components of both thematic analysis and grounded theory were used in the analyses. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Three distinct change processes relating to how participants worked with the treatment material emerged which were categorized as (a) Readers, (b) Strivers, and (c) Doers. These processes dealt with attitudes towards treatment, views on motivational aspects of the treatment, and perceptions of consequences of the treatment. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: We conclude that the findings correspond with existing theoretical models of face-to-face psychotherapy within qualitative process research. Persons who take responsibility for the treatment and also attribute success to themselves appear to benefit more. Motivation is a crucial aspect of guided self-help in the treatment of depression.

  • 127.
    Bendelin, Nina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Öberg, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Smärt- och rehabiliteringscentrum.
    Internet-delivered intervention for relapse prevention after pain management program2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 128.
    Bendig, Eileen
    et al.
    Univ Ulm, Germany.
    Bauereiss, Natalie
    Univ Ulm, Germany.
    Ebert, David Daniel
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nuremberg, Germany.
    Snoek, Frank
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands; Acad Med Ctr, Netherlands.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Baumeister, Harald
    Univ Ulm, Germany.
    Internet-Based Interventions in Chronic Somatic Disease2018Inngår i: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, ISSN 1866-0452, E-ISSN 1866-0452, Vol. 115, nr 38, s. 659-+Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Clinical guidelines recommend psychosocial care as an integral part of medical treatment, but access is often limited. Technology-based approaches provide an attractive opportunity to optimize health outcomes and quality of life in people with chronic somatic diseases e.g. by means of Internet-and mobile-based interventions (IMIs). The present article provides an overview on the basics of IMIs, applications and their evidence base for people living with chronic somatic diseases. Methods: We conducted a selective literature search in the PubMed and Cochrane databases. Reviews which included randomized controlled trials investigating psychological IMIs were discussed pertaining to their relevance for the population described. Results: IMIs lead to a change in unfavorable behavior connected to chronic somatic diseases. IMIs can foster protective factors like balanced physical activity or risk factors like smoking or alcohol consumption. However, studies reveal small effect sizes of d=0.25 for physical activity and an averaged effect size of d=0.20 for smoking and alcohol consumption. Additionally, IMIs can be used for the (co-) treatment of chronic somatic diseases, for instance to increase disease-specific self-efficacy in patients with diabetes (d=0.23). Studies included in meta-analyses are often highly heterogenous and are investigated in research contexts with limited health care services relevance. Conclusion: IMIs are potentially effective when aiming at lifestyle changes and supporting medical treatment in people with chronic somatic diseases. However, results are still heterogenous and the evidence base is limited regarding specific settings, compounding the discussion of possible ways of implementing IMIs into our health-care systems.

  • 129.
    Berg, Matilda
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
    Johansson, Sofie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Liljethorn, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Radvogin, Ella
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Topooco, Naira
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The role of knowledge in internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for adolescent depression: Results from a randomised controlled study2019Inngår i: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 15, s. 10-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives

    Clients' knowledge about their condition and treatment is considered crucial for general health improvement, and knowledge acquisition is an essential part in internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT). Yet, little is known about the role of knowledge and how it influences treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine if explicit knowledgeincreased following ICBT for adolescent depression, if knowledge gainwould be associated with symptom reduction, and if pre-existing knowledge predicted changes in depressive symptoms.

    Methods

    Seventy-one adolescents were randomised to a therapist-supported ICBT or a attention control condition. A measure of depression (BDI-II) and a knowledge test dealing with depression, comorbid anxiety, and its CBT-treatment were administered before and after treatment.

    Results

    Significant improvements in knowledge were observed following ICBT compared to the attention control (between-group Cohen's d = 1.25, 95% CI [0.67–1.79]). On average, participants in the treatment group answered 1.4 more questions correctly at post treatment compared to the control group. No relation between change in knowledge and change in depressive symptoms could be observed. Knowledge scores at baseline were high for both groups, with participants answering approximately 75% of the questions correct. A higher level of initial knowledge level predicted poorer treatment response (Parson's r = −0.38, p = .048).

    Conclusions

    The findings indicate that knowledge about basic concepts and principles about depression, anxiety, and CBT increases following ICBT. This increase in knowledge was not related to change in depressive symptoms, indicating that knowledge is a different construct. The results also suggest that clients who are more knowledgeable prior to treatment might benefit less from ICBT. In sum, the results highlight the need to further examine the role of knowledge in ICBT.

