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  • 1201.
    William, Hagman
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Du Gjorde Vad!?: Naturligt Beslutsfattande och Intuition hos Experter2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 poäng / 18 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Att det idag finns flera metoder och modeller för att fatta beslut är inte konstigt då beslutsfattande sker varje dag och i vissa sammanhang kan ge ödesdigra konsekvenser om det blir fel. Denna kandidatuppsats kan ses som en förstudie för hur naturligt beslutsfattande skulle kunna stödjas genom en förbättrad utbildning till beslutsfattare. Uppsatsen ämnar behandla naturligt beslutsfattande och intuition hos experter inom räddningstjänsten, närmare bestämt om de använder intuition och i så fall vad som ligger till grund för denna intuition. Intervjuer utfördes på räddningstjänsten i Motala efter critical decision method som är framtagen för cognitive task analysis. Inom räddningstjänsten använder sig befälen av intuition när de tar det flesta av sina beslut i fält. Resultaten av intervjuerna pekar på att intuition verkar ske undermedvetet vilket ger stöd för recognition primed decision model, i kombination med negativa ledtrådar och hävstångspunkter.

  • 1202.
    Wingren, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Sensitivity to the magnitude of people's help depends on how it is framed2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted to examine if people’s sensitivity to the magnitude to which somebody helps depends on how the help is framed. To test this, participants read vignettes about moral agents whose help had one of three different magnitudes: a base level, a medium level (the base level times 5) and a high level (the base level times 10). The moral agents’ help was also framed in one of three ways. They either helped victims, volunteered a number of hours, or donated an amount to charity. To measure the sensitivity, participants rated how likeable they found the agent. It turned out that if the help was framed as helping victims, the participants were not at all sensitive to the different magnitudes of help. That is, an agent was not liked more if they helped a high or medium number of victims than if they helped a low number; neither were they liked more if they helped a high number than if they helped a medium number. However, in the two other types of framing, participants were more sensitive. When help was framed as volunteering a number of hours, participants liked an agent more if they volunteered a medium or high number of hours than if they only volunteered a low number of hours. But they did not like a participant more if they volunteered a high number of hours than if they volunteered a medium number of hours. The same exact pattern was found when framing help as donating to charity. A possible explanation for the result is given in the discussion.

  • 1203.
    Wiss, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Andersson, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Slovic, Paul
    Decis Res, Honolulu, HI USA; Univ Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 USA.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Res, Honolulu, HI USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The influence of identifiability and singularity in moral decision making2015Inngår i: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 10, nr 5, s. 492-502Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increased willingness to help identified individuals rather than non-identified, and the effect of identifiability is mainly present when a single individual rather than a group is presented. However, identifiability and singularity effects have thus far not been manipulated orthogonally. The present research uses a joint evaluation approach to examine the relative contribution of identifiability and singularity in moral decision-making reflecting conflicting values between deontology and consequentialism. As in trolley dilemmas subjects could either choose to stay with the default option, i.e., giving a potentially life-saving vaccine to a single child, or to actively choose to deny the single child the vaccine in favor of five other children. Identifiability of the single child and the group of children was varied between-subjects in a 2x2 factorial design. In total 1,232 subjects from Sweden and the United States participated in three separate experiments. Across all treatments, in all three experiments, 32.6% of the subjects chose to stay with the deontological default option instead of actively choosing to maximize benefits. Results show that identifiability does not always have a positive effect on decisions in allocation dilemmas. For single targets, identifiability had a negative or no effect in two out of three experiments, while for the group of targets identifiability had a more stable positive effect on subjects’ willingness to allocate vaccines. When the effect of identifiability was negative, process data showed that this effect was mediated by emotional reactance. Hence, the results show that the influence of identifiability is more complex than it has been previously portrayed in the literature on charitable giving. 

  • 1204.
    Wiss, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    David, Andersson
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Prioritizing Rare Diseases: Psychological Effects Influencing Medical Decision Making2017Inngår i: Medical decision making, ISSN 0272-989X, E-ISSN 1552-681XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Measuring societal preferences for rarity has been proposed to determine whether paying pre- mium prices for orphan drugs is acceptable. Objective. To investigate societal preferences for rarity and how psychological factors affect such preferences. Method. A postal survey containing resource allocation dilemmas involving patients with a rare disease and patients with a common disease, equal in severity, was sent out to a randomly selected sample of the population in Sweden (return rate 42.3%, n = 1270). Results. Overall, we found no evidence of a general preference for prioritizing treat- ment of patients with rare disease patients over those with common diseases. When treatment costs were equal, most respondents (42.7%) were indifferent between the choice options. Preferences for prioritizing patients with common diseases over those with rare diseases were more frequently displayed (33.3% v. 23.9%). This tendency was, as expected, amplified when the rare disease was costlier to treat. The share of respondents choosing to treat patients with rare diseases increased when present- ing the patients in need of treatment in relative rather than absolute terms (proportion dominance). Surprisingly, identifiability did not increase preferences for rarity. Instead, identifying the patient with a rare disease made respondents more willing to prioritize the patients with common diseases. Respondents’ levels of education were significantly associated with choice—the lower the level of education, the more likely they were to choose the rare option. Conclusions. We find no support for the existence of a general preference for rarity when setting health care priorities. Psychological effects, especially proportion dominance, are likely to play an important role when pre- ferences for rarity are expressed.  

  • 1205.
    Witt, Suzanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Warntjes, Marcel Jan Bertus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Engström, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för radiologiska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Increased fMRI Sensitivity at Equal Data Burden Using Averaged Shifted Echo Acquisition2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 544Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing evidence as to the benefits of collecting BOLD fMRI data with increased sampling rates. However, many of the newly developed acquisition techniques developed to collect BOLD data with ultra-short TRs require hardware, software, and non-standard analytic pipelines that may not be accessible to all researchers. We propose to incorporate the method of shifted echo into a standard multi-slice, gradient echo EPI sequence to achieve a higher sampling rate with a TR of amp;lt; 1 s with acceptable spatial resolution. We further propose to incorporate temporal averaging of consecutively acquired EPI volumes to both ameliorate the reduced temporal signal-to-noise inherent in ultra-fast EPI sequences and reduce the data burden. BOLD data were collected from 11 healthy subjects performing a simple, event-related visual-motor task with four different EPI sequences: (1) reference EP/sequence with TR = 1440 ms, (2) shifted echo EP/sequence with TR = 700 ms, (3) shifted echo EPI sequence with every two consecutively acquired EPI volumes averaged and effective TR = 1400 ms, and (4) shifted echo EPI sequence with every four consecutively acquired EPI volumes averaged and effective TR = 2800 ms. Both the temporally averaged sequences exhibited increased temporal signal-to-noise over the shifted echo EPI sequence. The shifted echo sequence with every two EPI volumes averaged also had significantly increased BOLD signal change compared with the other three sequences, while the shifted echo sequence with every four EPI volumes averaged had significantly decreased BOLD signal change compared with the other three sequences. The results indicated that incorporating the method of shifted echo into a standard multi-slice EPI sequence is a viable method for achieving increased sampling rate for collecting event-related BOLD data. Further, consecutively averaging every two consecutively acquired EPI volumes significantly increased the measured BOLD signal change and the subsequently calculated activation map statistics.

