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  • 151.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    From 'the good work' to 'the good life': a Perspective on Labor Union Visions Regarding Information Technology1998In: Proceedings of the Participatory Design Conference, 1998, p. 137-145Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    From Utopia to DLK: Management of External Voices in Large Participatory Design Projects2000In: Proceedings of the Participatory Design Conference, 2000, p. 156-165Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to extend Participatory design in order to apply it in heterogeneous user groups and large projects of strategic importance for organizations. This study displays an approach to capturing and including relevant external design voices using data from the design of an information system aimed to support the day-to-day tasks of Swedish shop stewards. It was found that shop stewards often use an operative voice, middle level union ombudsmen an organizational voice, and union federation management an ideological one when relating to information technology. An Activity theory analysis showed that the union organization stands at a crossroads, and that the choice of information technology will directly influence the future direction to be taken. It is argued that all parties in a design process must therefore be heard, in order to arrive at system solutions that are actually implemented, used and administrated.

  • 153.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    How do Shop Stewards Perceive their Situation and Tasks?: Preconditions for Support of Union Work2001In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 569-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When unions worldwide confront a decline in density and power,pressure increases on shop stewards. They occupy a positiondesribed s demanding, which involves striking a balance betweenconciliation and tough negotiation, between ordinary work andunion work, and feelings of isolation from members. If shopstewards already experien a demanding work situation, and parallelto this the overall union conditions become aggravated, a nextstep would be to find out in what ways their situation can befacilitated. This article is based on data desribing recentexperiences of Swedish shop stewards, and it compares theirsituation to that desribed in the international research literature.It is found that the basic components of union work remain stable,in spite of rent labour relations changes and national differences.However, lees than half of the reported problems were relatedto direct contact with the employer. Shop stewards generalyexperience a situation characterized by inherent conflict andwide-ranging tasks, resulting in high demands on their skillsand in role overload. On the other hand, the results indicatedifferences with regard to the ulnion affilation, age, experienceand gender. En the eyes of union members the shop stew ardslargely emb ody the ui on organizati on. Therefore, they shouldreeive increased attention when dealing with the problems ofunions. Measures to facilitate their work can include training,supportive networks and access to adequate information technology,and can further be targeted with regard to age/experience andgender.

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  • 154.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Organisational Policy and Shop-floor Requests in Design: Visualisation of the Argumentation Behind an Information System for the Swedish Trade Union Movement2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0905-0167, E-ISSN 1901-0990, Vol. 13, p. 115-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design Rationale is an approach to the design of information systems which highlights the underlying argumentative reasoning and documentation of design decisions. The Argumentative Design (ArD) method extends Design Rationale to address organisational problem identification and the formulation of needs to be supported by the system. In this study, ArD was further modified and then applied in the early phase of the design of an information system for shop stewards in the Swedish trade union movement. The application of ArD revealed that both similarities and significant discrepancies existed between top-management information technology strategies and shop-floor needs, and that the strategies involve fundamental power-relation issues in terms of centralisation versus decentralisation and individualism versus collectivism. It is suggested that ArD can be of general benefit in early design phases by eliciting fundamental organisational issues and by illustrating what impact chosen information technology solutions may have on organisations. The study is of value for other unions wishing to learn from the Swedish experience and the modified ArD approach can also be used in other contexts where several interest groups are to be satisfied by a system.

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  • 155.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Lindell, Per-Ola
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Integrating the rational unified process and participatory design for development of socio-technical systems: A user participative approach2007In: Design Studies, ISSN 0142-694X, E-ISSN 1872-6909, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 263-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the MOPT-Systems Development Process, aimed at bridging the gap between ideality and reality. The process is based on an approach to systems development involving a formalised process for developing socio-technical systems. In specific, it integrates a modified Rational Unified Process (RUP) framework with a socio-technical system view and an extended participatory design (PD) perspective using PD techniques and social research methods. It is argued that the integrated approach, by combining the RUP formalisation, modeling tools and coverage of the entire development process, together with the parallel development of methodology, organisation, and personnel, will greatly enhance the chance of solid systems, grounded in the organisation and appreciated by its users. In this respect, the close cooperation with the end-users throughout the development process is supposed to contribute.

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  • 156.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Anticipated and Actual Consequences of Implementing Information Technology in a Large Third Sector Organisation: the Case of a Trade Union Confederation2002Other (Other academic)
  • 157.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Third generation participatory design: making participation applicable to large-scale system development projects.2004In: PDC 2004,2004, Palo Alto: PDC , 2004, p. 127-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 158.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, FHVC - Folkhälsovetenskapligt centrum.
    Third Generation Participatory Design - making particiption applicable to large-scale information system projects2004In: Proceedings of Participatory Design Conference 2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 159.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Third generation participatory design in health informatics--making user participation applicable to large-scale information system projects.2008In: Journal of biomedical informatics, ISSN 1532-0480, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 327-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory Design (PD) methods in the field of health informatics have mainly been applied to the development of small-scale systems with homogeneous user groups in local settings. Meanwhile, health service organizations are becoming increasingly large and complex in character, making it necessary to extend the scope of the systems that are used for managing data, information and knowledge. This study reports participatory action research on the development of a PD framework for large-scale system design. The research was conducted in a public health informatics project aimed at developing a system for 175,000 users. A renewed PD framework was developed in response to six major limitations experienced to be associated with the existing methods. The resulting framework preserves the theoretical grounding, but extends the toolbox to suit applications in networked health service organizations. Future research should involve evaluations of the framework in other health service settings where comprehensive HISs are developed.

  • 160.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Using Activity Theory in system development for entire organisations: the case of the Swedish Trade Union Confederation2002In: International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, ISSN 1465-6612, Vol. 2, no 3-4, p. 308-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity Theory has, in recent years, been criticised for not paying enough attention to the notion of individual versus collective subjects. It has also been pointed out that even though the Activity theoretical framework can beneficially be used in the development of information systems, actual attempts to apply it to concrete projects are only occasional. This study explores the use of Activity Theory in an organisational context where the subject is of marked collective nature, in an information systems development project for the Swedish National Trade Union Confederation (LO). Both implications of the study as regards the specific trade union application, and more general implications of applying Activity Theory to studies of entire organisations and for system development, are discussed.

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  • 161.
    Pilemalm, Sofíe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Anticipated and Actual Consequences of Implementing Information Technology in a Large Third Sector Organisation: the Case of a Trade Union Confederation2002In: 18th European Group for Organizational Studies Colloquium, Barcelona, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 162. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Rahimi, Bahlol
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Supporting Collaborative Work through ICT: How End-users Think of and Adopt Integrated HealthInformation Systems2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Health Information Systems (HISs) are implemented to support individuals,organizations, and society, making work processes integrated andcontributing to increase service quality and patient safety. However, theoutcomes of many HIS implementations in both primary care and hospitalsettings have either not met yet all the expectations decision-makersidentified or have failed in their implementation. There is, therefore, agrowing interest in increasing knowledge about prerequisites to be fulfilledin order to make the implementation and adoption of HIS more effective andto improve collaboration between healthcare providers.

    The general purpose of the work presented in this thesis is to explore issuesrelated to the implementation, use, and adoption of HISs and its contributionfor improving inter- and intra-organizational collaboration in a healthcarecontext. The studies included have, however, different research objectivesand consequently used different research methods such as case study,literature review, meta-analysis, and surveys. The selection of the researchmethodology has thus depended on the aim of the studies and their expectedresults.

    In the first study performed we showed that there is no standard frameworkto evaluate effects and outputs of implementation and use of ICT-basedapplications in the healthcare setting, which makes the comparison ofinternational results not possible yet.

    Critical issues, such as techniques employed to teach the staff when usingintegrated system, involvement of the users in the implementation process,and the efficiency of the human computer interface were particularlyreported in the second study included in this thesis. The results of this studyalso indicated that the development of evidence-based implementation processes should be considered in order to diminish unexpected outputs thataffect users, patients and stakeholders.

    We learned in the third study, that merely implementing of a HIS will notautomatically increase organizational efficiency. Strategic, tactical, andoperational actions have to be taken into consideration, includingmanagement involvement, integration in healthcare workflow, establishingcompatibility between software and hardware, user involvement, andeducation and training.

    When using an Integrated Electronic Prescribing System (IEPS), pharmaciesstaff declared expedited the processing of prescriptions, increased patientsafety, and reduced the risk for prescription errors, as well as the handingover of erroneous medications to patients. However, they stated also that thesystem does not avoid all mistakes or errors and medication errors stilloccur. We documented, however, in general, positive opinions about theIEPS system in the fifth article. The results in this article indicated thatsafety of the system compared to a paper-based one has increased. Theresults showed also an impact on customer relations with the pharmacy; andprevention of errors. However, besides finding an adoption of the IEPS, weidentified a series of undesired and non planned outputs that affect theefficiency and efficacy of use of the system.