  • 130.
    Berger, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci and Learning, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Editorial Material: Internet-Based Treatments - Experiences from Sweden2013Inngår i: Verhaltenstherapie (Basel), ISSN 1016-6262, E-ISSN 1423-0402, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 211-214Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 131.
    Berger, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Bern.
    Caspar, Franz
    University of Bern.
    Richardson, Robert
    University of Bern.
    Kneubuehler, Bernhard
    University of Bern.
    Sutter, Daniel
    University of Bern.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Internet-based treatment of social phobia: A randomized controlled trial comparing unguided with two types of guided self-help2011Inngår i: BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY, ISSN 0005-7967, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 158-169Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based self-help for social phobia with minimal therapist support via email have shown efficacy in several controlled trials by independent research teams. The role and necessity of therapist guidance is, however, still largely unclear. The present study compared the benefits of a 10-week web-based unguided self-help treatment for social phobia with the same intervention complemented with minimal, although weekly, therapist support via email. Further, a third treatment arm was included, in which the level of support was flexibly stepped up, from no support to email or telephone contact, on demand of the participants. Eighty-one individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for social phobia were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. Primary outcome measures were self-report measures of symptoms of social phobia. Secondary outcome measures included symptoms of depression, interpersonal problems, and general symptomatology. Measures were taken at baseline, post-treatment, and at 6-month follow-up. Data from a telephone-administered diagnostic interview conducted at post-treatment were also included. Results showed significant symptom reductions in all three treatment groups with large effect sizes for primary social phobia measures (Cohens d=1.47) and for secondary outcome measures (d=1.16). No substantial and significant between-groups effects were found on any of the measures (Cohens d=00-.36). Moreover, no difference between the three conditions was found regarding diagnosis-free status, clinically significant change, dropout rates, or adherence measures such as lessons or exercises completed. These findings indicate that Internet-delivered treatment for social phobia is a promising treatment option, whether no support is provided or with two different types of therapist guidance.

  • 132.
    Berger, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Hämmerli, Katja
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Gubser, Nina
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Caspar, Franz
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Internet-based treatment of depression: a randomized controlled trial comparing guided with unguided self-help2011Inngår i: Cognitive behaviour therapy, ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 251-266Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered self-help for depression with therapist guidance has shown efficacy in several trials. Results from meta-analyses suggest that guidance is important and that self-help programs without support are less effective. However, there are no direct experimental comparisons between guided and unguided internet-based treatments for depression. The present study compared the benefits of a 10-week web-based unguided self-help treatment with the same intervention complemented with weekly therapist support via e-mail. A waiting-list control group was also included. Seventy-six individuals meeting the diagnostic criteria of major depression or dysthymia were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) was used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included general psychopathology, interpersonal problems, and quality of life. Sixty-nine participants (91%) completed the assessment at posttreatment and 59 (78%) at 6-month follow-up. Results showed significant symptom reductions in both treatment groups compared to the waiting-list control group. At posttreatment, between-group effect sizes on the BDI-II were d = .66 for unguided self-help versus waiting-list and d = 1.14 for guided self-help versus waiting-list controls. In the comparison of the two active treatments, small-to-moderate, but not statistically significant effects in favor of the guided condition were found on all measured dimensions. In both groups, treatment gains were maintained at 6-month follow-up. The findings provide evidence that internet-delivered treatments for depression can be effective whether support is added or not. However, all participants were interviewed in a structured diagnostic telephone interview before inclusion, which prohibits conclusions regarding unguided treatments that are without any human contact.

  • 133.
    Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kadowaki, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Carlbring, Per
    Tailored internet-administered treatment of anxiety disorders for primary care patients: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial2012Inngår i: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 16-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Internet-administered cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) has been found to be effective for a range of anxiety disorders. However, most studies have focused on one specific primary diagnosis and co-morbidity has not been considered. In primary care settings, patients with anxiety often suffer from more than one psychiatric condition, making it difficult to disseminate ICBT for specific conditions. The aim of this study will be to investigate if ICBT tailored according to symptom profile can be a feasible treatment for primary care patients with anxiety disorders. It is a randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the treatment against an active control group. METHODS: Participants with anxiety disorders and co-morbid conditions (N = 128), will be recruited from a primary care population. The Clinical Outcome in Routine Evaluation (CORE-OM) will serve as the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures include self-reported depression, anxiety, quality of life and loss of production and the use of health care. All assessments will be collected via the Internet and measure points will be baseline, post treatment and 12 months post treatment. DISCUSSION: This trial will add to the body of knowledge on the effectiveness of ICBT for anxiety disorders in primary care. The trial will also add knowledge on the long term effects of ICBT when delivered for regular clinic patients Trial registration: Clinical trials identifier NCT01390168.