  • 1206.
    Wänström, Linda
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Statistik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wegmann, Bertil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Statistik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Effects of sibship size on intelligence, school performance and adult income: Some evidence from Swedish data2017Inngår i: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the effects of child sibship size on intelligence, school performance and adult income for a sample of Swedish school children (n = 1326). These children were measured in grade three in 1965 (age 10) and in grades six (age 13) and nine (age 16), and the women and men were later followed up in adulthood at ages 43 and 47, respectively. Using Bayesian varying-intercept modeling we account for differences between school classes in each of our three response variables: IQ-scores, school grades and adult income, and control for background variables such as gender, socioeconomic status, and maternal- and paternal age. Consistent with previous research, we find patterns of decreasing IQ scores for increasing sibship sizes, specifically for an increasing number of older siblings. No relationships between sibship size and childrens school grades are found. We find, however, patterns of decreasing adult income for an increasing number of younger siblings. In addition, considerable amounts of variations in intelligence scores as well as school grades are found between school classes. Some implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are provided. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 1207.
    Wärnelius, Lise-Lott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Töråsen, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Karriärrådgivning- hjälp till självhjälp och vidgade perspektiv2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka klienters upplevelser av karriärrådgivning samt vilka resultat som framkommer från karriärrådgivning. De områden studien har avgränsats till är hur klienten upplever möjligheten att kunna påverka metoden som används i rådgivningen samt betydelse av interaktionen med rådgivaren för det upplevda resultatet av rådgivningen. En kvalitativ metod har använts med sex semistrukturerade intervjuer, med klienter som genomgått karriärrådgivning. Resultatet innefattar tre innehållsliga kategorier som beskriver karriärrådgivningsprocessen utifrån klientens perspektiv: interaktionen med rådgivaren, resultat från rådgivningen samt rådgivningens metod. Interaktionen med rådgivaren upplevs som mest betydelsefull för informanternas utveckling men också för processen som helhet. De tydligaste förekommande resultaten från rådgivningen är bekräftelse, stärkt självförtroende och stärkta roller. Vad gäller rådgivningens metod anpassas denna till individen och rådgivningssituationen.

  • 1208.
    Yngve, Adam
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Resilience against social anxiety: The role of social networks in social anxiety disorder2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience refers to the capacity to quickly return to normal levels of functioning in the face of adversity. This capacity has previously been linked to social support. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of social networks in the association between resilience and social anxiety in a clinical group with social anxiety disorder (n = 41) and a control group of university students (n = 40). The results showed that controls were significantly more resilient than the clinical group. Controls had significantly larger, more diverse and active social networks than the clinical group. Resilience was negatively associated with social anxiety in both groups. In the clinical group, there was a significant partial mediation effect of resilience on social anxiety through the size of the social network, a x b = –0.33, 95% CI [–0.718, –0.111]. Potential clinical applications of these results were discussed.

  • 1209.
    Yumba, Wycliffe
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Academic Stress: A Case of the Undergraduate students2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the perceptions of major of sources of academic stress among male and female undergraduates. Data were collected via a survey in which participated 100 students, with mean of age (M=23, 21) and standard deviation (SD=3, 27), varied in year in school, age and gender; and the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was used for data analysis.

    The survey consisted of 33 potential stressful situations, which were divided into 4 categories: Relations with other people sources of stress, personal sources of stress, academic sources of stress, and the environmental sources of stress.

    The results show the academic sources of stress appeared to be the most stressful for all the students due to the pressure originated from the course overloads, and the academic evaluation procedures. A variety of personal, familial, and social factors were also identified as least stressful stressors. The first year undergraduates, especially female students reported higher degree of stress than male students did.

    The findings from this study may be useful for further research on how these potential sources of stress influence the performance and the health of the students.

  • 1210.
    Yumba, Wycliffe
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Cognitive Processing Speed, Working Memory, and the Intelligibility of Hearing Aid-Processed Speech in Persons with Hearing Impairment2017Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 1308Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have demonstrated that successful listening with advanced signal processing in digital hearing aids is associated with individual cognitive capacity, particularly working memory capacity (WMC). This study aimed to examine the relationship between cognitive abilities (cognitive processing speed and WMC) and individual listeners responses to digital signal processing settings in adverse listening conditions. A total of 194 native Swedish speakers (83 women and 111 men), aged 33-80 years (mean = 60.75 years, SD = 8.89), with bilateral, symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss who had completed a lexical decision speed test (measuring cognitive processing speed) and semantic word-pair span test (SWPST, capturing WMC) participated in this study. The Hagerman test (capturing speech recognition in noise) was conducted using an experimental hearing aid with three digital signal processing settings: (1) linear amplification without noise reduction (NoP), (2) linear amplification with noise reduction (NR), and (3) non-linear amplification without NR ("fast-acting compression"). The results showed that cognitive processing speed was a better predictor of speech intelligibility in noise, regardless of the types of signal processing algorithms used. That is, there was a stronger association between cognitive processing speed and NR outcomes and fast-acting compression outcomes (in steady state noise). We observed a weaker relationship between working memory and NR, but WMC did not relate to fast-acting compression. WMC was a relatively weaker predictor of speech intelligibility in noise. These findings might have been different if the participants had been provided with training and or allowed to acclimatize to binary masking noise reduction or fast-acting compression.

  • 1211.
    Zarenoe, Reza
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Tinnitus in Patients with Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Management, Quality of Life and Treatment Strategies2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 15% of Swedish people experience tinnitus, but only 2.4% experience severe problems. Treatment modalities for tinnitus vary, but the most common treatment is counseling. The majority of patients with tinnitus report some degree of hearing loss, and hearing aids have been used for many years in patients who suffer from both tinnitus and hearing impairment. The aim of the present thesis was to investigate disease management, determine quality of life and identify treatment strategies for patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss.

    The first two studies described here are retrospective, descriptive studies of patients who sought care for tinnitus and hearing loss at two Ear-Nose-Throat (ENT) clinics in Östergötland County, Sweden, during the years 2004 - 2007. Study I showed that 70% of the cohort had tinnitus; however, many did not initially receive a diagnosis of tinnitus. Information about vertigo, heredity for hearing loss and tinnitus, diabetes history, cardiovascular disease history and other factors related to health was often missing from the patients’ medical records. The results could show that the overall scores using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) were higher in female patients than in male patients. Although it is likely that hearing aids would be beneficial for the majority of these patients, 314 (44%) of the 714 total patients had hearing aids. Furthermore, the outcomes from study II demonstrated that a majority of the patients (61%) who were dissatisfied with the care they had obtained had no hearing aids. This finding may indicate that the fitting of hearing aids is an important treatment for patients with both tinnitus and hearing loss.