    Finally, we captured in the sixth study indications for non-optimality in thecomputer provider entry system. This is because; the system was not adaptedto the three-quarters of physicians and one-half of nurses’ specificprofessional practice. Respondents pointed out also human-computerinteraction constrains when using the system. They indicated also the factthat the system could lead to adverse drug events in some circumstances.

    The work presented in this thesis contributes to increase knowledge in thearea of health informatics on how ICT supports inter- and intraorganizationalcollaborative work in a healthcare context and to identifyfactors and prerequisites needed to be taken into consideration whenimplementing new generations of HIS.

    List of papers
    1. Methods to Evaluate Health information Systems in Healthcare Settings: A Literature Review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods to Evaluate Health information Systems in Healthcare Settings: A Literature Review
    2007 (English)In: Journal of medical systems, ISSN 0148-5598, E-ISSN 1573-689X, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 397-432Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Although information technology (IT)-based applications in healthcare have existed for more than three decades, methods to evaluate outputs and outcomes of the use of IT-based systems in medical informatics is still a challenge for decision makers, as well as to those who want to measure the effects of ICT in healthcare settings. The aim of this paper is to review published articles in the area evaluations of IT-based systems in order to gain knowledge about methodologies used and findings obtained from the evaluation of IT-based systems applied in healthcare settings. The literature review includes studies of IT-based systems between 2003 and 2005. The findings show that economic and organizational aspects dominate evaluation studies in this area. However, the results focus mostly on positive outputs such as user satisfaction, financial benefits and improved organizational work. This review shows that there is no standard framework for evaluation effects and outputs of implementation and use of IT in the healthcare setting and that until today no studies explore the impact of IT on the healthcare system’ productivity and effectiveness.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2007
    Keywords
    Evaluation studies, Medical informatics, Literature review
    National Category
    Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15650 (URN)10.1007/s10916-007-9082-z (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-11-26 Created: 2008-11-25 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Implementing an integrated computerized patient record system: Towards an evidence-based information system implementation practice in healthcare
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementing an integrated computerized patient record system: Towards an evidence-based information system implementation practice in healthcare
    2008 (English)In: AMIA 2008 Annual Symposium, Biomedical and Health Informatics:form foundations to applications to policy. Washington DC. 8-12 November 2008, 2008, p. 616-620Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of health information system (HIS) implementations fail due to insufficient organizational harmonization. The aim of this study is to examine whether these problems remain when implementing technically integrated and more advanced generations of HIS. In a case study, data from observations, interviews, and organizational documents were analyzed using qualitative methods. We found that critical issues in the case study implementation process were the techniques employed to teach the staff to use the integrated system, involvement of the users in the implementation process, and the efficiency of the human computer interface. Comparisons with a literature review showed both recurrence of previously reported implementation problems and new issues specific to the integrated system context. The results indicate that the development of evidence-based implementation processes should be considered.

    Series
    AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 1942-597X
    National Category
    Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15672 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-11-26 Created: 2008-11-26 Last updated: 2015-05-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Health Information System Implementation: A Qualitative Meta-analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health Information System Implementation: A Qualitative Meta-analysis
    2009 (English)In: Journal of medical systems, ISSN 0148-5598, E-ISSN 1573-689X, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 359-368Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare information systems (HISs) are often implemented to enhance the quality of care and the degree to which it is patient-centered, as well as to improve the efficiency and safety of services. However, the outcomes of HIS implementations have not met expectations. We set out to organize the knowledge gained in qualitative studies performed in association with HIS implementations and to use this knowledge to outline an updated structure for implementation planning. A multi-disciplinary team performed the analyses in order to cover as many aspects of the primary studies as possible. We found that merely implementing an HIS will not automatically increase organizational efficiency. Strategic, tactical, and operational actions have to be taken into consideration, including management involvement, integration in healthcare workflow, establishing compatibility between software and hardware and, most importantly, user involvement, education and training. The results should be interpreted as a high-order scheme, and not a predictive theory.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Netherlands, 2009
    Keywords
    Health information system, Implementation, Qualitative methods, Meta-analysis
    National Category
    Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15673 (URN)10.1007/s10916-008-9198-9 (DOI)
    Note
    The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com: Bahlol Rahimi, Vivian Vimarlund and Toomas Timpka, Health Information System Implementation: A Qualitative Meta-analysis, 2009, Journal of medical systems, (33), 5, 359-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10916-008-9198-9 Copyright: Springer Science Business Media http://www.springerlink.com/ Available from: 2008-11-26 Created: 2008-11-26 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Integrated electronic prescribing systems: pharmacists’ perceptions ofimpact on work performance and patient safety
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated electronic prescribing systems: pharmacists’ perceptions ofimpact on work performance and patient safety
    2009 (English)In: Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLIED INFORMATICS AND COMMUNICATIONS (AIC '09), 2009, p. 299-304Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated electronic prescribing systems (IEPSs) are expected to improve efficiency and safety inthe management of pharmaceuticals throughout the healthcare sector. We examined the introduction of anIEPS into pharmacists’ work performance with regard to impact on efficiency and patient safety. Aquestionnaire was distributed to all pharmacists (n = 85) in a Swedish municipality (pop. 145,000) where anIEPS had recently been introduced. The response rate was 74%. We found that, in general, the IEPS wasperceived to have expedited the processing of prescriptions and reduced the risk for prescription errors, as wellas the handing over of erroneous medications to patients. Pharmacists were more cautious about the residualrisks for making mistakes than the pharmacist’s assistants. We conclude that the introduction of an IEPS waswell received by local-level pharmacy staff, but that an IEPS does not automatically reduce the need forqualified personnel in the management of pharmaceuticals.

    Keywords
    Electronic prescribing, pharmacist, patient safety, work performance
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20568 (URN)000273271800052 ()978-960-474-107-6 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2009-09-14 Created: 2009-09-14 Last updated: 2013-09-05Bibliographically approved
    5. Introduction of an Integrated ElectronicPrescribing System: The Pharmacies StaffDimension
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction of an Integrated ElectronicPrescribing System: The Pharmacies StaffDimension
    2009 (English)In: The 14th International Symposium for Health Information ManagementResearch (ISHIMR), Kalmar, Sweden, 14-16 October, 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An integrated electronic prescribing system allows the transfer of pharmaceutical prescriptionsfrom doctors to pharmacies. Using a questionnaire, we gathered data from the pharmacies staffin a Swedish county council. We found that most of the pharmacists have positive opinions aboutthe system. The participants in the survey indicated, as important issues, the safety of the systemcompared to a paper-based one; impact on customer relations with the pharmacy; and preventionof errors. However, it was stated that errors occur due to similar drug names, codes, or due theinability of doctors to cancel the prescription once it is send to the pharmacy. Future feasibility ofthis technology will be determined by whether several obstacles can be resolved such ascorrection or cancellation of prescriptions by physicians, decreasing the computer problems, andattending different risks related to the prescriptions including confusion between different patientsand different drugs.