  • 134.
    Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Linna, Emma
    Cereb, Sweden .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Role of the Working Alliance on Treatment Outcome in Tailored Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial2013Inngår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 15, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) is a form of guided self-help that has been found to be effective for addressing several problems. The target for this type of therapy is usually restricted to one specific disorder. Tailoring the treatment widens the scope of ICBT in that it can address comorbid conditions directly.

    Objectives: The working, or therapeutic, alliance has been found to predict outcome in studies of face-to-face therapy. The extent to which these findings apply to ICBT is largely unknown. We therefore decided to find out whether the working alliance could predict outcome in tailored ICBT for anxiety disorders.

    Methods: Data were obtained from the treatment group (n=27) in a randomized controlled trial aiming to test the effects of tailored ICBT for anxiety disorders. The forthcoming study was designed to test the hypothesis that the working alliance measured both pre-treatment and early in treatment (week 3) can predict treatment outcome as measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) in a heterogeneous group of patients with anxiety disorders (n=27).

    Results: Working alliance measured at week 3 into the treatment correlated significantly with the residual gain scores on the primary outcome measure (r=-.47, P=.019, n=25), while expected working alliance pre-treatment did not (r=-.17, P=.42, n=27).

    Conclusions: These results raise questions about the importance of working alliance in ICBT treatments, and suggest that the working alliance could be important in ICBT.

  • 135.
    Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hedman, Erik
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Etienne, Julie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bodin, Jessica
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kadowaki, Åsa
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Eriksson, Stina
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindkvist, Emelie
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of individually tailored Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders in a primary care population: A randomized controlled rial2014Inngår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 59, s. 1-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant proportion of the general population suffers from anxiety disorders, often with comorbid psychiatric conditions. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been found to be a potent treatment for patients with specific psychiatric conditions. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ICBT when tailoring the treatment to address comorbidities and preferences for primary-care patients with a principal anxiety disorder. One hundred participants were recruited through their primary-care contact and randomized to either treatment or an active control group. The treatment consisted of 7–10 weekly individually assigned modules guided by online therapists. At post-treatment, 46% of the treatment group had achieved clinically significant improvement on the primary outcome measure (CORE-OM) and between-group effect sizes at ranged from d = 0.20 to 0.86, with a mean effect of d = 0.59. At one-year follow-up, within-group effect sizes varied between d = 0.53 to 1.00. Cost analysis showed significant reduction of total costs for the ICBT group, the results were maintained at one-year follow-up and the incremental  costeffectiveness ratio favored ICBT compared to control group. Individually tailored ICBT is an effective and cost-effective treatment for primary-care patients with anxiety disorders with or without comorbidities.

  • 136.
    Bergstrom, Jan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University.
    Andreewitch, Sergej
    Karolinska Institute.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institute.
    Carlbring , Per
    Karolinska Institute.
    An open study of the effectiveness of Internet treatment for panic disorder delivered in a psychiatric setting2009Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 63, nr 1, s. 44-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A) is common and can be treated effectively with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication or cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT). However, the lack of access to CBT services has motivated the development of self-help approaches requiring less therapist contact. A novel treatment modality in this field, showing efficacy in several randomized trials but until now not evaluated within the context of regular psychiatric care, is Internet-based treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Internet-based CBT for patients in a psychiatric setting. Twenty consecutively referred patients with PD were included in the study. A structured clinical interview with a psychiatrist was conducted for inclusion, as well as at post-treatment and at the 6-month follow-up. The treatment consisted of a 10-week CBT-based self-help programme, including minimal therapist support by e-mail. At post-treatment, 94% of patients no longer met DSM-IV criteria for PD (82% at 6-month follow-up). The within-group effect sizes (for the main outcome PDSS; Panic Disorder Severity Scale) were Cohens d=2.5 (pre- to post-treatment) and 2.8 (pre-treatment to follow-up), respectively. The proportion of responders on the PDSS was 75% at post-treatment and 70% at 6-month follow-up. The results supports earlier efficacy data on Internet-based CBT for PD and indicates that it is effective also within a regular psychiatric setting. However, a larger randomized controlled trial should be conducted, directly comparing Internet-based CBT with traditionally administered CBT within such a setting.

