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  • 101.
    Humborg, Christoph
    et al.
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University.
    Smedberg, Erik
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University.
    Brink, Jenni
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University.
    Rahm, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Danielsson, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sahlberg, Jörgen
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute,.
    Nutrient variations in boreal and subarctic Swedish rivers: Landscape control of land–sea fluxes2004Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 49, nr 5, s. 1871-1883Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the hypothesis that the extent of vegetation cover governs the fluxes of nutrients from boreal and subarctic river catchments to the sea. Fluxes of total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and dissolved silicate (DIN, DIP, and DSi, respectively) are described from 19 river catchments and subcatchments (ranging in size from 34 to 40,000 km2) in northern Sweden with a detailed analysis of the rivers Lulea¨lven and Kalixa¨lven. Fluxes of TOC, DIP, and DSi increase by an order of magnitude with increasing proportion of forest and wetland area, whereas DIN did not follow this pattern but remained constantly low. Principal component analysis on landscape variables showed the importance of almost all land cover and soil type variables associated with vegetation, periglacial environment, soil and bedrock with slow weathering rates, boundary of upper tree line, and percentage of lake area. A cluster analysis of the principal components showed that the river systems could be separated into mountainous headwaters and forest and wetland catchments. This clustering was also valid in relation to river chemistry (TOC, DIP, and DSi) and was confirmed with a redundancy analysis, including river chemistry and principal components as environmental variables. The first axis explains 89% of the variance in river chemistry and almost 100% of the variance in the relation between river chemistry and landscape variables. These results suggest that vegetation change during interglacial periods is likely to have had a major effect on inputs of TOC, DIP, and DSi into the past ocean.

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  • 102.
    Humborg, Christoph
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Rahm, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Conley, Daniel J
    Lund University.
    Tamminen, Timo
    Finnish Environmental Institute.
    von Bodungen, Bodo
    Baltic Sea Research Institute.
    Silicon and the Baltic Sea Long-term Si decrease in the Baltic Sea - A conceivable ecological risk?2008Ingår i: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 73, nr 3-4, s. 221-222Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the pioneering work of Schelske and Stoermer (1971) and Schelske et al., 1983 C.L. Schelske, E.F. Stoermer, D.J. Conley, J.A. Robbins and R.M. Glover, Early eutrophication in the Lower Great-Lakes — new evidence from biogenic silica in sediments, Science 222 (1983), pp. 320–322. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (56)Schelske et al. (1983) it has been known that eutrophication of aquatic systems leads to depletion in dissolved silicate (DSi). Early studies on the Nile River have shown that the construction of dams leads to DSi decrease downstream due to the formation of additional deposition sites of biogenic silica (BSi) that was thought to consist mainly of diatoms. In the Baltic Sea there was a perception in the scientific community that DSi concentrations were high and therefore, that DSi concentrations were not limiting for diatom growth. Long-term trend analyses on DSi concentrations in the Baltic have shown decreasing trends in the 1970s and 1980s, whereas similar analysis for the 1990s concluded that DSi concentrations were no longer decreasing, but rather levelling off. Consequently, observations of reduced abundance of diatoms in the early 1990s were attributed to mild winters rather than low DSi concentrations, i.e., a low turbulence regime in the water column favouring non-siliceous algae. However, decadal nutrient trends in the Baltic Sea are significantly influenced by the large and varying internal Si pools in the sediments and deep water masses similar to that described for P dynamics in the Baltic Sea. No one seriously addressed the longer trends in DSi concentrations over the last century, whereas many studies estimated these changes for N and P.

    The EU funded research project SIBER (Silicate and Baltic Sea Ecosystem Response; EVK3-CT-2002-00069) began in 2002 with the objectives of understanding the major changes in Si dynamics in the Baltic Sea during the last century. The SIBER project addressed various aspects of the biogeochemical Si cycle in the Baltic Sea including constraining Si budgets for the Baltic Sea and its catchment, experiments describing the growth characteristics of Baltic diatoms related to the long-term trends in monitoring data of Baltic Sea diatoms.

    Si budgets are addressed by several papers in this special issue. Humborg et al. and Sferratore et al. describe riverine Si fluxes. Pastuszak et al. address estuarine Si fluxes. Redfield ratios including DSi and their development in the Baltic Sea are described by Danielsson et al.

    Possible ecosystem effects of changes in Redfield nutrient ratios are analysed in the paper by Olli et al. who examine phytoplankton responses in the Gulf of Riga and by Wasmund et al. who investigate long-term trends in phytoplankton species in the Kiel Bight. Spilling and Markager describe growth characteristics of Baltic Sea diatoms. Finally, in their paper Conley et al. present a long-term Si budget for the entire Baltic Sea for the first time.

    The Baltic Sea biogeochemical Si cycle has been fundamentally changed within the last century not only as a consequence of river regulation and lake eutrophication, but also through increases in the sediment accumulation of BSi (Conley et al.). Sediment accumulation of BSi has increased by a factor on 1.9 due to increased diatom growth from marine eutrophication. Results from the SIBER project indicate that DSi concentration were ca. 36 µM a century ago in the Baltic proper compared to ca. 13 µM observed today (Conley et al.). In fact, DSi concentrations have changed much more dramatically compared to N and P regarding the total changes in the available nutrient stocks. Similar changes have occurred in other large water bodies with respect to size and volume, i.e. the North American Great Lakes with long residence times where DSi decreased from 80–100 µM to ca. 25 µM. Surprisingly, such a major change in nutrient inventories has not been reported earlier in this well investigated coastal system. We are only starting to understand the possible ecological consequences, such as the occurrence of different diatom species that are less silicified and its implication for the sedimentation fluxes and carbon flux to benthic communities. The SIBER project has shown that a dramatic change in DSi concentrations is possible within a very short time period, although the situation appears stable today, perhaps since the drivers for this change, i.e. eutrophication and river regulation, have not changed within the last 30 years. However, even a slight increase in N and P loads and/or further damming of rivers may drive the Baltic Sea into Si-limitation.

  • 103.
    Hussein Hassan, Iddi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Reliability of Payment for water Resources as an Environmental Service towards the sustainable management of watershed forests in Zanzibar, Tanzania: A Case study of Kiwengwa - Pongwe Forest Reserve2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, there is a great rampage among conservationists looking for useful approaches that can be used to bring efficiency towards conservation of global natural ecosystems. But which approach can be really effective to halt destruction of a particular natural ecosystem where the local people depend on the same ecosystem resources for their livelihoods? Do the local communities accept to refrain themselves from using natural ecosystem resources (loss of free access), which they believe is under their local territory since they are born, without having alternatives that will replace and improve economic gain of their livelihoods? Are the consumers who benefited from the ecosystem services always willing to compensate local communities around natural ecosystem as a means of replacing what they lose?

    This study looks at the reliability of Payment for Water Environmental Services (PWES) approach at Kiwengwa-Pongwe Forest Reserve (KPFR) as a device aimed at promoting the sustainable management of KPFR watershed resources without undermining livelihoods of the Kiwengwa-Pongwe local communities. Hoteliers along the Kiwengwa-Pongwe Tourist Area (KPTA) are the potential customers benefiting from water resources found in the KPFR, which is claimed to be deteriorated by the intensity of the livelihood activities of Kiwengwa-Pongwe (KP) local communities. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), KPTA hoteliers were asked about the amount they would be willing to pay as maximum (WTP) for improvement of water services through sustainable management of watershed areas in KPFR. On the other hand, KP communities were asked what level of compensation they would be willing to accept as minimum amount (WTA) for a loss of free access to KPFR.

    Both hoteliers (75 %) and KP communities (91 %) agreed on the establishment of the PWES system. However, there were differences between amount accepted by KP communities (10 US$ per 200 litres) and the amount claimed to be paid by hoteliers (1US$ per 200 litres), thus giving a gap of 9US$. Based on the overall study findings and experiences from other parts of the world where similar systems have been implemented, this issue is negotiable. It is upon existing KPFR management team and proposed board from Zanzibar water authority to launch a constructive dialogue between stakeholders to reach the amount that can be used as compensation causing no harm to both parts and without compromising the sustainable management of KPFR.

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  • 104.
    Jantunen, Liisa
    et al.
    Environment Canada, Canada.
    Wong, Fiona
    Stockholm University.
    Gawor, Anya
    Environment Canada.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Helm, Paul
    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Canada.
    Stern, Gary
    University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Strachan, William
    Environment Canada, Canada.
    Burniston, Deborah
    Environment Canada, Canada.
    Bidleman, Terry
    Umeå University.
    20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean2015Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 23, s. 13844-13852Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air−water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water−air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air−surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals.

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  • 105.
    Jonah, Albert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Ecological Sanitation (Ecosan) and the Kimberley Experience2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The Hull Street Integrated Housing Project, in Kimberley, is one of the projects supported by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Sida, in South Africa. The vision of the

    project is to provide low cost housing for the people of Kimberley. As a way of ensuring sustainability, the project adopts the Ecological sanitation (Ecosan) approach where urine and

    faeces are separated from the source.

    The concept of Ecosan is new to many people around the world. To make the concept workable and acceptable effective implementation strategies are required.

    At the Hull Street, after the first of the four phases 144 unit houses have been completed all fitted

    with the UDS. Urine from the UDS as well as the greywater from the kitchen and bathroom are connected to infiltrate into the ground. This arrangement is called the “quick-fix”. The faeces from

    the houses are sent to the compost yard for composting so that the residents could use the compost in their gardens.

    This study which involves interview with some selected workers and residents in Hull Street

    focuses on the modus operandi of the Ecosan unit of the Hull Street project with special emphasis on the methods of human excreta disposal and education strategies.

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  • 106.
    Jäger, Jill
    Initiative on Science and Technology for Sustainability, Vienna, Austria.
    The next step for science for sustainability2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    At a meeting in Friibergh Manor, Sweden, in October 2000 a small, international group ofscientists discussed the challenges of Sustainability Science; outlining a set of core questions,discussing the research agenda and the institutional requirements (Kates et al., 2001). Afterthe meeting, a core group set up the Initiative on Science and Technology for Sustainability(ISTS) with the aims of:

    • expanding and deepening the research and development agenda of science andtechnology for sustainability;
    • strengthening the infrastructure and capacity for conducting and applying scienceand technology for sustainability; and
    • connecting science and policy more effectively in pursuit of a transition towardsustainability.
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    The next step for science for sustainability
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    PowerPoint presentation
  • 107.
    Jägerskog, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Why states cooperate over shared water: The water negotiations in the Jordan River Basin2003Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this thesis is on foreign-policy decision-making in circumstances of water scarcity. In particular the study focuses on how the issue of water has been treated in the interstate negotiations within the Peace Process between Israel and the Palestinians and Israel and Jordan. It also analyses the implementation phase. The aim of this study is to analyse why and under what conditions co-operation has taken place and how it has functioned in the water sector. As such the study moves beyond the vast quantitative material which states that transboundary water co-operation does occur by exploring why co-operation has occurred in the Jordan River Basin.

