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  • 101.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nählinder, Staffan
    Alfredson, Jens
    SAAB.
    Svensson, Erland
    The quasi-dynamic approach to measuring complex systems2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the Europe Chapter Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) conference 2009, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 102.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nählinder, StaffanFOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.Svensson, ErlandFOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Assessing Command and Control Effectiveness: Dealing with a changing world2014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing Command and Control Effectiveness: Dealing with a Changing World offers a description of the current state of Command and Control (C2) research in imperfect settings, showing how a research process should assess, analyse and communicate results to the development cycle of methods, work, manning and C2-technology. Special attention is given to the development of C2 research methods to meet the current and coming needs. The authors also look forward towards a future where effective assessment of C2 abilities are even more crucial, for instance in agile organisations.

    The purpose of the C2 research is to improve the process and make it more effective while still saving time and money. Research methods have to be chosen carefully to be effective and simple, yet provide results of high quality. The methodological concerns are a major consideration when working under such circumstances. Furthermore, there is often a need for a swift iterative development cycle, and thus a demand to quickly deliver results from the research process. This book explains how field research experimentation can be quick, simple and effective, being able to draw valid conclusions even when sample sizes are small and resources are limited, collecting empirical data using measures and procedures that are minimally intrusive.

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  • 103.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Jonathan
    FOI.
    Hörberg, Ulf
    Jonsson, Sandra
    Höglund, Fredrik
    Shared priorities as a measure of shared understanding2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the Europe Chapter Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) conference 2009, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 104.
    Bergman, Lise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Långtidseffekter av Internetbaserad KBT vid social fobi2006Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Social fobi är en av de vanligaste ångestsjukdomarna. Rädsla och oro i sociala situationer och prestationsrelaterade dito är utmärkande för dessa individer. Social fobi tenderar, om den inte behandlas, att bli kronisk och det finns indikatorer på att tillståndet förvärras över tid. Idag finns behandlingar som ger goda utfall direkt efter avslut, men huruvida behandlingseffekterna håller i sig över längre tid är mer höljt i dunkel. Internetadministrerade självhjälpsbehandlingar har en möjlighet att öka tillgängligheten för denna klientgrupp och det är då av vikt att den är av god kvalitet. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka behandlingseffekterna 30 månader efter avslutad Internetadministrerad KBT inom ramen för SOFIE (SOcial Fobi behandling via Internet i kombination med Exponering) projektet (n = 54), samt att undersöka om det fanns någon skillnad mellan att få tillägget telefonkontakt (n = 28) med sin terapeut eller ej (n = 26). Via internet genomfördes uppföljningsmätningar med SPSQ (Social Phobia Scale Questionnaire), SPS (Social Phobia Scale), SIAS (Social Interaction Anxiety Scale), LSAS-SR (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale - Self Rated), QOLI (Quality of Life Inventory), MADR-S (Montgomery Åsberg Depresssion Rating Scale), BAI (Beck Anxiety Inventory), samt att en telefonadministrerad SCID-intervju (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV) för att fastställa diagnos och samtidig CGI-skattning (Clinical Global Improvment) genomfördes. Data beräknades med upprepade ANOVA och efterföljande t-test. Samtliga resultat baserades på intention-to-treat värden. Medelvärdet av inomgruppseffektstorlekarna för samtliga utfallsmått är stor, med telefonkontakt (SOFIE 2), d = 0.93, utan telefonkontakt (SOFIE 2.5), d = 1.52, vid jämförelsen mellan förmätning och 30-månadersmätning. Direkt efter avslutad behandling i SOFIE 2.5 uppfyllde, 31 % av deltagarna inte längre diagnosen social fobi, för SOFIE 2 var andelen 38 %. I föreliggande mätning uppfyller 56% inte längre diagnosen social fobi enligt DSM-IV, om beräkning sker konservativt (annars 84%). CGI visade att procentandelen som förbättrats stort sedan behandlingens påbörjande var 66.7% för SOFIE med telefonkontakt, respektive 70% för SOFIE utan telefonkontakt. Det fanns ingen signifikant skillnad mellan grupperna, men SPSQ visade på en fördel för gruppen som inte erhöll telefonkontakt med sin terapeut. Slutsatsen blir att deltagarnas förbättring håller i sig över tid samt att de fortsatt att förbättras oavsett grupp.

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  • 105. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Individually tailored internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rädsla är en medfödd känsla och en adaptiv respons för att skydda organismen från potentiell skada. När rädslan blir överdriven och oproportionerlig i relation till den konfronterade situationen, kan det leda till utvecklandet av ångestsyndrom. Många personer upplever någon gång ångest, men inte alla upplever klinisk ångest eller uppfyller de diagnostiska kriterierna för något ångestsyndrom. Trots detta är ångest det vanligaste psykiatriska tillståndet i befolkningen i stort och oftast uppfyller personer som lider av ett ångestsyndrom även andra  psykiatriska tillstånd. Till dags dato har både kognitiva och beteendeinriktade behandlingar testats och visat sig verksamma vid ångestproblem, vilket gjort dem till de behandlingar som rekommenderas för dessa tillstånd. Trots god effekt av behandling söker många patienter ändå inte hjälp, alternativt erhåller inte adekvat behandling.

    En vanlig kritik mot den forskning från vilka behandlingsrekommendationerna för ångestsyndrom stammar är att många använt en manual eller ett protokoll som riktar sig mot bara en diagnos. Detta på grund av den stora komorbiditeten. Ett annat problem kopplat till rekommendationerna att kognitiv beteendeterapi (KBT) ska vara förstahandsval vid behandling av ångest är bristen på behandlare med adekvat utbildning. Ett möjligt sätt att göra KBT mer tillgängligt är att använda Internet. Internet- förmedlad KBT (IKBT) har prövats i ett stort antal studier de senaste 15 åren dessa har visat positiva resultat vid ett stort antal psykiatriska tillstånd. Flertalet av dessa studier har dock använt ett enda behandlingsprotokoll. En annan möjlighet att hantera komorbiditet kan vara att skräddarsy behandlingen för att låta patientens egenskaper och preferenser vara med och styra utformningen av behandlingsprotokollet. Möjliga effekter av att skräddarsy IKBT är relativt lite undersökt, likaså effekterna av terapeutiska relationer i IKBT samt klinisk effektivitet och kostnadseffektiviteten för dessa behandlingar. Denna avhandling bygger på tre studier från två randomiserade kontrollerade studier med samma uppsättning av moduler tillgängliga för att skräddarsy behandlingsprotokollen.

    I Studie I undersöktes behandlingseffekter upp till två år efter avslutad behandling i en självrekryterad grupp patienter. Studie II var en sekundäranalys av behandlingsgruppen från Studie I där eventuella samband mellan arbetsallians och behandlingsresultat undersöktes. Den andra randomiserade kontrollerade studien var en prövning av huruvida denna behandling var effektiv för en klinisk population (Studie III) rekryterad via primärvården. Förutom behandlingseffekter undersöktes även kostnadseffektiviteten upp till ett år efter behandlingsavslut. De slutsatser som dras utifrån dessa studier är att skräddarsydd IKBT verkar vara en framkomlig väg för patienter med ångest oavsett komorbiditet, att arbetsalliansen kan vara en faktor som påverkar utfallet, samt att det är ett ansvarsfullt val vad gäller samhälleliga kostnader.

    Delarbeten
    1. Individually-tailored, Internet-based treatment for anxiety disorders: A randomized controlled trial
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Individually-tailored, Internet-based treatment for anxiety disorders: A randomized controlled trial
    Visa övriga...
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY, ISSN 0005-7967, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 18-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on Internet-based treatment with minimal to moderate therapist guidance have shown promising results for a number of specific diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a new approach to Internet treatment that involves tailoring the treatment according to the patients unique characteristics and comorbidities. A total of 54 participants, regardless of specific anxiety diagnosis, were included after an in-person, semi-structured diagnostic interview and randomized to a 10 week treatment program or to a control group. Treatment consisted of a number of individually-prescribed modules in conjunction with online therapist guidance. Significant results were found for all dependent measures both immediately following treatment and at 1 and 2 year intervals. Mean between-group effect size including measures of anxiety, depression and quality of life was Cohens d = 0.69 at post-treatment, while the mean within-group effect size was d = 1.15 at post-treatment and d = 1.13 and d = 1.04 at 1 and 2 year follow-up respectively. The tentative conclusion drawn from these results is that tailoring the Internet-based therapy can be a feasible approach in the treatment of anxiety in a homogeneous population.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam., 2011
    Nyckelord
    Anxiety, Depression, Effectiveness, Internet-based treatment
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66957 (URN)10.1016/j.brat.2010.10.002 (DOI)000287061500003 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-03-23 Skapad: 2011-03-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2014-11-28
    2. Role of the Working Alliance on Treatment Outcome in Tailored Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Role of the Working Alliance on Treatment Outcome in Tailored Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 15, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) is a form of guided self-help that has been found to be effective for addressing several problems. The target for this type of therapy is usually restricted to one specific disorder. Tailoring the treatment widens the scope of ICBT in that it can address comorbid conditions directly.

    Objectives: The working, or therapeutic, alliance has been found to predict outcome in studies of face-to-face therapy. The extent to which these findings apply to ICBT is largely unknown. We therefore decided to find out whether the working alliance could predict outcome in tailored ICBT for anxiety disorders.

    Methods: Data were obtained from the treatment group (n=27) in a randomized controlled trial aiming to test the effects of tailored ICBT for anxiety disorders. The forthcoming study was designed to test the hypothesis that the working alliance measured both pre-treatment and early in treatment (week 3) can predict treatment outcome as measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) in a heterogeneous group of patients with anxiety disorders (n=27).

    Results: Working alliance measured at week 3 into the treatment correlated significantly with the residual gain scores on the primary outcome measure (r=-.47, P=.019, n=25), while expected working alliance pre-treatment did not (r=-.17, P=.42, n=27).