  • 137.
    Bergstrom, Jan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institute.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institute.
    Andreewitch, Sergej
    Karolinska Institute.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umea University.
    Andersson, Erik
    Karolinska Institute.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institute.
    Internet-versus group-administered cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder in a psychiatric setting: a randomised trial2010Inngår i: BMC PSYCHIATRY, ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 10, nr 54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Internet administered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is a promising new way to deliver psychological treatment, but its effectiveness in regular care settings and in relation to more traditional CBT group treatment has not yet been determined. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Internet- and group administered CBT for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia) in a randomised trial within a regular psychiatric care setting. The second aim of the study was to establish the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Methods: Patients referred for treatment by their physician, or self-referred, were telephone-screened by a psychiatric nurse. Patients fulfilling screening criteria underwent an in-person structured clinical interview carried out by a psychiatrist. A total of 113 consecutive patients were then randomly assigned to 10 weeks of either guided Internet delivered CBT (n = 53) or group CBT (n = 60). After treatment, and at a 6-month follow-up, patients were again assessed by the psychiatrist, blind to treatment condition. Results: Immediately after randomization 9 patients dropped out, leaving 104 patients who started treatment. Patients in both treatment conditions showed significant improvement on the main outcome measure, the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) after treatment. For the Internet treatment the within-group effect size (pre-post) on the PDSS was Cohens d = 1.73, and for the group treatment it was d = 1.63. Between group effect sizes were low and treatment effects were maintained at 6-months follow-up. We found no statistically significant differences between the two treatment conditions using a mixed models approach to account for missing data. Group CBT utilised considerably more therapist time than did Internet CBT. Defining effect as proportion of PDSS responders, the cost-effectiveness analysis concerning therapist time showed that Internet treatment had superior cost-effectiveness ratios in relation to group treatment both at post-treatment and follow-up. Conclusions: This study provides support for the effectiveness of Internet CBT in a psychiatric setting for patients with panic disorder, and suggests that it is equally effective as the more widely used group administered CBT in reducing panic-and agoraphobic symptoms, as well as being more cost effective with respect to therapist time.

  • 138.
    Bergström, J
    et al.
    KI KI.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS).
    Karlsson, A
    KI KI.
    Andreewitch, S
    KI KI.
    Rück, C
    KI KI.
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS).
    Lindefors, N
    KI KI.
    The effectiveness of Internet-based treatment for panic disorder and its implementation in regular care2006Inngår i: Second international meeting of the International Society for Research on Internet Interventions,2006, Charlottesville: ISRII , 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 139.
    Bergström, J
    et al.
    KI KI.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS).
    Rück, C
    KI KI.
    Andreewitch, S
    KI KI.
    Ljotsson, B
    KI KI.
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS).
    Lindefors, N
    KI KI.
    Internet-based CBT for panic disorder and depression: Effectiveness and implementation in regular care2007Inngår i: The third meeting of the International Society for Research on Internet Interventions,2007, Charlottesville: ISRII , 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 140. Bergström, Jan
    et al.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS).
    Lindefors, Nils
    Vetenskapligt stöd för vägledd KBT-baserad självhjälp vid depression. Via Internet kan fler få behandling2009Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 106, s. 282-286Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 141.
    Beukes, E. W.
    et al.
    Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya K. C.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX, USA; Audiology India, Mysore, India; Department of Speech and Hearing, School of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal University, Karnataka, India.
    Valien, T. E.
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX, USA.
    Baguley, D. M.
    Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK; National Institute for Health Research, Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Ropewalk House, The Ropewalk, Nottingham, UK; Otology and Hearing Group, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    Allen, P. M.
    Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK; Vision and Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Positive experiences related to living with tinnitus: A cross-sectional survey2018Inngår i: Clinical Otolaryngology, ISSN 1749-4478, E-ISSN 1365-2273, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 489-495Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The aim of this study was to gain insights related to positive experiences reported by adults with tinnitus living in the United Kingdom.

    Design

    A cross‐sectional survey design was used in a sample of adults with tinnitus who were interested in undertaking an Internet‐based intervention for tinnitus.

    Setting

    The study was UK wide and data collection was online.

    Participants

    Participants consisted of 240 adults (137 males, 103 females), with an average age of 48.16 years and average tinnitus duration of 11.52 years (SD: 11.88).

    Main outcome measures

    Tinnitus severity was measured by means of the Tinnitus Functional Index. To evaluate the secondary effects of tinnitus, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults‐Screening Version and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaires were administered. Positive experiences related to tinnitus were explored using an open‐ended question format.

    Results

    Around a third of participants (32.5%) reported positive experiences associated with tinnitus. The number of positive responses ranged from one to eight responses per participant, although there were fewer participants with more than one positive response. The predominant themes concerned for (i) coping; (ii) personal development; (iii) support, and to a lesser extent (iv) outlook. Younger participants, those with a lower hearing disability and those with fewer cognitive failures were more likely to report positive experiences associated with having tinnitus.