    Based on an overall actor-structure framework the factors deemed to be important in affecting the process and outcome are identified. The development of a shared system of norms, rules and procedures for how to manage the water resource are seen as a vital explanatory variable for the water co-operation in the Jordan River Basin. It is concluded that the water negotiations, both between Israel and the Palestinians and between Israel and Jordan have been intimately linked to the other issues on the negotiation table. Further-more, it is concluded that water has been sub-ordinate to other politically more salient questions in the negotiations.

    The thesis contributes to the body of research on water in the Jordan River Basin in three ways. First, it provides and empirical overview of the implementation process of the water elements of the Peace Treaty between Israel and Jordan and of article 40 (which deals with water) of the Interim Agreement between Israel and the Palestinians. Second, the thesis has analysed the role that scientific experts play in the water negotiations. Expert advice has been used in the negotiations and can be said to be important in that it reduces uncertainty for decision-makers as well as provide tools with which to legitimise political decisions. Third, the thesis contributes to the understanding of why the parties in the Jordan River Basin have chosen co-operative strategies rather than resorting to conflictual behaviour to handle their shared waters. Of key importance in this respect is that shared water is an interdependent resource. Thus mutual dependence on a shared resource stimulates and reinforces the need for cooperation.

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  • 108.
    Jönsson, Anette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Model Studies of Surface Waves and Sediment Resuspension in the Baltic Sea2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wave heights and periods of surface waves in the Baltic Sea have been modelled for a two-year period (1999-2000) with the wave model Hypas on an 11x11-km grid scale. There is a clear seasonal variation with higher waves during winter and lower during summer. This is mainly a reflection of the wind climate in the area where the winters are windier than the summers. The largest waves are found in the Skagerrak and over the deeper, eastern areas in the Baltic Proper.

    In the Baltic Sea, the surface waves influence the bottom sediment by initiating resuspension down to 80 m depths. This process is dependent not only on the waves but also on the varying grain size diameters. Fine and medium sand resuspend more often than other sediment types, and these sediments cover together about 25% of the Baltic Proper area. On average sediment is here resuspended 4-5 times per month with a duration for each event of 22 hours. The highest resuspension frequencies are found on the eastern and southern side of the Baltic Proper.

    During resuspension sediment grains are lifted up into the water mass and matters earlier bound in the sediment can be released. This may stimulate both production and degradation of organic matter.

    Delarbeten
    1. Variations in the Baltic Sea wave fields
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Variations in the Baltic Sea wave fields
    2003 (Engelska)Ingår i: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 107-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The surface waves in the Baltic Sea are hindcast with the spectral wave model HYPAS during a 12-month period. The model results show a strong temporal and spatial variation in the wave field due to the physical dimensions of the different basins and the predominant wind field. The highest waves in the area are found in the outer part of Skagerrak, as well as in the central and southern parts of the Baltic Proper. To get significant waves above 6 m high, strong winds (15–20 m/s) must have been blowing for 6 to 24 h from a favourable direction over a deep area.

    Nyckelord
    Wave modelling, HYPAS, Significant wave height, Baltic Sea, Kattegat, Skagerrak
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13765 (URN)10.1016/S0029-8018(01)00103-2 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2004-02-16 Skapad: 2004-02-16
    2. Bottom type distribution based on wave friction velocity in the Baltic Sea
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Bottom type distribution based on wave friction velocity in the Baltic Sea
    2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Continental Shelf Research, ISSN 0278-4343, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 419-435Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Surface waves play an important role for the sediment distribution in the shallow Baltic Sea. This paper presents the large-scale spatio-temporal distribution of wave-induced bottom friction velocity, u*, based on modelled wave data for the years 1999 and 2000. The highest values of u* are found along the eastern coasts of the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea—areas characterised by long fetches for the dominant winds. Temporally, the dynamics follow that of the wind climate with higher velocities during winter and lower during summer.

    A smooth bottom is assumed for the calculations. To test this assumption, u* is compared to other estimates of u* assuming rough bottoms. The spatio-temporal patterns are similar, although the present approach gives a slight underestimation of u* at areas with coarse grain sizes.

    To compare the results, the co-variation between the u* distribution and bottom type distribution from a digitised sediment map is analysed. It shows upon a good agreement. This is also found when comparing critical levels for resuspension found in the literature with the same from modelled u*. In addition, other processes important for bottom stress, such as mesoscale eddies and coastal jets, are discussed.

    Nyckelord
    Wave friction velocity; Sediment dynamics; Resuspension; Bottom types; Regional wave modelling; Baltic Sea
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13420 (URN)10.1016/j.csr.2004.09.011 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2005-11-09 Skapad: 2005-11-09
    3. Resuspension patterns in the Baltic proper
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Resuspension patterns in the Baltic proper
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Sea Research, ISSN 1385-1101, E-ISSN 1873-1414, Vol. 57, nr 4, s. 257-269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Waves induce resuspension of surface sediments and contribute to the long-term mobilisation of particulate matter from erosion to accumulation bottoms. This has a major impact on the nutrient cycle in shallow seas by enhancing degradation, microbial production and recycling. The Baltic Sea represents such an area. The aim of this work is to analyse the spatial and temporal resuspension patterns in the Baltic Sea. To estimate the bottom friction velocity, modelled wave data are used in combination with data on grain size. This new data set is compared to a resuspension threshold of friction velocity to estimate the events of resuspension.

    The variation in bottom friction velocity, resuspension frequency and duration are related to wind climate, fetch, water depth and sediment type. Substantial resuspension can be found down to 40–60 m, with durations from one day to as much as two weeks. The highest winds in the area are highly anisotropic with a dominance of S-SW-W winds and the highest resuspension frequencies are found along the shallow eastern coasts. A seasonal pattern is observed with relatively high friction velocities and high resuspension frequencies during winter. There is also a variation depending on grain size, where sediments with fine and medium sand have a considerably higher percentage of resuspension events than bottoms with other dominant grain sizes. Five sub-areas are identified, characterised by different sediment types, resuspension and wind characteristics. If, in the future, wind speed increases as predicted, resuspension of sediments will also increase with effects on the nutrient cycle.

    Nyckelord
    Resuspension, Wave friction velocity, Wind patterns, Sediment distribution, Fluffy layer, Baltic Sea
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13421 (URN)10.1016/j.seares.2006.07.005 (DOI)
    Anmärkning

    On the day of the defence date the title of this article was Resuspension patterns in the Baltic proper, the Baltic Sea.

    Tillgänglig från: 2005-11-09 Skapad: 2005-11-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13
    4. A model study of suspended sand due to surface waves during a storm in the Baltic Proper
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A model study of suspended sand due to surface waves during a storm in the Baltic Proper
    2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, Vol. 63, nr 3-4, s. 91-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    During 28 November–5 December 1999 three storms passed the Baltic Sea area. The modelled surface waves in the Baltic Proper during this period have been used to calculate the amount of suspended sand in the water mass. Different parameterisations depending on the flow regimes (rippled bed flow or sheet flow) have been used for the suspended sediment calculations.

    The study shows that the shallow areas along the eastern and southern sides of the Baltic Proper were most exposed to the wave induced resuspension during this period. The resuspension events lasted for about 6–12 h, thereafter the sediment settled again within an hour. During each low passage, about 2.5 Mton sand were suspended, releasing about 0.5·106 m3 earlier trapped interstitial water. This might have a large effect on the nutrient concentrations in the water mass above these bottoms.

    Nyckelord
    Storm events; Surface waves; Resuspension; Suspended sediment; Scandinavia; Baltic Sea; Baltic Proper; 54° N–59° N 16° E–25° E
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13422 (URN)10.1016/j.jmarsys.2006.05.005 (DOI)
    Anmärkning

    On the day of the defence date the title of this article was A model study of suspended sand due to surface waves during a winter storm in the Baltic Proper.

    Tillgänglig från: 2005-11-09 Skapad: 2005-11-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2014-09-22
    5. Nitrogen fixation in the Baltic proper: An empirical study
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Nitrogen fixation in the Baltic proper: An empirical study
    2000 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, Vol. 25, nr 3-4, s. 239-248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen as the limiting nutrient for primary production in the eutrophic Baltic proper has been under debate. Based on only a limited number of actual measurements, nitrogen fixation has been assumed to be the only significant internal nitrogen source. It is then assumed that about one fifth of the net nitrogen load to the Baltic proper comes from nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria. An alternative or additional source is utilisation of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON).

    In the present study, we hypothesise that nitrogen fixation is the only internal source for inorganic nitrogen. This was done in order to investigate its potential to maintain net primary production during summer. If inorganic nitrogen is depleted after the spring bloom and if inorganic phosphorus still remains in significant concentrations, then a continuous decrease in phosphorus may be coupled to the net nitrogen fixation rate by cyanobacteria. The estimated phosphorus consumption is adjusted for external and internal inputs. An estimate of the assumed net annual nitrogen fixation based on the proper Redfield ratio in the surface layer down to the seasonal thermocline is calculated for a number of monitoring stations in the Baltic proper. Typical values of nitrogen fixation are in the range 10–130 μmol m−3 day−1. A simple integration over the Baltic proper gives an internal load in the range 30–260×103 ton N year−1. Another result is an east–west gradient in fixation rate that may reflect the nitrogen load.

    Nyckelord
    nitrogen fixation, cyanobacteria, Baltic proper, eutrophication
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13423 (URN)10.1016/S0924-7963(00)00018-X (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2005-11-09 Skapad: 2005-11-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2009-05-29
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  • 109.
    Karlsson, Robin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Anaerobic digestion of biological sludge from the pulp and paper industry2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for - and use of non-fossile fuels such as biogas have increased due to global warming, oil depletion and stricter environmental regulations. Organic wastes can be anaerobically digested in order to produce biogas, which can be utilized to generate heat or electricity. So far, little attention has been directed towards anaerobic digestion of organic wastes from the forest industry. Due to high sludge management costs and more rigorous environmental legislation, the demand for new and/or improved disposal methodologies has increased. Substrate treatment methods such as enzyme addition and ultrasound are of interest in order to make anaerobic digestion of organic wastes, e.g. biological sludge, economically feasible.

    The aim of this study is to evaluate if biological sludge from the pulp and paper industry can be used for methane production in anaerobic digestion and to investigate the effects of ultrasound pre-treatment and enzyme treatment.

    The aim of the study was accomplished by performing four batch experiments, during 67-110 days, and a six months laboratory-scale semi-continuous digestion experiment. Substrates were provided by a chemical and a mechanical paper mill, whereas Kemzymes® from Kemira and ultrasound equipment from Ultra Sonus were used for sludge treatment.

    The short term average accumulation of methane per added g VS rate increased both when ultrasound pre-treatment and enzyme treatment was applied in batch experiments. The enzyme treatment was considered to have a greater potential in larger scale and was consequently used in the semi-continuous digestion experiment. Positive effects of the treatment were however difficult to prove. Adapting the enzyme treatment to be more specific for the degradation of the sludge is recommended.

    It is possible that there are inhibitory interactions between ultrasound pre-treatment and enzyme treatment. 75% ultrasound pre-treatment is an alternative to complete pre-treatment and renders equivalent average accumulation of methane per added g VS. Storage of ultrasound pre-treated biological sludge at 4°C for six and 13 days does not affect the average accumulation of methane per added g VS. Enzyme treatment of biological sludge enhanced the average accumulation of methane per added g VS from indigenous material in the inoculum.