    Conclusions: These results raise questions about the importance of working alliance in ICBT treatments, and suggest that the working alliance could be important in ICBT.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Journal of Medical Internet Research / Gunther Eysenbach, 2013
    Nyckelord
    tailored Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy, anxiety disorders, working alliance, prediction
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90686 (URN)10.2196/resprot.2292 (DOI)000315113200008 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research|2008-1145|

    Tillgänglig från: 2013-04-05 Skapad: 2013-04-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of individually tailored Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders in a primary care population: A randomized controlled rial
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of individually tailored Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders in a primary care population: A randomized controlled rial
    Visa övriga...
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 59, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A significant proportion of the general population suffers from anxiety disorders, often with comorbid psychiatric conditions. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been found to be a potent treatment for patients with specific psychiatric conditions. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ICBT when tailoring the treatment to address comorbidities and preferences for primary-care patients with a principal anxiety disorder. One hundred participants were recruited through their primary-care contact and randomized to either treatment or an active control group. The treatment consisted of 7–10 weekly individually assigned modules guided by online therapists. At post-treatment, 46% of the treatment group had achieved clinically significant improvement on the primary outcome measure (CORE-OM) and between-group effect sizes at ranged from d = 0.20 to 0.86, with a mean effect of d = 0.59. At one-year follow-up, within-group effect sizes varied between d = 0.53 to 1.00. Cost analysis showed significant reduction of total costs for the ICBT group, the results were maintained at one-year follow-up and the incremental  costeffectiveness ratio favored ICBT compared to control group. Individually tailored ICBT is an effective and cost-effective treatment for primary-care patients with anxiety disorders with or without comorbidities.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2014
    Nyckelord
    Primary care, anxiety, depression, comorbidity, Internet-administered cognitive behaviour therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, cost-effectiveness
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100964 (URN)10.1016/j.brat.2014.05.007 (DOI)000340224000001 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-11-15 Skapad: 2013-11-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-12-02Bibliografiskt granskad
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    Individually tailored internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders
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  • 106.
    Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hedman, Erik
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Etienne, Julie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bodin, Jessica
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kadowaki, Åsa
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Eriksson, Stina
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindkvist, Emelie
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of individually tailored Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders in a primary care population: A randomized controlled rial2014Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 59, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant proportion of the general population suffers from anxiety disorders, often with comorbid psychiatric conditions. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been found to be a potent treatment for patients with specific psychiatric conditions. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ICBT when tailoring the treatment to address comorbidities and preferences for primary-care patients with a principal anxiety disorder. One hundred participants were recruited through their primary-care contact and randomized to either treatment or an active control group. The treatment consisted of 7–10 weekly individually assigned modules guided by online therapists. At post-treatment, 46% of the treatment group had achieved clinically significant improvement on the primary outcome measure (CORE-OM) and between-group effect sizes at ranged from d = 0.20 to 0.86, with a mean effect of d = 0.59. At one-year follow-up, within-group effect sizes varied between d = 0.53 to 1.00. Cost analysis showed significant reduction of total costs for the ICBT group, the results were maintained at one-year follow-up and the incremental  costeffectiveness ratio favored ICBT compared to control group. Individually tailored ICBT is an effective and cost-effective treatment for primary-care patients with anxiety disorders with or without comorbidities.

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    fulltext
  • 107.
    Bergman, Penny
    et al.
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinst, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tajadura-Jimenez, Ana
    University of Loyola Andalucia, Spain.
    Asutay, Erkin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Auditory-Induced Emotion Mediates Perceptual Categorization of Everyday Sounds2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, nr 1565Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that emotion categorization plays an important role in perception and categorization in the visual domain. In the present paper, we investigated the role of auditory-induced emotions for auditory perception. We further investigated whether the emotional responses mediate other perceptual judgments of sounds. In an experiment, participants either rated general dissimilarities between sounds or dissimilarities of specific aspects of sounds. The results showed that the general perceptual salience map could be explained by both the emotional responses to, and perceptual aspects of, the sounds. Importantly, the perceptual aspects were mediated by emotional responses. Together these results show that emotions are an integral part of auditory perception that is used as the intuitive basis for categorizing everyday sounds.

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    fulltext
  • 108.
    Bergmark, Karin
    et al.
    Gynecological Oncology, Department of Oncology and Pathology Radiumhemmet , Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Oncology and Pathology, Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology , Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åvall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Gynecological Oncology, Department of Oncology and Pathology Radiumhemmet , Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dickman, Paul W
    Department of Oncology and Pathology, Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, and Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics , Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Gynecological Oncology, Department of Oncology and Pathology Radiumhemmet , Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Urology , Karolinska University Hospital , Huddinge, Sweden.
    Henningsohn, Lars
    Gynecological Oncology, Department of Oncology and Pathology Radiumhemmet , Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden.
    Synergy between sexual abuse and cervical cancer in causing sexual dysfunction.2005Ingår i: Journal of sex & marital therapy, ISSN 0092-623X, E-ISSN 1521-0715, Vol. 31, nr 5, s. 361-83Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiencing a sexual abuse creates a life-long traumatic memory. The life-long effect of such abuse on sexuality, well-being, the risk of contracting cervical cancer, or problems after treatment for cervical cancer is not known. A population-based follow-up study in 1996-97 that used an anonymous postal questionnaire for data collection, 256 women with stage IB-IIA cervical cancer registered in 1991-92 in Sweden, and 350 women without cervical cancer frequency matched for age and region of residence, provided information. Among the women with a history of cervical cancer and the control women, 46 (18%) and 50 (15%), respectively, reported a history of sexual abuse. The follow-up was 1-70 years after the sexual abuse. The relative risk (with 95% confidence interval) of decreased well-being was 2.4 (1.1-5.2) among controls and 2.7 (1.1-6.4) among former cervical cancer patients. A history of both sexual abuse and cervical cancer gave a relative risk of 30.0 (7.0-129.0) for superficial dyspareunia. Sexual abuse increased the risk of sexual problems after treatment. The sexually abused cervical cancer patients were generally less willing than other patients to trade off possible maximal survival and forgo parts of the treatment. A history of sexual abuse and cervical cancer are both independent risk factors for sexual dysfunction and decreased well-being, and there may be a large synergy when both factors are combined. Diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer may be improved by recognition of a sexual abuse history.

  • 109.
    Bergqvist, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Förebildsanalys som grund i agil utveckling: en studie i prioritering av bruksegenskaper2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att utveckla ett program som lyckas uppfylla alla förväntningar som en användare kan ha är svårt.Att utveckla ett program som lyckas uppfylla vissa av alla de förväntningar en användare kan ha ärbetydligt mycket lättare. Men att kunna hitta just de egenskaperna som gör att en användare inteblir besviken utan nöjd med ett program är en svår process. Ett sätt att hitta de egenskaperna kanvara genom att nyttja en användarcentrerad metod som extrem programmering. Agil utvecklingoch extrem programmering har som område fokuserat relativt lite på användarnöjdhet som måttför att avgöra om ett program är lyckat eller ej.Med detta som bakgrund har ett utvecklingsprojekt tagit form med syfte att utveckla ettmodelleringsverktyg för analysmetoden FRAM. I detta projekt har en metod bestående av delsförebildsanalys och agil utveckling legat som grund. För att gruppera och prioriteraprogramegenskaper har Kanos modell för kundnöjdhet använts.Uppsatsen visar att en metod som grundar sig i förebildsanalys kan användas för att ta fram demest basala egenskaperna hos en artefakt. Detta i kontrast till viss agil utveckling ska det visa sig.Uppsatsen visar även på att den tillgängliga tiden för ett utvecklingsprojekt kan vara avgörande förvilka sorts egenskaper man utvecklar

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 110.
    Bergstad, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Granli, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Thinking about Disabilities in a Primary Inclusive Education Class in Vietnam2004Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    This Minor Field Study was undertaken in theoutskirts of Hanoi, Vietnam during September and October 2003. The aim was to explore what 10-11 year old primary school children think about disabilities in an Inclusive Education class, i.e. a class with non-disabled children and children with disabilities (CwD). Sixteen children, including four CwD, were interviewed in a semi-structured way. The children mentioned physical disabilities more often than "mental" or "learning" disabilities even though three of the CwD had those kinds of disabilities. More than half the sample seem to think about war-related causes of disabilities. Many interviewees also mentioned that other children treat CwD both "well" and "badly". Some girls and no boys mentioned that they feel sympathy for and want to help persons with disabilities. One-fourth of the children seem to think of disabilities as a deviation.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 111.
    Bergström, Linn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Gösta Ekmans Laboratorium, Psykologiska Institutionen, Stockholms Universitet.
    Is Visual Stimuli Neighboring Attended Stimuli Suppressedin High Perceptual Load?: A Steady State Evoked Potential Study2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptual load theory, together with the surround-suppression model suggest that stimulus surrounding attended stimuli is suppressed, especially if perceptual load is high. This study attempts to map surround-suppression using electroencephalography to measure neural activity related to suppression at four surrounding locations (2°, 3°, 4° and 6° from fixation). Color and orientation was used to manipulate load, and the effect of load was controlled through behavioral and neural measures using event related potentials. Our results demonstrate no statistically supported effect of load in behavioral data or SSVEP data, but unexplained increased neural amplitude of an early visual component (i.e. N1) in the (hypothesized) low load condition.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    2016_IsVisualStimuliNeighboringAttendedStimuliSuppressedinHighPerceptualLoad_LinnBergstrom
  • 112.
    Bergwall, Kajsa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hansson-Malmlöf, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Förändringsprocesser i acceptance and commitment therapy för personer med hörselnedsättning: - en randomiserad kontrollerad studie2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige beräknas 17 % av befolkningen ha en hörselnedsättning, vilket innebär att det är den vanligaste sensoriska funktionsnedsättningen. Idag finns det en mängd studier som visar att hörselnedsättning är relaterat till sämre psykisk hälsa. Acceptans av sin hörselnedsättning har visat sig vara positivt för hörselnedsatta och samvarierar med hjälpsökande. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) är en transdiagnostisk behandling där psykopatologi antas bero på en hög grad av upplevelsemässigt undvikande och fusion med tankar. Målet i ACT är att öka psykologisk flexibilitet där acceptans är en betydande komponent. Denna explorativa studie undersökte förändringsprocesser i ACT för personer med hörselnedsättning där utfallet var känslomässig och social anpassning för hörselnedsättningen (HHIE-S). De förändringsprocesser som prövades var acceptans (HAQ), som tidigare visat på medierande effekt för ACT, samt två alternativa förändringsprocesser; self-efficacy (HSE-4) och upplevd stress (PSS-4). Behandlingen bestod av åtta internetadministrerade moduler givna med behandlarstöd där veckovisa mätningar av förändringsprocesser och utfall användes. Studiens resultat visar att behandlingsgruppen upplevde marginellt signifikant mindre problem med känslomässig och social anpassning för hörselnedsättningen (HHIE-S). Studiens resultat pekar på att hörselrelaterad acceptans (HAQ) och self- efficacy (HSE-4) medierar behandlingens effekt på deltagarnas känslomässiga och sociala anpassning för hörselnedsättning (HHIE-S). Således tillför denna studie ytterligare belägg för acceptans som förändringsprocess i ACT. Även self-efficacy kan vara en intressant mediator att beakta i fortsatt forskning. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Bergwall, K. & Hansson-Malmlöf, J. (2014). Förändringsprocesser i acceptance and commitment therapy för personer med hörselnedsättning - en randomiserad kontrollerad studie.
  • 113.
    Bershad, Anya K.
    et al.
    Univ Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Mayo, Leah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Van Hedger, Kathryne
    Univ Western Ontario, Canada.
    McGlone, Francis
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, England; Univ Liverpool, England.
    Walker, Susannah C.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, England.
    de Wit, Harriet
    Univ Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Effects of MDMA on attention to positive social cues and pleasantness of affective touch2019Ingår i: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 44, nr 10, s. 1698-1705Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychostimulant drug +/- 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) reportedly produces distinctive feelings of empathy and closeness with others. MDMA increases social behavior in animal models and has shown promise in psychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). How it produces these prosocial effects is not known. This behavioral and psychophysiological study examined the effects of MDMA, compared with the prototypical stimulant methamphetamine (MA), on two measures of social behavior in healthy young adults: (i) responses to socially relevant, "affective" touch, and (ii) visual attention to emotional faces. Men and women (N = 36) attended four sessions in which they received MDMA (0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg), MA (20 mg), or a placebo in randomized order under double-blind conditions. Responses to experienced and observed affective touch (i.e., being touched or watching others being touched) were assessed using facial electromyography (EMG), a proxy of affective state. Responses to emotional faces were assessed using electrooculography (EOG) in a measure of attentional bias. Subjective ratings were also included. We hypothesized that MDMA, but not MA, would enhance the ratings of pleasantness and psychophysiological responses to affective touch and increase attentional bias toward positive facial expressions. Consistent with this, we found that MDMA, but not MA, selectively enhanced ratings of pleasantness of experienced affective touch. Neither drug altered the ratings of pleasantness of observed touch. On the EOG measure of attentional bias, MDMA, but not MA, increased attention toward happy faces. These results provide new evidence that MDMA can enhance the experience of positive social interactions; in this case, pleasantness of physical touch and attentional bias toward positive facial expressions. The findings are consistent with evidence that the prosocial effects are unique to MDMA relative to another stimulant. Understanding the behavioral and neurobiological processes underlying the distinctive social effects of MDMA is a key step to developing the drug for psychiatric disorders.

  • 114.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Baguley, David M.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; Nottingham Biomed Res Ctr, England; Univ Nottingham, England; Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India; Manipal Univ, India.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Long-Term Efficacy of Audiologist-Guided Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Tinnitus2018Ingår i: American Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1059-0889, E-ISSN 1558-9137, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 431-447Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term outcomes 1 year after undertaking an audiologist-guided Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) intervention for tinnitus. Secondary aims were to identify any predictors of outcome and whether there were any unwanted events related to undertaking iCBT for tinnitus. Method: Participants who had previously undertaken a randomized iCBT efficacy trial for tinnitus were invited to participate. Of the 146 who were initially randomized for the efficacy trial, 104 participants completed the 1-year post-intervention assessment measures. The primary outcome was a change in tinnitus distress as assessed by the Tinnitus Functional Index. Secondary assessment measures were included for insomnia, anxiety, depression, hearing handicap, hyperacusis, cognitive failures, and satisfaction with life. An intention-to-treat analysis using repeated-measures analysis of variance and hierarchical multiple regression was used for statistical analysis. Unwanted effects were categorized according to the unwanted events checklist. Results: Undertaking iCBT for tinnitus led to significant improvements 1 year post-intervention for tinnitus and related difficulties, for example, insomnia, anxiety, depression, hearing handicap, hyperacusis, and life satisfaction. The best predictors of improving tinnitus severity at 1-year post-intervention were greater baseline tinnitus severity scores, reading more of the modules, and higher satisfaction with the intervention. Unwanted events were reported by 11% of the participants and were more likely to be reported by women than men. These events were related to worsening of symptoms, the emergence of new symptoms, negative well-being, and prolongation of treatment. Conclusions: The clinical benefits of audiologist-guided iCBT for tinnitus and tinnitus-related difficulties were sustained 1 year post-intervention. Predictors of outcome indicated that the intervention is applicable to a wide range of participants regardless of their demographic backgrounds. Attempts should be made to minimize unwanted events in subsequent trials.

  • 115.
    Beukes, Eldré W
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK; Lamar University, Beaumont, TX, USA.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Lamar University, Beaumont, TX, USA; Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India; Audiology India, Mysore, Karnataka, India.
    Baguley, David M
    Ropewalk House, Nottingham, UK; University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    Allen, Peter M
    Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Internet-based interventions for adults with hearing loss, tinnitus and vestibular disorders: a protocol for a systematic review2018Ingår i: Systematic Reviews, E-ISSN 2046-4053, Vol. 7, nr 1, artikel-id 205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Internet-based interventions are emerging as an alternative way of delivering accessible healthcare for various conditions including hearing and balance disorders. A comprehensive review regarding the evidence-base of Internet-based interventions for auditory-related conditions is required to determine the existing evidence of their efficacy and effectiveness. The objective of the current protocol is to provide the methodology for a systematic review regarding the effects of Internet-based interventions for adults with hearing loss, tinnitus and vestibular disorders.

    METHOD: This protocol was developed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses for Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 guidelines. Electronic database searches will include EBSCOhost, PubMed and Cochrane Central Register performed by two researchers. This will be complemented by searching other resources such as the reference lists for included studies to identify studies meeting the eligibility for inclusion with regard to study designs, participants, interventions, comparators and outcomes. The Cochrane risk of bias tool (RoB 2) for randomised trials will be used for the bias assessments in the included studies. Criteria for conducting meta-analyses were defined.

    DISCUSSION: The result of this systematic review will be of value to establish the effects of Internet-based interventions for hearing loss, tinnitus and vestibular disorders. This will be of importance to guide future planning of auditory intervention research and clinical services by healthcare providers, researchers, consumers and stakeholders.

    SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018094801.

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    fulltext
  • 116.
    Beukes, Eldré W.
    et al.
    Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, United Kingdom.
    Vlaescu, George
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya K. C.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710, USA.
    Baguley, David M.
    Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, United Kingdom Audiology Department, Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, United Kingdom Vision and Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, United Kingdom.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Division of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Development and technical functionality of an Internet-based intervention for tinnitus in the UK2016Ingår i: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 6, s. 6-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Creative approaches to improve access to evidence-based tinnitus treatments are required. The purpose of this study was to develop an Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) intervention, for those experiencing tinnitus in the United Kingdom (UK). Furthermore, it aimed, through technical functionality testing, to identify specific aspects of the iCBT that require improving.

    Method

    An innovative iCBT intervention for treating tinnitus in the UK has been developed using a cognitive-behavioural theoretical framework. This iCBT was evaluated by two user groups during this developmental phase. Initially, five expert reviews evaluated the intervention, prior to evaluation by a group of 29 adults experiencing significant levels of tinnitus distress. Both groups evaluated iCBT in an independent measures design, using a specifically designed satisfaction outcome measure.

    Results

    Overall, similar ratings were given by the expert reviewers and adults with tinnitus, showing a high level of satisfaction regarding the content, suitability, presentation, usability and exercises provided in the intervention. The iCBT intervention has been refined following technical functionality testing.

    Conclusions

    Rigorous testing of the developed iCBT intervention has been undertaken. These evaluations provide confidence that further clinical trials can commence in the UK, to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of this iCBT intervention for tinnitus.

  • 117. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Fats in Mind: Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cognition and Behaviour in Childhood2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna avhandling var att undersöka möjliga effekter av omega-3 fettsyror för barns kognition och beteende. Både kortsiktiga och långsiktiga effekter undersöktes och studierna involverade både barn med typisk utveckling och barn med ADHD.

    De specifika syftena var att undersöka; (1) amning i relation till barns kognitiva utveckling; (2), relationen mellan långa fleromättade fettsyror (LCPUFA) i mammans bröstmjölk och barns kognition; (3) effekter på kognition och beteenden hos barn med ADHD av ett EPA tillskott; (4) om LCPUFA hade några differentiella effekter på arbetsminne, inhibering eller Theory of Mind (ToM).

    De huvudsakliga slutsatserna var följande; (1) amningslängden var positivt korrelerad med barnens intelligenskvot (IK); (2) LCPUFA i bröstmjölken var associerad med barnens ToM och IK, kvoten DHA/AA, tillsammans med amningslängd och graviditetslängd förklarade 76% av variansen i totala IK; (3) subgrupper av barn med ADHD svarade på EPA behandlingen med signifikant reducerade symptom, men för hela gruppen med ADHD hittades inga effekter; (4) ToM var relaterat till LCPUFA, men inga andra kognitiva mått som arbetsminne, inhibering eller problemlösning.

    Sammanfattningsvis indikerar dessa resultat att fettsyrestatus i bröstmjölk påverkar generell kognitiv förmåga, samt ToM, hos barn 6,5 år gamla. Korttidsintervention med omega-3 fetter påverkar inte kognition hos skolbarn med ADHD, men minskar kliniska symptom skattade i lärarskattningsskalor. Vidare indikerar resultaten att ”heta” exekutiva funktioner och social kognition kan vara av intresse för framtida forskning.

    Delarbeten
    1. Nutrition and theory of mind: The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the development of theory of mind
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Nutrition and theory of mind: The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the development of theory of mind
    2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, ISSN 0952-3278, E-ISSN 1532-2823, Vol. 75, nr 1, s. 33-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Breast-milk provides nutrients required for the development of the brain. n-6 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have been suggested to be particularly involved. In this study levels of fatty acids in breast-milk were examined in relation to theory of mind (ToM) (n=13) and WISC-III (n=22) in six-year-old children. ToM tasks comprised four illustrated stories with questions about emotional (sad) events. Single polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were estimated as well as ratios between different fatty acids in order to describe putative associations between PUFA and psychological measures. Results show correlations between both ToM and WISC-III with single n-6 PUFA and the ratios DHA/AA and DHA/DPA. The correlations remained when socio-demographic factors were statistically controlled for. The positive findings related to the n-6 and n-3 LCPUFAs corroborate previous findings related to child cognitive development. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-50186 (URN)10.1016/j.plefa.2006.04.001 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-11 Skapad: 2009-10-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Breastfeeding, very long polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and IQ at 6 1/2 years of age
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Breastfeeding, very long polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and IQ at 6 1/2 years of age
    2004 (Engelska)Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 93, nr 10, s. 1280-1287Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Breastfeeding seems to be favorable for cognitive development. Could levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) explain this? Methods: Pregnant mothers were recruited consecutively at maternity care centres. PUFA were analysed in colostrum and breast milk at 1 and 3 mo. The product-precursor ratios of n-6+n-3 PUFA were examined as measures of activity in respective steps in the fatty acid metabolic chain. Also, the quotient between DHA and AA was analysed. The children were tested with the full WISC-III at 6.5 y. Results: First, the influence of length of breastfeeding was analysed by multiple regression together with relevant cofactors (except for PUFA). In the best models, 46% of the variation in total IQ was explained. Length of breastfeeding contributed significantly to total IQ (beta = 0.228, p = 0.021), verbal IQ (beta = 0.204, p = 0.040) and performance IQ (beta = 0.210, p = 0.056). There were no significant single correlations between PUFA and measures of cognitive development. However, in multiple regression analysis of colostrum, significant beta-coefficients were found for steps 4+5 in the fatty acid metabolic chain (beta = 0.559, p = 0.002). If length of breastfeeding and gestation week were added to steps 4+5, this three-factor model could explain 67% of the variation of total IQ. Introducing length of breastfeeding and gestation week together with the quotient DHA/AA (beta = 0.510, p < 0.001) yielded a three-factor model, which explained 76% of the variation in total IQ. Conclusion: Our findings could be interpreted as supporting the importance of high levels of PUFA for cognitive development. However, the sample is small and the results must be interpreted with caution.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-22154 (URN)10.1080/08035250410033123 (DOI)1264 (Lokalt ID)1264 (Arkivnummer)1264 (OAI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-07 Skapad: 2009-10-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. EPA supplementation improves teacher-rated behaviour and oppositional symptoms in children with ADHD
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>EPA supplementation improves teacher-rated behaviour and oppositional symptoms in children with ADHD
    Visa övriga...
    2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 99, nr 10, s. 1540-1549Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Measure efficacy of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 0.5 g EPA or placebo (15 weeks) in 92 children (7-12 years) with ADHD. Efficacy measure was Conners Parent/Teacher Rating Scales (CPRS/CTRS). Fatty acids were analysed in serum phospholipids and red blood cell membranes (RBC) at baseline and endpoint with gas chromatography. Results: EPA improved CTRS inattention/cognitive subscale (p = 0.04), but not Conners total score. In oppositional children (n = 48), CTRS total score improved andgt;= 25% in 48% of the children receiving EPA vs. 9% for placebo [effect size (ES) 0.63, p = 0.01]. In less hyperactive/impulsive children (n = 44), andgt;= 25% improvement was seen in 36% vs. 18% (ES 0.41, n.s.), and with both these types of symptoms 8/13 with EPA vs. 1/9 for placebo improved andgt;= 25% (p = 0.03). Children responding to treatment had lower EPA concentrations (p = 0.02), higher AA/EPA (p = 0.005) and higher AA/DHA ratios (p = 0.03) in serum at baseline. Similarly, AA/EPA (p = 0.01), AA/DHA (p = 0.038) and total omega-6/omega-3 ratios (p = 0.028) were higher in RBC, probably because of higher AA (p = 0.011). Conclusion: Two ADHD subgroups (oppositional and less hyperactive/impulsive children) improved after 15-week EPA treatment. Increasing EPA and decreasing omega-6 fatty acid concentrations in phospholipids were related to clinical improvement.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2010
    Nyckelord
    ADHD, Arachidonic acid, DHA, EPA, LCPUFA, RBC, serum phospholipids
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-59732 (URN)10.1111/j.1651-2227.2010.01871.x (DOI)000281556700025 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2010-09-24 Skapad: 2010-09-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. A Placebo controlled, randomized study of PUFA (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids) as treatment for neurodevelopmental problems in 7-year-old children and cognitive performance in relation to an age-matched control group
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Placebo controlled, randomized study of PUFA (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids) as treatment for neurodevelopmental problems in 7-year-old children and cognitive performance in relation to an age-matched control group
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present randomized placebo controlled double-blind study was to investigate the potential effect of PUFA supplementation on cognitive and behavioural performance in children with neurodevelopmental problems at 7 years of age (n = 28) and to compare findings with an age matched healthy control group (n = 20).

    METHODS: Children were screened with parent and teacher rating scales (Conner’s and SNAP-IV), and were included if they showed a range of neurodevelopmental problems that reached ADHD criteria. The group with neurodevelopmental difficulties was randomized to treatment with an EPA rich formula (n = 13) or to placebo (n = 15). Cognitive performance was determined at baseline and after 15 weeks of supplementation with a cognitive test battery including executive function and theory of mind tasks.

    RESULTS: Children with neurodevelopmental problems differed from the control group regarding working memory, inhibition and language ability, but not on an advanced theory of mind task. Regarding the treatment with EPA supplement there were no significant advantages in the active treatment group compared to placebo in any of the cognitive measures or in parents or teacher rating scales.

    CONCLUSION: The significant differences in cognitive performance and rating scales between the group with neurodevelopmental problems and the healthy control group at baseline indicate problems at a clinical level and suitability for treatment. However we found no significant effects of PUFA supplementation. The study is small and limited by a number of drop-outs.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68080 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-05-10 Skapad: 2011-05-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2011-05-10Bibliografiskt granskad
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    Fats in Mind : Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cognition and Behaviour in Childhood
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    COVER01
  • 118.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Per A.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Silfverdal, Sven-Arne
    Division of Paediatrics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Umeå University.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    A Placebo controlled, randomized study of PUFA (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids) as treatment for neurodevelopmental problems in 7-year-old children and cognitive performance in relation to an age-matched control groupManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present randomized placebo controlled double-blind study was to investigate the potential effect of PUFA supplementation on cognitive and behavioural performance in children with neurodevelopmental problems at 7 years of age (n = 28) and to compare findings with an age matched healthy control group (n = 20).

    METHODS: Children were screened with parent and teacher rating scales (Conner’s and SNAP-IV), and were included if they showed a range of neurodevelopmental problems that reached ADHD criteria. The group with neurodevelopmental difficulties was randomized to treatment with an EPA rich formula (n = 13) or to placebo (n = 15). Cognitive performance was determined at baseline and after 15 weeks of supplementation with a cognitive test battery including executive function and theory of mind tasks.

    RESULTS: Children with neurodevelopmental problems differed from the control group regarding working memory, inhibition and language ability, but not on an advanced theory of mind task. Regarding the treatment with EPA supplement there were no significant advantages in the active treatment group compared to placebo in any of the cognitive measures or in parents or teacher rating scales.

    CONCLUSION: The significant differences in cognitive performance and rating scales between the group with neurodevelopmental problems and the healthy control group at baseline indicate problems at a clinical level and suitability for treatment. However we found no significant effects of PUFA supplementation. The study is small and limited by a number of drop-outs.

  • 119.
    Birkehag, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ansvariga mammor, valbara pappor och ojämställda "andra": Psykologers konstruktioner av kön samt etnicitet och ras relaterat till föräldraskap inom barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykologer och barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin kan förstås som delar av de professioner och institutioner som i Sverige är med och formar föräldraskapets innehåll och utformning. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur psykologer inom barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin i Sverige konstruerar kön och etnicitet/ras i relation till föräldraskap samt att undersöka vilken funktion konstruktionerna har för att upprätthålla eller utmana hegemoniska konstruktioner av kön och etnicitet/ras. Tio psykologer verksamma inom barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin intervjuades och materialet analyserades med metoden kritisk diskurspsykologi.

    Resultatet visade att psykologer konstruerar kön som att moderskap består av självklar och nödvändig närvaro och faderskap av valbar, positiv och kompletterande närvaro. Moderskap konstrueras vidare som tillgänglighet och omsorgsfullhet, och som en möjlig orsak till barnets problem eller psykiska ohälsa. Psykologerna konstruerar även föräldrarnas kön heteronormativt samt konstruerar kön relaterat till föräldraskap som könsneutralt. Psykologerna konstruerar etnicitet/ras relaterat till föräldraskap som att etnicitet inte har någon betydelse, varvat med en konstruktion av ”vi mot dem”, där svenskar ställs mot icke-europeiska föräldrar, och där ”de andras” familjerelationer konstrueras som präglade av könsmakt. Konstruktionernas funktion diskuteras och värdera slutligen.

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  • 120.
    Birze, Arija
    et al.
    Univ Toronto, Canada.
    LeBlanc, Vicki
    Univ Ottawa, Canada.
    Regehr, Cheryl
    Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Paradis, Elise
    Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Einstein, Gillian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Genus. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Univ Toronto, Canada.
    The "Managed" or Damaged Heart? Emotional Labor, Gender, and Posttraumatic Stressors Predict Workplace Event-Related Acute Changes in Cortisol, Oxytocin, and Heart Rate Variability2020Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, artikel-id 604Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vital to the everyday operation of police services, police communicators (911 call-takers and dispatchers) are persistently subject to imminent challenges in the workplace; they must always be prepared to engage and deal with a wide variety of circumstances that provoke various intense emotions and physiological stress responses. Acute changes in cortisol, oxytocin, and heart rate variability are central to adaptive responses in stressful complex social interactions, but they might also be indicative of physiological dysregulation due to long-term psychosocial stress exposures. Thus, we examine acute stress-induced release of peripheral oxytocin and cortisol along with changes in heart rate variability, and how each relates to persistent workplace stressors and symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Findings indicate chronic forms of gendered workplace stress such as emotional labor, gender role stress and, posttraumatic stress each have differential associations with, and predict physiological responses to, acutely stressful events in the workplace. These associations suggest potential mechanisms through which communicators become more vulnerable to developing stress-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress injuries, especially after cumulative traumatic exposures in this context. The results also suggest potential pathways for the biological embedding of stressful gendered workplace experiences.

  • 121.
    Bjerkander, Rasmus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Welin, Camilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    SOLUS 2.0: KOGNITIV BETEENDETERAPI OCH INTERPERSONELL PSYKOTERAPI MOT OÖNSKAD ENSAMHET: – En randomiserad kontrollerad studie av internetbehandling mot ensamhet2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Loneliness is associated with a wide range of mental and physical health issues across all groups in society. The condition has been subject to previous research, though few treatments have been designed and tested. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) and internet-based interpersonal psychotherapy (IIPT) with a randomized controlled design. Potential effects on quality of life and comorbid symptoms were also analyzed. Eventual differences in effect between the treatments were analyzed with an exploratory purpose.

    The 116 participants were randomized to ICBT (n = 46), IIPT (n = 46) or a control group (n = 24) where participants were put on a waitlist. Loneliness, quality of life and comorbid symptoms were measured in all groups before and after a nine-week treatment period. At post-measure, the ICBT-group reported significantly lower loneliness (Hedges g = 0.93) and significantly higher quality of life (Hedges g = 0.73) than the control group. No significant differences were found between the IIPT-group and the control group or between the ICBT-group and the IIPT-group. Future research should replicate this study with a larger sample to detect any smaller treatment effects. The results of the SOLUS-study show great potential for ICBT as a treatment for loneliness and calls for further research on the effects of IIPT against loneliness.

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  • 122.
    Bjerke, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Modifying Heuristic Evaluation for assessing the usability of TV-interaction devices2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    There are a several methods to evaluate usability of systems with graphical user interfaces (GUIS). However, effective methods for evaluating non-GUI interaction devices in the domain of Interactive Television are presently not available. This thesis presents a modified Heuristic Evaluation method for rapid inspection of non-GUI TV-interaction devices such as remote controls. Additionally, to enable the evaluators to more easily think from a user perspective when performing the evaluation, the persona method was also evaluated for use in this domain. The modified Heuristic Evaluation method was evaluated in an actual development project where engineers applied the method on remote control prototypes. The result suggests that the method can be used effectively by engineers and that it identifies usability problems appropriately. The persona approach seemed to provide little support to the engineers in terms of evaluating this type product.

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  • 123.
    Bjurling, Oscar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Weilandt, Jacob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Implementing the Endeavor Space Dimensions: Towards an understanding of perceived complexity in C2 operations2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge of operating and managing complex and dynamic environments, known as complex endeavors, has become a central issue in the C2 research community. NATO research groups have studied how to combat the negative effects of endeavor complexity on performance. Essential to these efforts is the study of C2 Agility, which is the ability of an entity to cope with change and employ different C2 approaches based on the requirements imposed by—and changes in—the current operational environment. An important aspect in accomplishing this research goal is to study how operational environments are constituted, as this would enable research into how the effectiveness of different C2 approaches is affected by different endeavors. The Endeavor Space model, which represents endeavor complexity in three dimensions, was developed for this purpose. In an effort to continue research on the Endeavor Space, the current study set out to implement the dimensions in a C2 research platform called ELICIT. Three ELICIT scenarios were created to represent different regions of the Endeavor Space. Additionally, the study designed, developed, and tested a prototype self-assessment instrument—the ESSAI—to capture how the Endeavor Space dimensions—Tractability, Dynamics, and Dependencies—were experienced by operators. Eight teams completed the scenarios and rated their complexity using the ESSAI. No significant differences in perceived complexity could be found between the scenarios. However, all Endeavor Space dimensions indicated correlational relationships with perceived difficulty, and most of them correlated with ELICIT performance. This is indicative of underlying patterns that were not thoroughly revealed in the current study. Implications and improvements for future research are discussed.

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  • 124.
    Bjärehed, Marlene
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik.
    Sjögren, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Statistik och maskininlärning.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Bullying and moral disengagement mechanisms2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 125.
    Bjärehed, Marlene
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Statistik och maskininlärning.
    Gianluca, Gini
    University of Padova.
    Sjögren, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik.
    Bullying perpetration and victimization and their associations with warm student–teacher relationship, individual and collective moral disengagement, and collective efficacy in a sample of Swedish fourth grade students: A multi-level analysis2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 126.
    Bjärehed, Marlene
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Statistik och maskininlärning. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gini, Gianluca
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement and their Associations with Indirect Bullying, and Pro-Aggressive Bystander Behavior2020Ingår i: Journal of Early Adolescence, ISSN 0272-4316, E-ISSN 1552-5449, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 28-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the links between seven specific mechanisms of moral disengagement and indirect bullying, direct bullying, and pro-aggressive bystander behavior. In addition, the moderating role of gender on these associations was examined. Participants were 317 Swedish students in Grades 4 to 8 (𝑋⎯⎯⎯age=12.6X¯age=12.6, SD = 1.35; 62% girls). Multivariate multiple regression analyses showed that indirect bullying was predicted by gender and victim attribution. Direct bullying was predicted by moral justification, and for girls, by victim attribution. Pro-aggressive bystander behavior was predicted by diffusion of responsibility, victim attribution, gender, and age. That is, boys and younger students were more prone to take the aggressor’s side compared with girls and older students. Furthermore, the relation between pro-aggressive bystander behavior and distortion of consequences appeared stronger in boys than in girls. These results highlight the relative importance of specific moral disengagement mechanisms and may have implications for interventions targeting bullying.

  • 127.
    Björck, Therese
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hägg, Amanda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    ”HON KAN ÅKA TILLSJUKHUSET OCH FÅ BEBISFRÖN DÄR”: hur barn till frivilligt ensamstående mammor och till olikkönade sammanboende föräldrapar pratar om tillblivelse2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie kan ses som en del av barndomsforskningen, där barn betraktas som kompetenta aktörer vars rösterförtjänar att lyftas fram. Syftet var att undersöka hur barn i olika familjeformer pratar om tillblivelse. Intervjuer har genomförts med sammanlagt 22 barn varav elva kom från familjer med en sammanboende mamma och pappa som har fått barn genom samlag (relationsbarn) och de andra elva kom från familjer med en ensamstående mamma som har fåttbarn på egen hand med hjälp av assisterad befruktning (femmisbarn). Barnens ålder varierade från tre år och tio månader till nio år och nio månader. En semistrukturerad intervjuguide låg till grund för intervjuerna där barnen ombads prata om tillblivelse, den egna tillblivelsen, tidigare kunskap om tillblivelse, känslor och åsikter inför ämnet samt kunskapskällor kring tillblivelse. Barnens berättelser har analyserats utifrån kritisk diskursiv psykologi.Resultatet visar att både femmisbarnen och relationsbarnen pratar om befruktning i olika former. De flesta pratar om en eller flera förutsättningar att bli till på, vilka alla var bundna till familjeform. Majoriteten av relationsbarnen och en del av femmisbarnen pratar utifrån en heteronormativ tvåsamhet. Många femmisbarn pratar även utifrån sitt eget tillblivelsesätt, assisterad befruktning, och talar dels utifrån att detta sätt är ett fullgott förstahandsalternativ och dels utifrån att det är ett andrahandsalternativ till att få barn genom den heteronormativa tvåsamheten. Flera av både femmisbarnen och relationsbarnen pratade kring att få barn på ett sätt som att det är en självklarhet för vuxna.De flesta av barnen pratade om förlossning och nämnde då vården som något centralt, vilken beskrivs antingen som en fixare eller en hjälpare. För femmisbarnen var vården självklar både vid befruktningen och vid förlossningen, medan vården är självklar för relationsbarnen vid förlossningen. De barn som pratar om pappors roll vid förlossningen gör det utifrån att pappor antingen är sekundära och passiva eller att de är hjälpare. Resultatet visar även att det inte finns någon skillnad kring var barnen från de olika familjeformerna har fått sin kunskap om tillblivelse ifrån samt var de skulle ta reda på mer kunskap. Barnen nämner sina mammor, men även skola, kompisar och olika former av media är kunskapskällor för barnen. Många barn pratar utifrån att kunskapen tillhör vuxenvärlden och att barn inte behöver ha kunskap om tillblivelse. Det är ungefär lika förekommande att barnen oavsett familjeformger uttryck för att tillblivelse och tillhörande ämnen på olika sätt är svårt att prata om, som att det är lätt att prata.Utifrån dessa resultat dras slutsatsen att eftersom den heteronormativa tvåsamheten framställs som det självklara, får det till följd att andra tillblivelsesätt betraktas som mindre eftersträvansvärda. I kontakt med barn blir det därför viktigt att förhålla sig till detta och sträva mot att inkludera fler likvärdiga tillblivelsesätt i sitt prat. Mammor beskrivs av barnen från de båda familjeformerna som de primära kunskapsbärarna, medan pappor nästintill helt saknas. Detta tyder på att femmisbarn, i de undersökta åldrarna, har samma tillgång till kunskap om tillblivelse som relationsbarn har. Slutligen konstateras att sexualitet till viss del fortfarande är tabubelagt i samhället, då flera av barnen på olika sätt uttrycker att det finns aspekter av tillblivelse som var svåra att prata om. Denna syn, som också återfinns i samhället, håller troligtvis på att förändras då ungefär lika många barn gav uttryck för att tillblivelse var lätt att prata om.

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  • 128.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lund, Irene
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Anér, Staffan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Adult limb and breast amputees' experience and descriptions of phantom phenomena: a qualitative study2010Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 43-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Phantom phenomena – pain or other sensations appearing to come from amputated body parts – are frequent consequences of amputation and can cause considerable suffering. Also, stump pain, located in the residual limb, is in the literature often related to the phantom phenomena. The condition is not specific to amputated limbs and has, to a lesser extent, been reported to be present after radical surgery in other body parts such as breast, rectum and teeth.

    Multi-causal theories are used when trying to understand these phenomena, which are recognized as the result of complex interaction among various parts of the central nervous system confirmed in studies using functional brain imaging techniques.

    Functional brain imaging has yielded important results, but without certainty being related to phantom pain as a subjective clinical experience.

    There is a wide range of treatment methods for the condition but no documented treatment of choice.

    Aims

    In this study a qualitative, explorative and prospective design was selected, in the aim to understand the patients’ personal experience of phantom phenomena.

    The research questions focused at how patients affected by phantom pain and or phantom sensations describe, understand, and live with these phenomena in their daily life.

    This study expanded ‘phantom phenomena’ to also encompass phantom breast phenomenon. Since the latter phenomenon is not as well investigated as the phantom limb, there is clinical concern that this is an underestimated problem for women who have had breasts removed.

    Methods

    The present study forms the first part of a larger, longitudinal study. Only results associated with data from the first interviews with patients, one month after an amputation, are presented here. At this occasion, 28 patients who had undergone limb amputation (20) or mastectomy (8) were interviewed. The focused, semi-structured interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then analyzed using discourse-narrative analysis.

    Results

    The interviewees had no conceptual problems in talking about the phenomena or distinguishing between various types of discomfort and discomfort episodes. Their experience originated from a vivid, functioning body that had lost one of its parts. Further, the interviewees reported the importance of rehabilitation and advances in prosthetic technology. Loss of mobility struck older amputees as loss of social functioning, which distressed them more than it did younger amputees. Phantom sensations, kinetic and kinesthetic perceptions, constituted a greater problem than phantom pain experienced from the amputated body parts. The descriptions by patients who had had mastectomies differed from those by patients who had lost limbs in that the phantom breast could be difficult to describe and position spatially.

    The clinical implication of this study is that when phantom phenomena are described as everyday experience, they become a psychosocial reality that supplements the definition of phantom phenomena in scientific literature and clinical documentation.

    Conclusions

    There is a need for clinical dialogues with patients, which besides, providing necessary information about the phenomena to the patients creates possibilities for health professionals to carefully listen to the patients’ own descriptions of which functional losses or life changes patients fear the most. There is a need for more qualitative studies in order to capture the extreme complexity of the pain–control system will be highlighted.

  • 129.
    Björnqvist, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Det perifera seendets betydelse bland gångtrafikanter i naturlig miljö2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 12 poäng / 18 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det perifera seendets betydelse och roll bland gångtrafikanter i naturlig miljö är ett område som till stora delar stått outforskat. Tidigare studier har främst fokuserat på uppmätning av periferins egenskaper, gångtrafikanters allmänna visuella beteenden samt studerandet av personer drabbade av naturligt synfältsbortfall. I syfte att undersöka det perifera seendets betydelse bland gångtrafikanter genomfördes ett experiment med 20 deltagare på en parkeringsplats, där huvudrörelser (d.v.s. hur många gånger varje deltagare rörde på huvudet) samt huvudriktningar (d.v.s. i vilken riktning deltagarna rörde huvudet) uppmättes med hjälp av två actionkameror fästa på en hjälm, samt en i handen på försöksledaren som filmade deltagarna bakifrån.

    Experimentet bestod av fyra olika betingelser, där två av dem blockerade det perifera synfältet olika mycket, en under normala synförhållanden samt en där deltagarna fäste blicken på en mobiltelefon under gången. Resultatet visade en signifikant skillnad i antalet huvudrörelser mellan samtliga betingelser. Utöver detta visades en signifikant skillnad i frekvensen av huvudrörelser nedåt vid en jämförelse mellan de tre förstnämnda betingelserna. Efter utfört experiment fick deltagarna dessutom svara på en enkät, vilken bland annat visade att deltagarna själva skattade att betingelsen där deras perifera seende blockerades som mest var svårast att genomföra. En tematisk analys genomfördes även baserat på data från ett tänka-högt-protokoll som deltagarna var uppmanade att föra under experimentets gång. Detta visade bland annat att deltagarna kände att det var enkelt att gå vid normala synförhållanden, att det fanns osäkerhetskänslor och behov av huvudrörelser vid betingelserna där periferin blockerades, samt att många kände ett behov av att lyfta på blicken vid mobiltelefonbetingelsen.

    Slutsatsen som kan dras baserat på resultaten är att det perifera seendet används mycket bland gångtrafikanter i naturlig miljö, vilket dels grundar sig i att deltagarna rörde som mest på huvudet när deras perifera seende blockerades, samt deras egna yttrade tankar. Det som inte kunnat besvaras är exakt hur det perifera seendet används bland gångtrafikanter.

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  • 130.
    Björnstjerna Hjelm, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    En studie om studenters samarbete och grupputveckling vid interprofessionellt problembaserat lärande2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vården blir allt mer specialiserad och antalet professioner ökar. För att vården ska fungera krävs ett utvecklat interprofessionellt samarbete och enligt Världshälsoorganisationen, WHO, är interprofessionell utbildning en av de viktigaste vägarna till effektiv, patientsäker sjukvård. Syftet med denna presentation är att redogöra för en studie om samarbete och grupputveckling i interprofessionellt sammansatta basgrupper vid grundutbildningen till olika vårdprofessioner. Med stöd av SPGR (Systematisera Person – Grupp i Relation) observerades studenternas beteende vid videoinspelade basgruppsmöten under problembaserat lärande (PBL) med fokus på hur professionella roller och stereotyper påverkade basgruppernas samarbete och utveckling. Resultatet visar att samtliga basgrupper utvecklades men på olika sätt. Resultatet visar även att professionella stereotypiska beteenden minskade över tid samt att basgruppshandledarens agerande påverkade grupputvecklingen. En slutsats är att PBL kan vara ett sätt att minska stereotypt beteende i basgrupper och att handledarens stil är en viktig faktor för framgång med tillvägagångssättet. Fokus vid presentationen är att beskriva studien och dess resultat utifrån de gjorda observationerna med SPGR.

  • 131.
    Blane, Alison
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. Curtin University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden; La Trobe University, Australia.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, Sweden.
    Assessing Cognitive Ability and Simulator-Based Driving Performance in Poststroke Adults2017Ingår i: Behavioural Neurology, ISSN 0953-4180, E-ISSN 1875-8584, artikel-id 1378308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving is an important activity of daily living, which is increasingly relied upon as the population ages. It has been well-established that cognitive processes decline following a stroke and these processes may influence driving performance. There is much debate on the use of off-road neurological assessments and driving simulators as tools to predict driving performance; however, the majority of research uses unlicensed poststroke drivers, making the comparability of poststroke adults to that of a control group difficult. It stands to reason that in order to determine whether simulators and cognitive assessments can accurately assess driving performance, the baseline should be set by licenced drivers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess differences in cognitive ability and driving simulator performance in licensed community-dwelling poststroke drivers and controls. Two groups of licensed drivers (37 poststroke and 43 controls) were assessed using several cognitive tasks and using a driving simulator. The poststroke adults exhibited poorer cognitive ability; however, there were no differences in simulator performance between groups except that the poststroke drivers demonstrated less variability in driver headway. The application of these results as a prescreening toolbox for poststroke drivers is discussed.

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  • 132.
    Blom, Anneli
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Kinnander, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Könsperspektiv på stressrelaterad ohälsa hos kvinnor: kvinnors upplevelse av sin diagnos och orsakerna till sin ohälsa2004Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige dominerar kvinnorna sjukskrivningstalet, framförallt då det gäller någon form av stressrelaterad ohälsa. I forskning och offentlig debatt är ofta arbetsrelaterad stress i fokus. Denna studie undersöker hur kvinnor som har fått en stressrelaterad diagnos själva ser på orsakerna till sin ohälsa och till att de fått denna diagnos samt hur diagnosförfarandet kan gå till. Resultatet analyseras ur ett könsperspektiv. I denna kvalitativa studie tillfrågades fem läkare om diagnostisering och åtta kvinnor med någon form av stressrelaterad diagnos intervjuades. Resultatet genomsyras av att kvinnorna beskriver sin livssituation som en kamp på fyra arenor: den personliga, i familjen, på arbetet samt på samhällsarenan. Kampen försvåras av det dubbeltydiga budskap som förmedlas till kvinnor om deras värde och krocken mellan värdeskalorna i det privata och det offentliga livet. Flera känner inte igen sig i den diagnos de får då den antingen förminskar eller förstorar kvinnornas upplevelse. Kanske tydliggör dessa kvinnor att den manliga normen som präglar forskning och diagnoskriterier måste ersättas med en som tar hänsyn till båda könens förutsättningar.

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  • 133.
    Blomberg, Rina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Soderlund, Goran B. W.
    Western Norway Univ Appl Sci, Norway.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Speech Processing Difficulties in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikel-id 1536Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The large body of research that forms the ease of language understanding (ELU) model emphasizes the important contribution of cognitive processes when listening to speech in adverse conditions; however, speech-in-noise (SIN) processing is yet to be thoroughly tested in populations with cognitive deficits. The purpose of the current study was to contribute to the field in this regard by assessing SIN performance in a sample of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparing results with age-matched controls. This population was chosen because core symptoms of ADHD include developmental deficits in cognitive control and working memory capacity and because these top-down processes are thought to reach maturity during adolescence in individuals with typical development. The study utilized natural language sentence materials under experimental conditions that manipulated the dependency on cognitive mechanisms in varying degrees. In addition, participants were tested on cognitive capacity measures of complex working memory-span, selective attention, and lexical access. Primary findings were in support of the ELU-model. Age was shown to significantly covary with SIN performance, and after controlling for age, ADHD participants demonstrated greater difficulty than controls with the experimental manipulations. In addition, overall SIN performance was strongly predicted by individual differences in cognitive capacity. Taken together, the results highlight the general disadvantage persons with deficient cognitive capacity have when attending to speech in typically noisy listening environments. Furthermore, the consistently poorer performance observed in the ADHD group suggests that auditory processing tasks designed to tax attention and working memory capacity may prove to be beneficial clinical instruments when diagnosing ADHD.

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  • 134.
    Blomberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Relationships between organizational factors, bullying occurrence, health factors, and people’s experience of work2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 135.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Carlbring, Per
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Combining attention training with cognitive-behavior therapy in Internet-based self-help for social anxiety: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial2013Ingår i: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 68-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Guided Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) has been found to be effective for social anxiety disorder (SAD) by several independent research groups. However, since the extent of clinically significant change demonstrated leaves room for improvement, new treatments should be developed and investigated. A novel treatment, which has generally been found to be effective, is cognitive bias modification (CBM). This study aims to evaluate the combination of CBM and ICBT. It is intended that two groups will be compared; one group randomized to receiving ICBT and CBM towards threat cues and one group receiving ICBT and control training. We hypothesize that the group receiving ICBT plus CBM will show superior treatment outcomes.

    Methods/design

    Participants with SAD (N = 128), will be recruited from the general population. A composite score combining the scores obtained from three social anxiety questionnaires will serve as the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures include self-reported depression and quality of life. All treatments and assessments will be conducted via the Internet and measurement points will be baseline, Week 2, post-treatment, and 4 months post-treatment.

    Discussion

    There is no direct evidence of the effects of combining CBM and ICBT in SAD. Adding attention-training sessions to ICBT protocols could increase the proportion of participants who improve and recover through Internet-based self-help.

    Trial registration

    ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01570400

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  • 136.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Free Univ Berlin, Germany.
    Magnusson, Kristoffer
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Marklund, Arvid
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Berglund, Ellinor
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Blomdahl, Rikard
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Braun, Ulrike
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Delin, Lovisa
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Lunden, Charlotte
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Sjoblom, Katja
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Sommer, Daniel
    Free Univ Berlin, Germany.
    von Weber, Kaspar
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Adding a smartphone app to internet-based self-help for social anxiety: A randomized controlled trial2018Ingår i: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 87, s. 98-108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Increasing access to treatment via smartphone apps is an important topic in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Challenger is an app promoting exposure exercises in daily life. The present study evaluated the additional benefit of using the app as adjunct to Internet-based unguided self-help for SAD. In a second step, we also tested how the app and the self-help programme (SH) should best be combined. Method: 209 patients diagnosed with SAD were randomly allocated to three groups. Group 1 received the app and the self-help programme for six weeks (parallel treatment), group 2 first received SH for six weeks and then the app for six weeks (sequential treatment). Group 3 was a wait-list group. Comparisons were made at week 7 evaluating the potential add-on effect of the app (SH plus app versus SH only) and at week 14 comparing the parallel to the sequential treatment. Participants filled in questionnaires prior, during, and post treatment, and at 4- and 12- months follow-up. Results: Intention-to-treat analyses showed no significant effect of adding the app to Internet-based self-help. However, among participants actively using the app, adding Challenger to self-help resulted in significantly less social anxiety (d = 0.30). At week 14, decreases in social anxiety were large for both the parallel and the sequential group with no differences between the active groups (d(within) = 1.12-1.19). Changes were maintained throughout the follow-up period. Conclusion: Results of the current study cautiously support the notion of adding a smartphone app to unguided self-help for SAD. Future studies should investigate how patients can be motivated to use the app more frequently. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 137.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden Department of Clinical Psychology, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Germany.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Division of Clinical Psychology, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Side effects in Internet-based interventions for Social Anxiety Disorder2014Ingår i: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 3-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based interventions are effective in the treatment of various mental disorders and have already been integrated in routine health care in some countries. Empirical data on potential negative effects of these interventions is lacking. This study investigated side effects in an Internet-based treatment for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD).

    A total of 133 individuals diagnosed with SAD took part in an 11-week guided treatment. Side effects were assessed as open formatted questions after week 2 and at post-treatment after week 11. Answers were independently rated by two coders. In addition, rates of deterioration and non-response were calculated for primary social anxiety and secondary outcome measures (depression and quality of life).

    In total, 19 participants (14%) described unwanted negative events that they related to treatment. The emergence of new symptoms was the most commonly experienced side effect, followed by the deterioration of social anxiety symptoms and negative well-being. The large majority of the described side effects had a temporary but no enduring negative effect on participants' well-being. At post-treatment, none of the participants reported deterioration on social anxiety measures and 0–7% deteriorated on secondary outcome measures. Non-response was frequent with 32–50% for social anxiety measures and 57–90% for secondary outcomes at post-assessment.

    Results suggest that a small proportion of participants in Internet-based interventions experiences negative effects during treatment. Information about potential side effects should be integrated in patient education in the practice of Internet-based treatments.

  • 138.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden and Freie Universitaet Berlin, Germany.
    Åström, Viktor
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Påhlsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Schenström, Ola
    Mindfulnesscenter AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Internet-based mindfulness treatment for anxiety disorders: a randomized controlled trial2014Ingår i: Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0005-7894, E-ISSN 1878-1888, Vol. 45, nr 2, s. 241-253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mindfulness-based interventions have proven effective for the transdiagnostic treatment of heterogeneous anxiety disorders. So far, no study has investigated the potential of mindfulness-based treatments when delivered remotely via the Internet. The current trial aims at evaluating the efficacy of a stand-alone, unguided, Internet-based mindfulness treatment program for anxiety. Ninety-one participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or anxiety disorder not otherwise specified were randomly assigned to a mindfulness treatment group (MTG) or to an online discussion forum control group (CG). Mindfulness treatment consisted of 96 audio files with instructions for various mindfulness meditation exercises. Primary and secondary outcome measures were assessed at pre-, posttreatment, and at 6-months follow-up. Participants of the MTG showed a larger decrease of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and insomnia from pre- to postassessment than participants of the CG (Cohen's dbetween=0.36-0.99). Within effect sizes were large in the MTG (d=0.82-1.58) and small to moderate in the CG (d=0.45-0.76). In contrast to participants of the CG, participants of the MTG also achieved a moderate improvement in their quality of life. The study provided encouraging results for an Internet-based mindfulness protocol in the treatment of primary anxiety disorders. Future replications of these results will show whether Web-based mindfulness meditation can constitute a valid alternative to existing, evidence-based cognitive-behavioural Internet treatments. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01577290).

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  • 139.
    Bohman, Benjamin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Santi, Alberto
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Psykologpartners Private Practice, Linköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cognitive behavioral therapy in practice: therapist perceptions of techniques, outcome measures, practitioner qualifications, and relation to research.2017Ingår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 46, nr 5, s. 391-403Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has a strong evidence base for several psychiatric disorders, however, it may be argued that currently there is no overall agreement on what counts as 'CBT'. One reason is that CBT is commonly perceived as encompassing a broad range of treatments, from purely cognitive to purely behavioral, making it difficult to arrive at a clear definition. The purpose of the present study was to explore practicing therapists' perceptions of CBT. Three hundred fifty members of two multi-disciplinary interest groups for CBT in Sweden participated. Mean age was 46 years, 68% were females, 63% psychologists and mean number of years of professional experience was 12 years. Participants completed a web-based survey including items covering various aspects of CBT practice. Overall, therapist perceptions of the extent to which different treatment techniques and procedures were consistent with CBT were in line with current evidence-based CBT protocols and practice guidelines, as were therapists' application of the techniques and procedures in their own practice. A majority of participants (78%) agreed that quality of life or level of functioning were the most important outcome measures for evaluating treatment success. Eighty percent of therapists believed that training in CBT at a basic level was a requirement for practicing CBT. There was a medium size Spearman correlation of rs=.46 between the perceived importance of research to practice and the extent to which participants kept themselves updated on research. Implications for training, quality assurance, and the effectiveness of CBT in clinical practice are discussed.

  • 140.
    Boll, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Tångring, Catarina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Jag vill inte vara som, känna att jag är som en terapeut: hur jourkvinnor talar om bemötandet av kvinnor som utsatts för våld i nära relationer2006Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka hur jourkvinnor på två kvinnojourer talar om sin roll som jourkvinna och vad detta får för betydelse för bemötandet och samtalen med de kvinnor som söker sig till kvinnojourerna. Inom ramen för kvalitativ metod har diskursanalys valts som ansats. Data samlades in med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Urvalet utgörs av tolv verksamma jourkvinnor. Analysen resulterade i fyra områden: samtal, de hjälpsökande, gränser samt professionell och icke professionell. Resultatet visar att det finns likheter mellan jourkvinnornas sätt att prata om hur de för samtal och bemöter de hjälpsökande och hur professionella samtal beskrivs i litteratur om behandling. Som följd av att de verkar inom en ideell organisation uppstår svårigheter med till exempel gränssättning. Slutligen problematiseras aspekter av ökad professionalisering inom ideell verksamhet.

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  • 141.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women´s and Children´s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia / School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology: a longitudinal study2016Ingår i: Assistive technology, ISSN 1040-0435, E-ISSN 1949-3614, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 93-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with an AB design was conducted on ten children (aged 1–15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9–11 months, and after 15–20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15–20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance.

  • 142.
    Boström, Kristina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Social Anxiety Disorder, ratings of faces and character strengths: Some insights to their relation2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder has several impairments (including attention bias in ratings of facial expressions). Character strengths has been seen to increase well-being and functioning among healthy individuals. With this in mind, three aims were stated; Is there a relation between SAD and VIA, can this relation be explained by confounding’s and does ratings of faces tell anything about the relation? Data were collected through a survey from 41 participants (13 men) with a mean age of 30 years. Correlation and regression models were performed to see if these constructs were related. The findings showed that character strengths and social anxiety were correlated, and that the regression model did not predict SAD. The regression model for Via were significant with all confounding variables. Ratings of facial expression were not related to any variables. Further studies need to look more into this correlation to see the underpinnings of these constructs.

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  • 143.
    Bouwmeester, S
    et al.
    Erasmus University, The Netherlands.
    Verkoeijen, P. P. J. L.
    Erasmus University, The Netherlands.
    Aczel, B
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Barbosa, F
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Bègue, L
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Brañas-Garza, P
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Chmura, TGH
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Cornelissen, G
    Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Døssing, FS
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Espín, AM
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Evans, AM
    Tilburg University, The Netherlands.
    Ferreira-Santos, S
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Fiedler, S
    Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Flegr, J
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Ghaffari, M
    Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Glöckner, A
    University of Hagen, Germany; Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Goeschl, T
    University of Heidelberg, Germany.
    Guo, L
    University of California, USA.
    Hauser, OP
    Harvard University, USA.
    Hernan-Gonzalez, R
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Herrero, A
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Horne, Z
    University of Illinois, USA.
    Houdek, P
    University of Economics, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Johannesson, M
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Koppel, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kujal, P
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Laine, T
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Lohse, J
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Martins, EC
    Maia University, Institute ISMI/CPUP, USA.
    Mauro, C
    Catholic University of Portugal, Portugal.
    Mischkowski, D
    University of Hagen, Germany.
    Mukherjee, S
    Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, India.
    Myrseth, KOR
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Navarro-Martínez, D
    Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Neal, TMS
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Novakova, J
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Pagà, R
    Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Paiva, TO
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Palfi, B
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Piovesan, M
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rahal, RM
    Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Salomon, E
    University of Illinois, USA.
    Srinivasan, N
    University of Allahabad, India.
    Srivastava, A
    University of Allahabad, India.
    Szaszi, B
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Szollosi, A
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Thor, K Ø
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Trueblood, JS
    Vanderbilt University, USA.
    van Bavel, JJ
    New York University, USA.
    van ‘t Veer, A. E.
    Leiden University, The Netherlands.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, USA.
    Warner, M
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Wengström, E
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wills, J
    New York University, USA.
    Wollbrant, CE
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; NTNU Business School, Norway.
    Registered Replication Report: Rand, Greene, and Nowak (2012): Multilab direct replication of: Study 7 from Rand, D. G., Greene, J. D., & Nowak, M. A. (2012) Spontaneous giving and calculated greed. Nature, 489, 427–430.2017Ingår i: Perspectives on Psychological Science, ISSN 1745-6916, E-ISSN 1745-6924, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 527-542Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In an anonymous 4-person economic game, participants contributed more money to a common project (i.e., cooperated) when required to decide quickly than when forced to delay their decision (Rand, Greene & Nowak, 2012), a pattern consistent with the social heuristics hypothesis proposed by Rand and colleagues. The results of studies using time pressure have been mixed, with some replication attempts observing similar patterns (e.g., Rand et al., 2014) and others observing null effects (e.g., Tinghög et al., 2013; Verkoeijen & Bouwmeester, 2014). This Registered Replication Report (RRR) assessed the size and variability of the effect of time pressure on cooperative decisions by combining 21 separate, preregistered replications of the critical conditions from Study 7 of the original article (Rand et al., 2012). The primary planned analysis used data from all participants who were randomly assigned to conditions and who met the protocol inclusion criteria (an intent-to-treat approach that included the 65.9% of participants in the time-pressure condition and 7.5% in the forced-delay condition who did not adhere to the time constraints), and we observed a difference in contributions of −0.37 percentage points compared with an 8.6 percentage point difference calculated from the original data. Analyzing the data as the original article did, including data only for participants who complied with the time constraints, the RRR observed a 10.37 percentage point difference in contributions compared with a 15.31 percentage point difference in the original study. In combination, the results of the intent-to-treat analysis and the compliant-only analysis are consistent with the presence of selection biases and the absence of a causal effect of time pressure on cooperation. 

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  • 144.
    Bowers, Hannah M
    et al.
    University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Kendrick, Tony
    University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Glowacka, Marta
    Bournemouth University, Poole, UK.
    Williams, Samantha
    University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Leydon, Geraldine
    University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    May, Carl
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Dowrick, Chris
    University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
    Moncrieff, Joanna
    University College London and North East London mental health trust, London, UK.
    Laine, Rebecca
    University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Nestoriuc, Yvonne
    Helmet Schmidt University, Hamburg, Germany.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Geraghty, Adam W A
    University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Supporting antidepressant discontinuation: the development and optimisation of a digital intervention for patients in UK primary care using a theory, evidence and person-based approach2020Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikel-id e032312Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop a digital intervention to support antidepressant discontinuation in UK primary care that is scalable, accessible, safe and feasible. In this paper, we describe the development using a theory, evidence and person-based approach.

    DESIGN: Intervention development using a theory, evidence and person-based approach.

    SETTING: Primary Care in the South of England.

    PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen participants with a range of antidepressant experience took part in 'think aloud' interviews for intervention optimisation.

    INTERVENTION: Our digital intervention prototype (called 'ADvisor') was developed on the basis of a planning phase consisting of qualitative and quantitative reviews, an in-depth qualitative study, the development of guiding principles and a theory-based behavioural analysis. Our optimisation phase consisted of 'think aloud' interviews where the intervention was iteratively refined.

