liu.seSök publikationer i DiVA
Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
123 101 - 121 av 121
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 101.
    Sjögren, Y M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tomicic, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Lundberg, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Fagerås-Böttcher, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Björkstén, B
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sverremark-Ekström, E
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Influence of early gut microbiota on the maturation of childhood mucosal and systemic immune responses2009Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 39, nr 12, s. 1842-1851Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Among sensitized infants, those with high, as compared with low levels, of salivary secretory IgA (SIgA) are less likely to develop allergic symptoms. Also, early colonization with certain gut microbiota, e.g. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium species, might be associated with less allergy development. Although animal and in vitro studies emphasize the role of the commensal gut microbiota in the development of the immune system, the influence of the gut microbiota on immune development in infants is unclear.

    Objective To assess whether early colonization with certain gut microbiota species associates with mucosal and systemic immune responses i.e. salivary SIgA and the spontaneous Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 mRNA expression and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine/chemokine responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).

    Methods Fecal samples were collected at 1 week, 1 month and 2 months after birth from 64 Swedish infants, followed prospectively up to 5 years of age. Bacterial DNA was analysed with real-time PCR using primers binding to Clostridium difficile, four species of bifidobacteria, two lactobacilli groups and Bacteroides fragilis. Saliva was collected at age 6 and 12 months and at 2 and 5 years and SIgA was measured with ELISA. The PBMCs, collected 12 months after birth, were analysed for TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression with real-time PCR. Further, the PBMCs were stimulated with LPS, and cytokine/chemokine responses were measured with Luminex.

    Results The number of Bifidobacterium species in the early fecal samples correlated significantly with the total levels of salivary SIgA at 6 months. Early colonization with Bifidobacterium species, lactobacilli groups or C. difficile did not influence TLR2 and TLR4 expression in PBMCs. However, PBMCs from infants colonized early with high amounts of Bacteroides fragilis expressed lower levels of TLR4 mRNA spontaneously. Furthermore, LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, e.g. IL-6 and CCL4 (MIP-1β), was inversely correlated to the relative amounts of Bacteroides fragilis in the early fecal samples.

    Conclusion Bifidobacterial diversity may enhance the maturation of the mucosal SIgA system and early intense colonization with Bacteroides fragilis might down-regulate LPS responsiveness in infancy.

  • 102.
    Sjögren, Ylva M
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Böttcher, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Karolinska Institute.
    Sverremark-Ekström , Eva
    Stockholm University.
    Altered early infant gut microbiota in children developing allergy up to 5 years of age2009Ingår i: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY, ISSN 0954-7894 , Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 518-526Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Early colonization with bifidobacteria and lactobacilli is postulated to protect children from allergy, while Clostridium (C.) difficile colonization might be associated with allergic disease. Previous studies of infant gut microbiota in relation to subsequent allergy development have mostly employed culture-dependent techniques, studied genera of bacteria and the follow-up period was limited to 2 years.

    To relate gut microbiota in early infancy, notably bifidobacteria and lactobacilli at species level, to allergy development during the first 5 years of life and study if environmental factors influence the early infant gut microbiota.

    Fecal samples were collected at 1 week, 1 month and 2 months after birth from 47 Swedish infants, followed prospectively to 5 years of age. Bacterial DNA was analysed with real-time PCR and related to allergy development, family size as well as endotoxin and Fel d 1 levels in house dust samples. Primers binding to C. difficile, four species of bifidobacteria, two lactobacilli groups and Bacteroides fragilis were used. Children regarded as allergic manifested allergic symptoms and were skin prick test positive during their first 5 years while non-allergic children were neither.

    Children who developed allergy were significantly less often colonized with lactobacilli group I (Lactobacillus (L.) rhamnosus, L. casei, L. paracasei), Bifidobacterium adolescentis and C. difficile during their first 2 months. Infants colonized with several Bifidobacterium species had been exposed to higher amounts of endotoxin and grew up in larger families than infants harbouring few species.

    A more diverse gut microbiota early in life might prevent allergy development and may be related to the previously suggested inverse relationship between allergy, family size and endotoxin exposure.