    It is likely that anaerobic digestion of biological sludge from the pulp and paper industry can render a stable biogas production. High viscosity and agitation problems were predominant in the semi-continuous digestion experiment and can be difficult to control in larger scale.

    The results from the semi-continuous digestion experiment are similar with those obtained from the batch experiments. The methane production rates in this study are lower (biological sludge from chemical pulp process) or higher (mechanical ditto) in comparison to those presented data by Puhakka et al. (1992). Different types of biological sludge were used and might explain the prevailing differences.

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  • 110.
    Kasperson, Roger
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Building resilient communities in sustainable development2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development recognizes that environmental, social and economic development have to go hand in hand. Yet, this political ideal remains to be realized, both on a global scale and in many national and local settings. Science can be a tool for facilitating political goals, and the call has been made for researchers to develop a science for sustainable development that focuses on interactions between nature and society and makes new connections across scientific disciplines and with other stakeholders. But the call has raised questions: What is science for sustainable development? What should it be?These questions were central themes at a round-table discussion August 26, 2004, in connection with the EuroScience Open Forum 2004 in Stockholm. The session was organized by the International Council for Science and Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University, in an effort to bring the discussion forward in an open dialogue between the research community, policy makers, and other stakeholders. This article attempts to synthesize the major themes that came up in the presentations and the discussion.

    Please note that this documentation is also presented with a sound files. You need software installed in your computer that is able to play the mp3 sound files. Some of the sound files are large and may take a while to downloading.

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    Abstract
  • 111.
    Kgathi, Donald
    et al.
    University of Botswana.
    Ngwenya, Barbara
    University of Botswana.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Shocks and Rural Livelihoods in The Okavango Delta, Botswana2011Ingår i: Rural Livelihoods, Risk and Political Economy of Access to Natural Resources in the Okavango Delta, Botswana / [ed] Kgathi, D.L., Ngwenya, B.N. and Darkoh, M.K.B., Nova Publishers , 2011Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Okavango Delta, a globally renowned wetland, is characterized by a mosaic of meandering watercourses, floodplains and islands, and is home to a variety of wildlife and vegetation species. It is a major source of livelihoods for the local communities and also an important attraction for tourism, the second most important economic activity in Botswana after diamonds, contributing 5% to the gross domestic product (GDP). As a globally renowned Ramsar Site and major tourist attraction, the Okavango Delta is a resource of national, regional and international importance. This book examines the results of empirical micro-level studies undertaken in the Okavango Delta and contributes to the formulation of relevant policies for sustainable development in the Okavango Delta. (Imprint: Nova Press)

  • 112.
    Kinaro, Zachary
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Wetland Conversion to large-scale agricultural production; implications on the livelihoods of rural communities, Yala Swamp, Lake Victoria basin, Kenya.2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands in most parts of the world are under threat of over-exploitation, loss and/or degradation partly due to agriculture and urban land uses.

    Yala swamp, the largest fresh water wetland in Kenya measuring about 17,500 ha supports a large biodiversity and is source of livelihoods to communities around it. This study addresses the situation where part of this wetland is converted into large-scale agriculture by a multinational company, Dominion Farms (K) Ltd resulting into a conflict and controversy amongst key stakeholders. The study sought to investigate livelihood impacts this transformation has for the local community. It employs the concepts Stakeholder Analysis (SA) and Sustainable Livelihood Approaches (SLA) to asses the livelihood situation in terms of socio-economic conditions, rural infrastructure, income diversification, food security and environmental issues.

    Data and information have been obtained from primary and secondary sources through field survey at the Yala wetland, in which randomly sampled small-scale farmers, fisher folk, Dominion employees, local leaders and informants, traders and other stakeholders were interviewed using questionnaire and other participatory methods. The main questions were designed to gain information about historical use of the wetland, changes in livelihoods and wetland before and after entry of Dominion Company into the area. From the study, it is evident that assessment of the key stakeholders in relation to this natural resource is of utmost importance for mapping out an acceptable management strategy for the wetland. Besides being cause to a conflict and controversy over control of and access to the swamp, the conversion has resulted into both negative and positive short-term and long-term livelihood impacts to the local community. The wetland being a contested resource with multiple users who claim a stake on it requires a holistic approach in its management that caters for divergent needs and views of key stakeholder groups. The study identifies management issues and proposes abroad vision for the future including recommendations for planning as well as suggestions for specific research needs that should form the basis of action

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  • 113.
    Klaus, Marcus
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Geibrink, Erik
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bergstrom, Ann-Kristin
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå, Sweden.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Greenhouse gas emissions from boreal inland waters unchanged after forest harvesting2018Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, nr 18, s. 5575-5594Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forestry practices often result in an increased export of carbon and nitrogen to downstream aquatic systems. Although these losses affect the greenhouse gas (GHG) budget of managed forests, it is unknown if they modify GHG emissions of recipient aquatic systems. To assess this question, air-water fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were quantified for humic lakes and their inlet streams in four boreal catchments using a before-after control-impact experiment. Two catchments were treated with forest clear-cuts followed by site preparation (18 % and 44 % of the catchment area). GHG fluxes and hydrological and physicochemical water characteristics were measured at multiple locations in lakes and streams at high temporal resolution throughout the summer season over a 4-year period. Both lakes and streams evaded all GHGs. The treatment did not significantly change GHG fluxes in streams or lakes within 3 years after the treatment, despite significant increases of CO2 and CH4 concentrations in hillslope groundwater. Our results highlight that GHGs leaching from forest clear-cuts may be buffered in the riparian zone-stream continuum, likely acting as effective biogeochemical processors and wind shelters to prevent additional GHG evasion via downstream inland waters. These findings are representative of low productive forests located in relatively flat landscapes where forestry practices cause only a limited initial impact on catchment hydrology and biogeochemistry.

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  • 114.
    Koch, Alina
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Section for Organic Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Point source characterization of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and extractable organofluorine (EOF) in freshwater and aquatic invertebrates2019Ingår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 21, nr 11, s. 1887-1898Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Major point sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) cause ubiquitous spread of PFASs in the environment. In this study, surface water and aquatic invertebrates at three Swedish sites impacted by PFAS point sources were characterized, using homologue, isomer and extractable organofluorine (EOF) profiling as well as estimation of bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and mass discharge. Two sites were impacted by fire training (sites A and R) and the third by industrial runoff (site K). Mean Σ25PFASs concentration in water was 1920 ng L-1 at site R (n = 3), which was more than 20- and 10-fold higher than those from sites A and K, respectively. PFOS was the most predominant PFAS in all waters samples, constituting 29-79% of Σ25PFAS concentrations. Several branched isomers were detected and they substantially contributed to concentrations in surface water (e.g. 49-78% of ΣPFOS) and aquatic invertebrates (e.g. 15-28% of ΣPFOS). BAFs in the aquatic invertebrates indicated higher bioaccumulation for long chain PFASs and lower bioaccumulation for branched PFOS isomers compared to linear PFOS. EOF mass balance showed that Σ25target PFASs in water could explain up to 55% of EOF at site R. However, larger proportions of EOF (>92%) remained unknown in water from sites A and K. Mass discharges were for the first time estimated for EOF and revealed that high amounts of EOF (e.g. 8.2 g F day-1 at site A) could be transported by water to recipient water bodies relative to Σ25PFASs (e.g. 0.15 g day-1 at site A). Overall, we showed that composition profiling, BAFs and EOF mass balance can improve the characterization of PFASs around point sources.

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  • 115.
    Kokic, Jovana
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Constructed Wetlands and Buffer Zones as Measures for Agricultural Phosphorus Leakage on a Sub-catchment Scale: The Söderköping River Project2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea has a major problem with eutrophication where acts have been taken by the EU commission to sign a common action plan, the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). The overall goal is to reach a good environmental status by the year 2021, where one of the sub-goals is that the Baltic Sea should be unaffected by eutrophication. For Sweden, the goal for phosphorus (P) is to reduce the annual load with 290 tonnes by the year 2021. Since phosphorus is the main limiting nutrient, it is targeted for reduction when it comes to addressing problems with eutrophication. The objective of this thesis is to estimate the effect of constructed wetlands (CW) and buffer zones (BZ), as measures for reducing agricultural phosphorus, in a specific sub-catchment area of the Söderköping river. The waters in this sub-catchment area have the status unsatisfying and poor. If these measures are suitable for this area and where, and if the effect implementation would fulfill a good status for these waters, are questions that this thesis will aim at. An assigned P reduction has been calculated for the sub-catchments where the waters with unsatisfying and poor statuses are present. Areas for CWs have been calculated with the help of the assigned reduction and retentions found in the literature, and location for them has been suggested. With the help of calculated areas for potential BZs for this area, the effect of them have been calculated by retentions found in the literature with 9 and 10 m widths. The results show higher results for assigned P reduction than the actual P load that is present in the sub-catchments. This gives odd results for the effect of the CWs where they show a P reduction of 59-234 %. The method for assigned P reduction is therefore questioned, where the method for the reference value that is used is not without flaws. For BZs, a reduction of 5-14 % is shown, where the reduction is larger with larger areas for potential BZs. Whether the implementation of the measures will fulfill a good status for the waters is difficult to say, due to the inadequate methods and the odd results given in this thesis.

     

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  • 116.
    Krantz, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Matter that matters: A study of household routines in a process of changing water and sanitation arrangements2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Our society changed, but the urban water and sanitation system of today is roughly the same as it was 100 years ago. The system is designed for, developed from and sustained by human activities, and has since its introduction affected household patterns of routine activities. The urban water and sanitation system is now being criticised for not being sustainable due to excessive material, energy and chemical use, and failure to recycle and reuse resources. Altering household practices is perceived as one important step towards improved sustainability.

    In this study, two changes in water and sanitation arrangements at the household level are analysed: individual meters for volumetric billing of hot and cold water, and dry toilets with separate collection of urine and faeces. These arrangements increase system transparency, and their proponents believe that the arrangements enhance resource recycling and/or rsource savings. However, success in this regard can only be achieved if accompanied by appropriate household routines. The extent to which such appropriate routines come about and why (not) is the focus of attention in this study; the aim is to describe and analyse the interaction between householder routines and changes in water and sanitation arrangements.

    This study takes as its starting point household everyday life. A methodological combination of time-diaries, interviews, physical measurements and simple observations is developed and implemented in two cases; the housing area Ringdansen with flats (volumetric billing) and the collective Gebers based on an ecological way of life (dry toilets). The theoretical approach is developed from time-geography and culture analysis. The methodological and theoretical approaches have proven useful and can be developed further.

    Household responded differently to the volumetric billing in Ringdansen, but in general, no sweeping routine changes took place in the households. A comparison of average total water usage per household (at an aggregated level) between the two cases, showed no significant difference. Water-use routines are also similar in the two areas, even though variations appear between households. There seems to be a socio-culturally defined lower limit for water use, regarded as necessary for maintaining sufficient standards of cleanliness and comfort, irrespective of the influence of ecological or economic incentives. Differences in household composition, built-in technical arrangements and existence of a garden (Gebers) explain the differences in hot and cold water usage between the two areas. The dry toilet was shown to have a decisive impact on toilet disposal routines; only biodegradable waste products are thrown into it and the cleaning agents are environmentally friendly toilet disposal routines that reach beyond the 'good' routines evolving from environmental concern. The relationship between changes in water and sanitation arrangements and householder routines may be expressed as follows: an extensive change in arrangements, either technical/physical, organisational and/or economical, results in more radical routine changes, and more so if combined. However, the improvement as regard ecological sustainability is conditional on what is socio-culturally accepted - social sustainability.