    RESULTS: The qualitative systematic review and in-depth qualitative study highlighted the centrality of fear of depression relapse as a key barrier to discontinuation. The quantitative systematic review showed that psychologically informed approaches such as cognitive-behavioural therapy were associated with greater rates of discontinuation than simple advice to reduce. Following a behavioural diagnosis based on the behaviour change wheel, social cognitive theory provided a theoretical basis for the intervention. The intervention was optimised on the basis of think aloud interviews, where participants suggested they like the flexibility of the system and found it reassuring. Changes were made to the tone of the material and the structure was adjusted based on this qualitative feedback.

    CONCLUSIONS: 'ADvisor' is a theory, evidence and person-based digital intervention designed to support antidepressant discontinuation. The intervention was perceived as helpful and reassuring in optimisation interviews. Trials are now needed to determine the feasibility, clinical and cost-effectiveness of this approach.

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  • 145.
    Braarud, Hanne C.
    et al.
    Uni Research, Norway .
    Slinning, Kari
    National Network Infant Mental Heatlh, Norway .
    Moe, Vibeke
    National Network Infant Mental Heatlh, Norway .
    Smith, Lars
    National Network Infant Mental Heatlh, Norway .
    Tranaas Vannebo, Unni
    National Network Infant Mental Heatlh, Norway .
    Guedeney, Antoine
    Hospital Bichat Claude Bernhard, France .
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. National Network Infant Mental Heatlh, Norway .
    RELATION BETWEEN SOCIAL WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS IN FULL-TERM AND PREMATURE INFANTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMTOMS IN MOTHERS: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY2013Ingår i: Infant Mental Health Journal, ISSN 0163-9641, E-ISSN 1097-0355, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 532-541Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this longitudinal study was to investigate the prevalence of infants social withdrawal and mothers depressive symptoms in a cohort of full-term infants and their mothers and in a cohort of moderately premature infants and their mothers at 3, 6, and 9 months postpartum. The Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) was used to assess social withdrawal; the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was administered to ascertain postpartum depressive symptoms. The results revealed a higher proportion of premature infants with social withdrawal at 6 months postpartum and significantly higher ADBB composite scores at 3 and 6 months of age, as compared with the full-term infants. A higher proportion of mothers in the premature cohort had symptoms of postpartum depression at the 3-month assessment, and they reported a significantly higher EPDS composite score at 3 months postpartum. There was a significant relation between maternal depressive symptoms at 3 and 6 months and infants social withdrawal at 9 months, and a significant concurrent relation between the two variables at 6 and 9 months in the full-term cohort. The findings suggest a need to screen for both infant social withdrawal and maternal depressive symptoms in moderately prematurely born infants and their caregivers.

  • 146.
    Braarud, Hanne
    et al.
    Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Bergen, Norway.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Moe, Vibeke
    National Network for Infant Mental Health, Norway.
    Slinning, Kari
    National Network for Infant Mental Health, Norway.
    Tranaas-Vannebo, Unni
    National Network for Infant Mental Health, Norway.
    Guedeney, Antoine
    Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard, AP/HP, Paris, France.
    Smith, Lars
    National Network for Infant Mental Health, Norway.
    Early sustained withdrawal in infants, mothers’ mental health, other early risk factors, and socio- emotional outcome in infants2012Ingår i: Infant Mental Health Journal, 33: [Abstract supplement p 64] / [ed] K. Puura, M. Tomkinson, N.W. Boris & M. Sorsa, 2012, s. 64-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The  paper examines the interplay between the biomedical and socioemotional risk factors, i.e. maternal depression and prematurity, as predictors of infant’s sustained withdrawal, and subsequent socioemotional outcomes. The study (n=284) follows the developmental course of infant’s sustained withdrawal during the first year, and illuminates the pathways in which the early adversity possibly compromises the infant’s natural intersubjective skills and motivation.

  • 147.
    Bram, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Lönebrink, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Face Processing Patterns of Persons with Asperger Syndrome: an Eye Tracking Study2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main diagnostic criteria for Asperger Syndrome is a severe social impairment (American Psychiatric Association [DSM-IV-TR] 2000), something that has often been connected to a more specific impairment in facial recognition. However, the main diagnostic tool (the DSM-IV-TR) has received much criticism during later years and is soon to be revised (Woodbury-Smith & Volkmar 2009). Among other things, many researchers claim that the diagnosis should be complemented with a sliding scale of severity (Ring, Woodbury-Smith, Watson, Wheelright & Baron-Cohen 2008). The use of facial information is central in the social interaction of humans, evident in the special patterns of visual scanning that people employ for facial stimuli (Yarbus 1967). Because of that, this symptom of Asperger Syndrome has become a high research priority. The impairment in facial recognition has been connected to a bias towards detail based processing (McPartland, Webb, Keehn & Dawson 2010). A recent study also connects this to an unusually high visual acuity, which could result in a disposition to focus on small facial features. In the present study. facial stimuli were prepared to provoke memory conjunction errors. This type of memory error means that a person erroneously claims to recognize a face assembled by pieces of previously shown stimuli. If a person is more prone to do so, that would imply that he or she is more focused on details than on configural information (Danielsson 2006). Two groups were tested, one consisting of non-diagnosed adults and one of adults diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome. A test for visual acuity was administered, which was followed by a series of facial recognition tasks. Responses in the latter part were given with a computer mouse, and eye fixations were recorded using a head mounted eye-tracking device. Three hypotheses were formulated. First, persons with AS were expected to perform more poorly in all facial recognition tasks. Second, persons with AS were expected to make more conjunction errors than test group subjects. Finally, persons with AS were expected to display a mean visual acuity significantly higher than that of the test group. However, no significant differences emerged between the groups in relation to either of the hypotheses, and results could not be referred to flaws in the experimental setup. Therefore, these results are taken to display the heterogeneity of the Asperger Syndrome population, and possibly the importance of early training measures to compensate for social impairments.

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  • 148.
    Brandberg Grage, Anna Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi.
    När kameleonten möter dronten: Om handledarrollen vid grupphandledning av yrkesverksamma inom människohjälpande yrken2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att i en svensk kontext belysa handledarens roll vid grupphandledning av yrkesverksamma inom människohjälpande yrken, då detta är ett område som endast är sparsamt utforskat. Materialet inhämtades genom semi-­strukturerade intervjuer med nio verksamma handledare med socionom­ eller psykologutbildning. De transkriberade  intervjuerna bearbetades med tematisk analys. Resultatet kan övergripande beskrivas i form av  en modell med fem huvudteman: handledarrollen i modellens centrum, som påverkar och påverkas av förutsättningar, förväntningar, arbetssätt och utvärderingar. Modellen illustrerar hur handledarrollen i all dess komplexitet är produkten av en hel samling olika påverkansfaktorer och beslut, där vissa har sitt ursprung i handledarens egen bakgrund, men många är beroende av det sammanhang i vilket handledaren verkar. Resultatet visar även att handledarna skiljer sig gällande fokus samt prioritering av olika funktioner i handledningen. Det formuleras sällan konkreta mål i handledningen utan innehållet styrs utifrån syfte och förväntningar, och det varierar hur och i vilken grad utvärderingar genomförs.

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  • 149.
    Broström, Filip
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi.
    Självskattad individuell och mellanmänsklig emotionsreglerings förklaringsvärde för relationsnöjdhet i vuxna par2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Emotionsreglering är ett närmast transdiagnostiskt fenomen med relevans för såväl individ- som parrelaterade problembilder. Kopplingar till relationsnöjdhet har tidigare gjorts via observationsstudier på parnivå eller självskattningsstudier på individnivå. Studiens huvudsyfte var att undersöka om mellanmänskliga skattningsskalor för emotionsreglering kan förklara varians i pars relationsnöjdhet utöver den varians som förklaras av en intrapersonell skattningsskala för emotionell dysreglering. Som ett andra syfte översattes och undersöktes två skattningsskalor med potentiell relevans för mellanmänsklig emotionsreglering.

    I studien fyllde ett urval av vuxna par (n = 110) i självskattningsformulär över internet. För att kunna undersöka både egen (aktörens) och partnerns emotionsreglerings inverkan på aktörens relationsnöjdhet användes en actor-partner interdependence model (APIM). En första modell bestående av intrapersonell emotionsreglering visades förklara 19.7% av variansen i relationsnöjdhet, en andra modell som också inkluderade mellanmänskliga mått visade signifikant bättre model-fit och större variansförklaring (64.6%). Effekter på relationsnöjdhet i den andra modellen kom ifrån tre aktörskattade mått och ett partnerskattat mått.

    Adekvat intern konsistens fanns för delskalorna för inre affektförbättrande, yttre affektförbättrande, inre affektförsämrande, yttre affektförsämrande, stoppbeteenden och negativ eskalering, men inte för undfallenhet. Affektförbättrande delskalor och stoppbeteenden visade inga samband med intrapersonell dysreglering.

    Fortsatta undersökningar krävs för att uttala sig om eventuell kausal inverkan på relationsnöjdhet och för att kunna etablera de översatta skalornas validitet och reliabilitet.

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  • 150.
    Bruce, C. R.
    et al.
    La Trobe University, Australia.
    Unsworth, C. A.
    La Trobe University, Australia; CQUniversity, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden; Curtin University, Australia.
    Dillon, M. P.
    La Trobe University, Australia.
    Tay, R.
    RMIT University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. Curtin University, Australia.
    Bird, P.
    Gosforth Clin, Australia.
    Carey, L. M.
    La Trobe University, Australia; Florey Institute Neurosci and Mental Health Neurorehabil and, Australia.
    Hazard perception skills of young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be improved with computer based driver training: An exploratory randomised controlled trial2017Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 109, s. 70-77Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of road traffic injuries than their peers. Increased risk correlates with poor hazard perception skill. Few studies have investigated hazard perception training using computer technology with this group of drivers. Objectives: *Determine the presence and magnitude of the between-group.and within- subject change in hazard perception skills in young drivers with ADHD who receive Drive Smart training. *Determine whether training facilitated change in hazard perception is maintained over time. Methods: This was a feasibility study, randomised control trial conducted in Australia. The design included a delayed treatment for the control group. Twenty-five drivers with a diagnosis of ADHD were randomised to the Immediate Intervention or Delayed Intervention group.The Immediate Intervention group received a training session using a computer application entitled Drive Smart. The Delayed Intervention group watched a documentary video initially (control condition), followed by the Drive Smart computer training session. The participants hazard perception skill was measured using the Hazard Perception Test (HPT). Findings: After adjusting for baseline scores, there was a significant betweengroup difference in post-intervention HPT change scores in favour of the Immediate Intervention group. The magnitude of the effect was large. There was no significant within-group delayed intervention effect. A significant maintenance effect was found at 6 week follow-up for the Immediate Intervention group. Conclusions: The hazard perception skills of participants improved following training with large effect size and some maintenance of gain. A multimodal approach to training is indicated to facilitate maintenance. A full-scale trial is feasible.

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