    Studies III and IV were prospective studies. Data collection was based on patients who sought care for tinnitus and/or hearing loss at the ENT clinic in Linköping during 2012-2013. In study III, 92 patients were divided into two groups: one group contained individuals with both tinnitus and hearing loss, and the other group contained patients with only hearing loss. The patients were assessed using the Reading Span test, the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) and three questionnaires (the THI, the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index) at baseline and follow-up. The results from the age-matched subgroups (n=30+30) generated from the full clinical groups (46+46) showed significantly improved Reading Span test performance and sleep quality in patients with both tinnitus and hearing loss. Similar results were observed in our full clinical population (n=46+46). However, the interpretation of this finding is difficult due to age differences between the groups. In conclusion, hearing aid fitting had a significantly positive impact on working memory capacity and sleep quality in patients with both tinnitus and hearing loss compared with patients with only hearing loss.

    In study IV, a brief Motivational Interviewing (MI) guide was integrated into the hearing rehabilitation process for 23 patients with both tinnitus and hearing loss, and they were compared against a control group (n=23) of patients with both tinnitus and hearing loss who underwent traditional hearing rehabilitation. The results showed that the patients who received the brief MI guide required fewer visits to complete their hearing rehabilitation compared with the patients in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference in THI scores between the groups, which indicated that the intervention reduced tinnitus annoyance more in the MI group. Furthermore, both groups showed higher scores at follow-up compared with baseline on the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) scale, which indicated that both approaches showed a positive effect on hearing aid satisfaction.

    Study V was a retrospective, descriptive study that focused on a part of a Stepped Care model and included patients who participated in half-day tinnitus information meetings from 2004 to 2011 in the audiology clinic at Linköping University Hospital. A total of 426 tinnitus patients with complete questionnaires (the THI and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS) were included in the study. The results showed significant decreases in scores on the THI and the anxiety module of the HADS before and after the information session. However, there were no statistically significant changes in the depression module of the HADS.

    In conclusion, this thesis underscores the importance of hearing impairment, cognitive variables and motivational procedures in the management of tinnitus. Multidisciplinary group information needs to be further validated.

    Delarbeid
    1. A cohort study of patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss in a Swedish population
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A cohort study of patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss in a Swedish population
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Auris, nasus, larynx, ISSN 0385-8146, E-ISSN 1879-1476, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 41-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe a large cohort of patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in Sweden, and also to explore the possibility of finding potential possible differences between various diagnoses within SNHL. It is also of great interest to see how a multidisciplinary team was used in the different subgroups and the frequency of hearing aids use in patients with tinnitus.

    METHODS: Medical records of all patients who had received the diagnosis SNHL in Östergötland County, Sweden between 2004 and 2007 were reviewed. Patients between 20 and 80 years with tinnitus and a pure tone average (PTA) lower than 70dB HL were included in the study. Patients were excluded from the analyses if they had a cochlear implantation, middle ear disorders or had a hearing loss since birth or childhood. The investigators completed a form for each included patient, covering background facts, and audiograms taken at the yearly check up.

    RESULTS: Of a total 1672 patients' medical record review, 714 patients were included. The majority of patients (79%) were in the age group over 50 years. In male patients with bilateral tinnitus, the PTA for the left ear was significantly higher than for the right ear. The results regarding the configuration of hearing loss revealed that 555 patients (78%) had symmetric and 159 (22%) asymmetric hearing loss. Retrocochlear examinations were done in 372 patients and MRI was the most common examination. In all patients, 400 had no hearing aids and out of those 220 had unilateral tinnitus and 180 patients had bilateral tinnitus. 219 patients had a PTA>20dB HL and did not have any hearing aid. Results demonstrated that the Stepped Care model was not used widely in the daily practice. In our study, patients with bilateral-, unilateral hearing loss or Mb Ménière were the most common patients included in the Stepped Care model.

    CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of patients with SNHL and tinnitus, despite their hearing loss only 39% had hearing aids. It was observed that the medical record review often showed a lack of information about many background factors, such as; patients' general health condition, which could be a quality factor that needs improvement. Our results show that the Stepped Care model could be an effective option for providing a better access for tinnitus-focused treatment, although the number of patients in this study who were included in the Stepped Care model was low.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81411 (URN)10.1016/j.anl.2012.05.005 (DOI)22652486 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-09-13 Laget: 2012-09-13 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-07bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Quality of life in patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Quality of life in patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: B-ENT, ISSN 1781-782X, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 41-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life in patients with tinnitus and SNHL, to investigate patients’ mental and physical health and to measure the level of satisfaction concerning the care experienced by the patients.

    Methods: Three questionnaires related to patients` physical and psychological health, were mailed to 714 Swedish patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss.

    Results: Female patients had significantly higher Tinnitus Handicap Inventory scores than male patients. Patients who were satisfied with the care they obtained had significantly higher PTA. It was found that the satisfied group had significantly lower THI-scores. In the dissatisfied group, 61% of patients had no hearing aids compared to 42% in the satisfied group.

    Conclusion: Our cohort of patients estimated their life quality and general health at a good level almost 4.5 years after their first report of tinnitus. Another finding was that 47% of patients were not satisfied with the treatment they obtained. In the dissatisfied group, 61% of patients had no hearing aids. Further research is required to find an approach that could motivate patients with both tinnitus and hearing impairment to use hearing aids.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    ROYAL BELGIAN SOC EAR, NOSE, THROAT, HEAD & NECK SURGERY, 2014
    Emneord
    Tinnitus, Sensorineural hearing loss, Questionnaire, Quality of life
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81412 (URN)000334566200007 ()24765828 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-09-13 Laget: 2012-09-13 Sist oppdatert: 2017-02-20bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Working Memory, Sleep, and Hearing Problems in Patients with Tinnitus and Hearing Loss Fitted with Hearing Aids
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Working Memory, Sleep, and Hearing Problems in Patients with Tinnitus and Hearing Loss Fitted with Hearing Aids
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, ISSN 1050-0545, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 141-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tinnitus is a common condition and there is a need to evaluate effects of tinnitus management in relation to moderating factors such as degree of hearing loss. As it is possible that tinnitus influences concentration, and thus is likely to disturb cognitive processing, the role of cognitive functioning also needs to be investigated.

    Purpose: To compare a group of patients with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus to a control group with only sensorineural hearing loss (and no tinnitus). To investigate working memory, sleep, and hearing problems measured before and after hearing rehabilitation.

    Research Design: A prospective study.