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  • 117.
    Krantz, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Användning av våtmarker för kommunalt dag- och avloppsvatten.: Nuläge och framtida trender.2000Ingår i: Vatten. Tidskrift för vattenvård, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 56, nr 4, s. 273-278Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 118.
    Krantz, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hantering av dagvatten i öppna strukturer i stadsmiljö.: Fallet Augustenborg i Malmö.2002Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 119.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Marine debris on two Arctic beaches in the Russian Far East2020Ingår i: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 39, artikel-id 3381Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In August 2005, marine debris was counted on two Arctic beaches in the RussianFar East. On the north coast of the Chukchi Peninsula east of Kolyuchin Bay,a beach stretch of ca. 2.4 km held a total of 736 items, 0.024 items m‑2, while nomore than 0.0011 items m‑2, 12 items in total, were found on a beach stretch ofca. 1.2 km on southern Wrangel Island. The likely explanation for this differenceis that the area around the mainland beach is ice-free for a longer period each year, but a contributing factor may be that late spring ice movement removed plastic from the beach on Wrangel Island. The language on the few items with identifiable labels was for the most part Russian or English, making the Chukchi Sea a possible source region. Beaches at the same latitude in the Atlantic mayhold more debris on  account of the higher human population density, moreshipping and transport of floating debris unhindered by a narrow strait that isice-covered much of the year. Fishing gear blown across the tundra is suggestedas a potential threat to reindeer and other terrestrial wildlife.

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  • 120.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Time-integrated sampling of glyphosate in natural waters2013Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, nr 6, s. 1821-1828Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental monitoring of pesticide residues in surface water is often done with time-integrated sampling where a specified volume is sampled each hour during, e.g., a week, thus avoiding at momentary high or low extreme concentrations. However, sampling over an extended period of time can result in losses of easily degradable analytes, why the stability of the target analytes over the timespan of the sampling must be checked. Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides. Because of its chemical complexity, glyphosate binds differently to metals and colloids at different pH, and the degradation may also be affected. Recovery of glyphosate from spiked natural waters after one and three weeks of storage was higher when the samples were acidified to approximately pH 2 rather than at their natural pH. Keeping the samples refrigerated to 4 °C in darkness also enhanced recovery, while glyphosate losses were substantial from samples kept at their natural pH at 20 °C. Total loss of glyphosate was observed in some samples kept at natural pH, 20 °C, and daylight; a loss partly due to binding to metals or colloids that could only partially be reversed by acidification. For one-week time-integrated sampling a small amount of hydrochloric acid in a piece of heat-sealed hydrophobic micro-porous tubing is added to the sampling bottles before deployment, a procedure that acidifies the samples during collection keeping them below pH 2 until analysis, thus minimizing losses of glyphosate. The method also allows determination of the primary degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA).

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  • 121.
    Kylin, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University; Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Tromsø, Norway.
    Hammar, Johan
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Mowrer, Jacques
    Stockholms universitet.
    Bouwman, Henk
    North West University, South Africa.
    Edelstam, Carl
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Olsson, Mats
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Jensen, Sören
    Stockholms universitet.
    Persistent organic pollutants in biota samples collectedduring the Ymer-80 expedition to the Arctic2015Ingår i: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 34, artikel-id 21129Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1980 expedition to the Arctic with the icebreaker Ymer, a number of vertebrate species were sampled for determination of persistent organic pollutants. Samples of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus, n=34), glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus, n=8), common eider (Somateria mollissima, n=10), Brünnich’s guillemot (Uria lomvia, n=9), ringed seal (Pusa hispida, n=2) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus, n=2) were collected. With the exception of Brünnich’s guillemot, there was a marked contamination difference of birds from western as compared to eastern/northern Svalbard. Samples in the west contained a larger number of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and also polychlorinated terphenyls, indicating local sources. Brünnich’s guillemots had similar pollutant concentrations in the west and east/north; possibly younger birds were sampled in the west. In Arctic char, pollutant profiles from lake Linnévatn (n=5), the lake closest to the main economic activities in Svalbard, were similar to profiles in Arctic char from the Shetland Islands (n=5), but differed from lakes to the north and east in Svalbard (n=30). Arctic char samples had higher concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) than the marine species of birds and mammals, possibly due to accumulation via snowmelt. Compared to the Baltic Sea, comparable species collected in Svalbard had lower concentrations of PCB and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), but similar concentrations indicating long-range transport of hexachlorobenzene, HCHs and cyclodiene pesticides. In samples collected in Svalbard in 1971, the concentrations of PCB and DDT in Brünnich’s guillemot (n=7), glaucous gull (n=2) and polar bear (n=2) were similar to the concentrations found in 1980.

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    Underlying excel data
  • 122.
    Kylin, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Muir, Derek
    Environment Canada, Canada.
    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) and pentachloroanisole (PCA)2017Ingår i: AMAP Assessment 2016: Chemicals of Emerging Arctic Concern, Oslo: AMAP - Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme , 2017, s. 205-211Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was first synthesized for use as a fungicide for wood protection in the 1930s. PCP affects most organisms by decoupling oxidative phosphorylation and other crucial biochemical functions (IPCS, 1987; UNEP, 2013e). As a result it has found a wide range of biocidal and pesticidal uses. Due to adverse environmental and health effects, restrictions  on the use of PCP were first imposed in the 1970s with total bans in effect in some countries by the 1980s (UNEP, 2013d). As of 2014, PCP was still in use in India, Canada and the USA (UNEP, 2014a). In May 2015, PCP was included in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention: calling for elimination, with a time-limited exemption for impregnation of utility poles and crossarms (UNEP, 2015a).

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    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) and pentachloroanisole (PCA)
  • 123.
    Lagali, Neil
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Allgeier, Stephan
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Germany.
    Guimaraes, Pedro
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Badian, Reza A.
    Univ Coll Southeast Norway, Norway; Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway; Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Ruggeri, Alfredo
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Koehler, Bernd
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Germany.
    Utheim, Tor Paaske
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway; Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Peebo, Beatrice
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Peterson, Magnus
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Lars B.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Wide-field corneal subbasal nerve plexus mosaics in age-controlled healthy and type 2 diabetes populations2018Ingår i: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 5, artikel-id 180075Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A dense nerve plexus in the clear outer window of the eye, the cornea, can be imaged in vivo to enable non-invasive monitoring of peripheral nerve degeneration in diabetes. However, a limited field of view of corneal nerves, operator-dependent image quality, and subjective image sampling methods have led to difficulty in establishing robust diagnostic measures relating to the progression of diabetes and its complications. Here, we use machine-based algorithms to provide wide-area mosaics of the corneas subbasal nerve plexus (SBP) also accounting for depth (axial) fluctuation of the plexus. Degradation of the SBP with age has been mitigated as a confounding factor by providing a dataset comprising healthy and type 2 diabetes subjects of the same age. To maximize reuse, the dataset includes bilateral eye data, associated clinical parameters, and machine-generated SBP nerve density values obtained through automatic segmentation and nerve tracing algorithms. The dataset can be used to examine nerve degradation patterns to develop tools to non-invasively monitor diabetes progression while avoiding narrow-field imaging and image selection biases.

  • 124.
    Lannerstad, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Planned and Unplanned Water Use in a Closed South Indian Basin2008Ingår i: International Journal of Water Resources Development, ISSN 0790-0627, E-ISSN 1360-0648, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 289-304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensive irrigation development brought the Bhavani basin in southern India to 'allocation closure' in the 1950s, with all available surface water being assigned to various uses. In spite of this, policies and investments have supported further intensified water use, some well planned, but many unplanned from a basin perspective. At present, individuals acting independently and domestic water schemes are important drivers. The basin is moving towards 'hydrologic closure', with little water leaving the basin. While agriculture in the basin is showing no signs of collapse, people are demanding more water, leading to a 'perception-wise' closure. The changes in use and perception underscore the need for a basin-wide perspective that considers consumptive water use as well as river diversions.

  • 125. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Lannerstad, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Water Realities and Development Trajectories: Global and Local Agricultural Production Dynamics2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vattenbrist för människor och ekosystem är en mer och mer uppmärksammad miljöfråga. Sjunkande grundvattennivåer och uttorkade floder gör att många talar om en ”global vattenkris”. Denna avhandling fokuserar på de komplexa sambanden mellan vatten och jordbruksproduktion utifrån ett globalt, regionalt och lokalt perspektiv under olika utvecklingsfaser under fyra sekler. Den redogör för hur avrinningsområden överintecknas och slutligen ”stängs” för ytterligare vattenutvinning. Effekterna av ökad vattenutvinning i relation till historisk och framtida matproduktion analyseras generellt i utvecklingsländer med vattenbrist, och i detalj i en fallstudie i Bhavani avrinningsområde i Tamil Nadu i södra Indien.

    Studien visar för den tidiga jordbruksutvecklingen på global nivå hur förändrad markanvändning och bevattningsexpansion leder till förändrad balans mellan evapotranspiration och avrinning, med uttorkning av vattendrag som följd. Den visar vidare vikten av ett paradigmskifte där fokus flyttas från vattenanvändning till ”konsumerande” vattenanvändning, och som inkluderar både grönvatten- och blåvattenresurser.

    Analysen av Bhavaniområdets utvecklingskurva under det senaste seklets jordbruksutveckling visar på ett dynamiskt växelspel mellan land- och vattenresurser och mellan olika samhällsgrupper. Den nuvarande vattenanvändningssituationen har stegvis växt fram som en respons på hydroklimatisk variabilitet, människors behov och infrastrukturbegränsningar. Studien påvisar att ett avrinningsområde kan ses som ”stängt” på tre skilda sätt: när flödet är överintecknat, när utflödet sinar, och när vattenanvändare upplever att behoven överstiger tillgången. Även efter ”stängning” har etablering och intensifiering av vattenutvinning fortsatt och resulterat i ett alltmer komplext och sammanflätat vattenanvändningsmönster. Studien visar vidare hur hög hydroklimatisk variabilitet, dels gör att ”genomsnittlig vattentillgång” är förledande vid planering av vattenfördelning i ett avrinningsområde, och dels döljer smygande kumulativa effekter av ökad vattenutvinning.

    Slutligen anlyseras ländervis framtida vattenbehov för att möta matbehovet i världens utvecklingsländer, vilket visar på en fördubbling fram till 2050. Tack vare ökad vattenproduktivitet kan behovet emellertid halveras. Endast en bråkdel av det resterande behovet kan mötas genom ökad bevattning, dvs. med mera blåvatten. En stor del av vattenbehovet måste istället täckas med mera grönvatten via uppodling av andra terrestra ekosystem. Uppgiften innebär en betydande utmaning och global handel med jordbruksprodukter kommer att öka avsevärt i betydelse.