  • 103.
    Skogman, Barbro H
    et al.
    Falun General Hospital.
    Hellberg, Sandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå University.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Adaptive and Innate Immune Responsiveness to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Exposed Asymptomatic Children and Children with Previous Clinical Lyme Borreliosis2012Ingår i: Clinical & Developmental Immunology, ISSN 1740-2522, E-ISSN 1740-2530, Vol. 2012, nr 294587Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Why some individuals develop clinical manifestations in Lyme borreliosis (LB) while others remain asymptomatic is largely unknown. Therefore, we wanted to investigate adaptive and innate immune responsiveness to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in exposed Borrelia-antibody-positive asymptomatic children (n = 20), children with previous clinical LB (n = 24), and controls (n = 20). Blood samples were analyzed for Borrelia-specific interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-17 secretion by ELISPOT and Borrelia-induced IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12(p70), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) secretion by Luminex. We found no significant differences in cytokine secretion between groups, but a tendency towards an increased spontaneous secretion of IL-6 was found among children with previous clinical LB. In conclusion, the adaptive or innate immune responsiveness to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was similar in Borrelia-exposed asymptomatic children and children with previous clinical LB. Thus, the immunological mechanisms of importance for eradicating the spirochete effectively without developing clinical manifestations of LB remain unknown.

  • 104.
    Stensson, M.
    et al.
    Center of Oral Health, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping.
    Koch, G.
    Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping.
    Coric, S.
    Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Birkhed, D.
    Department of Cariology, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wendt, L.-W.
    Center of Oral Health, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping.
    Oral Administration of Lactobacillus reuteri during the First Year of Life Reduces Caries Prevalence in the Primary Dentition at 9 Years of Age2014Ingår i: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 111-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on oral health, at age 9 years, of daily oral supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri, strain ATCC 55730, to mothers during the last month of gestation and to children through the first year of life. The study was a single-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial involving 113 children: 60 in the probiotic and 53 in the placebo group. The subjects underwent clinical and radiographic examination of the primary dentition and carious lesions, plaque and gingivitis were recorded. Saliva and plaque were sampled for determination of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB) in saliva and plaque as well as salivary secretory IgA (SIgA). Forty-nine (82%) children in the probiotic group and 31 (58%) in the placebo group were caries-free (p < 0.01). The prevalence of approximal caries lesions was lower in the probiotic group (0.67 ± 1.61 vs. 1.53 ± 2.64; p < 0.05) and there were fewer sites with gingivitis compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to frequency of toothbrushing, plaque and dietary habits, but to intake of fluoride supplements (p < 0.05). There were no intergroup differences with respect to L. reuteri, MS, LB or SIgA in saliva. Within the limitation of this study it seems that daily supplementation with L. reuteri from birth and during the first year of life is associated with reduced caries prevalence and gingivitis score in the primary dentition at 9 years of age.

  • 105.
    Svensson Arvelund, Judit
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wendel, Caroline
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Freland, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Geffers, Robert
    Mucosal Immunity, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HCI), Braunschweig, Germany.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Decidual macrophages contribute to the unique leukocyte composition at the fetal-maternal interface by production of IL-35, induction of Treg cells and production of homeostatic chemokines2015Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproductive success depends on the ability of the maternal immune system to adapt in order to tolerate and support the growing semi-allogenic fetus. Macrophages, being a major leukocyte population in the uterine mucosa (decidua), may play a central role in promoting the unique composition and regulatory phenotype of leukocytes that is characteristic for the fetal-maternal interface. We show that decidual macrophages display a predominantly immune regulatory gene profile and produce the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-35 but no other members of the IL-12 family (IL-12, IL-23 and IL-27). Decidual macrophages also promoted the selective expansion of CD25highFoxp3+ Tregs but not of Tbet+ Th1, GATA-3+ Th2 and Rorγt+ Th17 cells. In addition, these macrophages preferentially secreted the monocyte- and Treg-associated chemokines CCL2 and CCL18, while Th1-, Th2- and Th17-related chemokines were produced at low levels. Among in vitro macrophages, distinct chemokine profiles were observed; IL-4/13 upregulated Th2-associated chemokines (CCL17, CCL22, CCL26) while LPS/IFNγ upregulated Th1-associated chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL5). M(IL-10) macrophages (induced by M-CSF and IL-10) showed a chemokine profile similar to that of decidual macrophages, as shown by gene expression and protein analysis. By using M(IL-10) macrophages as a model of decidual macrophages, we show that these cells promote the recruitment of CD14+ monocytes, while migration of several lymphocyte populations was unaltered or prevented. These data implicate decidual macrophages as critical regulators of the decidual leukocyte composition and phenotype that is associated with successful reproduction.