    Conclusions

    This study has identified that personal development and a positive outlook are possible despite experiencing tinnitus. Ways to facilitate positive experiences related to tinnitus should be promoted, as these may reduce the negative consequences associated with tinnitus. The most prevalent positive theme was the ability to cope with tinnitus. Positive experiences were also drawn from having clinical and other support networks. This highlights the importance of providing tinnitus interventions that can assist people in coping with tinnitus, particularly to those less likely to relate tinnitus to any positive experiences. Those most likely to be helped include those who are older with greater cognitive difficulties and a greater hearing disability.

  • 142.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Baguley, David M.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; Nottingham Biomed Res Ctr, England; Univ Nottingham, England; Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India; Manipal Univ, India.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Long-Term Efficacy of Audiologist-Guided Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Tinnitus2018Inngår i: American Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1059-0889, E-ISSN 1558-9137, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 431-447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term outcomes 1 year after undertaking an audiologist-guided Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) intervention for tinnitus. Secondary aims were to identify any predictors of outcome and whether there were any unwanted events related to undertaking iCBT for tinnitus. Method: Participants who had previously undertaken a randomized iCBT efficacy trial for tinnitus were invited to participate. Of the 146 who were initially randomized for the efficacy trial, 104 participants completed the 1-year post-intervention assessment measures. The primary outcome was a change in tinnitus distress as assessed by the Tinnitus Functional Index. Secondary assessment measures were included for insomnia, anxiety, depression, hearing handicap, hyperacusis, cognitive failures, and satisfaction with life. An intention-to-treat analysis using repeated-measures analysis of variance and hierarchical multiple regression was used for statistical analysis. Unwanted effects were categorized according to the unwanted events checklist. Results: Undertaking iCBT for tinnitus led to significant improvements 1 year post-intervention for tinnitus and related difficulties, for example, insomnia, anxiety, depression, hearing handicap, hyperacusis, and life satisfaction. The best predictors of improving tinnitus severity at 1-year post-intervention were greater baseline tinnitus severity scores, reading more of the modules, and higher satisfaction with the intervention. Unwanted events were reported by 11% of the participants and were more likely to be reported by women than men. These events were related to worsening of symptoms, the emergence of new symptoms, negative well-being, and prolongation of treatment. Conclusions: The clinical benefits of audiologist-guided iCBT for tinnitus and tinnitus-related difficulties were sustained 1 year post-intervention. Predictors of outcome indicated that the intervention is applicable to a wide range of participants regardless of their demographic backgrounds. Attempts should be made to minimize unwanted events in subsequent trials.

  • 143.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England; Anglia Ruskin University, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Lamar University, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India.
    Baguley, David M.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England; University of Nottingham, England.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Internet-Based Intervention for Tinnitus: Outcome of a Single-Group Open Trial2017Inngår i: Journal of american academy of audiology, ISSN 1050-0545, E-ISSN 2157-3107, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 340-351Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Managing chronic tinnitus is challenging, and innovative ways to address the resulting health-care burden are required. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) for tinnitus shows promise as a cost-effective treatment option. The feasibility and effectiveness of iCBT in the United Kingdom are yet to be explored. Furthermore, it is not known if iCBT can be supported by an audiologist rather than a psychologist. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the feasibility of guided iCBT using audiological support on tinnitus distress and tinnitus-related comorbidities. Furthermore, it aimed to establish the feasibility of iCBT for tinnitus distress in the United Kingdom, by determining recruitment, attrition, and compliance rates. Finally, it aimed to identify which aspects of the protocol require refinement for subsequent clinical trials. Research Design: A single-group open trial design was implemented. This study would serve as a prerequisite study, to identify barriers, before undertaking effectiveness trials. Study Sample: Participants consisted of 37 adults (18 males, 19 females), with an age range of between 50 and 59 yr. The mean preintervention tinnitus severity rating was 56.15 (standard deviation = 18.35), which is categorized as "severe tinnitus" as measured by the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Five participants withdrew during the study, and 29 of the remaining participants completed the postintervention questionnaire. Intervention: The guided iCBT intervention ran over an eight-week period and consisted of 16 obligatory modules and five optional modules. The intervention was designed to be interactive, interesting, and stimulating. A key element was the provision of support from an audiologist throughout the program. Data Collection and Analysis: Online questionnaires were used throughout the study. These were administered at baseline and postintervention to determine attrition and compliance rates and to facilitate sample size estimates for further clinical trials. Outcome measures for tinnitus severity, hearing handicap, insomnia, cognitive functioning, hyperacusis, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction were used to investigate the effects of iCBT with audiological support. In addition, a weekly questionnaire was incorporated to monitor change in tinnitus distress while undertaking the intervention. Results: Feasibility was established using an audiologist to support this guided iCBT intervention, as a significant change postintervention was found for tinnitus severity, as measured by the TFI and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Screening version. The attrition rate was 22% and compliance was variable. Although these results were based on a small sample, they provide encouraging evidence for the feasibility of delivering iCBT treatment for tinnitus symptoms with audiology support in the United Kingdom. Conclusions: An Internet-based intervention of tinnitus appears to be feasible in the United Kingdom when using audiological support. Randomized controlled trials to further investigate the effectiveness of iCBT for tinnitus in the United Kingdom are required.