    Study Sample: The sample consisted of 100 patients, 50 with hearing loss and tinnitus, and 50 controls with hearing loss but no tinnitus. All patients were between 40 and 82 yr old and had a pure-tone average (PTA; average of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) ,70 dB HL.

    Intervention: Patients were tested before and after rehabilitation with hearing aids with regard to their working memory capacity, sleep quality, hearing problems, speech recognition, and tinnitus annoyance.

    Data Collection and Analysis: Eight patients dropped out of the study. Thus, a total of 92 patients were included for analysis, with 46 in each group. As a consequence of unplanned age and PTA differences between the groups, an age-matched subsample (n 5 30 1 30) was selected for further analysis. Tests including the Reading Span, Hearing-in-Noise Test (HINT), Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were administered before and after hearing aid rehabilitation.

    Results: There were no between-group differences at baseline in the full sample (n 5 92), with the exception of the THI (p , 0.001) and the PSQI (p , 0.002), on which the hearing loss and tinnitus group had significantly higher scores. Pre/post changes were significant for both groups on the Reading Span, and HHIE. However, these improvements were significantly larger for the patients in the hearing loss and tinnitus group on the Reading Span test (p , 0.001) and the PSQI (p , 0.001). Patients with tinnitus and hearing loss also exhibited significantly improved THI scores at follow-up, compared to baseline ( p, 0.001). We conducted the same analyses for the age-matched subsample (n 5 30 1 30). For the baseline data, only the THI (p , 0.001) and the PSQI (p , 0.015) difference remained significant. With regard to the pre/post changes, we found the same differences in improvement in Reading Span ( p , 0.001) and the PSQI (p , 0.015) as in the full sample.

    Conclusions: Patients with tinnitus benefited from hearing aid rehabilitation. The observed differences in cognitive function were unexpected, and there were larger score improvements on the Reading Span test in the hearing loss and tinnitus group than in the hearing loss group. Patients with tinnitus and hearing loss may receive extra benefit in terms of cognitive function following hearing aid rehabilitation.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    American Academy of Audiology, 2017
    Emneord
    sensorineural hearing loss; hearing aids; tinnitus; working memory capacity
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132160 (URN)10.3766/jaaa.16023 (DOI)000394478500005 ()28240981 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85014508703 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-10-19 Laget: 2016-10-19 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-02bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Motivational Interviewing as an Adjunct to Hearing Rehabilitation for Patients with Tinnitus: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Motivational Interviewing as an Adjunct to Hearing Rehabilitation for Patients with Tinnitus: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, ISSN 2157-3107, Vol. 27, nr 8, s. 669--676Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To test the effects of a brief motivational interviewing (MI) program as an adjunct to hearing aid rehabilitation for patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss.

    RESEARCH DESIGN: This was a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    STUDY SAMPLE: The sample consisted of 50 patients aged between 40 and 82 yr with both tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss and a pure-tone average (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) < 70 dB HL. All patients were first-time hearing aid users.

    INTERVENTION: A brief MI program was used during hearing aid fitting in 25 patients, whereas the remainder received standard practice (SP), with conventional hearing rehabilitation.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: A total of 46 patients (N = 23 + 23) with tinnitus were included for further analysis. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) were administered before and after rehabilitation. THI was used to investigate changes in tinnitus annoyance, and the IOI-HA was used to determine the effect of hearing aid treatment.

    RESULTS: Self-reported tinnitus disability (THI) decreased significantly in the MI group (p < 0.001) and in the SP group (p < 0.006). However, there was greater improvement in the MI group (p < 0.013). Furthermore, the findings showed a significant improvement in patients' satisfaction concerning the hearing aids (IOI-HA, within both groups; MI group, p < 0.038; and SP group, p < 0.026), with no difference between the groups (p < 0.99).

    CONCLUSION: Tinnitus handicap scores decrease to a greater extent following brief MI than following SP. Future research on the value of incorporating MI into audiological rehabilitation using randomized controlled designs is required.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Reston: American Academy of Audiology, 2016
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131111 (URN)10.3766/jaaa.15126 (DOI)000381957200006 ()27564444 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-09-09 Laget: 2016-09-09 Sist oppdatert: 2017-05-03bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 1212.
    Zarenoe, Reza
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Logopedi, Audiologi och Otorhinolaryngologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Working Memory, Sleep, and Hearing Problems in Patients with Tinnitus and Hearing Loss Fitted with Hearing Aids2017Inngår i: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, ISSN 1050-0545, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 141-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tinnitus is a common condition and there is a need to evaluate effects of tinnitus management in relation to moderating factors such as degree of hearing loss. As it is possible that tinnitus influences concentration, and thus is likely to disturb cognitive processing, the role of cognitive functioning also needs to be investigated.

    Purpose: To compare a group of patients with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus to a control group with only sensorineural hearing loss (and no tinnitus). To investigate working memory, sleep, and hearing problems measured before and after hearing rehabilitation.

    Research Design: A prospective study.

    Study Sample: The sample consisted of 100 patients, 50 with hearing loss and tinnitus, and 50 controls with hearing loss but no tinnitus. All patients were between 40 and 82 yr old and had a pure-tone average (PTA; average of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) ,70 dB HL.

    Intervention: Patients were tested before and after rehabilitation with hearing aids with regard to their working memory capacity, sleep quality, hearing problems, speech recognition, and tinnitus annoyance.

    Data Collection and Analysis: Eight patients dropped out of the study. Thus, a total of 92 patients were included for analysis, with 46 in each group. As a consequence of unplanned age and PTA differences between the groups, an age-matched subsample (n 5 30 1 30) was selected for further analysis. Tests including the Reading Span, Hearing-in-Noise Test (HINT), Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were administered before and after hearing aid rehabilitation.

    Results: There were no between-group differences at baseline in the full sample (n 5 92), with the exception of the THI (p , 0.001) and the PSQI (p , 0.002), on which the hearing loss and tinnitus group had significantly higher scores. Pre/post changes were significant for both groups on the Reading Span, and HHIE. However, these improvements were significantly larger for the patients in the hearing loss and tinnitus group on the Reading Span test (p , 0.001) and the PSQI (p , 0.001). Patients with tinnitus and hearing loss also exhibited significantly improved THI scores at follow-up, compared to baseline ( p, 0.001). We conducted the same analyses for the age-matched subsample (n 5 30 1 30). For the baseline data, only the THI (p , 0.001) and the PSQI (p , 0.015) difference remained significant. With regard to the pre/post changes, we found the same differences in improvement in Reading Span ( p , 0.001) and the PSQI (p , 0.015) as in the full sample.

    Conclusions: Patients with tinnitus benefited from hearing aid rehabilitation. The observed differences in cognitive function were unexpected, and there were larger score improvements on the Reading Span test in the hearing loss and tinnitus group than in the hearing loss group. Patients with tinnitus and hearing loss may receive extra benefit in terms of cognitive function following hearing aid rehabilitation.