  • 106.
    Svensson, J
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    CD14(+) decidual macrophages from early human pregnancy: expression of markers associated with alternatively activated macrophages and requirements for their polarization2009Ingår i: in JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, vol 81, issue 2, 2009, Vol. 81, nr 2, s. 147-148Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 107.
    Svensson, J
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Mirrasekhian, E
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Freland, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    M-CSF produced by trophoblasts induces CD163, a marker of immune regulatory decidual macrophages in JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, vol 94, issue 1, pp 92-922012Ingår i: JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Elsevier , 2012, Vol. 94, nr 1, s. 92-92Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 108.
    Svensson, Judit
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Bhai Mehta, Ratnesh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Lindau, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Mirrasekhian, Elahe
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Lash, Gendie E.
    Newcastle University, England.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    The Human Fetal Placenta Promotes Tolerance against the Semiallogeneic Fetus by Inducing Regulatory T Cells and Homeostatic M2 Macrophages2015Ingår i: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 194, nr 4, s. 1534-1544Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A successful pregnancy requires that the maternal immune system is instructed to a state of tolerance to avoid rejection of the semiallogeneic fetal-placental unit. Although increasing evidence supports that decidual (uterine) macrophages and regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key regulators of fetal tolerance, it is not known how these tolerogenic leukocytes are induced. In this article, we show that the human fetal placenta itself, mainly through trophoblast cells, is able to induce homeostatic M2 macrophages and Tregs. Placental-derived M-CSF and IL-10 induced macrophages that shared the CD14(+)CD163(+)CD206(+)CD209(+) phenotype of decidual macrophages and produced IL-10 and CCL18 but not IL-12 or IL-23. Placental tissue also induced the expansion of CD25(high)CD127(low)Foxp3(+) Tregs in parallel with increased IL-10 production, whereas production of IFN-gamma (Th1), IL-13 (Th2), and IL-17 (Th17) was not induced. Tregs expressed the suppressive markers CTLA-4 and CD39, were functionally suppressive, and were induced, in part, by IL-10, TGF-beta, and TRAIL. Placental-derived factors also limited excessive Th cell activation, as shown by decreased HLA-DR expression and reduced secretion of Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-associated cytokines. Thus, our data indicate that the fetal placenta has a central role in promoting the homeostatic environment necessary for successful pregnancy. These findings have implications for immune-mediated pregnancy complications, as well as for our general understanding of tissue-induced tolerance.

  • 109.
    Svensson, Judit
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Matussek, Andreas
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping.
    Geffers, Robert
    Mucosal Immunity, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HCI), Braunschweig, Germany.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Gene expression and protein secretion patterns in decidual macrophages and different M1 and M2 macrophage populations with focus on M-CSF and IL-10 as polarising factors in JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, vol 90, issue 2, pp 151-1512011Ingår i: JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Elsevier , 2011, Vol. 90, nr 2, s. 151-151Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: We have recently observed (Svensson et al., data to be published) that M-CSF and IL-10, among several factors tested, are able to induce macrophages (MΦ) with phenotypic characteristics of decidual MΦ with expression of typical M2, or immune regulatory, cell surface markers (scavenger receptor, mannose receptor, DC-SIGN). The aim of this study was to investigate in a comprehensive manner whether this finding could be shown by an extended mapping of secreted molecules and also at the gene expression level.

    Materials and methods: CD14+ blood monocytes and decidual MΦ from healthy first trimester pregnant women (n = 11) were isolated by immunomagnetic cell sorting (MACS). MΦ were also generated in vitro from MACS-sorted CD14+ blood monocytes from non-pregnant women. RNA was isolated from blood monocytes and MΦ and the expression of 100 decidual MΦ-associated genes (Gustafsson et al., PlosOne 2008) was analysed with a custom microarray. RT-PCR was used to analyse the gene expression of IRF5, which was recently associated with classically activated (M1) MΦ. A multiplex bead assay was used to quantify the levels of cytokines and chemokines in conditioned media.