  • 144.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India; Manipal Univ, India.
    Baguley, David M.
    Nottingham Biomed Res Ctr, England; Univ Nottingham, England; Nottingham Univ Hosp, England.
    Effectiveness of Guided Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs Face-to-Face Clinical Care for Treatment of Tinnitus A Randomized Clinical Trial2018Inngår i: JAMA Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, ISSN 2168-6181, E-ISSN 2168-619X, Vol. 144, nr 12, s. 1126-1133Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE Accessible clinical care is not always available to individuals with distressing tinnitus. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy has the potential to increase access to evidence-based services that manage tinnitus. Research comparing the effectiveness of this internet-based intervention with face-to-face care is required. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether an internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention is at least as effective as established individualized face-to-face clinical care in reducing tinnitus distress and tinnitus-related difficulties. DESIGN, SETTING. AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized, multicenter, 2-arm parallel group, non-inferiority trial with 2-month follow-up was performed between October 4, 2016, and July 14, 2017. Invited to participate were 374 adults based in the United Kingdom who had been referred to their local tinnitus clinics because of bothersome tinnitus. The experimental group received the internet-based intervention online, and the active control group underwent the usual face-to-face tinnitus care at 1 of 3 UK-based National Health Service hospitals. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to either intervention using variable permuted block sizes of 4 and 6. Of 92 participants who were randomized (46 each in the experimental and control groups), 88 participants completed the assessment immediately after intervention and 74 participants completed the follow-up assessment. INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomized to receive either 8 weeks of guided internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy or a mean of 2 to 3 individualized face-to-face appointments in a tinnitus clinic. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was a change in tinnitus distress (assessed by the Tinnitus Functional Index). Secondary assessment measures were included for insomnia, anxiety, depression, hearing disability, hyperacusis, cognitive failures, and satisfaction with life. RESULTS Of 92 patients overall, 55 (60%) were men with a mean (SD) age of 52.96 (12.07) years and mean (SD) tinnitus duration of 6.54 (9.25) years. The between-group difference in the Tinnitus Functional Index scores after intervention were 5.18 (95% CI, -4.17 to 14.53) at the initial assessment and 5.52 (95% CI, -4.60 to 15.61) at follow-up; both differences were within the non-inferiority margin of 13 points for the lower 95% CI. For the secondary outcomes, only outcomes for insomnia fell outside the non-inferiority margin, both after intervention and at follow-up, favoring internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This is the first trial, to our knowledge, to compare an internet-based intervention with standard individualized face-to-face care for tinnitus. It revealed that both interventions are equally effective for reducing tinnitus distress and most tinnitus-related difficulties.