    Delarbeten
    1. Consumptive water use to feed humanity: curing a blind spot
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Consumptive water use to feed humanity: curing a blind spot
    2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 9, s. 15-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an "environmental flow" in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling). After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions - representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities - the paper exemplifies; 1) changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2) consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water). The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an "environmental flow" in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling). After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions - representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities - the paper exemplifies; 1) changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2) consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water). The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18451 (URN)
    Anmärkning
    Original Publication: Malin Falkenmark and Mats Lannerstad, Consumptive water use to feed humanity: curing a blind spot, 2005, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, (9), 15-28. http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/9/15/2005/ Licensed by: European Geophysical Society http://www.egu.eu/ Tillgänglig från: 2009-06-10 Skapad: 2009-05-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Assessing the water challenge of a new green revolution in developing countries
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Assessing the water challenge of a new green revolution in developing countries
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 104, nr 15, s. 6253-6260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the water implications in 92 developing countries of first attaining the 2015 hunger target of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals and then feeding a growing population on an acceptable standard diet. The water requirements in terms of vapor flows are quantified, potential water sources are identified, and impacts on agricultural land expansion and water tradeoffs with ecosystems are analyzed. This article quantifies the relative contribution from infiltrated rainwater/green water in rain-fed agriculture, and liquid water/blue water from irrigation, and how far water productivity (WP) gains can go in reducing the pressure on freshwater resources. Under current WP levels, another 2,200 km3·yr−1 of vapor flow is deemed necessary to halve hunger by 2015 and 5,200 km3·yr−1 in 2050 to alleviate hunger. A nonlinear relationship between vapor flow and yield growth, particularly in low-yielding savanna agro-ecosystems, indicates a high potential for WP increase. Such WP gains may reduce additional water needs in agriculture, with 16% in 2015 and 45% by 2050. Despite an optimistic outlook on irrigation development, most of the additional water will originate from rain-fed production. Yield growth, increasing consumptive use on existing rain-fed cropland, and fodder from grazing lands may reduce the additional rain-fed water use further by 43–47% until 2030. To meet remaining water needs, a cropland expansion of ≈0.8% yr−1, i.e., a similar rate as over the past 50 years (≈0.65% yr−1), seems unavoidable if food production is to occur in proximity to local markets.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18452 (URN)10.1073/pnas.0605739104 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-05-27 Skapad: 2009-05-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Planned and Unplanned Water Use in a Closed South Indian Basin
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Planned and Unplanned Water Use in a Closed South Indian Basin
    2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Water Resources Development, ISSN 0790-0627, E-ISSN 1360-0648, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 289-304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Intensive irrigation development brought the Bhavani basin in southern India to 'allocation closure' in the 1950s, with all available surface water being assigned to various uses. In spite of this, policies and investments have supported further intensified water use, some well planned, but many unplanned from a basin perspective. At present, individuals acting independently and domestic water schemes are important drivers. The basin is moving towards 'hydrologic closure', with little water leaving the basin. While agriculture in the basin is showing no signs of collapse, people are demanding more water, leading to a 'perception-wise' closure. The changes in use and perception underscore the need for a basin-wide perspective that considers consumptive water use as well as river diversions.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18453 (URN)10.1080/07900620701723612 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-05-27 Skapad: 2009-05-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Pumped Out: Basin Closure and Farmer Adaptations in the Bhavani Basin in Southern India
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Pumped Out: Basin Closure and Farmer Adaptations in the Bhavani Basin in Southern India
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: River Basins: Trajectories, Societies and Environments / [ed] Molle, F. and Wester, P., Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing , 2009, 1, s. 328-Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Mainstream views of water resource development focus on conventional concepts of supply and demand and often conceive of river basin development as a linear and rational process of harnessing nature and developing water for human use. However, human-environment interactions are more complex and the way societies respond to water challenges is shaped by a number of cultural, environmental, economic and political factors. Using river basin case studies in a variety of contexts, this book provides an overview of how societies have gradually developed their water resources and furthers our understanding of how such resources can be managed successfully or unsuccessfully. Discussing how and why particular options are selected, and why a particular course of events eventually prevails, the book stresses the importance of context and a multidisciplinary approach in moving towards sustainable and equitable development.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 2009 Upplaga: 1
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18454 (URN)978-18-459353-8-2 (ISBN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-05-27 Skapad: 2009-05-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Adaptive water resource management in the South Indian lower Bhavani project command area
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Adaptive water resource management in the South Indian lower Bhavani project command area
    2009 (Engelska)Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the theory and practice of Adaptive Management (AM) based on a detailed field study. To what extent farmers and water resource managers already practice AM; and whether it is practiced in an optimal manner or could there be areas for improvement based on recent advancements in the theory of AM; are some of the questions that are particularly appropriate in the light of rapid changes in river basin water use and also in relation to basin closure.

    This paper draws on the development and use of water resources in the Lower Bhavani Project (LBP), with the LBP reservoir and the 84,000 hectare (ha) LBP command area. The project diverts water from the Bhavani River, a tributary of the Cauvery River, in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The LBP was the first major irrigation project initiated in India after independence in 1947 and was in full operation by 1956. The LBP has had a major impact on the socioeconomic development of the area, and continues to be a productive irrigated area. However, behind the story of a productive irrigation system lie more complex stories of societal change, conflicts and negotiation in response to water scarcity and several drivers of change. In fact, there were problems from the start, as the original design concept for the project was not accepted by farmers who opted for more waterintensive crops rather than the suggested ‘dry crops’. In addition, a highly fluctuating climate and the transfer of water to urban areas have all been a challenge for agricultural producers. Farmers, system managers and others have responded to these challenges by trying out different management systems, and have continued to adjust their practices in the face of change.

    This paper presents a five-step framework of analysis based on recent theories of AM to understand the extent to which it is practiced and how it could be improved. The Adaptive Water Management (AWM) analysis shows that the LBP system has increasingly fulfilled the criteria of a complex adaptive system over the years. Social learning takes place at system and farmer level. The main uncertainty factor, rainfall variability, has been considered in a stepwise way during the system change cycles and has been included in the system design. The system has, to some extent, fulfilled the requirement of an adaptive regime and has built a substantial amount of social capital. This has been a rather ad hoc process, which could have been much faster had attention been paid to institutional setups and infrastructure designs that support AM.

    However, the future will not be easier. The basin is closed with water resources already overallocated to various uses. Yet, cities and industries, and users outside the basin, will demand more and agriculture itself is becoming less important to the economy. To meet these future challenges, it is essential that policymakers recognize and build on the existing social capital and the negotiation and learning systems that have been developed.

    Finally, the LBP case study gives us some hope. In spite of contending with an imperfect irrigation system design and intense competition for water resources, water resource managers and farmers are able to adapt and continue to reap benefits from a productive agricultural system.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    IWMI, 2009. s. 36
    Serie
    IWMI Research Report, ISSN 1026-0862
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18456 (URN)10.3910/2009.128 (DOI)978-92-9090-703-9 (ISBN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-05-27 Skapad: 2009-05-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
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    Water Realities and Development Trajectories
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    Cover
  • 126.
    Lannerstad, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Molden, David
    International Water Management Institute (IWMI), P O Box 2075, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Adaptive water resource management in the South Indian lower Bhavani project command area2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the theory and practice of Adaptive Management (AM) based on a detailed field study. To what extent farmers and water resource managers already practice AM; and whether it is practiced in an optimal manner or could there be areas for improvement based on recent advancements in the theory of AM; are some of the questions that are particularly appropriate in the light of rapid changes in river basin water use and also in relation to basin closure.

    This paper draws on the development and use of water resources in the Lower Bhavani Project (LBP), with the LBP reservoir and the 84,000 hectare (ha) LBP command area. The project diverts water from the Bhavani River, a tributary of the Cauvery River, in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The LBP was the first major irrigation project initiated in India after independence in 1947 and was in full operation by 1956. The LBP has had a major impact on the socioeconomic development of the area, and continues to be a productive irrigated area. However, behind the story of a productive irrigation system lie more complex stories of societal change, conflicts and negotiation in response to water scarcity and several drivers of change. In fact, there were problems from the start, as the original design concept for the project was not accepted by farmers who opted for more waterintensive crops rather than the suggested ‘dry crops’. In addition, a highly fluctuating climate and the transfer of water to urban areas have all been a challenge for agricultural producers. Farmers, system managers and others have responded to these challenges by trying out different management systems, and have continued to adjust their practices in the face of change.

    This paper presents a five-step framework of analysis based on recent theories of AM to understand the extent to which it is practiced and how it could be improved. The Adaptive Water Management (AWM) analysis shows that the LBP system has increasingly fulfilled the criteria of a complex adaptive system over the years. Social learning takes place at system and farmer level. The main uncertainty factor, rainfall variability, has been considered in a stepwise way during the system change cycles and has been included in the system design. The system has, to some extent, fulfilled the requirement of an adaptive regime and has built a substantial amount of social capital. This has been a rather ad hoc process, which could have been much faster had attention been paid to institutional setups and infrastructure designs that support AM.

    However, the future will not be easier. The basin is closed with water resources already overallocated to various uses. Yet, cities and industries, and users outside the basin, will demand more and agriculture itself is becoming less important to the economy. To meet these future challenges, it is essential that policymakers recognize and build on the existing social capital and the negotiation and learning systems that have been developed.

    Finally, the LBP case study gives us some hope. In spite of contending with an imperfect irrigation system design and intense competition for water resources, water resource managers and farmers are able to adapt and continue to reap benefits from a productive agricultural system.

  • 127.
    Lannerstad, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Molden, David
    International Water Management Institute, 27, Sunil Mawatha, Pelawatte, Battaramulla, Sri Lanka.
    Pumped Out: Basin Closure and Farmer Adaptations in the Bhavani Basin in Southern India2009Ingår i: River Basins: Trajectories, Societies and Environments / [ed] Molle, F. and Wester, P., Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing , 2009, 1, s. 328-Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Mainstream views of water resource development focus on conventional concepts of supply and demand and often conceive of river basin development as a linear and rational process of harnessing nature and developing water for human use. However, human-environment interactions are more complex and the way societies respond to water challenges is shaped by a number of cultural, environmental, economic and political factors. Using river basin case studies in a variety of contexts, this book provides an overview of how societies have gradually developed their water resources and furthers our understanding of how such resources can be managed successfully or unsuccessfully. Discussing how and why particular options are selected, and why a particular course of events eventually prevails, the book stresses the importance of context and a multidisciplinary approach in moving towards sustainable and equitable development.

  • 128.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Livcykelanalys av golvvård: En jämförande studie av Twister™-metoden och golvvårdsmetoder med polish och vax2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle finns det en stor variation på golv och golvmaterial. Till dessa finns det en stor variation av de produkter och metoder som används för att hålla dessa golv funktionsdugliga. Samtliga golv och produkter ger upphov till miljöpåverkan av olika storlek och sort.

    Denna studie är skriven på uppdrag av avdelningen för industriell miljöteknik, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI) Linköpings Universitet, som vill veta vilken miljöpåverkan Twister™-metoden har. Detta sker genom en livscykelanalys.