    Results: To estimate the similarity of the in vitro differentiated MΦ with decidual MΦ, we performed hierarchical clustering of differentially regulated genes. M1 MΦ and MΦ treated with GM-CSF and IL-4/13 formed their own branches, indicating transcriptional profiles clearly differing from all other MΦ types analysed. MΦ differentiated with M-CSF alone or with IL-10, regardless of the growth factor used, clustered together with decidual MΦ, supporting their close relationship. Genes similarly regulated in these macrophages were not restricted to immune modulating genes. This group included the M2-associated chemokines CCL2 and CCL18, the immune modulating B7 family-related VSIG4, the angiogenic insulin-like growth factor-1 and the M2-associated folate receptor β-encoding FOLR2 and selenoprotein-encoding SEPP1. The M2 polarisation status of decidual MΦ was confirmed by low expression of the M1-associated transcription factor IRF5, and comparable levels were detected in M-CSF- and IL-10-stimulated MΦ. IRF5 expression was higher in M1 MΦ and, surprisingly, also in IL-4/13-stimulated MΦ. As to protein secretion, decidual and M-CSF/IL-10-stimulated MΦ were found to produce comparable levels of IL-10 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF, while M1 MΦ produced significantly higher levels of TNF and did not produce IL-10. Decidual and M-CSF/IL-10-stimulated MΦ also produced high levels of the monocyte- and granulocyte-recruiting chemokines CCL2, CCL4 and CXCL1, while the Th1 cell-recruiting CXCL10 and the Th2 cell-recruiting CCL22 were only produced at low levels. CXCL10 was highest in M1 MΦ, while CCL22 levels were highest in GM-CSF and/or IL-4/13-stimulated MΦ.

    Conclusions: Our data consistently shows a central role for M-CSF and IL-10 as polarising agents for decidual MΦ, while Th2 and pro-inflammatory agents induce MΦ with clearly differing characteristics. We hypothesise that decidual MΦ have a predominant homeostatic function. This is supported by their low production of both Th1 and Th2 cell-recruiting chemokines. It is thus likely that M-CSF and IL-10 shape the polarisation of decidual MΦ contributing to the homeostatic and tolerant immune environment required for successful fetal development.

  • 110.
    Svensson, Judit
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Matussek, Andreas
    County Hospital Ryhov.
    Geffers, Robert
    Helmholtz Centre Infect Research.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Macrophages at the fetal-maternal interface express markers of alternative activation and are induced by M-CSF and IL-102011Ingår i: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 187, nr 7, s. 3671-3682Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During pregnancy, the maternal immune system is challenged by the presence of the fetus, which must be tolerated despite being semiallogeneic. Uterine mucosal (or decidual) macrophages (Mϕ), one of the major leukocyte populations at the fetal–maternal interface, have been implicated in fetal tolerance, but information regarding their regulation is scarce. In this study, we investigated the role of several factors potentially involved in the differentiation and polarization of decidual Mϕ with an in vitro Mϕ differentiation model. By using flow cytometry, we showed that M-CSF and IL-10 were potent inducers of M2 (immunoregulatory) Mϕ markers expressed on human decidual Mϕ (CD14, CD163, CD206, CD209). In contrast, proinflammatory stimuli, and unexpectedly also the Th2-associated IL-4 and IL-13, induced different patterns of expression, indicating that a Th2-dominated environment is not required for decidual Mϕ polarization. M-CSF/IL-10–stimulated and decidual Mϕ also showed similar cytokine secretion patterns, with production of IL-10 as well as IL-6, TNF, and CCL4. Conversely, the proinflammatory, LPS/IFN-γ–stimulated Mϕ produced significantly higher levels of TNF and no IL-10. We also used a gene array with 420 Mϕ-related genes, of which 100 were previously reported to be regulated in a global gene expression profiling of decidual Mϕ, confirming that M-CSF/IL-10–induced Mϕ are closely related to decidual Mϕ. Taken together, our results consistently point to a central role for M-CSF and in particular IL-10 in the shaping of decidual Mϕ with regulatory properties. These cytokines may therefore play an important role in supporting the homeostatic and tolerant immune milieu required for a successful pregnancy.