  • 145.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Baguley, David M.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; Nottingham Biomed Res Ctr, England; Univ Nottingham, England.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India; Manipal Univ, India.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Audiologist-Guided Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Adults With Tinnitus in the United Kingdom: A Randomized Controlled Trial2018Inngår i: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 423-433Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Specialist tinnitus services are in high demand as a result of the negative effect tinnitus may have on quality of life. Additional clinically and cost-effective tinnitus management routes are needed. One potential route is providing Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for tinnitus via the Internet (iCBT). This study aimed to determine the efficacy of guided iCBT, using audiological support, on tinnitus distress and tinnitus-related comorbidities, in the United Kingdom. A further aim was to establish the stability of intervention effects 2-months postintervention. The hypothesis was that iCBT for tinnitus would be more effective at reducing tinnitus distress than weekly monitoring. Design: A randomized, delayed intervention efficacy trial, with a 2-month follow-up was implemented to evaluate the efficacy of iCBT in the United Kingdom. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 73) or weekly monitoring control group (n = 73) after being stratified for tinnitus severity and age. After the experimental group completed the 8-week long iCBT intervention, the control group undertook the same intervention. Intervention effects were, therefore, evaluated in two independent groups at two time points. The primary outcome was a change in tinnitus distress between the groups as assessed by the Tinnitus Functional Index. Secondary assessment measures were included for insomnia, anxiety, depression, hearing disability, hyperacusis, cognitive failures, and satisfaction with life. These were completed at baseline, postintervention, and at a 2-month postintervention follow-up. Results: After undertaking the iCBT intervention, the experimental group had a greater reduction in tinnitus distress when compared with the control group. This reduction was statistically significant (Cohens d = 0.7) and was clinically significant for 51% of the experimental group and 5% of the control group. This reduction was evident 4 weeks after commencing the iCBT intervention. Furthermore, the experimental group had a greater reduction in insomnia, depression, hyperacusis, cognitive failures, and a greater improvement in quality of life, as evidenced by the significant differences in these assessment measures postintervention. Results were maintained 2 months postintervention. Conclusions: Guided (using audiological support) iCBT for tinnitus resulted in statistically significant reductions in tinnitus distress and comorbidities (insomnia, depression, hyperacusis, cognitive failures) and a significant increase in quality of life. These effects remained stable at 2-months postintervention. Further trials to determine the longer term efficacy of ICBT to investigate predictors of outcome and to compare iCBT with standard clinical care in the United Kingdom are required.

  • 146.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England.
    Baguley, David M.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England; Nottingham Biomed Research Centre, England; University of Nottingham, England.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England; Anglia Ruskin University, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Lamar University, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India; Manipal University, India.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Guided Internet-based versus face-to-face clinical care in the management of tinnitus: study protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial2017Inngår i: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 18, artikkel-id 186Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Innovative strategies are required to improve access to evidence-based tinnitus interventions. A guided Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) intervention for tinnitus was therefore developed for a U.K. population. Initial clinical trials indicated efficacy of iCBT at reducing tinnitus severity and associated comorbidities such as insomnia and depression. The aim of this phase III randomised controlled trial is to compare this new iCBT intervention with an established intervention, namely face-to-face clinical care for tinnitus. Methods/design: This will be a multi-centre study undertaken across three hospitals in the East of England. The design is a randomised, two-arm, parallel-group, non-inferiority trial with a 2-month follow-up. The experimental group will receive the guided iCBT intervention, whereas the active control group will receive the usual face-to-face clinical care. An independent researcher will randomly assign participants, using a computer-generated randomisation schedule, after stratification for tinnitus severity. There will be 46 participants in each group. The primary assessment measure will be the Tinnitus Functional Index. Data analysis will establish whether non-inferiority is achieved using a pre-defined non-inferiority margin. Discussion: This protocol outlines phase III of a clinical trial comparing a new iCBT with established face-to-face care for tinnitus. If guided iCBT for tinnitus proves to be as effective as the usual tinnitus care, it may be a viable additional management route for individuals with tinnitus. This could increase access to evidence-based effective tinnitus care and reduce the pressures on existing health care systems.

  • 147.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Lamar University, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England; Anglia Ruskin University, England.
    Baguley, David M.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England; Cambridge University Hospital NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for adults with tinnitus in the UK: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial2015Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, nr 9, s. e008241-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Tinnitus is one of the most distressing hearing-related symptoms. Innovative ways of managing tinnitus distress and the related healthcare burden of treating tinnitus are required. An internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) intervention has been developed in Sweden to improve access to evidence-based tinnitus treatments. This study aims to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of iCBT in reducing the impact associated with tinnitus, in the UK. It, furthermore, aims to establish whether there are subgroups of tinnitus sufferers for whom this iCBT intervention may be more suitable. Methods and analysis: A two-armed randomised control trial-with a 1-year follow-up design-will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of iCBT on tinnitus distress. A delayed treatment design using a weekly check-in control group will be used. 70 participants will be randomly assigned to each group by an independent researcher by using a computer-generated randomisation schedule, and after being prestratified for age and tinnitus severity. They will undergo the iCBT e-health intervention online together with audiological therapeutic support. The main outcome measure is the Tinnitus Functional Index. Process evaluation of the intervention will also be conducted. Data analysis will be in accordance with Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines. Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval has been granted. If this intervention proves effective, it may be possible that at least some tinnitus sufferers can be managed though an iCBT e-learning treatment programme. This would be cost effective and potentially will free up services for those with more severe problems that need face-to-face treatment.