  • 1213.
    Zeedyk, Suzanne M
    et al.
    University of Dundee, UK.
    Heimann, Mikael
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Imitation and socio-emotional processes: Implications for communicative development and interventions2006Inngår i: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 219-222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1214.
    Zekveld, Adriana A
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
    Pronk, Marieke
    Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Reading Behind the Lines: The Factors Affecting the Text Reception Threshold in Hearing Aid Users.2018Inngår i: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 61, nr 3, s. 762-775Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The visual Text Reception Threshold (TRT) test (Zekveld et al., 2007) has been designed to assess modality-general factors relevant for speech perception in noise. In the last decade, the test has been adopted in audiology labs worldwide. The 1st aim of this study was to examine which factors best predict interindividual differences in the TRT. Second, we aimed to assess the relationships between the TRT and the speech reception thresholds (SRTs) estimated in various conditions.; Method: First, we reviewed studies reporting relationships between the TRT and the auditory and/or cognitive factors and formulated specific hypotheses regarding the TRT predictors. These hypotheses were tested using a prediction model applied to a rich data set of 180 hearing aid users. In separate association models, we tested the relationships between the TRT and the various SRTs and subjective hearing difficulties, while taking into account potential confounding variables.; Results: The results of the prediction model indicate that the TRT is predicted by the ability to fill in missing words in incomplete sentences, by lexical access speed, and by working memory capacity. Furthermore, in line with previous studies, a moderate association between higher age, poorer pure-tone hearing acuity, and poorer TRTs was observed. Better TRTs were associated with better SRTs for the correct perception of 50% of Hagerman matrix sentences in a 4-talker babble, as well as with better subjective ratings of speech perception. Age and pure-tone hearing thresholds significantly confounded these associations. The associations of the TRT with SRTs estimated in other conditions and with subjective qualities of hearing were not statistically significant when adjusting for age and pure-tone average.; Conclusions: We conclude that the abilities tapped into by the TRT test include processes relevant for speeded lexical decision making when completing partly masked sentences and that these processes require working memory capacity. Furthermore, the TRT is associated with the SRT of hearing aid users as estimated in a challenging condition that includes informational masking and with experienced difficulties with speech perception in daily-life conditions. The current results underline the value of using the TRT test in studies involving speech perception and aid in the interpretation of findings acquired using the test.

  • 1215.
    Zekveld, Adriana
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. VU University medical center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Koelewijn, Thomas
    VU University medical center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Mortier, Karen
    VU University medical center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Festen, Joost
    VU University medical center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Van Beek, Hans
    VU University medical center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Kramer, Sophia
    VU University medical center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    The application of pupillometry to assess processing load during listening to speech in challenging conditions2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Noise Control Engineering: Inter-Noise ‘12, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of Audiology, a reliable measure of cognitive load while listening to speech is highly needed. A promising method is measurement of the pupil response. The reliability and validity of this application of pupillometry is discussed by combining and comparing the results of five studies assessing the influence of speech perception difficulty (speech-to-noise ratio) on cognitive load during listening. The results show consistently larger pupil responses in more difficult listening conditions. Furthermore, the data indicate that the pupil response provides information additional to speech recognition performance and subjective measures. Overall, the potential of pupillometry as a sensitive and valid cognitive load index is confirmed by the data.

  • 1216.
    Zekveld, Adriana
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. VU University Medical Center, ENT/audiology.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Kramer, Sophia E.
    VU University Medical Center, ENT/audiology.
    Lyzenga, Johannes
    VU University Medical Center, ENT/audiology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Cognitive processing load during listening is reduced more by decreasing voice similarity than by increasing spatial separation between target and masker speech2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated changes in speech recognition and cognitive processing load attributable to decreasing similarity between target and masker speech. We presented masker voices with either the same (female) gender or different gender (male) as the target speech, and/or spatially separated the target and masker speech using HRTFs. We assessed the relation between speech perception performance, the pupil response and cognitive abilities in 24 normal-hearing adults. We hypothesized that the pupil response, a measure of cognitive processing load, would be larger for co-located maskers and for same-gender compared to different-gender maskers. We further expected that better cognitive abilities would be associated with better speech perception and larger pupil responses, as the allocation of larger capacity may result in more intense mental processing.

    In line with previous studies, the performance benefit from different-gender compared to same-gender maskers was larger for co-located masker signals. The performance benefit of spatially-separated maskers was larger for same-gender maskers. The pupil response was larger for same-gender than for different-gender maskers, but was not reduced by spatial separation. We observed associations between better perception performance and better working memory, better information updating, and better executive abilities. The pupil response was not associated with cognitive abilities. Thus, although both gender and location differences between target and masker facilitate speech perception, only gender differences lower cognitive processing load. Increasing target-masker voice dissimilarity may facilitate target-speech perception at a later (cognitive) processing stage than increasing spatial separation. The pupil response provides information that complements speech intelligibility data.

  • 1217.
    Zetterberg, Molly
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Berg, Matilda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Shafran, Roz
    UCL, England.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; UCL, England.
    Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy of perfectionism: Comparing regular therapist support and support upon request2019Inngår i: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, INTERNET INTERVENTIONS-THE APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN MENTAL AND BEHAVIOURAL HEALTH, Vol. 17, artikkel-id 100237Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfectionism may be a clinically relevant problem on its own or as part of the etiology and maintenance of psychiatric disorders, e.g., anxiety disorders, depression, and eating disorders. Cognitive behavior therapy has been shown to be a promising treatment for managing perfectionism and its associated problems, including when being administered via the Internet, i.e., Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT). In the current study, seventy-eight self-referred participants underwent ICBT after an initial eight-week wait-list period, i.e., second wave of treatment. These were randomized to receive regular support from a therapist (ICBT-support) or ICBT with support on request (ICBT-request), in an eight-week treatment of perfectionism. Assessments of perfectionism were made at pre-, mid-, and post-treatment, as well as six-month follow-up, using the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, subscale Concern over Mistakes. Mixed effects models revealed large symptom reductions for both conditions; Concern over Mistakes, Cohens d = 1.40, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.85, 1.95] for ICBT-support, and d = 1.00, 95% CI [0.51, 1.47] for ICBT-request. The effects were maintained at six-month follow-up and there were no differences between the conditions in terms of the results, opened modules, or completed exercises. A total of 28 out of 70 participants (42.4%; ICBT-support, 37.8%; ICBT-request) were classified as improved at post-treatment. Both types of ICBT may thus be beneficial in treating perfectionism, suggesting that just having the opportunity to ask for support from a therapist, when regular support is not provided, could be sufficient for many participants undergoing ICBT. However, the study was underpowered to detect differences between the conditions. The lack of a cutoff also makes it difficult to differentiate a dysfunctional from a functional population in terms of perfectionism. In addition, the study design could have affected the participants motivational level from start, given their initial eight-week wait-list period. Recommendations for future studies include recruiting a larger sample size, a clearer cutoff for perfectionism, and the use of a non-inferiority test with a predetermined margin of change.