  • 111.
    Tomicic, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Johansson, Git
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Voor, Tiia
    Children's Clinic of Tartu University Clinics, Tartu University, Estonia.
    Björksten, Bengt
    Institute of Environmental Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fagerås-Böttcher, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Breast milk cytokine and IgA composition differ in Estonian and Swedish mothers-relationship to microbial pressure and infant allergy2010Ingår i: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 68, nr 4, s. 330-334Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The immune system of the neonate is influenced by maternal immunity during pregnancy and lactation. An altered microbial exposure, possibly underlying the increase of allergic diseases in affluent societies, may affect maternal breast milk immune composition. Secretory IgA (SIgA), IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, TGF-β1, and TGF-β2 were analyzed with ELISA in colostrum and 1-mo mature milk from mothers from Estonia (n = 39) and Sweden (n = 60), the two geographically adjacent countries with different living conditions and allergy incidence. The IL-10 and IFN-γ levels were higher in colostrum from Estonian than Swedish mothers, whereas the opposite was true for TGF-β2. In mature milk, higher SIgA and IFN-γ levels but lower TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 levels were observed in Estonian than Swedish mothers. Interestingly, in Sweden but not Estonia, the TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 levels correlated inversely with environmental endotoxin concentrations, whereas positive correlations to microbial load were observed for IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ. High colostral IL-13 levels were associated with allergic sensitization during infancy in Sweden. In conclusion, Estonian mothers have lower breast milk levels of TGF-β, particularly TGF-β2, but higher levels of SIgA, IL-10, and IFN-γ than Swedish mothers, possibly because of differences in microbial load.

  • 112.
    Tomičić, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Norrman, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Jenmalm, Maria C.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Devenney, Irene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Fagerås Böttcher, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    High levels of IgG4 antibodies to foods during infancy are associated with tolerance to corresponding foods later in life2009Ingår i: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 35-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with eczema and sensitization to foods are recommended skin care and, if food allergy is proven by challenge, an elimination diet. For most children the diet period is transient, but the process behind tolerance development and the influence of decreased allergen exposure is not fully known. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of elimination diet on serum and salivary antibodies and to identify immunological parameters related to the ability to tolerate foods. Eighty-nine children, below 2 yr of age, with eczema and suspected food allergy were included. Recommended treatment was skin care to all children, and 60 children had a period of elimination diet. At 4½ yr of age, the children were divided into two groups, based on if they had been able to introduce the eliminated foods, or not. Serum and salivary antibodies were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and UniCAP® before and after a 6-wk treatment period and at 4½ yr of age. Children sensitized to egg and/or milk that could eat and drink the offending foods at 4½ yr of age, had higher levels of Immunoglobulin G4 antibodies to ovalbumin and β-lactoglobulin and also higher IgG4/Immunoglobulin E ratios on inclusion in the study, than those who had to eliminate egg and/or milk from their diet, beyond 4½ yr of age. The highest IgG4/IgE ratios were found in children with circulating IgE antibodies to egg and/or milk but negative skin prick test on inclusion. The 6-wk treatment period did not significantly affect the levels of serum and salivary antibodies. In conclusion, eczematous, food sensitized infants with high levels of IgG4 and high ratios of IgG4/IgE antibodies to food allergens are more likely to consume these foods at 4½ yr than infants with low levels and ratios.