    Keywords
    Electronic prescribing, pharmacists, patient safety, work process
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20570 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-09-14 Created: 2009-09-14 Last updated: 2009-09-14Bibliographically approved
    6. Organization-wide adoption of computerized provider order entry systems: a study based on diffusion of innovations theory
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organization-wide adoption of computerized provider order entry systems: a study based on diffusion of innovations theory
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 9, no 52Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems have been introduced to reduce medication errors, increase safety, improve work-flow efficiency, and increase medical service quality at the moment of prescription. Making the impact of CPOE systems more observable may facilitate their adoption by users. We set out to examine factors associated with the adoption of a CPOE system for inter-organizational and intra-organizational care. Methods: The diffusion of innovation theory was used to understand physicians and nurses attitudes and thoughts about implementation and use of the CPOE system. Two online survey questionnaires were distributed to all physicians and nurses using a CPOE system in county-wide healthcare organizations. The number of complete questionnaires analyzed was 134 from 200 nurses (67.0%) and 176 from 741 physicians (23.8%). Data were analyzed using descriptive-analytical statistical methods. Results: More nurses (56.7%) than physicians (31.3%) stated that the CPOE system introduction had worked well in their clinical setting (P andlt; 0.001). Similarly, more physicians (73.9%) than nurses (50.7%) reported that they found the system not adapted to their specific professional practice (P = andlt; 0.001). Also more physicians (25.0%) than nurses (13.4%) stated that they did want to return to the previous system (P = 0.041). We found that in particular the received relative advantages of the CPOE system were estimated to be significantly (P andlt; 0.001) higher among nurses (39.6%) than physicians (16.5%). However, physicians agreements with the compatibility of the CPOE and with its complexity were significantly higher than the nurses (P andlt; 0.001). Conclusions: Qualifications for CPOE adoption as defined by three attributes of diffusion of innovation theory were not satisfied in the study setting. CPOE systems are introduced as a response to the present limitations in paper-based systems. In consequence, user expectations are often high on their relative advantages as well as on a low level of complexity. Building CPOE systems therefore requires designs that can provide rather important additional advantages, e. g. by preventing prescription errors and ultimately improving patient safety and safety of clinical work. The decision-making process leading to the implementation and use of CPOE systems in healthcare therefore has to be improved. As any change in health service settings usually faces resistance, we emphasize that CPOE system designers and healthcare decision-makers should continually collect users feedback about the systems, while not forgetting that it also is necessary to inform the users about the potential benefits involved.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53838 (URN)10.1186/1472-6947-9-52 (DOI)000273910200001 ()
    Note
    Original Publication: Bahlol Rahimi, Toomas Timpka, Vivian Vimarlund, Srinivas Uppugunduri and Mikael Svensson, Organization-wide adoption of computerized provider order entry systems: a study based on diffusion of innovations theory, 2009, BMC MEDICAL INFORMATICS AND DECISION MAKING, (9), 52, . http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6947-9-52 Licensee: BioMed Central http://www.biomedcentral.com/. On the day of the defence date the original title of this article was "Adoption of computerized provider order entry systems: An organization-wide study based on diffusion of innovations theory".Available from: 2010-02-05 Created: 2010-02-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
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    Supporting Collaborative Work through ICT : How End-users Think of and Adopt Integrated Health Information Systems
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  • 163.
    Rahimi, Bahlol
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, EISLAB - Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Implementing an integrated computerized patient record system: Towards an evidence-based information system implementation practice in healthcare2008In: AMIA 2008 Annual Symposium, Biomedical and Health Informatics:form foundations to applications to policy. Washington DC. 8-12 November 2008, 2008, p. 616-620Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of health information system (HIS) implementations fail due to insufficient organizational harmonization. The aim of this study is to examine whether these problems remain when implementing technically integrated and more advanced generations of HIS. In a case study, data from observations, interviews, and organizational documents were analyzed using qualitative methods. We found that critical issues in the case study implementation process were the techniques employed to teach the staff to use the integrated system, involvement of the users in the implementation process, and the efficiency of the human computer interface. Comparisons with a literature review showed both recurrence of previously reported implementation problems and new issues specific to the integrated system context. The results indicate that the development of evidence-based implementation processes should be considered.

  • 164.
    Rahimi, Bahlol
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Moberg, Anna
    Vårdprocesscentrum Landstinget Östergötland.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    The voices are the same2008In: Medical Informatics Association,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 165.
    Rahimi, Bahlol
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Uppugunduri, Srinivas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Östergötland County Council, Drug and Therapeut Comm, Linkoping, Sweden .
    Organization-wide adoption of computerized provider order entry systems: a study based on diffusion of innovations theory2009In: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 9, no 52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems have been introduced to reduce medication errors, increase safety, improve work-flow efficiency, and increase medical service quality at the moment of prescription. Making the impact of CPOE systems more observable may facilitate their adoption by users. We set out to examine factors associated with the adoption of a CPOE system for inter-organizational and intra-organizational care. Methods: The diffusion of innovation theory was used to understand physicians and nurses attitudes and thoughts about implementation and use of the CPOE system. Two online survey questionnaires were distributed to all physicians and nurses using a CPOE system in county-wide healthcare organizations. The number of complete questionnaires analyzed was 134 from 200 nurses (67.0%) and 176 from 741 physicians (23.8%). Data were analyzed using descriptive-analytical statistical methods. Results: More nurses (56.7%) than physicians (31.3%) stated that the CPOE system introduction had worked well in their clinical setting (P andlt; 0.001). Similarly, more physicians (73.9%) than nurses (50.7%) reported that they found the system not adapted to their specific professional practice (P = andlt; 0.001). Also more physicians (25.0%) than nurses (13.4%) stated that they did want to return to the previous system (P = 0.041). We found that in particular the received relative advantages of the CPOE system were estimated to be significantly (P andlt; 0.001) higher among nurses (39.6%) than physicians (16.5%). However, physicians agreements with the compatibility of the CPOE and with its complexity were significantly higher than the nurses (P andlt; 0.001). Conclusions: Qualifications for CPOE adoption as defined by three attributes of diffusion of innovation theory were not satisfied in the study setting. CPOE systems are introduced as a response to the present limitations in paper-based systems. In consequence, user expectations are often high on their relative advantages as well as on a low level of complexity. Building CPOE systems therefore requires designs that can provide rather important additional advantages, e. g. by preventing prescription errors and ultimately improving patient safety and safety of clinical work. The decision-making process leading to the implementation and use of CPOE systems in healthcare therefore has to be improved. As any change in health service settings usually faces resistance, we emphasize that CPOE system designers and healthcare decision-makers should continually collect users feedback about the systems, while not forgetting that it also is necessary to inform the users about the potential benefits involved.

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  • 166.
    Rahimi, Bahlol
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Introduction of an Integrated ElectronicPrescribing System: The Pharmacies StaffDimension2009In: The 14th International Symposium for Health Information ManagementResearch (ISHIMR), Kalmar, Sweden, 14-16 October, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An integrated electronic prescribing system allows the transfer of pharmaceutical prescriptionsfrom doctors to pharmacies. Using a questionnaire, we gathered data from the pharmacies staffin a Swedish county council. We found that most of the pharmacists have positive opinions aboutthe system. The participants in the survey indicated, as important issues, the safety of the systemcompared to a paper-based one; impact on customer relations with the pharmacy; and preventionof errors. However, it was stated that errors occur due to similar drug names, codes, or due theinability of doctors to cancel the prescription once it is send to the pharmacy. Future feasibility ofthis technology will be determined by whether several obstacles can be resolved such ascorrection or cancellation of prescriptions by physicians, decreasing the computer problems, andattending different risks related to the prescriptions including confusion between different patientsand different drugs.

  • 167.
    Rahimi, Bahlol
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Methods to Evaluate Health information Systems in Healthcare Settings: A Literature Review2007In: Journal of medical systems, ISSN 0148-5598, E-ISSN 1573-689X, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 397-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although information technology (IT)-based applications in healthcare have existed for more than three decades, methods to evaluate outputs and outcomes of the use of IT-based systems in medical informatics is still a challenge for decision makers, as well as to those who want to measure the effects of ICT in healthcare settings. The aim of this paper is to review published articles in the area evaluations of IT-based systems in order to gain knowledge about methodologies used and findings obtained from the evaluation of IT-based systems applied in healthcare settings. The literature review includes studies of IT-based systems between 2003 and 2005. The findings show that economic and organizational aspects dominate evaluation studies in this area. However, the results focus mostly on positive outputs such as user satisfaction, financial benefits and improved organizational work. This review shows that there is no standard framework for evaluation effects and outputs of implementation and use of IT in the healthcare setting and that until today no studies explore the impact of IT on the healthcare system’ productivity and effectiveness.

  • 168.
    Rahimi, Bahlol
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mokhtari, Rahman
    Hospital Pharmacy, University Hospital, Linköping.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Integrated electronic prescribing systems: pharmacists’ perceptions ofimpact on work performance and patient safety2009In: Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLIED INFORMATICS AND COMMUNICATIONS (AIC '09), 2009, p. 299-304Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated electronic prescribing systems (IEPSs) are expected to improve efficiency and safety inthe management of pharmaceuticals throughout the healthcare sector. We examined the introduction of anIEPS into pharmacists’ work performance with regard to impact on efficiency and patient safety. Aquestionnaire was distributed to all pharmacists (n = 85) in a Swedish municipality (pop. 145,000) where anIEPS had recently been introduced. The response rate was 74%. We found that, in general, the IEPS wasperceived to have expedited the processing of prescriptions and reduced the risk for prescription errors, as wellas the handing over of erroneous medications to patients. Pharmacists were more cautious about the residualrisks for making mistakes than the pharmacist’s assistants. We conclude that the introduction of an IEPS waswell received by local-level pharmacy staff, but that an IEPS does not automatically reduce the need forqualified personnel in the management of pharmaceuticals.