    En livscykelanalys ställer en produkt eller tjänst miljöpåverkan utifrån helhetsperspektiv innefattande materialframställning, tillverkning, användning och resthantering. Som hjälp i denna studie har programvaran SimaPro 7.0 använts vari metoden Eco-indikator 99 valts.

    I studien ställs Twister™-metoden mot andra golvvårdsmetoder innefattande polish och vax. I analysen sker även en nedbrytning av Twister™-metoden likväl en nedbrytning av den Twister™-rondell som HTC Sweden AB tillverkar.

    Resultatet visar att den del av Twister™-metoden som har störst miljöpåverkan är den skurmaskin som används och den energianvändning som Twister™-metoden kräver. Resultatet visar även att Twister™-metoden har signifikant lägre miljöpåverkan än de andra golvvårdsmetoderna polish och vax. De delar av Twister™-rondellen som har störst miljöpåverkan är de industridiamanter och den rondell, som Twister™-rondellen består av.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 129.
    Laturnus, Frank
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Sandén, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wiencke, Christian
    AWI, Bremerhafen, Germany.
    Finding the scattered pieces of the mechanisms behind the formation of volatile halogen-containing C1- and C2-compounds in Antarctic macroalgae2008Ingår i: Reports on polar and marine research. 571, Alfred-Wegener Institut fur Polar- und Meeresforschung , 2008, s. 200-207Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 130.
    Laturnus, Frank
    et al.
    Institute for Biogeochemistry and Marine Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wiencke, Christian
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany.
    Release of reactive organic halogens by the brown macroalga Saccharina latissima after exposure to ultraviolet radiation2010Ingår i: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 379-384Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The brown macroalga Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus) C.E. Lane, C. Mayes, Druehl & G.W. Saunders (formerly Laminaria saccharina [L.] Lamouroux) was exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in the mW UV-A and mW UV-B range in the laboratory for up to 28 days. The release rates of volatile organohalogens, such as chloroform, bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide, were determined. From these rates, the total emission of reactive organic halogens was calculated. The results revealed that exposure to UVR significantly affected the emission of reactive organic halogens by the macroalga under investigation. An increase in the release of reactive organic iodine was observed for the algal species. In contrast, for reactive organic bromine and reactive organic chlorine, a decrease in emission by the macroalga was observed. Apparently, the potential for increased levels of UVR resulting from further ongoing destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer may increase the importance of marine macroalgae in atmospheric reactions involving organic halogens.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 131.
    Lauerwald, R.
    et al.
    Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Regnier, P.
    Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Figueiredo, V
    University Federal of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University Federal of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lehner, B.
    McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Maavara, T.
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA.
    Raymond, P.
    Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, USA.
    Natural lakes are a minor global source of N2O to the atmosphere2019Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 33, nr 12, s. 1564-1581Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural lakes and reservoirs are important, yet not well constrained sources of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. In particular for N2O emissions, a huge variability is observed in the few, observation‐driven flux estimates that have been published so far. Recently, a process‐based, spatially explicit model has been used to estimate global N2O emissions from more than 6,000 reservoirs based on nitrogen (N) and phosphorous inflows and water residence time. Here, we extend the model to a dataset of 1.4 million standing water bodies comprising natural lakes and reservoirs. For validation, we normalized the simulated N2O emissions by the surface area of each water body and compared them against regional averages of N2O emission rates taken from the literature or estimated based on observed N2O concentrations. We estimate that natural lakes and reservoirs together emit 4.5±2.9 Gmol N2O‐N yr‐1 globally. Our global scale estimate falls in the far lower end of existing, observation‐driven estimates. Natural lakes contribute only about half of this flux, although they contribute 91% of the total surface area of standing water bodies. Hence, the mean N2O emission rates per surface area are substantially lower for natural lakes than for reservoirs with 0.8±0.5 mmol N m‐2yr‐1 vs. 9.6±6.0 mmol N m‐2yr‐1, respectively. This finding can be explained by on average lower external N inputs to natural lakes. We conclude that upscaling based estimates, which do not distinguish natural lakes from reservoirs, are prone to important biases.

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    fulltext
  • 132.
    Lauerwald, Ronny
    et al.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Allen, George H.
    State Univ, VA USA.
    Deemer, Bridget R.
    US Geol Survey, AZ USA.
    Liu, Shaoda
    Yale Univ, CT USA; Beijing Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Maavara, Taylor
    Yale Univ, CT USA; Univ Leeds, England.
    Raymond, Peter
    Yale Univ, CT USA.
    Alcott, Lewis
    Yale Univ, CT USA.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hastie, Adam
    Charles Univ Prague, Czech Republic; Univ Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Holgerson, Meredith A.
    Cornell Univ, NY USA.
    Johnson, Matthew S.
    NASA Ames Res Ctr, CA USA.
    Lehner, Bernhard
    McGill Univ, Canada.
    Lin, Peirong
    Peking Univ, Peoples R China.
    Marzadri, Alessandra
    Univ Trento, Italy.
    Ran, Lishan
    Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Tian, Hanqin
    Boston Coll, MA USA.
    Yang, Xiao
    Southern Methodist Univ, TX USA.
    Yao, Yuanzhi
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Regnier, Pierre
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Inland Water Greenhouse Gas Budgets for RECCAP2: 1. State-Of-The-Art of Global Scale Assessments2023Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 37, nr 5, artikel-id e2022GB007657Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inland waters are important emitters of the greenhouse gasses (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. In the framework of the 2nd phase of the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP-2) initiative, we review the state of the art in estimating inland water GHG budgets at global scale, which has substantially advanced since the first phase of RECCAP nearly 10 years ago. The development of increasingly sophisticated upscaling techniques, including statistical prediction and process-based models, allows for spatially explicit estimates that are needed for regionalized assessments of continental GHG budgets such as those established for RECCAP. A few recent estimates also resolve the seasonal and/or interannual variability in inland water GHG emissions. Nonetheless, the global-scale assessment of inland water emissions remains challenging because of limited spatial and temporal coverage of observations and persisting uncertainties in the abundance and distribution of inland water surface areas. To decrease these uncertainties, more empirical work on the contributions of hot-spots and hot-moments to overall inland water GHG emissions is particularly needed.

  • 133.
    Lindström, Tom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bergqvist, Goran
    Swedish Assoc Hunting & Wildlife Management, Sweden; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Estimating hunting harvest from partial reporting: a Bayesian approach2020Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikel-id 21113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying hunting harvest is essential for numerous ecological topics, necessitating reliable estimates. We here propose novel analytical tools for this purpose. Using a hierarchical Bayesian framework, we introduce models for hunting reports that accounts for different structures of the data. Focusing on Swedish harvest reports of red fox (Vulpes vulpes), wild boar (Sus scrofa), European pine marten (Martes martes), and Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber), we evaluated predictive performance through training and validation sets as well as Leave One Out Cross Validation. The analyses revealed that to provide reliable harvest estimates, analyses must account for both random variability among hunting teams and the effect of hunting area per team on the harvest rate. Disregarding the former underestimated the uncertainty, especially at finer spatial resolutions (county and hunting management precincts). Disregarding the latter imposed a bias that overestimated total harvest. We also found support for association between average harvest rate and variability, yet the direction of the association varied among species. However, this feature proved less important for predictive purposes. Importantly, the hierarchical Bayesian framework improved previously used point estimates by reducing sensitivity to low reporting and presenting inherent uncertainties.

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    fulltext
  • 134.
    Lindvall, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Betalningsvilja för Göta kanal2001Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Linköpings universitet har fått i uppdrag att genomföra delar av EU-projektet ”EU TERRA Living Waterways”. Projektet kartlägger betydelsen av olika kanal- och vattenvägar i Europa, Sverige ingår också i projektet och studerar Götakanal. Ekonomiska Institutionen vid Linköpings universitet ska enligt uppdrag samhällsekonomiskt utvärdera kanalen, en studie som bland annat består av att undersöka bruksvärdet av Götakanal.

    Att studera bruksvärdet för Götakanal innebär att undersöka hur de individer som ”använder” kanalen värderar denna, något som i ekonomiska termer utgörs av vederbörandes maximala betalningsvilja. En del av de tjänster som tillhandahålls genom Götakanal saknar priser och uppgiften blir bland annat att på något sätt skatta den hypotetiska betalningsviljan hos de personer som vistas på och längs med kanalen, antingen genom direkta (stated preference) eller indirekta (revealed preference) metoder. Denna studie tillämpar i viss mån båda dessa metoder. För en utförlig presentation och diskussion kring stated preferencemetoden hänvisas läsaren till Hjerpe & Löfgren (1999).

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Betalningsvilja för Göta kana
  • 135.
    Lindvall, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kommersiell verksamhet vid Göta kanal2001Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningens mål är att skatta ett samhällsekonomiskt värde på Götakanal. Som en del i detta värde skall ingå den kommersiella verksamhet som bedrivs på och invid kanalen. Skattningen av omfattningen på denna verksamhet kommer att presenteras på följande sidor. Det finns två sätt att få reda på hur stor handeln inom ett område är. Ett är att mäta hur mycket som säljs, det andra sättet är att mäta hur mycket som köps. De verkliga summorna bör givetvis i princip vara lika stora, men när det är fråga om skattnigar kan resultaten givetvis skilja sig åt.. I denna undersökning har vi använt oss av båda metoderna. De båda undersökningarna kommer att behandlas fristående från varandra förutom i ett avslutande stycke där en diskussion förs angående omfattningen av den kommersiella verksamheten och de båda undersökningarna vägs samman. Del 1 i undersökningen kommer att behandla den del som gäller sälj- eller utbudssidan och del två köp- eller efterfrågesidan.

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    Kommersiell verksamhet vid Göta kanal
  • 136.
    Linkhorst, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Paranaiba, Jose R.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Univ Fed Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
    Mendonca, Raquel
    Univ Fed Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
    Rudberg, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    DelSontro, Tonya
    Univ Waterloo, Canada.
    Barros, Nathan
    Univ Fed Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Spatially Resolved Measurements in Tropical Reservoirs Reveal Elevated Methane Ebullition at River Inflows and at High Productivity2021Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 35, nr 5, artikel-id e2020GB006717Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of rivers is being dammed, particularly in the tropics, and reservoir water surfaces can be a substantial anthropogenic source of greenhouse gases. On average, 80% of the CO2-equivalent emission of reservoirs globally has been attributed to CH4, which is predominantly emitted via ebullition. Since ebullition is highly variable across space and time, both measuring and upscaling to an entire reservoir is challenging, and estimates of reservoir CH4 emission are therefore not well constrained. We measured CH4 ebullition at high spatial resolution with an echosounder and bubble traps in two reservoirs of different use (water storage and hydropower), size and productivity in the tropical Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest biome. Based on the spatially most well-resolved whole-reservoir ebullition measurements in the tropics so far, we found that mean CH4 ebullition was twice as high in river inflow areas as in other parts of the reservoirs, and more than 4 times higher in the eutrophic compared to the oligotrophic reservoir. Using different upscaling approaches rendered similar whole-reservoir CH4 ebullition estimates, suggesting that highly spatially-resolved measurements may be more important for constraining reservoir-wide CH4 estimates than choice of upscaling approach. The minimum sampling effort was high (&gt;250 and &gt;1,700 thirty-meter segments of hydroacoustic survey to reach within 50% or 80% accuracy, respectively). This suggests that traditional manual bubble-trap measurements should be abandoned in favor of highly resolved measurements in order to get spatially representative estimates of CH4 ebullition, which accounted for 60% and 99% of total C emission in the two studied reservoirs.