  • 148.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Manipal Univ, India; Audiol India, India.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Baguley, David M.
    Nottingham Biomed Res Ctr, England; Univ Nottingham, England; Nottingham Univ Hosp, England.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Internet-Based Interventions for Adults With Hearing Loss, Tinnitus, and Vestibular Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis2019Inngår i: TRENDS IN HEARING, ISSN 2331-2165, Vol. 23, artikkel-id 2331216519851749Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based interventions have been developed to improve access to audiovestibular health care. This review aimed to identify outcomes of Internet interventions for adults with hearing loss, tinnitus, and vestibular disorders. Electronic databases and manual searches were performed to identify studies meeting eligibility for inclusion. Fifteen studies (1,811 participants) met the inclusion criteria, with nine studies targeting tinnitus distress, five considering hearing loss, and one for vestibular difficulties. Only the tinnitus and hearing loss Internet intervention studies were eligible for data synthesis. Internet-based interventions for hearing loss were diverse. Overall, they showed no significant effects, although a statistically significant moderate effect (d = 0.59) was found after removing the study with the highest risk of bias (as a result of high attrition). Most Internet-based interventions for tinnitus provided cognitive behavioural therapy. They yielded statistically significant mean effect sizes for reducing tinnitus distress compared with both inactive (d = 0.59) and active controls (d = 0.32). Significant effects were also present for the secondary outcomes of anxiety, depression, insomnia, and quality of life (combined effect d = 0.28). Only Internet-based interventions for tinnitus evaluated the 1-year postintervention effects indicated that results were maintained long term (d = 0.45). Scientific study quality was appraised using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach and found to vary from very low to moderate. This review indicates the potential of Internet interventions for tinnitus to provide evidence-based accessible care. There is a need for additional high-quality evidence before conclusive results can be established regarding the effects of audiovestibular Internet interventions.

  • 149.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India; Manipal Univ, India.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Terlizzi, Paige M.
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Baguley, David M.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; Nottingham Biomed Res Ctr, England; Univ Nottingham, England.
    Situationally influenced tinnitus coping strategies: a mixed methods approach2018Inngår i: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 40, nr 24, s. 2884-2894Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to identify coping strategies used to manage problematic tinnitus situations. A secondary aim was to determine whether different approaches were related to the level of tinnitus distress, anxiety, depression, and insomnia experienced. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey design was implemented. The study sample was adults interested in undertaking an Internet-based intervention for tinnitus. Self-reported measures assessed the level of tinnitus distress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia. An open-ended question was used to obtain information about how problematic tinnitus situations were dealt with. Responses were investigated using qualitative content analysis to identify problematic situations. Further data analysis comprised of both qualitative and quantitative methods. Results: There were 240 participants (137 males, 103 females), with an average age of 48.16 years (SD: 22.70). Qualitative content analysis identified eight problematic tinnitus situations. Participants had either habituated to their tinnitus (7.9%), used active (63.3%), or passive (28.8%) coping styles to manage these situations. Those who had habituated to tinnitus or used active coping strategies had lower levels of tinnitus distress, anxiety, and depression. Conclusions: The main problematic tinnitus situations for this cohort were identified. Both active and passive coping styles were applied to approach these situations. The coping strategies used most frequently and utilised in the widest range of problematic situations were using sound enrichment and diverting attention.

  • 150.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India; Manipal Univ, India.
    Baguley, David M.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; NIHR, England; Univ Nottingham, England.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Process evaluation of Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for adults with tinnitus in the context of a randomised control trial2018Inngår i: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 57, nr 2, s. 98-109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The research objective was to identify processes that could either facilitate or hinder clinical implementation of an Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy intervention for tinnitus in the UK. This was done by exploring the research context, the intervention components and the factors that contributed to the outcomes obtained. Design: This study investigated eight processes including the recruitment strategies, reach, research context, treatment dose delivered and received, implementation fidelity, barriers to implementation and effectiveness of the intervention. Study sample: Of the 169 registered participants, 146 were randomly assigned to the experimental or control groups (23 were excluded). The mean age was 55.57 years with an average tinnitus duration of 11.63 years. Results: The intended sample of people with distressing tinnitus who were underserved with evidence-based tinnitus interventions was reached. The full guided intervention was delivered. The recommended modules were read more than the optional modules. Intervention components such as the easily readable format and the benefits of the applied relaxation programme facilitated significant positive post-intervention outcomes. Barriers hampering the intervention application included time pressures and low self-motivation. Conclusions: Results of this process evaluation together with the outcome data can be used to facilitate translating this research into clinical practice.

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