  • 169.
    Rahimi, Bahlol
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Health Information System Implementation: A Qualitative Meta-analysis2009In: Journal of medical systems, ISSN 0148-5598, E-ISSN 1573-689X, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 359-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare information systems (HISs) are often implemented to enhance the quality of care and the degree to which it is patient-centered, as well as to improve the efficiency and safety of services. However, the outcomes of HIS implementations have not met expectations. We set out to organize the knowledge gained in qualitative studies performed in association with HIS implementations and to use this knowledge to outline an updated structure for implementation planning. A multi-disciplinary team performed the analyses in order to cover as many aspects of the primary studies as possible. We found that merely implementing an HIS will not automatically increase organizational efficiency. Strategic, tactical, and operational actions have to be taken into consideration, including management involvement, integration in healthcare workflow, establishing compatibility between software and hardware and, most importantly, user involvement, education and training. The results should be interpreted as a high-order scheme, and not a predictive theory.

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  • 170. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Rahimi, Bahol
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Implementation of Health Information Systems2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare organizations now consider increased efficiency, reduced costs, improved patient care and quality of services, and safety when they are planning to implement new information and communication technology (ICT) based applications. However, in spite of enormous investment in health information systems (HIS), no convincing evidence of the overall benefits of HISs yet exists. The publishing of studies that capture the effects of the implementation and use of ICT-based applications in healthcare may contribute to the emergence of an evidence-based health informatics which can be used as a platform for decisions made by policy makers, executives, and clinicians. Health informatics needs further studies identifying the factors affecting successful HIS implementation and capturing the effects of HIS implementation. The purpose of the work presented in this thesis is to increase the available knowledge about the impact of the implementation and use of HISs in healthcare organizations. All the studies included in this thesis used qualitative research methods. A case study design and literature review were performed to collect data.

    This thesis’s results highlight an increasing need to share knowledge, find methods to evaluate the impact of investments, and formulate indicators for success. It makes suggestions for developing or extending evaluation methods that can be applied to this area with a multi-actor perspective in order to understand the effects, consequences, and prerequisites that have to be achieved for the successful implementation and use of IT in healthcare. The results also propose that HIS, particularly integrated computer-based patient records (ICPR), be introduced to fulfill a high number of organizational, individualbased, and socio-technical goals at different levels. It is therefore necessary to link the goals that HIS systems are to fulfill in relation to short-term, middle-term, and long-term strategic goals. Another suggestion is that implementers and vendors should direct more attention to what has been published in the area to avoid future failures.

    This thesis’s findings outline an updated structure for implementation planning. When implementing HISs in hospital and primary-care environments, this thesis suggests that such strategic actions as management involvement and resource allocation, such tactical action as integrating HIS with healthcare workflow, and such operational actions as user involvement, establishing compatibility between software and hardware, and education and training should be taken into consideration.

    List of papers
    1. Methods to Evaluate Health information Systems in Healthcare Settings: A Literature Review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods to Evaluate Health information Systems in Healthcare Settings: A Literature Review
    2007 (English)In: Journal of medical systems, ISSN 0148-5598, E-ISSN 1573-689X, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 397-432Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Although information technology (IT)-based applications in healthcare have existed for more than three decades, methods to evaluate outputs and outcomes of the use of IT-based systems in medical informatics is still a challenge for decision makers, as well as to those who want to measure the effects of ICT in healthcare settings. The aim of this paper is to review published articles in the area evaluations of IT-based systems in order to gain knowledge about methodologies used and findings obtained from the evaluation of IT-based systems applied in healthcare settings. The literature review includes studies of IT-based systems between 2003 and 2005. The findings show that economic and organizational aspects dominate evaluation studies in this area. However, the results focus mostly on positive outputs such as user satisfaction, financial benefits and improved organizational work. This review shows that there is no standard framework for evaluation effects and outputs of implementation and use of IT in the healthcare setting and that until today no studies explore the impact of IT on the healthcare system’ productivity and effectiveness.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2007
    Keywords
    Evaluation studies, Medical informatics, Literature review
    National Category
    Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15650 (URN)10.1007/s10916-007-9082-z (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-11-26 Created: 2008-11-25 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Implementing an integrated computerized patient record system: Towards an evidence-based information system implementation practice in healthcare
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementing an integrated computerized patient record system: Towards an evidence-based information system implementation practice in healthcare
    2008 (English)In: AMIA 2008 Annual Symposium, Biomedical and Health Informatics:form foundations to applications to policy. Washington DC. 8-12 November 2008, 2008, p. 616-620Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of health information system (HIS) implementations fail due to insufficient organizational harmonization. The aim of this study is to examine whether these problems remain when implementing technically integrated and more advanced generations of HIS. In a case study, data from observations, interviews, and organizational documents were analyzed using qualitative methods. We found that critical issues in the case study implementation process were the techniques employed to teach the staff to use the integrated system, involvement of the users in the implementation process, and the efficiency of the human computer interface. Comparisons with a literature review showed both recurrence of previously reported implementation problems and new issues specific to the integrated system context. The results indicate that the development of evidence-based implementation processes should be considered.

    Series
    AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 1942-597X
    National Category
    Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15672 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-11-26 Created: 2008-11-26 Last updated: 2015-05-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Health Information System Implementation: A Qualitative Meta-analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health Information System Implementation: A Qualitative Meta-analysis
    2009 (English)In: Journal of medical systems, ISSN 0148-5598, E-ISSN 1573-689X, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 359-368Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare information systems (HISs) are often implemented to enhance the quality of care and the degree to which it is patient-centered, as well as to improve the efficiency and safety of services. However, the outcomes of HIS implementations have not met expectations. We set out to organize the knowledge gained in qualitative studies performed in association with HIS implementations and to use this knowledge to outline an updated structure for implementation planning. A multi-disciplinary team performed the analyses in order to cover as many aspects of the primary studies as possible. We found that merely implementing an HIS will not automatically increase organizational efficiency. Strategic, tactical, and operational actions have to be taken into consideration, including management involvement, integration in healthcare workflow, establishing compatibility between software and hardware and, most importantly, user involvement, education and training. The results should be interpreted as a high-order scheme, and not a predictive theory.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Netherlands, 2009
    Keywords
    Health information system, Implementation, Qualitative methods, Meta-analysis
    National Category
    Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15673 (URN)10.1007/s10916-008-9198-9 (DOI)
    Note
    The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com: Bahlol Rahimi, Vivian Vimarlund and Toomas Timpka, Health Information System Implementation: A Qualitative Meta-analysis, 2009, Journal of medical systems, (33), 5, 359-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10916-008-9198-9 Copyright: Springer Science Business Media http://www.springerlink.com/ Available from: 2008-11-26 Created: 2008-11-26 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
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    COVER01
  • 171.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Episode Analysis for Evaluating Response Operations and Identifying Training Needs2010In: Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Emergency Management (EM) teams are faced with dynamic and complex situations, often involving multiple teams and organizations working together under stressful circumstances. One of the key issues observed in emergency responses is inadequate. The communicative problems stem from various issues such as political, personal or jurisdictional problems. In order to improve communication and coordination, we need to gain a profound understanding of what the communication issues are and, further, we need to provide meaningful inter-organizational training regimes targeting these issues. We suggest episode analysis, a qualitative research method, to better understand the communication taking place during an emergency response. Episode analysis provides a way to code and analyze data involving multiple teams and organizations as well as a way to study more informal communicative functions that would otherwise be difficult to capture. Moreover, we suggest that episode analyses can be used to identify training needs and be helpful in creating meaningful training scenarios.

  • 172.
    Roy, Chandan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tropical cyclone track forecasting techniques: A review2012In: Atmospheric research, ISSN 0169-8095, E-ISSN 1873-2895, Vol. 104-105, p. 40-69Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delivering accurate cyclone forecasts in time is of key importance when it comes to saving human lives and reducing economic loss. Difficulties arise because the geographical and climatological characteristics of the various cyclone formation basins are not similar, which entail that a single forecasting technique cannot yield reliable performance in all ocean basins. For this reason, global forecasting techniques need to be applied together with basin-specific techniques to increase the forecast accuracy. As cyclone track is governed by a range of factors variations in weather conditions, wind pressure, sea surface temperature, air temperature, ocean currents, and the earths rotational force-the coriolis force, it is a formidable task to combine these parameters and produce reliable and accurate forecasts. In recent years, the availability of suitable data has increased and more advanced forecasting techniques have been developed, in addition to old techniques having been modified. In particular, artificial neural network based techniques are now being considered at meteorological offices. This new technique uses freely available satellite images as input, can be run on standard PCs, and can produce forecasts with good accuracy. For these reasons, artificial neural network based techniques seem especially suited for developing countries which have limited capacity to forecast cyclones and where human casualties are the highest. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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    fulltext
  • 173. Rutgersson, Sara
    et al.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    User Interfaces for persons with deafblindness2007In: Universal Access in Ambient Intelligence Environments / [ed] Stephanidis, C., Pieper, M., Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer , 2007, p. 317-334Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the problems persons with deafblindness encounter when using computers, and what can be done to avoid the problems in the design of a communication tool. A qualitative study was conducted with 12 participants. The results show that a system needs to resolve issues of simplicity, flexibility, and feedback. In our redesign of the communication tool we employ what we call a screen reader use flow with precursor cues, to aid the user in getting an overview of the program and its functions. This is very difficult when using a Braille display. The screen reader use flow with precursor cues is one means to satisfy the demands of both users who use a visual display and users who use a Braille display.