  • 1218.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Adolescents: Characterization of the Disorder and the Issue of Distress and Impairment.2017Inngår i: Journal of Suicide and Life-threatening Behaviour, ISSN 0363-0234, E-ISSN 1943-278X, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 321-335Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonsuicidal self-injury disorder (NSSID) is a condition in need of further study to assess the validity of the potential diagnosis and its suggested criteria. This study examined the NSSID diagnosis and investigated the distress/impairment criterion by comparing community adolescents who met all criteria for NSSID (n = 186) to adolescents with five or more nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) episodes (n = 314), and to a group of adolescents who met all criteria but negated that their NSSI caused them any distress or impairment, thus failing to meet criterion E (n = 29). The NSSID group delimited from the ≥ 5 NSSI group by reporting significantly more frequent and severe self-injurious thoughts and behaviors, as well as having more experiences of negative life events and higher levels of trauma symptoms. There were also some differences between the NSSID group and adolescents without distress/impairment, which together contribute valuable information on the potential NSSID diagnosis, as well as the discussion of criterion E.

  • 1219.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken. RÖ.
    The DSM-5 diagnosis of nonsuicidal self-injury disorder: A review of the empirical literature2015Inngår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 9, nr 31, s. 1-13Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the presentation of nonsuicidal self-injury disorder (NSSID) criteria in the fifth version of the Statistical and Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), empirical studies have emerged where the criteria have been operationalized on samples of children, adolescents and young adults. Since NSSID is a condition in need of further study, empirical data are crucial at this stage in order to gather information on the suggested criteria concerning prevalence rates, characteristics, clinical correlates and potential independence of the disorder. A review was conducted based on published peer-reviewed empirical studies of the DSM-5 NSSID criteria up to May 16, 2015. When the DSM-5 criteria were operationalized on both clinical and community samples, a sample of individuals was identified that had more general psychopathology and impairment than clinical controls as well as those with NSSI not meeting criteria for NSSID. Across all studies interpersonal difficulties or negative state preceding NSSI was highly endorsed by participants, while the distress or impairment criterion tended to have a lower endorsement. Results showed preliminary support for a distinct and independent NSSID diagnosis, but additional empirical data are needed with direct and structured assessment of the final DSM-5 criteria in order to reliably assess and validate a potential diagnosis of NSSID.

  • 1220.
    Zetterqvist, Vendela
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Leva med tinnitus2013 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Har du ett klingande, ringande, tjutande, brusande, surrande, visslande ljud i huvudet eller öronen som påverkar ditt dagliga liv? Ett stort antal personer i Sverige upplever att tinnitus inverkar på deras mående, sömn, koncentrationsförmåga och livskvalitet.Ljudet kan uppfattas störande i ett flertal situationer och ljudmiljöer såsom i tystnad, vid restaurangbesök eller vid samtal. Vissa upplever inte längre samma glädje i aktiviteter som de tidigare uppskattade. Andra känner en oro och frågar sig om deras tinnitus kommer att bli värre, eller om den är tecken på något allvarligt fel.Leva med tinnitus är en självhjälpsbok som bygger på material som arbetats fram och prövats med goda resultat under flera år av forskning och som tillvaratar den senaste utvecklingen inom tinnitusbehandling. Metoderna i boken är hämtade från kognitiv beteendeterapi (KBT) och acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Läsaren får arbeta med olika beprövade tekniker och tillägnar sig nya förhållningssätt. Syftet är att tinnitus inte längre ska behöva ta lika stor plats i den enskildes liv.

  • 1221.
    Zheng, Zane Z.
    et al.
    Queen's University, Ontario, Canada.
    Munhall, Kevin G.
    Queen's University, Ontario, Canada.
    Johnsrude, Ingrid
    Queen's University, Ontario, Canada.
    Functional overlap between regions involved in speech perception and in monitoring one's own voice during speech production2010Inngår i: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 22, nr 8, s. 1770-1781Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The fluency and the reliability of speech production suggest a mechanism that links motor commands and sensory feedback. Here, we examined the neural organization supporting such links by using fMRI to identify regions in which activity during speech production is modulated according to whether auditory feedback matches the predicted outcome or not and by examining the overlap with the network recruited during passive listening to speech sounds. We used real-time signal processing to compare brain activity when participants whispered a consonant–vowel–consonant word (“Ted”) and either heard this clearly or heard voice-gated masking noise. We compared this to when they listened to yoked stimuli (identical recordings of “Ted” or noise) without speaking. Activity along the STS and superior temporal gyrus bilaterally was significantly greater if the auditory stimulus was (a) processed as the auditory concomitant of speaking and (b) did not match the predicted outcome (noise). The network exhibiting this Feedback Type × Production/Perception interaction includes a superior temporal gyrus/middle temporal gyrus region that is activated more when listening to speech than to noise. This is consistent with speech production and speech perception being linked in a control system that predicts the sensory outcome of speech acts and that processes an error signal in speech-sensitive regions when this and the sensory data do not match.

  • 1222.
    Zheng, Z.Z.
    et al.
    Queen's University.
    MacDonald, E.
    Queen's University.
    Munhall, K.
    Queen's University.
    Johnsrude, Ingrid
    Queen's University.
    Perceiving a stranger's voice as being one's own:  a 'rubber voice' illusion?2011Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. e18655-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe an illusion in which a stranger's voice, when presented as the auditory concomitant of a participant's own speech, is perceived as a modified version of their own voice. When the congruence between utterance and feedback breaks down, the illusion is also broken. Compared to a baseline condition in which participants heard their own voice as feedback, hearing a stranger's voice induced robust changes in the fundamental frequency (F0) of their production. Moreover, the shift in F0 appears to be feedback dependent, since shift patterns depended reliably on the relationship between the participant's own F0 and the stranger-voice F0. The shift in F0 was evident both when the illusion was present and after it was broken, suggesting that auditory feedback from production may be used separately for self-recognition and for vocal motor control. Our findings indicate that self-recognition of voices, like other body attributes, is malleable and context dependent.

  • 1223.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Arvola, MattiasLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.Dahlbäck, NilsLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.Billing, ErikInstitutionen för informationsteknologi, Högskolan i Skövde.
    Proceedings of the 14th SweCog Conference: Linköping 2018, 11-12 October2018Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Welcome to SweCog 2018 in Linköping!

    This booklet contains the program and short papers for oral and poster presentations at SweCog 2018, this year’s edition of the annual conference of the Swedish Cognitive Science Society. Following the SweCog tradition and its aim to support networking among researchers in cognitive science and related areas, contributions cover a wide spectrum of research.

    A trend in recent years, also reflected in this year’s conference program, is an increasing number of contributions that deal with different types of autonomous technologies, such as social robots, virtual agents or automated vehicles, and in particular people’s interaction with such systems. This clearly is a growing research area of high societal relevance, where cognitive science - with its interdisciplinary and human-centered approach - can make significant contributions.

    We look forward to two exciting days in Linköping, and we thank the many people who have contributed to the organization of this year’s SweCog conference, in particular of course all authors and reviewers! The organization of SweCog 2018 has been supported by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, the Department of Culture Communication (IKK), and the Department of Computer Information Science (IDA) at Linköpping University, as well as Cambio Healthcare Systems and Visual Sweden.

    Tom Ziemke, Mattias Arvola, Nils Dahlbäc and Erik Billing

  • 1224.
    Zwerenz, Rüdiger
    et al.
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
    Becker, Jan
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Frederick, Ronald J
    Center for Courageous Living, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Beutel, Manfred E
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
    Transdiagnostic, Psychodynamic Web-Based Self-Help Intervention Following Inpatient Psychotherapy: Results of a Feasibility Study and Randomized Controlled Trial.2017Inngår i: JMIR mental health, ISSN 2368-7959, Vol. 4, nr 4, artikkel-id e41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Mental disorders have become a major health issue, and a substantial number of afflicted individuals do not get appropriate treatment. Web-based interventions are promising supplementary tools for improving health care for patients with mental disorders, as they can be delivered at low costs and used independently of time and location. Although psychodynamic treatments are used frequently in the face-to-face setting, there has been a paucity of studies on psychodynamic Web-based self-help interventions.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a transdiagnostic affect-focused psychodynamic Web-based self-help intervention designed to increase emotional competence of patients with mental disorders.

    METHODS: A total of 82 psychotherapy inpatients with mixed diagnoses were randomized into two groups. Following discharge, the intervention group (IG) got access to a guided version of the intervention for 10 weeks. After a waiting period of 10 weeks, the wait-list control group (WLCG) got access to an unguided version of the intervention. We reported the assessments at the beginning (T0) and at the end of the intervention, resp. the waiting period (T1). The primary outcome was satisfaction with the treatment at T1. Secondary outcome measures included emotional competence, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Statistical analyses were performed with descriptive statistics (primary outcome) and analysis of covariance; a repeated measurement analysis of variance was used for the secondary outcomes. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen d and data were analyzed as per protocol, as well as intention-to-treat (ITT).

    RESULTS: Patients were chronically ill, diagnosed with multiple diagnoses, most frequently with depression (84%, 58/69), anxiety (68%, 47/69), personality disorder (38%, 26/69), and depersonalization-derealization disorder (22%, 15/69). A majority of the patients (86%, 36/42) logged into the program, of which 86% (31/36) completed the first unit. Satisfaction with the units mastered was rated as good (52%, 16/31) and very good (26%, 9/31). However, there was a steady decline of participation over the course of the program; only 36% of the participants (13/36) participated throughout the trial completing at least 50% of the sessions. According to the ITT analysis, participants improved statistically significantly and with moderate effect sizes (Cohen d) compared with the WLCG regarding depression (d=0.60), quality of life (d=0.53), and emotional competence (d=0.49). Effects were considerably stronger for the completers with respect to depression (d=1.33), quality of life (d=0.83), emotional competence (d=0.68), and general anxiety (d=0.62).

    CONCLUSIONS: Although overall program satisfaction and benefit of the program were favorable with respect to the indicators of emotional disorders, the rate of completion was low. Our findings point to the need to target the intervention more specifically to the needs and capabilities of participants and to the context of the intervention.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02671929; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02671929 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ntWg1yWb).

  • 1225.
    Åkerman, Ingrid
    et al.
    Barnafrid – Nationellt kunskapscentrum, Linköping.
    Jonsson, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Barnafrid. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Kunskapsbehov inom socialtjänsten om våld mot barn2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den aktuella studien var att skapa ett underlag för hur ett socialtjänstnätverk i Barnafrids regi skulle kunna utvecklas. Därför undersöktes socialsekreterares uppfattning av hur de ser på den kompetens de redan har samt vad de är i behov av för vidare kunskap gällande våld och andra övergrepp mot barn. Ytterligare frågeställningar rörde vilken typ av kunskapsstöd som behövs, vilka kommunikativa lösningar kunskapen ska paketeras i samt hur de önskar att ett nätverk för socialtjänsten ska utformas. Nedan sammanfattas några huvuddrag från rapporten:

    • Det finns ett stort behov av kunskap bland svenska socialsekreterare om våld och andra övergrepp mot barn. Behovet beskrevs som något större bland socialsekreterare från mindre kommuner (< 50 000 invånare) och från socialsekreterare anställda kortare tid inom socialtjänsten (0-2 år).
    • Det behövs både generell kunskap om våld mot barn men också fördjupad kunskap inom mer specifika områden såsom nyanlända familjer, ensamkommande barn, hedersrelaterad våldsproblematik samt arbetsverktyg för risk och skyddsbedömningar.
    • Deltagarna önskade lättillgängliga manualer och guidelines som stöd i akuta eller särskilda situationer. Att kunna ta del av information via regionala konferenser/utbildningsdagar samt via en uppdaterad hemsida var prioriterat. Även kunskapspåfyllning via nationella föreläsningar var efterfrågat.
    • Mer än hälften av de svarande upplevde behov av en konsultationstelefon dit man kan ringa och få råd och stöd i svåra och komplicerade ärenden.
    • Mindre prioriterat var kunskap genom webbutbildningar, appar, frågelåda med svar via mejl och chattforum med andra verksamma.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar studien att det viktigaste är att socialsekreterare kan känna sig trygga och säkra när de utför sitt arbete. Det innebär ett arbete där barnets bästa alltid sätts i främsta rummet! Utifrån resultaten från denna studie kvarstår en hel del arbete för att uppnå det.

    Denna studie liksom tidigare undersökningar (se t.ex. Barnskyddsutredningen, 2009; Socialstyrelsen, 2016) pekar på brister och behov, såväl i grundutbildning, introduktionsutbildning som på specialistutbildning för de som ansvarar för myndighetsutövning inom den svenska sociala barn- och ungdomsvården. Personal inom socialtjänsten måste få kontinuerlig tillgång till en flora av olika former av kunskap som innebär både teoretisk och praktisk kunskap om hur man arbetar med barn som utsatts för våld. Utifrån resultaten bedömer vi också att det bland annat finns ett behov av såväl ett kunskapsbaserat socialtjänstnätverk som en konsultationstelefon. Detta är något Barnafrid – Nationellt kunskapscentrum mot våld och andra övergrepp mot barn vore en naturlig värd för i en framtid.

  • 1226.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Näslund, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Handledning i dag och i framtiden2010Inngår i: Grupphandledning: Forskning och erfarenheter från olika verksamhetsområden / [ed] Johan Näslund & Marie-Louise ögren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2010, 1, s. 207-215Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1227.
    Östergren, Rickard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Mathematical Learning Disability: Cognitive Conditions, Development and Predictions2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present thesis was to test and contrast hypotheses about the cognitive conditions that support the development of mathematical learning disability (MLD). Following hypotheses were tested in the thesis: a) domain general deficit, the deficit is primarily located in the domain general systems such as the working memory, b) number sense deficit, the deficit is located in the innate approximate number system (ANS), c) numerosity coding deficit, the deficit is located to a exact number representation system, d) access deficit, the deficit is in the mapping between symbols and the innate number representational system (e.g., ANS), e) multiple deficit hypothesis states that MLD could be related to more than one deficit.

    Three studies examined the connection between cognitive abilities and arithmetic. Study one and three compared different groups of children with or without MLD (or risk of MLD). Study two investigated the connection between early number knowledge, verbal working memory and the development of arithmetic ability.

    The results favoring the multiple deficit hypothesis, more specifically the result indicate that number sense deficit together with working memory functions constitutes risk-factors to the development of MLD in children. A simple developmental model that is based on von Asters and Shalev´s (2007) model and the present results is suggested, in order to understand the development of MLD in children.

    Delarbeid
    1. Number magnitude processing and basic cognitive functions in children with mathematical learning disabilities
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Number magnitude processing and basic cognitive functions in children with mathematical learning disabilities
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Learning and individual differences, ISSN 1041-6080, E-ISSN 1873-3425, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 701-714Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The study sought out to extend our knowledge regarding the origin ofmathematical learning disabilities (MLD) in children by testing different hypotheses in the same samples of children. Different aspects of cognitive functions and number processing were assessed in fifth- and sixth-graders (1113 years old) withMLD and compared to controls. The MLD group displayed weaknesses withmost aspects of number processing (e.g., subitizing, symbolic number comparison, number-line estimation) and two cognitive functions (e.g., visualspatial working memory). These findings favor the defective approximate number system (ANS) hypothesis, but do not fit well with the access deficit hypothesis. Support is also provided for the defective object-tracking system (OTS) hypothesis, the domain general cognitive deficit hypothesis and to some extent the defective numerosity-coding hypothesis. The study suggests that MLD might be caused by multiple deficits and not a single core deficit.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2012
    Emneord
    Mathematical learning disabilities, Cognitive functions, Number processing, Subitizing, Enumeration
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77933 (URN)10.1016/j.lindif.2012.05.004 (DOI)000312683900007 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research Council, 421-2007-1881
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-05-31 Laget: 2012-05-31 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-07bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Early number knowledge and cognitive ability affect early arithmetic ability
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Early number knowledge and cognitive ability affect early arithmetic ability
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 115, nr 3, s. 405-421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Previous literature suggests that early number knowledge is important for the development of arithmetic calculation ability. The domain-general ability of verbal working memory also has an impact on arithmetic ability. This longitudinal study tested the impact of early number knowledge and verbal working memory on the arithmetic calculation ability of children in preschool (N = 315) and then later in Grade 1 using structural equation modeling. Three models were used to test hypotheses drawn from previous literature. The current study demonstrates that both early number knowledge and the domain-general ability of verbal working memory affect preschool and Grade 1 arithmetic ability. Early number knowledge had a direct impact on the growth of arithmetic ability, whereas verbal working memory had only an indirect effect via number knowledge and preschool arithmetic ability. These results fit well with von Aster and Shalevs developmental model of numerical cognition (Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 2007, Vol. 49, pp. 868-873) and highlight the importance of considering arithmetic ability as independent from early number knowledge. Results also emphasize the importance of training early number knowledge before school entry to promote the development of arithmetic ability.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2013
    Emneord
    Early number knowledge; Mental number line; Numerical knowledge; Arithmetic calculation; Verbal working memory; Arithmetic development
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96454 (URN)10.1016/j.jecp.2013.03.007 (DOI)000320740400002 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-08-23 Laget: 2013-08-20 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06
    3. Cognitive conditions of children at risk of developing mathematical learning disabilities
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Cognitive conditions of children at risk of developing mathematical learning disabilities
    2013 (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Various hypotheses have been advanced regarding the origin of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). The present study set out to test a number of hypotheses regarding the underlying condition for the development of MLD, namely: the domain general hypothesis, number sense deficit, numerosity coding deficit, access deficit and multiple deficits. These hypotheses were tested on a sample of eight-year-old children that was divided into three groups: MLD (N = 13), typical achievers (TA, N = 57) and high achievers (HA, N = 25) based on a longitudinal approach of stability in performance on arithmetic tests. The development of the three groups was also assessed using data from preschool to grade two. The results revealed support for the hypothesis of multiple deficits that are primarily located in intraparietal sulci (IPS) and manifest themselves as both number sense deficits and deficits in spatial processing. This type of deficit is supported by less developed general abilities in the domains of both phonological ability and nonverbal intelligence, resulting in poorer number knowledge for those children at risk of MLD. The HA group displayed a superior early number knowledge in combination with superior domain general abilities, which support the development of number knowledge.

    Emneord
    Mathematical learning disability, development of arithmetic skills, number knowledge, spatial ability, number sense deficit
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96798 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-08-27 Laget: 2013-08-27 Sist oppdatert: 2013-08-27bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 1228.
    Östling, Ann-Katrine
    et al.
    Rehabiliteringsmedicinska klinkken, Sandvikens sjukhus, Landstinget i Gävleborg.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Behandling av beteendeproblem2014Inngår i: Klinisk neuropsykologi / [ed] Håkan Nyman och Aniko Bartfai, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 2, s. 411-423Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1229.
    Øksnes, Maria
    et al.
    Institutt for lærerutdanning, Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet (NTNU), Trondheim, Norge.
    Samuelsson, Marcus
    Högskolan Väst, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Barns nej - ett steg mot ett hållbart samhälle2018Inngår i: Motstånd / [ed] Maria Øksnes och Marcus Samuelsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, s. 55-76Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1230.
    Øksnes, Maria
    et al.
    Institutt for lærerutdanning, Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet (NTNU), Trondheim, Norge.
    Samuelsson, Marcus
    Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap och språk, Högskolan Väst.
    "Möte med motstånd är en existentiell fråga": Intervju med Gert Biesta2018Inngår i: Motstånd / [ed] Maria Øksnes & Marcus Samuelsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, s. 141-160Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1231.
    Øksnes, Maria
    et al.
    Institutt for lærerutdanning, Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, NTNU, Trondheim, Norge.
    Samuelsson, Marcus
    Högskolan Väst, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    "Nej, jag gör det på mitt sätt!" Motstånd i förskolan2018Inngår i: Motstånd / [ed] Øksnes, M., & Samuelsson, M., Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, s. 11-37Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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