  • 113.
    von Hertzen, Leena
    et al.
    Yrjo Jahnsson Fdn, Finland; University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Beutler, Bruce
    University of Texas Southwestern, TX USA.
    Bienenstock, John
    McMaster University of Ontario, Canada.
    Blaser, Martin
    NYU, NY USA.
    Cani, Patrice D.
    Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium.
    Eriksson, Johan
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Farkkila, Martti
    University of Helsinki, Finland; Helsinki University Hospital, Finland.
    Haahtela, Tari
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Hanski, Ilkka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kere, Juha
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Knip, Mikael
    University of Helsinki, Finland; Helsinki University Hospital, Finland.
    Kontula, Kimmo
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Ling, Charlotte
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    von Mutius, Erika
    University of Munich, Germany.
    Makela, Mika J.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Paunio, Tiina
    University of Helsinki, Finland; University of Helsinki, Finland; National Institute Health and Welf, Finland.
    Pershagen, Goran
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Renz, Harald
    University of Marburg, Germany.
    Rook, Graham
    UCL, England.
    Saarela, Maria
    VTT Technical Research Centre Finland, Finland.
    Vaarala, Outi
    National Institute Health and Welf, Finland.
    Veldhoen, Marc
    Babraham Institute Cambridge, England.
    de Vos, Willem M.
    University of Helsinki, Finland; University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Helsinki alert of biodiversity and health2015Ingår i: Annals of Medicine, ISSN 0785-3890, E-ISSN 1365-2060, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 218-225Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban living in built environments, combined with the use of processed water and food, may not provide the microbial stimulation necessary for a balanced development of immune function. Many chronic inflammatory disorders, including allergic, autoimmune, metabolic, and even some behavioural disorders, are linked to alteration in the human commensal microbiota. Sedentary lifestyle is associated with reduced exposure to a broad spectrum of environmental micro-organisms and surplus energy balance, both risk factors of chronic inflammatory disorders. According to the Biodiversity Hypothesis, an environment with diverse macrobiota and microbiota modifies and enriches the human microbiota, which in turn is crucial in the development and maintenance of appropriate immune function. These issues were discussed in the symposium Chronic Inflammation, Lifestyle and Environment , held in Helsinki, 20 - 22 August 2014, under the sponsorship of the Yrjo Jahnsson Foundation. This paper briefly outlines the recent findings in the context of the environment, lifestyle, and health; discusses the forces that undermine immune tolerance in urban environments; and highlights the possibilities to restore broken immune tolerance among urban dwellers, summarizing the main messages in four statements and calling for actions to combat major public health threats.

  • 114.
    Voor, Tina
    et al.
    Childrens clinic of Tartu Estonia.
    Julge, Kaja
    Childrens clinic of Tartu, Estonia .
    Fagerås Böttcher, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Björksténs, Bengt
    Institutionen för Miljömedicin KI, Stockholm.
    Atopic sensitization and atopic dermatitis in Estonian and Swedish infants2005Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 153-159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Early life events seem to have a major impact on the development of tolerance or sensitization. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of sensitization and atopic dermatitis (AD) during the first 2 years of life in Estonia and in Sweden. Methods: Two groups comprising 110 Estonian and 123 Swedish infants were followed from birth up to 2 years of age. Data about symptoms of allergy, infections and use of antibiotics were obtained by questionnaires. Clinical examinations, skin prick tests (SPTs) with food and inhalant allergens, and blood sampling for IgE analyses were carried out at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Results: The cumulative incidence of AD and positive SPTs were lower in the Estonian than the Swedish infants (14% vs. 24%, P = 0.06 and 13% vs. 24%, P = 0.03), while circulating IgE antibodies were more common (39% vs. 27%, P = 0.06) and often present without any clinical significance in Estonian children. Estonian infants had respiratory illnesses more often and they had received antibiotics more frequently. Use of antibiotics increased the risk for positive SPT in the Estonian (odds ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.1 - 2.5), but not in the Swedish infants. This may be explained by the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in Estonia, while in Sweden mostly penicillin was prescribed. Conclusions: The prevalence of AD and positive SPTs was lower in the Estonian than the Swedish infants, while circulating IgE antibodies were more common and often present without any clinical significance. These differences cannot simply be explained by infections, or use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in the two countries, although more the natural lifestyle in Estonia may be contributing factor. © 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  • 115.
    Wahlberg, J
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Lindström, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Internmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Endokrin- och magtarmmedicinska kliniken US.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ekman, Bertil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Endokrin- och magtarmmedicinska kliniken US.
    Alterations in the Chemokine Th1/Th2 Balance and Not the Mode of Dosing Hydrocortisone May Explain the Increased Fatigue in Addisons Disease. in ENDOCRINE REVIEWS, vol 31, issue 3, pp2010Ingår i: ENDOCRINE REVIEWS, Endocrine Society , 2010, Vol. 31, nr 3Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 116.
    West, C. E.
    et al.
    World University of Network, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Prescott, S. L.
    World University of Network, Sweden; University of Western Australia, Australia; Princess Margaret Hospital Children, Australia.
    The gut microbiota and its role in the development of allergic disease: a wider perspective2015Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 45, nr 1, s. 43-53Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The gut microbiota are critical in the homoeostasis of multiple interconnected host metabolic and immune networks. If early microbial colonization is delayed, the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) fail to develop, leading to persistent immune dysregulation in mice. Microbial colonization has also been proposed as a major driver for the normal age-related maturation of both Th1 and T regulatory (Treg) pathways that appear important in suppressing early propensity for Th2 allergic responses. There is emerging evidence that resident symbionts induce tolerogenic gut-associated Treg cells and dendritic cells that ensure the preferential growth of symbionts; keeping pathogenic strains in check and constraining proinflammatory Th1, Th2, and Th17 clones. Some effects of symbionts are mediated by short-chain fatty acids, which play a critical role in mucosal integrity and local and systemic metabolic function and stimulate the regulatory immune responses. The homoeostatic IL-10/TGF- dominated tolerogenic response within the GALT also signals the production of secretory IgA, which have a regulating role in mucosal integrity. Contrary to the sterile womb paradigm, recent studies suggest that maternal microbial transfer to the offspring begins during pregnancy, providing a pioneer microbiome. It is likely that appropriate microbial stimulation both pre- and postnatally is required for optimal Th1 and Treg development to avoid the pathophysiological processes leading to allergy. Disturbed gut colonization patterns have been associated with allergic disease, but whether microbial variation is the cause or effect of these diseases is still under investigation. We are far from understanding what constitutes a healthy gut microbiome that promotes tolerance. This remains a major limitation and might explain some of the inconsistency in human intervention studies with prebiotics and probiotics. Multidisciplinary integrative approaches with researchers working in networks, using harmonized outcomes and methodologies, are needed to advance our understanding in this field.