  • 174.
    Saifullah, Mohammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Roy, Chandan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bidirectional Hierarchical Neural Networks: Hebbian Learning Improves Generalization2010In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications,  Volume 1, 2010, p. 105-111Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual pattern recognition is a complex problem, and it has proven difficult to achieve satisfactorily instandard three-layer feed-forward artificial neural networks. For this reason, an increasing number ofresearchers are using networks whose architecture resembles the human visual system. These biologicallybasednetworks are bidirectionally connected, use receptive fields, and have a hierarchical structure, withthe input layer being the largest layer, and consecutive layers getting increasingly smaller. These networksare large and complex, and therefore run a risk of getting overfitted during learning, especially if smalltraining sets are used, and if the input patterns are noisy. Many data sets, such as, for example, handwrittencharacters, are intrinsically noisy. The problem of overfitting is aggravated by the tendency of error-drivenlearning in large networks to treat all variations in the noisy input as significant. However, there is one wayto balance off this tendency to overfit, and that is to use a mixture of learning algorithms. In this study, weran systematic tests on handwritten character recognition, where we compared generalization performanceusing a mixture of Hebbian learning and error-driven learning with generalization performance using pureerror-driven learning. Our results indicate that injecting even a small amount of Hebbian learning, 0.01 %,significantly improves the generalization performance of the network.

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  • 175.
    Saifullah, Mohammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kovordányi, Rita
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Emergence of Attention Focus in a Biologically-Based Bidirectionally-Connected Hierarchical Network2011In: Adaptive and Natural Computing Algorithms: 10th International Conference, ICANNGA 2011, Ljubljana, Slovenia, April 14-16, 2011, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Andrej Dobnikar, Uroš Lotrič, Branko Šter, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 200-209Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a computational model for visual processing where attentional focus emerges fundamental mechanisms inherent to human vision. Through detailed analysis of activation development in the network we demonstrate how normal interaction between top-down and bottom-up processing and intrinsic mutual competition within processing units can give rise to attentional focus. The model includes both spatial and object-based attention, which are computed simultaneously, and can mutually reinforce each other. We show how a non-salient location and a corresponding non-salient feature set that are at first weakly activated by visual input can be reinforced by top-down feedback signals (centrally controlled attention), and instigate a change in attentional focus to the weak object. One application of this model is highlight a task-relevant object in a cluttered visual environment, even when this object is nonsalient (non-conspicuous).

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    fulltext
  • 176.
    Sjölund, Micael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berglund, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    SensAid Pad: Supporting Context-Aware Information Navigation2004In: Online proceedings of the Workshop on Component-Oriented Approaches to Context-Aware Systems, in conjunction with ECOOP'04', 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 177.
    Sjölund, Micael
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Larsson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Berglund, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Smartphone Views: Building Multi-Device Distributed User Interfaces2004In: Mobile HCI,2004, Heidelberg, Tyskland: Springer , 2004, p. 507-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Sjölund, Micael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berglund, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smartphone views: Building multi-device distributed user interfaces2004In: Mobile Human-Computer Interaction - MobileHCI 2004: 6th International Symposium, MobileHCI, Glasgow, UK, September 13 - 16, 2004. Proceedings / [ed] Stephen Brewster and Mark Dunlop, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2004, Vol. 3160, p. 507-511Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a prototype of a distributed user interface (DUI) on dual devices, a workstation and a Windows Mobile-powered smartphone. By porting the XML-compliant GUT system Views to the smartphone platform, we explore one possibility of distributing CUT components among heterogeneous devices. We describe problems and conclusions from designing and implementing the system.

  • 179.
    Sjölund, Micael
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Larsson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Berglund, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    The Walk-Away GUI: Interface Distribution to Mobile Devices2005In: IASTED-HCI 2005,2005, Anaheim, USA: ACTA Press , 2005, p. 114-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Skågeby , Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring Qualitative Sharing Practices of Social Metadata: Expanding the Attention Economy2009In: INFORMATION SOCIETY, ISSN 0197-2243 , Vol. 25, no 1, p. 60-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social metadata are receiving interest from many domains, mainly as a way to aggregate various patterns in social networks. Few scholars have, however, taken the perspective of end users and examined how they utilize social metadata to enrich interpersonal communication. The results of a study of end-user practices of social metadata usage are presented in this article. Data were gathered from a variety of online forums by collecting and analyzing user discussions relating to social metadata supporting features in Facebook. Three hundred and fifteen relevant comments on social metadata usage were extracted. The analysis revealed the use of experimental profiles, clashes between work-and non-work-related social metadata usage and differences in users social investment, causing social dilemmas. The study also resulted in developments of theory relating to social metadata and relationship maintenance. In conclusion, social metadata expand a pure attention economy, conveying a much wider qualitative range of social information.

  • 181.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analytical Dimensions for Online Gift-giving: ‘other oriented’ contributions in virtual communities2007In: International Journal of Web-based Communities, ISSN 1477-8394, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 55-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents five analytical dimensions regarding online gift giving. The dimensions were derived through a six-month ethnographic study of two co-evolving online communities (one web-based and one application-based). The dimensions are: initiative (active/passive), direction (public/private), incentive (enforced/voluntary), identification (anonymous/recognised) and limitation (open/restrictive). Gifting is a central human activity in many communities, both offline and online. Also, it is, in many ways, a convivial and collaborative activity with a rich history of functioning as a social membrane, which could be at the very core of community management. However, research on the relational and structural embeddedness of gifting in technology-mediated contexts is in its infancy. Consequently, it is suggested that the presented gifting dimensions will support the comparison of similar technologies with dissimilar social effects; that they can aid in using social practices to simplify, or improve, a technical implementation; and that they provide a clearer picture of the requirements of gifting technologies and the social objectives and needs of gifting individuals.

  • 182. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gifting Technologies: Ethnographic Studies of End-users and Social Media Sharing2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores what dimensions that can be used to describe and compare the sociotechnical practice of content contribution in online sharing networks. Data was collected through online ethnographical methods, focusing on end-users in three large media sharing networks. The method includes forum message elicitation, online interviews, and application use and observation. Gift-giving was used as an applied theoretical framework and the data was analyzed by theory-informed thematic analysis. The results of the analysis recount four interrelated themes: what kind of content is given; to whom is it given; how is it given; and why is it given? The five papers in this thesis covers the four themes accordingly: Paper I presents the research area and proposes some initial gifting dimensions that are developed over the following papers. Paper II proposes a model for identifying conflicts of interest that arise for end-users when considering different types of potential receivers. Paper III presents five analytical dimensions for representing how online content is given. The dimensions are: direction (private-public); identification (anonymous-identified); initiative (active-passive); incentive (voluntary-enforced); and limitation (open-restricted). Paper IV investigates photosharing practices and reveals how social metadata, attached to media objects, are included in sharing practices. The final paper further explores how end-users draw on social metadata to communicate bonding intentions when gifting media content. A general methodological contribution is the utilization of sociotechnical conflicts as units of analysis. These conflicts prove helpful in predicting, postulating and researching end-user innovation and conflict coordination. It is suggested that the conflicts also provide potent ways for interaction design and systems development to take end-user concerns and intentions on board.