  • 137.
    Ljung, Stina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Approaches to participative planning: Potential applications in municipal energy planning2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores potential participatory approaches suitable for a municipal energy planning context. It also analyses the possibility of using those approaches in energy planning processes in ten Swedish municipalities. Swedish municipal energy plans display differences in terms of quality, comprehensiveness and implementation. According to participation literature, planning processes can be improved by stakeholder participation. This study was carried out in four steps: creation of a theoretical framework, survey investigating the municipal energy planners’ views on participation, relating the planners’ views with the theoretical framework and creating suggestions for which participatory approaches to use in the municipalities. Participatory approaches found in literature were categorised into: democracy based, social learning and policy driven participation. Literature states that stakeholder participation should be done as early as possible in a process, but findings from the survey show that those municipalities that have come furthest in their planning process are the ones most interested in stakeholder participation. Indicating that energy planning processes need to gain a sense of maturity before it is even possible to think about involving other stakeholders. Another result shows differences in objectives, central values and targeted stakeholders between the different municipalities. One conclusion from this thesis is the importance for municipalities to understand their objectives for stakeholder participation, since objectives partly determines what kind of participatory approach that will be suitable to use in a given situation.

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    Approaches to participative planning: Applications in municipal energy planning
  • 138.
    Lueck, Jenna
    et al.
    Virginia Institute of Marine Science, USA; University of Maryland Center for Environmental Sciences, Solomons, USA.
    Dickhut, Rebecca
    Virginia Institute of Marine Science, USA.
    Cochran, Michele
    Virginia Institute of Marine Science, USA.
    Falconer, Renee
    Colorado School of Mines, Golden, USA.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Persistent organic pollutants in the Atlantic and southern oceans and oceanic atmosphere2017Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 583, s. 64-71Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) continue to cycle through the atmosphere and hydrosphere despite banned or severely restricted usages. Global scale analyses of POPs are challenging, but knowledge of the current distribution of these compounds is needed to understand the movement and long-term consequences of their global use. In the current study, air and seawater samples were collected Oct. 2007- Jan. 2008 aboard the Icebreaker Oden en route from Göteborg, Sweden to McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Both air and surface seawater samples consistently contained α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), γ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-Endosulfan, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Sample concentrations for most POPs in air were higher in the northern hemisphere with the exception of HCB, which had high gas phase concentrations in the northern and southern latitudes and low concentrations near the equator. South Atlantic and Southern Ocean seawater has a high ratio of α-HCH to γ-HCH, indicating persisting levels from technical grade sources. The Atlantic and Southern Ocean continue to be net sinks for atmospheric α-, γ-HCH, and Endosulfan despite declining usage.

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    fulltext
  • 139.
    Lueck, Jenny
    et al.
    Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences, College of William and Mary, Virginia, USA.
    Dickhut, Rebecca
    Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences, College of William and Mary, Virginia, USA.
    Cochran, Michel
    Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences, College of William and Mary, Virginia, USA.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Persistent organic pollutants in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans and oceanic atmosphere.2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 140.
    Luis Mas, Jose
    et al.
    Univ Seville, Spain.
    Martin, Jacobo
    CADIC CONICET, Argentina.
    Khanh Pham, Mai
    IAEA Environm Labs, Monaco.
    Chamizo, Elena
    Univ Seville, Spain.
    Miquel, Juan-Carlos
    IAEA Environm Labs, Monaco.
    Osvath, Iolanda
    IAEA Environm Labs, Monaco.
    Povinec, Pavel P.
    Comenius Univ, Slovakia.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för diagnostik och specialistmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Swedish Radiat Safety Author, Sweden.
    Villa-Alfageme, Maria
    Univ Seville, Spain.
    Analysis of a major Aeolian dust input event and its impact on element fluxes and inventories at the DYFAMED site (Northwestern Mediterranean)2020Ingår i: Marine Chemistry, ISSN 0304-4203, E-ISSN 1872-7581, Vol. 223, artikel-id 103792Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Continental dust can be suspended and transported by the wind, reaching seawater masses far away from its source. The deposition of the aerosols on the ocean surface can alter the abundance of chemical species in the water column and contribute to element inventories in seafloor sediments. A major Saharan dust intrusion into the Western Mediterranean Sea was recorded at the DYFAMED site (Ligurian Sea) in 20th February 2004. We determined the influence of this dust event on the concentration of 30 minor and trace level elements (TE) in sinking particles collected by sediment traps deployed at 200 m and 1000 m depth, and how a dust flux event like this contributed to the exchange of TE, including Fe, with the water column during major dust events. With coupled sediment traps and aerosol samples, we assessed the short-term implications of dust events in the water column. The event produced a flux of fast (&gt;111 m d(-1)) and slow ( &lt; 20 m d(-1)) sinking dust particles, detected during 3 weeks at 200 m and 4 weeks at 1000 m depth. Additionally, the obtained results of element concentrations and particles flux show that a single dust deposition event can produce a sinking flux equivalent to annual deposition rates of elements relevant to biogeochemical cycles and/or pollution studies: (&gt;60% for Cr and Cu, &gt;70% for Al, &gt; 80% for Ni and Zn, &gt; 90% for V and Mn, &gt; 100% for Fe and Pb). The corresponding Enrichment Factors (EF) for the minor and TE analyzed in the sediment traps during the dust event were calculated. EF was used to determine how minor and trace element concentrations in sinking particles vary. The values ranged between 0.35 and 421 in both 200 m and 1000 m sediment traps. For most of the analyzed elements, the obtained EF values were higher than 1. On the contrary, V, Y, Zr, Nb, and Ce showed EF similar to 1 while Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, and Pb showed EF &lt; 1. Despite the variability in the EF values, vertical fluxes integrated during the dust deposition event increased from 200 m to 1000 m, except for I, which decreased. This contrasts strongly with the element fluxes integrated for the complete sampling period, which decrease or increase from 200 m to 1000 m, depending on the element. This suggests that sinking dust particles were acting generally as sinks of the TE. We conclude that, apart from I, a substantial portion of the elements from atmospheric dust input from a single deposition event can reach the mesopelagic layer of the Western Mediterranean basin without increasing the budget of those elements in the water column.

  • 141.
    Lundberg, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kinh Settlers in Viet Nam’s Northern Highlands: Natural Resources Management in a Cultural Context2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the Kinh (or Viet) majority people who have migrated from the lowland Red River Delta to the mountainous areas of northern Viet Nam, and their adjustment to a new social and physical environment. Its aim is to analyse the social and cultural consequences for these migrants when settling in communities populated with people who belong to the national ethnic minorities (the Tày, the Giay and the Ngan peoples).

    Focus is on impacts in new interactive situations. The case is a special one in that it focuses on majority people's adaptation to minorities, and to a lesser extent vice versa. The Kinhs' view of how a "civilised" landscape ought to look like and how to utilise the natural resources therein demonstrated to be a central theme when discussing restructuring of the migrants' livelihood. This fact indicates the cultural dimension in the exploitation of the natural landscape and the reconstruction of the subsistence system. In the process of adaptation to a new social environment (as well as to a new physical one), social interactions between the Kinh and the ethnic minorities have proven to be important steps towards integration. One factor that turned out to be decisive in the integration process is the harmonising of life cycle ceremonies (especially weddings and funerals) between the Kinh and the minorities.

    New knowledge is accumulated locally, based on pooled experience. The study concerns how new knowledge on natural resources management is formed through a mixture of the migrants' knowledge from the Red River Delta and the minorities' knowledge of the local area. With a background in the delta area the Kinh brought the old knowledge of advanced wet rice production with them when migrating to the highlands.

    The facts show that the influence on the subsistence system has not been a one-way flow. That is, not only has the Kinh changed the minorities' agriculture system, but also the minorities' systems have had an impact on the Kinhs' system so that it now is more adapted to the conditions in the highlands.

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  • 142.
    Lundqvist, Johan
    et al.
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Andersson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Johannisson, Anders
    SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lavonen, Elin
    Norrvatten, Solna.
    Mandava, Geeta
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Oskarsson, Agneta
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Innovative drinking water treatment techniques reduce the disinfection-induced oxidative stress and genotoxic activity2019Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 5, s. 182-192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Disinfection of drinking water using chlorine can lead to the formation of genotoxic by-products whenchlorine reacts with natural organic matter (NOM). A vast number of such disinfection by-products(DBPs) have been identified, making it almost impossible to routinely monitor all DBPs with chemicalanalysis. In this study, a bioanalytical approach was used, measuring oxidative stress (Nrf2 activity),genotoxicity (micronucleus test), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation to evaluate an innovativewater treatment process, including suspended ion exchange, ozonation, in-line coagulation,ceramic microfiltration, and granular activated carbon. Chlorination was performed in laboratory scaleafter each step in the treatment process in order to investigate the effect of each treatment process to theformation of DBPs. Suspended ion exchange had a high capacity to remove dissolved organic carbon(DOC) and to decrease UV absorbance and Nrf2 activity in non-chlorinated water. High-dose chlorination(10 mg Cl2 L-1) of raw water caused a drastic induction of Nrf2 activity, which was decreased by 70% inwater chlorinated after suspended ion exchange. Further reduction of Nrf2 activity following chlorinationwas achieved by ozonation and the concomitant treatment steps. The ozonation treatment resulted indecreased Nrf2 activity in spite of unchanged DOC levels. However, a strong correlation was found betweenUV absorbing compounds and Nrf2 activity, demonstrating that Nrf2 inducing DBPs were formedfrom pre-cursors of a specific NOM fraction, constituted of mainly aromatic compounds. Moreover, highdosechlorination of raw water induced genotoxicity. In similarity to the DOC levels, UV absorbance andNrf2 activity, the disinfection-induced genotoxicity was also reduced by each treatment step of theinnovative water treatment technique. AhR activity was observed in the water produced by the conventionalprocess and in the raw water, but the activity was clearly decreased by the ozonation step inthe innovative water treatment process.

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    fulltext
  • 143.
    López Lora, Mercedes
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för diagnostik och specialistmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Univ Seville, Spain.
    Chamizo, Elena
    Univ Seville, Spain.
    Levy, Isabelle
    IAEA, Monaco.
    Christl, Marcus
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Casacuberta, Nuria
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Kenna, Timothy C.
    Columbia Univ, NY 10027 USA.
    U-236, Np-237 and Pu-239,Pu-240 as complementary fingerprints of radioactive effluents in the western Mediterranean Sea and in the Canada Basin (Arctic Ocean)2021Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 765, artikel-id 142741Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of combining the conservatively behaving anthropogenic radionuclides U-236 and Np-237 to gain information on the origin of water masses tagged with liquid effluents from Nuclear Reprocessing Plants. This work includes samples collected from three full-depth water columns in two areas: i) the Arctic Ocean, where Atlantic waters carry the signal of Sellafield (United Kingdom) and La Hague (France) nuclear reprocessing facilities; and ii) the western Mediterranean Sea, directly impacted by Marcoule reprocessing plant (France). This work is complemented by the study of the particle-reactive Pu isotopes as an additional fingerprint of the source region. In the Canada Basin, Atlantic waters showed the highest concentrations and Np-237/U-236 ratios in agreement with the estimated values for North Atlantic waters entering the Arctic Ocean and tagged with the signal of European Nuclear Reprocessing Plants. These results may reflect the impact of the documented releases for the 1990s. In the Mediterranean Sea, an excess of U-236 presumably caused by Marcoule is reflected in the lower Np-237/U-236 ratios compared to the Global Fallout signal in all the studied samples. On the contrary, the Pu-239,Pu-240 profiles were mainly governed by the Global Fallout. The impact of Marcoule as a local source is further corroborated when comparing the temporal evolution of these ratios between 2001 and 2013. The lowest Np-237/U-236 ratios observed in 2001 at the surface reflect a previous local input that is no longer observed in 2013 as it had been homogenized through the whole water column. This work presents the use of Np-237 as a new ocean tracer. A more accurate characterization of the main sources is still needed to optimize the use of U-236-Np-237 as a new tool to understand transient oceanographic processes. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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    fulltext
  • 144.
    Löfgren, Tora
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ekonomisk värdering av Göta Kanal med Contingent Valuation Method2001Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande uppsats syftar till att tillämpa Contingent Valuation Method på den kollektiva nyttigheten Göta Kanal, för att därigenom erhålla en värdering av det svenska folkets betalningsvilja för kanalen.

    Undersökningen omfattar två urvalsgrupper, riket och närområdet, om 1.500 personer vardera. Svarsfrekvensen för riksurvalet var 53,2 procent och för närområdet 64,8 procent. Frågeställningarna i vår enkät diskuteras utifrån de svar som inkommit. Fler belopp hade med fördel kunnat användas, exempelvis 300 kronor. Fyra grupper identifieras med avseende på om respondenten besökt Göta Kanal, samt om respondenten tror sig vilja besöka Göta Kanal under de kommande fem åren. De fyra grupperna används i kapitel sju för att urskilja respondenter med endast existensvärde från respondenter med framtida värde och framtida värde samt användarvärde.

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    Ekonomisk värdering av Göta Kanal med Contingent Valuation Method
  • 145.
    Löwgren, Marianne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kostnader för miljöskydd i Göta kanal2001Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Göta kanal studeras ur ett materialflödesperspektiv (Löwgren, 1988). Kanalen betraktas som ett mycket avlångt avrinningsområde, en korridor där påverkan både från båttrafiken på kanalen och från besökare längs stränderna inräknas. De fysiska gränserna är inte alldeles klara, men diskussionen koncentreras på åtgärder för att ta hand om  restprodukterna från turismen som kan vara av direkt betydelse för vattenkvaliteten i kanalen.

    Näringsbelastningen från turismen uppskattas med hjälp av litteraturdata på mänsklig ”produktion” av kväve och fosfor, multiplicerad med antalet besöksdygn per säsong. Naturligtvis är tillförlitligheten i en sådan beräkning helt beroende av hur väl antalet besökare och besökens längd kan beräknas, och resultaten får inte betraktas som alldeles exakta,  men det är intressant att ändå försöka skapa en bild av vad bidragen från turistströmmen betyder för näringsbalansen i området. Information om antalet besökare, besökens typ och längd samlas in genom intervjuer med personal på kanalkommunernas miljöskyddsförvaltningar respektive turistbyråer och från en tidigare studie.

    Data om kostnader för att ta hand om avlopp och avfall i hamnarna längs kanalen skattas främst genom intervjuer med nyckelpersoner i företaget. De senaste åren har betydande ansträngningar gjorts för att ta hand om avlopp och avfall i hamnarna längs kanalen. Tekniskt rör det sig främst om att ansluta besökarna till den befintliga infrastrukturen.Tyvärr finns inte kostnaderna separat redovisade i den utsträckning som skulle behövas för en mera ingående analys. Referensvärden har då hämtats från VAV, Svenska Vatten- och Avloppsverksföreningen, DRIVA-projektet (VAV, 99).

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    Kostnader för miljöskydd i Göta kanal
  • 146.
    Machado-Silva, Fausto
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil; Univ Toledo, OH 43606 USA.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Miranda, Marcio
    Univ Fed Rondonia, Brazil; Inst Fed Educ Ciencia & Tecnol Rondonia, Brazil.
    Peixoto, Roberta Bittencourt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil; Univ Toledo, OH 43606 USA.
    Marotta, Humberto
    Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Dark carbon fixation in stream carbon cycling2023Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Headwater streams are often characterized by turbulence, organic matter inputs from terrestrial systems, net heterotrophy, and the microbial loop supplying carbon and energy for consumers. However, ecological models overlook dark carbon fixation (DCF), the light-independent inorganic carbon uptake, mainly based on chemosynthesis, using energy yields from redox reactions. The quantification of microbial biomass production, including DCF, heterotrophic production (HP), gross primary production (GPP), and ecosystem respiration (ER) in lotic aquatic systems, has long yet to be addressed. Here, we investigate HP and DCF in water, sediment, and litter in addition to GPP and ER from streams in pristine rainforests in three distinct sub-basins of the Amazon River, assessing the variety of turbid, black, and clear waters. We observed mean (min-max) values of microbial biomass production of about 0.1 (0.02-1.2), 3.2 (0.8-14.1), and 0.1 (0.02-0.5) mg C m-2 h-1 in water, sediment, and litter samples, in which DCF : HP showed mean (min-max) values of 0.5 (0.2-2), 0.02 (0.001-0.07), and 0.2 (0.001-0.5). Hence, measurements yielded DCF of similar magnitude as HP in water and litter but significantly lower in sediment, indicating that DCF supplied more carbon to planktonic and litter microbes than in top sediments of streams. Literature comparisons show similar DCF and GPP, both being lower than ER in streams. Finally, we found stream DCF higher than in lentic systems, suggesting that flow and turbulence may accelerate chemosynthesis.

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  • 147.
    MacIntyre, Sally
    et al.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Arneborg, Lars
    Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst, Sweden.
    Crowe, Adam T.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Andersson, Andreas
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Mid Sweden Univ, Sweden.
    Gålfalk, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rutgersson, Anna
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Podgrajsek, Eva
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Melack, John M.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.
    Turbulence in a small boreal lake: Consequences for air-water gas exchange2021Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 66, nr 3, s. 827-854Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The hydrodynamics within small boreal lakes have rarely been studied, yet knowing whether turbulence at the air-water interface and in the water column scales with metrics developed elsewhere is essential for computing metabolism and fluxes of climate-forcing trace gases. We instrumented a humic, 4.7 ha, boreal lake with two meteorological stations, three thermistor arrays, an infrared (IR) camera to quantify surface divergence, obtained turbulence as dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy (epsilon) using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter and a temperature-gradient microstructure profiler, and conducted chamber measurements for short periods to obtain fluxes and gas transfer velocities (k). Near-surface epsilon varied from 10(-8) to 10(-6) m(2) s(-3) for the 0-4 m s(-1) winds and followed predictions from Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The coefficient of eddy diffusivity in the mixed layer was up to 10(-3) m(2) s(-1) on the windiest afternoons, an order of magnitude less other afternoons, and near molecular at deeper depths. The upper thermocline upwelled when Lake numbers (L-N) dropped below four facilitating vertical and horizontal exchange. k computed from a surface renewal model using epsilon agreed with values from chambers and surface divergence and increased linearly with wind speed. Diurnal thermoclines formed on sunny days when winds were &lt; 3 m s(-1), a condition that can lead to elevated near-surface epsilon and k. Results extend scaling approaches developed in the laboratory and for larger water bodies, illustrate turbulence and k are greater than expected in small wind-sheltered lakes, and provide new equations to quantify fluxes.

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  • 148.
    Marks, John
    et al.
    European Science Foundation.
    Sennerby Forsse, Lisa
    Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Science and Spatial Planning.
    Hagman, Micael
    Swedish Ministry of the Environment.
    Panel Comments2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Available as sound file only.

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    Panel Comments
  • 149.
    Masuda, L. S. M.
    et al.
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Benthic microalgae community response to flooding in a tropical salt flat2016Ingår i: Brazilian Journal of Biology, ISSN 1519-6984, E-ISSN 1678-4375, Vol. 76, nr 3, s. 577-582Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research evaluated the effect of flooding on the microphytobenthos community structure in a microbial mat from a tropical salt flat. Field samples were collected during four consecutive days: on the first three days the salt flat was dry, on the fourth day it was flooded by rain. In order to evaluate the community maintained in flood conditions, samples from this area were collected and kept in the laboratory for 10 days with sea water. The results of total abundance of microphytobenthos varied from 4.2 x 10(8) to 2.9 x 10(9) organisms L-1, total density increased one order of magnitude under the effect of water for both situations of precipitation in the salt flat and in experimental conditions, an increase due to the high abundance of Microcoleus spp. Shannon index (H) was higher during the desiccation period. Our data suggest that changes in the abundance of organisms were due to the effect of water. The dominance of the most abundant taxa remained the same under conditions of desiccation and influence of water, and there is probably a consortium of microorganisms in the microbial mat that helps to maintain these dominances.

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  • 150.
    Metson, Genevieve
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Natl Acad Sci, DC 20418 USA; US EPA, OR 97333 USA; Washington State Univ, WA 98686 USA.
    Lin, Jiajia
    Natl Acad Sci, DC 20418 USA; US EPA, OR 97333 USA; Oak Ridge Inst Sci & Educ, OR USA.
    Harrison, John A.
    Washington State Univ, WA 98686 USA.
    Compton, Jana E.
    US EPA, OR 97333 USA.
    Where Have All the Nutrients Gone? Long-Term Decoupling of Inputs and Outputs in the Willamette River Watershed, Oregon, United States2020Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 125, nr 10, artikel-id e2020JG005792Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Better documentation and understanding of long-term temporal dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in watersheds is necessary to support effective water quality management, in part because studies have identified time lags between terrestrial nutrient balances and water quality. We present annual time series data from 1969 to 2012 for terrestrial N and P sources and monthly data from 1972 to 2013 for river N and P for the Willamette River Basin, Oregon, United States. Inputs to the watershed increased by factors of 3 for N and 1.2 for P. Synthetic fertilizer inputs increased in total and relative importance over time, while sewage inputs decreased. For N, increased fertilizer application was not matched by a proportionate increase in crop harvest; N use efficiency decreased from 69% to 38%. P use efficiency increased from 52% to 67%. As nutrient inputs to terrestrial systems increased, river concentrations and loads of total N, total P, and dissolved inorganic P decreased, and annual nutrient loads were strongly related to discharge. The N:P ratio of both sewage and fertilizer doubled over time but there was no similar trend in riverine export; river N:P concentrations declined dramatically during storms. River nutrient export over time was related to hydrology and waste discharge, with relatively little influence of watershed balances, suggesting that accumulation within soils or groundwater over time is mediating watershed export. Simply managing yearly nutrient balances is unlikely to improve water quality; rather, many factors must be considered, including soil and groundwater storage capacity, and gaseous loss pathways.

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