  • 117.
    West, Christina E.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Editorial Material: Transfer of Probiotic Bacteria From Mother to Child: A Matter of Strain Specificity? in JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY AND NUTRITION, vol 61, issue 2, pp 157-1582015Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 157-158Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 118.
    West, Christina E.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Renz, Harald
    University of Marburg, Germany.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kozyrskyj, Anita L.
    University of Alberta, Canada.
    Allen, Katrina J.
    University of Melbourne, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Vuillermin, Peter
    Barwon Heatlh, Australia.
    Prescott, Susan L.
    University of Western Australia, Australia.
    MacKay, Charles
    Monash University, Australia.
    Salminen, Seppo
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Wong, Gary
    Chinese University of Hong Kong, Peoples R China; Chinese University of Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Sinn, John
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Stokholm, Jakob
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bisgaard, Hans
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pawankar, Ruby
    Nippon Medical Sch, Japan.
    Noakes, Paul
    University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Kesper, Doerthe
    University of Marburg, Germany.
    Tulic, Meri
    University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, France.
    The gut microbiota and inflammatory noncommunicable diseases: Associations and potentials for gut microbiota therapies2015Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 135, nr 1Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid environmental transition and modern lifestyles are likely driving changes in the biodiversity of the human gut microbiota. With clear effects on physiologic, immunologic, and metabolic processes in human health, aberrations in the gut microbiome and intestinal homeostasis have the capacity for multisystem effects. Changes in microbial composition are implicated in the increasing propensity for a broad range of inflammatory diseases, such as allergic disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), obesity, and associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). There are also suggestive implications for neurodevelopment and mental health. These diverse multisystem influences have sparked interest in strategies that might favorably modulate the gut microbiota to reduce the risk of many NCDs. For example, specific prebiotics promote favorable intestinal colonization, and their fermented products have anti-inflammatory properties. Specific probiotics also have immunomodulatory and metabolic effects. However, when evaluated in clinical trials, the effects are variable, preliminary, or limited in magnitude. Fecal microbiota transplantation is another emerging therapy that regulates inflammation in experimental models. In human subjects it has been successfully used in cases of Clostridium difficile infection and IBD, although controlled trials are lacking for IBD. Here we discuss relationships between gut colonization and inflammatory NCDs and gut microbiota modulation strategies for their treatment and prevention.