    List of papers
    1. Gifting Technologies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gifting Technologies
    2004 (English)In: First Monday, ISSN 1396-0466, E-ISSN 1396-0466, Vol. 9, no 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    File–sharing has become very popular in recent years, but for many this has become synonymous with file–getting. However, there is strong evidence to suggest that people have strong giving (or gifting) needs. This evidence suggests an opportunity for the development of gifting technologies — and it also suggests an important research question and challenge: what needs and concerns do gifters have and what technologies can be developed to help them? In this paper, we discuss the existing literature on gifting, report on an initial study of gifting in an online sharing community, and suggest some ways the study results can inform future research into gifting desires — as well as the design of specific gifting technologies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    First Monday, 2004
    Keywords
    Gifts, P2P, File-Sharing, Open Source
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13301 (URN)10.5210/fm.v0i0.1457 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-05-21 Created: 2008-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. File-Sharing Relationships: conflicts of interest in online gift-giving
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>File-Sharing Relationships: conflicts of interest in online gift-giving
    2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Communities and Technologies, 2005, p. 111-127Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests a relationship model for describing, analyzing and foreseeing conflicts of interest in file-sharing networks. The model includes levels of relationship ranging from the individual (ego), to the small group of close peers (micro), to a larger network of acquaintances (meso) to the anonymous larger network (macro). It is argued that an important focal point for analysis of cooperation and conflict is situated in the relations between these levels. Three examples of conflicts from a studied file-sharing network are presented. Finally, the relationship model is discussed in terms of applicability to other domains, recreational as well as professional.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13302 (URN)10.1007/1-4020-3591-8_7 (DOI)978-1-4020-3590-6 (Print) 978-1-4020-3591-3 (Online) (ISBN)
    Available from: 2008-05-21 Created: 2008-05-21 Last updated: 2010-01-13
    3. Analytical Dimensions for Online Gift-giving: ‘other oriented’ contributions in virtual communities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analytical Dimensions for Online Gift-giving: ‘other oriented’ contributions in virtual communities
    2007 (English)In: International Journal of Web-based Communities, ISSN 1477-8394, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 55-68Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents five analytical dimensions regarding online gift giving. The dimensions were derived through a six-month ethnographic study of two co-evolving online communities (one web-based and one application-based). The dimensions are: initiative (active/passive), direction (public/private), incentive (enforced/voluntary), identification (anonymous/recognised) and limitation (open/restrictive). Gifting is a central human activity in many communities, both offline and online. Also, it is, in many ways, a convivial and collaborative activity with a rich history of functioning as a social membrane, which could be at the very core of community management. However, research on the relational and structural embeddedness of gifting in technology-mediated contexts is in its infancy. Consequently, it is suggested that the presented gifting dimensions will support the comparison of similar technologies with dissimilar social effects; that they can aid in using social practices to simplify, or improve, a technical implementation; and that they provide a clearer picture of the requirements of gifting technologies and the social objectives and needs of gifting individuals.

    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13303 (URN)10.1504/IJWBC.2007.013774 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-05-21 Created: 2008-05-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13
    4. Semi-Public End-user Content Contributions: a case-study of concerns and intentions in online photo-sharing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Semi-Public End-user Content Contributions: a case-study of concerns and intentions in online photo-sharing
    2008 (English)In: International journal of human-computer studies, ISSN 1071-5819, E-ISSN 1095-9300, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 287-300Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    As social networks and rich media sharing are increasingly converging, end-user concerns regarding to whom, how and why to direct a certain digital content emerge. Between the pure private contribution and the pure public contribution exists a large research and design space of semi-public content and relationships. The theoretical framework of gift-giving correlates to semi-public contributions in that it envelopes social relationships, concerns for others and reciprocity, and was consequently adopted in order to reveal and classify qualitative semi-public end-user concerns with content contribution. The data collection was performed through online ethnographic methods in a large photo-sharing network. The main data-collection method used was forum message elicitation, combined with referential methods such as interviews and application observation and usage. The analysis of data resulted in descriptions concerning end-user intentions to address dynamic recipient groupings, the intentions to control the level of publicness of both digital content and its related social metadata (tags, contacts, comments and links to other networks) and the conclusion that users often refrained from providing material unless they felt able to control its direction.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2008
    Keywords
    Rich social networks; Multimedia content; Online ethnography; Flickr; Gift-giving; Social metadata
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13304 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhcs.2007.10.010 (DOI)
    Note

    The previous status of this article was Manuscript and the working title was Non-Public Gifting on the Internet: a case-study of end-user concerns in photo-sharing.

    Available from: 2008-05-21 Created: 2008-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Exploring Qualitative Sharing Practices of Social Metadata: Expanding the Attention Economy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring Qualitative Sharing Practices of Social Metadata: Expanding the Attention Economy
    2009 (English)In: INFORMATION SOCIETY, ISSN 0197-2243 , Vol. 25, no 1, p. 60-72Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Social metadata are receiving interest from many domains, mainly as a way to aggregate various patterns in social networks. Few scholars have, however, taken the perspective of end users and examined how they utilize social metadata to enrich interpersonal communication. The results of a study of end-user practices of social metadata usage are presented in this article. Data were gathered from a variety of online forums by collecting and analyzing user discussions relating to social metadata supporting features in Facebook. Three hundred and fifteen relevant comments on social metadata usage were extracted. The analysis revealed the use of experimental profiles, clashes between work-and non-work-related social metadata usage and differences in users social investment, causing social dilemmas. The study also resulted in developments of theory relating to social metadata and relationship maintenance. In conclusion, social metadata expand a pure attention economy, conveying a much wider qualitative range of social information.

    Keywords
    facebook, gift-giving, online ethnography, social metadata
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16516 (URN)10.1080/01972240802587588 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-01-30 Created: 2009-01-30 Last updated: 2009-03-25
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  • 183.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Online friction: Studying sociotechnical conflicts to elicit user experience2009In: International Journal of Sociotechnology and Knowledge Development, ISSN 1941-6253, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 62-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents conflicts as a central unit of analysis in investigations of online social media sharing. Social media sharing services generate interesting sociotechnical problems as they often make social structures explicit, resulting in observable user experience conflicts. As such, they also present a genre of services where theories of social structure become highlighted and, at times, challenged. Three examples of conflicts, from three different types of networks, are presented. The conflicts were elicited through online, ethnography-inspired, methods. It is argued that the conceptual conflicts help researchers and designers to postulate, find and examine concerns and intentions of users who try to resolve the conflict or move from one end of the conflict to the other. The article also demonstrates three viable ways to communicate analytical conflict insights, intended to inform interaction design, namely use qualities, analytical dimensions and design patterns. [Article copies are available for purchase from InfoSci-on-Demand.com]. Copyright © 2009, IGI Global.

  • 184. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Public and Non-Public Gifting on the Internet2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contributes to the knowledge of how computer-mediated communication and information sharing works in large groups and networks. In more detail, the research question put forward is: in large sharing networks, what concerns do end-users have regarding to whom to provide material? A theoretical framework of gift-giving was applied to identify, label and classify qualitative end-user concerns with provision. The data collection was performed through online ethnographical research methods in two large sharing networks, one music-oriented and one photo-oriented. The methods included forum message elicitation, online interviews, application use and observation. The result of the data collection was a total of 1360 relevant forum messages. A part from this there are also 27 informal interview logs, field notes and samples of user profiles and sharing policies. The qualitative analysis led up to a model of relationships based on the observation that many users experienced conflicts of interest between various groups of receivers and that these conflicts, or social dilemmas, evoked concerns regarding public and non-public provision of material. The groups of potential recipients were often at different relationship levels. The levels ranged from the individual (ego), to the small group of close peers (micro), to a larger network of acquaintances (meso) to the anonymous larger network (macro). It is argued that an important focal point for analysis of cooperation and conflict is situated in the relations between these levels. Deepened studies and analysis also revealed needs to address dynamic recipient groupings, the need to control the level of publicness of both digital material and its metadata (tags, contacts, comments and links to other networks) and that users often refrained from providing material unless they felt able to control its direction. A central conclusion is that public and non-public gifting need to co-emerge in large sharing networks and that non-public gifting might be an important factor for the support of continued provision of goods in sustainable networks and communities.

    List of papers
    1. Gifting Technologies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gifting Technologies
    2004 (English)In: First Monday, ISSN 1396-0466, E-ISSN 1396-0466, Vol. 9, no 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    File–sharing has become very popular in recent years, but for many this has become synonymous with file–getting. However, there is strong evidence to suggest that people have strong giving (or gifting) needs. This evidence suggests an opportunity for the development of gifting technologies — and it also suggests an important research question and challenge: what needs and concerns do gifters have and what technologies can be developed to help them? In this paper, we discuss the existing literature on gifting, report on an initial study of gifting in an online sharing community, and suggest some ways the study results can inform future research into gifting desires — as well as the design of specific gifting technologies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    First Monday, 2004
    Keywords
    Gifts, P2P, File-Sharing, Open Source
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13301 (URN)10.5210/fm.v0i0.1457 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-05-21 Created: 2008-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. File-Sharing Relationships: conflicts of interest in online gift-giving
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>File-Sharing Relationships: conflicts of interest in online gift-giving
    2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Communities and Technologies, 2005, p. 111-127Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests a relationship model for describing, analyzing and foreseeing conflicts of interest in file-sharing networks. The model includes levels of relationship ranging from the individual (ego), to the small group of close peers (micro), to a larger network of acquaintances (meso) to the anonymous larger network (macro). It is argued that an important focal point for analysis of cooperation and conflict is situated in the relations between these levels. Three examples of conflicts from a studied file-sharing network are presented. Finally, the relationship model is discussed in terms of applicability to other domains, recreational as well as professional.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13302 (URN)10.1007/1-4020-3591-8_7 (DOI)978-1-4020-3590-6 (Print) 978-1-4020-3591-3 (Online) (ISBN)
    Available from: 2008-05-21 Created: 2008-05-21 Last updated: 2010-01-13
    3. Semi-Public End-user Content Contributions: a case-study of concerns and intentions in online photo-sharing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Semi-Public End-user Content Contributions: a case-study of concerns and intentions in online photo-sharing
    2008 (English)In: International journal of human-computer studies, ISSN 1071-5819, E-ISSN 1095-9300, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 287-300Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    As social networks and rich media sharing are increasingly converging, end-user concerns regarding to whom, how and why to direct a certain digital content emerge. Between the pure private contribution and the pure public contribution exists a large research and design space of semi-public content and relationships. The theoretical framework of gift-giving correlates to semi-public contributions in that it envelopes social relationships, concerns for others and reciprocity, and was consequently adopted in order to reveal and classify qualitative semi-public end-user concerns with content contribution. The data collection was performed through online ethnographic methods in a large photo-sharing network. The main data-collection method used was forum message elicitation, combined with referential methods such as interviews and application observation and usage. The analysis of data resulted in descriptions concerning end-user intentions to address dynamic recipient groupings, the intentions to control the level of publicness of both digital content and its related social metadata (tags, contacts, comments and links to other networks) and the conclusion that users often refrained from providing material unless they felt able to control its direction.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2008
    Keywords
    Rich social networks; Multimedia content; Online ethnography; Flickr; Gift-giving; Social metadata
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13304 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhcs.2007.10.010 (DOI)
    Note

    The previous status of this article was Manuscript and the working title was Non-Public Gifting on the Internet: a case-study of end-user concerns in photo-sharing.

    Available from: 2008-05-21 Created: 2008-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 185.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Semi-Public End-user Content Contributions: a case-study of concerns and intentions in online photo-sharing2008In: International journal of human-computer studies, ISSN 1071-5819, E-ISSN 1095-9300, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 287-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As social networks and rich media sharing are increasingly converging, end-user concerns regarding to whom, how and why to direct a certain digital content emerge. Between the pure private contribution and the pure public contribution exists a large research and design space of semi-public content and relationships. The theoretical framework of gift-giving correlates to semi-public contributions in that it envelopes social relationships, concerns for others and reciprocity, and was consequently adopted in order to reveal and classify qualitative semi-public end-user concerns with content contribution. The data collection was performed through online ethnographic methods in a large photo-sharing network. The main data-collection method used was forum message elicitation, combined with referential methods such as interviews and application observation and usage. The analysis of data resulted in descriptions concerning end-user intentions to address dynamic recipient groupings, the intentions to control the level of publicness of both digital content and its related social metadata (tags, contacts, comments and links to other networks) and the conclusion that users often refrained from providing material unless they felt able to control its direction.

  • 186.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pargman, Daniel
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    File-Sharing Relationships: conflicts of interest in online gift-giving2005In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Communities and Technologies, 2005, p. 111-127Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests a relationship model for describing, analyzing and foreseeing conflicts of interest in file-sharing networks. The model includes levels of relationship ranging from the individual (ego), to the small group of close peers (micro), to a larger network of acquaintances (meso) to the anonymous larger network (macro). It is argued that an important focal point for analysis of cooperation and conflict is situated in the relations between these levels. Three examples of conflicts from a studied file-sharing network are presented. Finally, the relationship model is discussed in terms of applicability to other domains, recreational as well as professional.

  • 187.
    Stjernberger, Johan
    et al.
    FOI.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rejnus, Lars
    FOI.
    Jenvald, Johan
    VSL Research Labs.
    Mobile emergency warning in initial incident phases2003In: Proceedings of CIMI-2003, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Swartling, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, NADA, IP-lab.
    Dovhammar, Ulrika
    KTH, NADA, IP-lab.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Artman, Henrik
    KTH, NADA, IP-lab.
    Förstudie om FMV:s roll i försvarets beställningsprocess2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En förstudie har genomförts av KTH i samarbete med Linköpings Universitet och FMV inom ramen för det MSI-uppdrag som finns i FoT6. Syftet har varit att med fokus på FMV analysera hur försvarets beställningsprocess (det generella flödet, inte en formellt definierad process) ser ut, vem som agerar beställare samt hur och vilken roll han/hon har samt var och hur MSI-arbete sker. 27 personer har intervjuats på FMV, Försvarsmakten, Luftfartsverket och industriföretag samt att ett flertal dokument som relaterar till försvarets beställningsprocess har analyserats.

  • 189.
    Söderberg, Elsy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Karolinska Institute.
    Experiences of professionals participating in inter-organisational cooperation aimed at promoting clients return to work2010In: WORK-A JOURNAL OF PREVENTION ASSESSMENT and REHABILITATION, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 143-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the activities initiated to promote return to work (RTW) are performed in parallel by four different public organisations: the health services, the social services, the employment and the social insurance authorities. The aim was to gain deeper understanding on the experiences of professionals involved in cooperative projects aimed at promoting RTW among unemployed sickness benefit recipients. Qualitative analyses were performed of transcribed data from interviews of professionals participating in cooperative projects. First, the analysis identified that the daily collaboration on the same cases enabled development of good relationships and cooperative competence, which improved the contact with clients. Second, the cooperative projects made it possible to include only clients perceived motivated for RTW measures. Third, the closer and more frequent interaction with clients proved to be constructive in that it facilitated recognition and mobilisation of strengths and abilities. Fourth, the differences in rules and regulations between the social insurance and the unemployment insurance standards were often perceived to induce problems, for example, on how to assess the work capacity of clients. The assessments of work capacity represent important and complex tasks that professionals must perform without having access to either scientific knowledge or consensus agreement on which to base their decisions.

  • 190.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ölvander, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Information system needs in health promotion: Case study of Safe Community program using requirements engineering  methods2008In: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, E-ISSN 1741-2811, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 183-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To explore the need for information system support in health promotion programs.

    Methods: The international Safe Community program was used as the setting for a case study. The 14 Safe Communities active in Sweden during 2002 were invited to participate. 13 of them accepted. A questionnaire containing questions about computer usage and a critical incident technique instrument was distributed to all practitioners involved in the programs either at a municipality office or a county council (n=202). The Voice of the Customer Table method was used to transform the critical incident data into needs for information system support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data on computer usage.

    Results: Sharing of management information, creating social capital for safety promotion, and injury data recording were found to be key areas that need to be further supported by computer-based information systems in safety promotion practice. 90% (111/123) of the respondents reported having access to a personal computer workstation with standard office software. The interest in using more advanced computer applications was low among the practitioners, and there was considerable need for technical user support.

    Conclusions: Areas where information systems can be used to make health promotion practice more efficient were identified, and patterns of computers usage were described. These results can be used to guide future information systems development projects in health and safety promotion.

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  • 191.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bång, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Delbanco, Tom
    Harvard University.
    Walker, Janet
    Harvard University.
    Information infrastructure for inter-organizational mental health services: an actor network theory analysis of psychiatric rehabilitation.2007In: Journal of biomedical informatics, ISSN 1532-0480, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 429-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the supply of mental health services to communities, data and information are managed not only by clinical organizations, but also by welfare state agencies and charities. The aim of this study is to use methods of analysis from actor network theory to identify organizational interventions necessary for the development of an information infrastructure for inter-organizational mental health services. Data was collected in a project aimed at developing an information system that supports inter-organizational psychiatric rehabilitation in a Swedish municipality. Three organizational interventions were identified: an integrated service policy defined by the national government, a common legal framework allowing sharing of high-level client data, and commissioned support for local inter-agency workspaces. It is concluded that organizational interventions must be regarded when configuring an information infrastructure for mental health services. Organizational interventions should also routinely be addressed in systems design methods to be used in inter-organizational settings.

  • 192.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gursky, Elin A
    Analytical Service Inc.
    Nyce, James M
    Ball State University.
    Morin, Magnus
    VSL System AB.
    Stomgren, Magnus
    Umeå University.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University.
    Ekberg , Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Population-based simulations of influenza pandemics: validity and significance for public health policy2009In: BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, ISSN 0042-9686 , Vol. 87, no 4, p. 305-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To examine the validity and usefulness of pandemic simulations aimed at informing practical decision-making in public health.

    Methods We recruited a multidisciplinary group of nine experts to assess a case-study simulation of influenza transmission in a Swedish county. We used a non-statistical nominal group technique to generate evaluations of the plausibility, formal validity (verification) and predictive validity of the simulation. A health-effect assessment structure was used as a framework for data collection.

    Findings The unpredictability, of social order during disasters was not adequately addressed by simulation methods; even minor disruptions of the social order may invalidate key infrastructural assumptions underpinning current pandemic simulation models. Further, a direct relationship between model flexibility and computation time was noted. Consequently, simulation methods cannot, in practice, support integrated modifications of microbiological, epidemiological and spatial submodels or handle multiple parallel scenarios.

    Conclusion The combination of incomplete surveillance data and simulation methods that neglect social dynamics limits the ability of national public health agencies to provide policy-makers and the general public with the critical and timely information needed during a pandemic.

  • 193.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gursky, Elin A
    ANSER Analyt Serv Inc.
    Stromgren, Magnus
    Umea University.
    Holm, Einar
    Umea University.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Valter, Lars
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Health and Developmental Care, Centre for Public Health.
    Nyce, James M
    Ball State University.
    Requirements and Design of the PROSPER Protocol for Implementation of Information Infrastructures Supporting Pandemic Response: A Nominal Group Study2011In: PLOS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 0017941-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Advanced technical systems and analytic methods promise to provide policy makers with information to help them recognize the consequences of alternative courses of action during pandemics. Evaluations still show that response programs are insufficiently supported by information systems. This paper sets out to derive a protocol for implementation of integrated information infrastructures supporting regional and local pandemic response programs at the stage(s) when the outbreak no longer can be contained at its source. Methods: Nominal group methods for reaching consensus on complex problems were used to transform requirements data obtained from international experts into an implementation protocol. The analysis was performed in a cyclical process in which the experts first individually provided input to working documents and then discussed them in conferences calls. Argument-based representation in design patterns was used to define the protocol at technical, system, and pandemic evidence levels. Results: The Protocol for a Standardized information infrastructure for Pandemic and Emerging infectious disease Response (PROSPER) outlines the implementation of information infrastructure aligned with pandemic response programs. The protocol covers analyses of the community at risk, the response processes, and response impacts. For each of these, the protocol outlines the implementation of a supporting information infrastructure in hierarchical patterns ranging from technical components and system functions to pandemic evidence production. Conclusions: The PROSPER protocol provides guidelines for implementation of an information infrastructure for pandemic response programs both in settings where sophisticated health information systems already are used and in developing communities where there is limited access to financial and technical resources. The protocol is based on a generic health service model and its functions are adjusted for community-level analyses of outbreak detection and progress, and response program effectiveness. Scientifically grounded reporting principles need to be established for interpretation of information derived from outbreak detection algorithms and predictive modeling.

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  • 194.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Nordfeldt, Sam
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics .
    Hanberger, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics .
    Web 2.0 systems supporting childhood chronic disease management: A pattern language representation of a general architecture2008In: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Chronic disease management is a global health concern. By the time they reach adolescence, 10-15% of all children live with a chronic disease. The role of educational interventions in facilitating adaptation to chronic disease is receiving growing recognition, and current care policies advocate greater involvement of patients in self-care. Web 2.0 is an umbrella term for new collaborative Internet services characterized by user participation in developing and managing content. Key elements include Really Simple Syndication (RSS) to rapidly disseminate awareness of new information, weblogs (blogs) to describe new trends, wikis to share knowledge, and podcasts to make information available on personal media players. This study addresses the potential to develop Web 2.0 services for young persons with a chronic disease. It is acknowledged that the management of childhood chronic disease is based on interplay between initiatives and resources on the part of patients, relatives, and health care professionals, and where the balance shifts over time to the patients and their families. Methods. Participatory action research was used to stepwise define a design specification in the form of a pattern language. Support for children diagnosed with diabetes Type 1 was used as the example area. Each individual design pattern was determined graphically using card sorting methods, and textually in the form Title, Context, Problem, Solution, Examples and References. Application references were included at the lowest level in the graphical overview in the pattern language but not specified in detail in the textual descriptions. Results. The design patterns are divided into functional and non-functional design elements, and formulated at the levels of organizational, system, and application design. The design elements specify access to materials for development of the competences needed for chronic disease management in specific community settings, endorsement of self-learning through online peer-to-peer communication, and systematic accreditation and evaluation of materials and processes. Conclusion. The use of design patterns allows representing the core design elements of a Web 2.0 system upon which an 'ecological' development of content respecting these constraints can be built. Future research should include evaluations of Web 2.0 systems implemented according to the architecture in practice settings.

  • 195.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Spreco, Armin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gursky, Elin A
    National Strategies Support Directorate, ANSER/Analytic Services Inc, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Valter, Lars
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Age as a determinant for dissemination of seasonal and pandemic influenza: an open cohort study of influenza outbreaks in Östergötland County, Sweden2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 2, p. e31746-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An understanding of the occurrence and comparative timing of influenza infections in different age groups is important for developing community response and disease control measures. This study uses data from a Scandinavian county (population 427.000) to investigate whether age was a determinant for being diagnosed with influenza 2005-2010 and to examine if age was associated with case timing during outbreaks. Aggregated demographic data were collected from Statistics Sweden, while influenza case data were collected from a county-wide electronic health record system. A logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether case risk was associated with age and outbreak. An analysis of variance was used to explore whether day for diagnosis was also associated to age and outbreak. The clinical case data were validated against case data from microbiological laboratories during one control year. The proportion of cases from the age groups 10-19 (p<0.001) and 20-29 years old (p<0.01) were found to be larger during the A pH1N1 outbreak in 2009 than during the seasonal outbreaks. An interaction between age and outbreak was observed (p<0.001) indicating a difference in age effects between circulating virus types; this interaction persisted for seasonal outbreaks only (p<0.001). The outbreaks also differed regarding when the age groups received their diagnosis (p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis showed a tendency for the young age groups, in particular the group 10-19 year olds, led outbreaks with influenza type A H1 circulating, while A H3N2 outbreaks displayed little variations in timing. The validation analysis showed a strong correlation (r = 0.625;p<0.001) between the recorded numbers of clinically and microbiologically defined influenza cases. Our findings demonstrate the complexity of age effects underlying the emergence of local influenza outbreaks. Disentangling these effects on the causal pathways will require an integrated information infrastructure for data collection and repeated studies of well-defined communities.

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  • 196.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Hassling, Linda
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Nordfeldt, Sam
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Towards integration of computer games in interactive health education environments: understanding gameplay challenge, narrative and spectacle.2004In: MedInfo, IOS Publishing , 2004, Vol. 11, no Pt 2, p. 941-945Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: There is an alarming progress in the health status of the young in western countries, and new methods and tools for behavioural health interventions are urgently called for. OBJECTIVE: To explore how computer game designs can be integrated in the development of Interactive Health Education Environments. DESIGN: Qualitative analyses of adolescents' experiences of playing an action-adventure computer game, using data from in-depth interviews. RESULTS: A model is presented, where the gameplaying experience is connected to four components of computer games. Playing computer games was found to mainly be motivated by the challenges and competition represented in the gameplay scripts. CONCLUSIONS: Interactive health education environments can be improved by implementing challenging gameplay scripts, spectacular technical features and narratives.

  • 197.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Morin, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Jenvald, Johan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Gursky, Elin
    ANSER.
    Towards a simulation environment for modeling of local influenza outbreaks2005In: AIMA 2005 Annual Symposium,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 198.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Morin, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Jenvald, Johan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Gursky, Elin
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Dealing with ecological fallacy in preparations for influenza pandemics: Use of a flexible environment for adaptation of simulations to household structures in local contexts2007In: MedINFO 2007,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 199.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Elderly Health, Homecare and Information Technology (IT).2008In: Healthcare IT management, ISSN 1782-8406, Vol. 3 3, p. 22-23Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 200.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olve , Nils-Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Scandurra , Isabella
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Koch , Sabine
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Organizational effects of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in elderly homecare: A case study2008In: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, E-ISSN 1741-2811, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 195-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) to support integrated healthcare services in elderly homecare is becoming a self-evident part of home healthcare services. Especially, when it comes to information exchange, knowledge sharing and documentation at the point-of-care (POC), ICT is an enabling technique. The aim of this study was to explore the effects from the use of the OLD@HOME-prototype. 

    The results shown that the OLD@HOME prototype was perceived to contribute in developing horizontal links for communication between individuals who work together, independent of geographical distance or organizational affiliation, and to contribute to increased work efficiency. The prototype was further seen to reduce professional isolation by providing a holistic overview of the care process. User centred design and implementation of the OLD@HOME prototype was considered a key issue to facilitate acceptance of organizational changes. Participation of care professionals not only led to a better understanding of the needs of involved organizations, it also increased end-users’ involvement and commitment, stimulating them to test and improve the prototype until the final version.

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