  • 119.
    Zdolsek, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Janefjord, Camilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Reduced IL-2-induced IL-12 responsiveness in atopic children2003Ingår i: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 351-357Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Atopy may be associated with a reduced T-cell function particularly regarding maturation of T helper 1 (Th1) responses. We hypothesized that atopic children may have a reduced capacity to up-regulate the β2 subunit of the interleukin-12 (IL-12) receptor (IL-12Rβ2, the signal-transducing component). The study included 38 children followed from birth to the age of 7 years. Twenty one had a cumulative history of atopic disease, whereas 17 had none. Sixteen out of 21 children also had atopic symptoms within the past year (current), out of whom 10 children had atopic airway symptoms. The expression of IL-12Rβ2 mRNA was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and the secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-5 and IL-10 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Children with current atopic airway symptoms and high levels of total IgE up-regulated IL-12Rβ2 mRNA expression less than non-atopic children with low IgE levels after IL-2 stimulation. This was accompanied by a low IL-2- and IL-12-induced IFN-γ production, possibly reflecting the reduced capacity of atopic children to up-regulate the IL-12 receptor. As IL-2 is needed to initiate and sustain immune responses and IL-12 promotes Th1 responses, this may contribute to the Th2-skewed pattern in atopic children.

  • 120.
    Zdolsek, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Expression of the T-cell markers CD2 and CD28 in healthy and atopic children during the first 18 months of life2003Ingår i: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 169-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Atopy may be associated with a reduced T-cell function early in life, particularly regarding maturation of Th1 responses. The T-cell surface molecules CD2 and CD28 are involved in important T-cell activation pathways. Stimulation via the CD2 receptor increases the responsiveness to interleukin (IL)-12, which is a potent inducer of Th1 responses, whereas CD28 stimulation is critical for Th2 differentiation. Our aim was to prospectively study the expression of the cell-surface markers CD2 and CD28 on T-cells in relation to development of atopic disease. Children (n = 172) were followed from birth to 18 months and the cumulative history of atopic disease was recorded. Blood samples were obtained at birth and at 18 months, and in a subgroup of 78 infants also at 3, 6 and 12 months. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the T-cell markers CD2 and CD28, the latter also within the subsets of T-helper (CD4+) and T-cytotoxic (CD8+) cells. At 18 months, 31 children had and 118 did not have atopic symptoms. At this age, skin prick test (SPT) positive children with atopic symptoms with or without an atopic family history (AFH) showed a lower expression of CD2 mode fluorescence intensity (FI) as well as a lower proportion of CD2+ cells, as compared with non-sensitized children with neither atopic symptoms nor AFH. This was accompanied by a higher expression of CD28 FI on CD2+CD8+CD28+ cells. No significant differences were seen at time points before 18 months, although the proportion of CD2+ tended to be low also earlier in life. In conclusion, the observed reduced expression of CD2 in atopic infants may support previous findings that atopy is associated with a reduced CD2 function. The high CD28 FI in SPT positive children with atopic symptoms may possibly be a consequence of a TH2-skewed immune system.

  • 121.
    Zdolsek, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Reduced levels of soluble CD14 in atopic children2004Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 532-539Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background A reduced microbial stimulation has been reported as a reason for the increasing prevalence of atopic diseases in industrialized countries. Antigen-presenting cells (APC), responding to microbial signals by pattern recognition receptors such as CD14, have an important role in the development of the Th1/Th2 balance.

    Objective We hypothesized that atopic children have a lower expression of CD14 on monocytes and lower soluble CD14 levels (sCD14).

    Methods Seventy-six children were followed prospectively from birth and signs of atopic disease were evaluated. The expression of CD14 on monocytes was analysed with flow cytometry at 0, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. Circulating levels of sCD14 were analysed by ELISA and total IgE was analysed by fluoroenzymo immunoassay at these ages, and in a subgroup, followed up at 7 years.

    Results Levels of sCD14 were reduced at 7 years both in children with a current or a cumulative history of atopy compared to non-atopic children with P=0.002 and 0.001, respectively. Sensitized children with atopic symptoms had lower sCD14 at 3 and 18 months and at 7 years of age than non-atopic non-sensitized children with P=0.023, 0.039 and 0.008, respectively.

    Conclusion The lower levels of sCD14 observed in atopic children may be a consequence of an atopic family heredity and/or atopic disease, but it may also reflect a reduced capacity to respond to microbial signals.

123 101 - 121 av 121
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf