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  • 151.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Inventors and innovators and knowledge integrators2011In: Knowledge Integration and Innovation: Critical Challenges Facing International Technology-based Firms / [ed] Christian Berggren, Anna Bergek, Lars Bengtsson, Jonas Söderlund, Mike Hobday, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press , 2011, 1, p. 77-95Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we argue that knowledge integration is not just an organizational- and team-level practice but concerns the everyday activities of inventive engineers and researchers involved in development activities. The chapter investigates and illustrates how inventive individuals in non-managerial positions contribute to innovation and knowledge integration. The focus is on inventors who generate ideas and scan new knowledge fields to complement deep knowledge in their own domains in order to turn ideas into new solutions. The chapter illustrates the practices of those innovative individuals, such as combining knowledge across different fields, pursuing individual exploration as well as collaborative search, and participating in formal projects but simultaneously using them as permeable entities to further their own innovative ideas. In this way, the chapter contributes to an understanding of the micro-level of knowledge integration activities in technology-based firms.

  • 152.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergek, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Exploring Knowledge Integration and Innovation2011In: Knowledge integration and innovation: critical challenges facing international technology-based firms / [ed] Christian Berggren, Anna Bergek, Lars Bengtsson, Michael Hobday, Jonas Söderlund, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2011, p. 228-245Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology-based firms continue to compete primarily on innovation, and are continuously required to present new solutions to an exacting market. As technological complexity and specialization intensifies, firms increasingly need to integrate and co-ordinate knowledge by means of project groups, diversified organizations, inter-organizational partnerships, and strategic alliances. Innovation processes have progressively become interdisciplinary, collaborative, inter-organizational, and international, and a firm's ability to synthesize knowledge across disciplines, organizations, and geographical locations has a major influence on its viability and success.This book demonstrates how knowledge integration is crucial in facilitating innovation within modern firms. It provides original, detailed empirical studies of prerequisites, mechanisms, and outcomes of knowledge integration processes on several organizational levels, from key individuals, projects, and internal organizations, to collaboration between firms. It stresses the need to understand knowledge integration as a multi-level phenomenon, which requires a broad repertoire of organizational and technical means. It further clarifies the need for strong internal capabilities for exploiting external knowledge, reveals how costs of knowledge integration affect outcomes and strategic decisions, and discusses the managerial implications of fostering knowledge integration, providing practical guidance and support for managers of knowledge integration in

  • 153.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergek, AnnaLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.Bengtsson, LarsAvdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Högskolan i Gävle, Gävle.Söderlund, JonasLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Hobday, MikeResearch & Knowledge Transfer, Brighton Business School , University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.
    Knowledge Integration and Innovation: Critical Challenges Facing International Technology-based Firms2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology-based firms continue to compete primarily on innovation, and one continuously required to present new solutions to an exacting market. As technological complexity and specialization intensifies, firms increasingly need to integrate and coordinate knowledge by means of project groups, diversified organizations, inter-organizational partnerships, and strategic alliances. Innovation processes have progressively become interdisciplinary, collaborative, inter-organizational, and international, and a firm's ability to synthesize knowledge across disciplines, organizations, and geographical locations has a major influence on its viability and success.

    This book demonstrates how knowledge integration is crucial in facilitating innovation within modern firms. This book provides original, detailed empirical studies of prerequisites, mechanisms, and outcomes of knowledge integration processes on several organizational levels, from key individuals, projects, and internal organizations, to collaboration between firms. It stresses the need to understand knowledge integration as a multi-level phenomenon, which requires a broad repertoire of organizational and technical means. It further clarifies the need for strong internal capabilities for exploiting external knowledge, reveals how costs of knowledge integration affect outcomes and strategic decisions, and discusses the managerial implications of fostering knowledge integration, providing practical guidance and support for managers of knowledge integration in high technology enterprises.

  • 154.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Järkvik, J.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Lagomizing, organic integration, and systems emergency wards, and the practice of project management2008In: PMI Research Conference,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 155.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järkvik, Jack
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Jack Järkvik Management AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Lagomizing, organic integration, and systems emergency wards: Innovative practices in managing complex systems development projects2008In: Project Management Journal, ISSN 8756-9728, E-ISSN 1938-9507, Vol. 39, no S1, p. S111-S122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In complex systems development, project management is a key factor for innovation, for bringing together system capabilities to actually working systems and taking them to the customer. The critical question then is: How can successful project management in this field be conceptualized, practiced, and understood? In the extant literature, there is a plethora of suggested tools for advanced planning and scheduling, for system decomposition and modularization, and for reducing interdependencies and avoiding errors. There is also a growing criticism of these “planning approaches,” suggesting various contingency and flexibility approaches, to reflect and adapt to complexity and change. This critique, however, tends to lack grounded suggestions for effective managerial practices and does not distinguish between general flexibility needs and specific project structures required to make complex systems development at all possible. This article centers on the development of large, complex systems with an empirical focus on the telecom industry. Key challenges here, it is argued, are to understand complexity, reduce complexity, and rapidly act on the consequences of complexity to ensure timely delivery of reliable and predictable systems to highly demanding customers. To cope with these challenges, a set of innovative practices has been developed within Ericsson, a world leader in mobile network systems. We focus on three such practices, which together represent examples of a “neo-realistic” approach to project management: (1) lagomizing, a top-down redefinition of project goals to reduce complexity and transform expectations; (2) organic integration, an articulation and visualization of a shared understanding of system capabilities; and (3) Systemakut, the Systems Emergency Ward, a real-time, high-visibility agora for managing integration, handling errors, and making swift decisions and in public. The study is based on a research methodology involving knowledge coproduction, where the team of authors represents both academic knowledge and practitioner experience of managing innovations in complex systems development projects.

  • 156.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sydow, Jörg
    Department of Management, Pfadkolleg Research Centre, Freie Universität Berlin.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Relating knowledge integration and absorptive capacity: knowledge boundaries and reflective agency in path-dependet processes2017In: Managing knowledge integration across boundaries / [ed] Fredrik Tell, Christian Berggren, Stefano Brusoni, Andrew Van de Ven, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p. 57-71Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Management Education for Practicing Managers: Combining Academic Rigor With Personal Change and Organizational Action2011In: Journal of Management Education, ISSN 1052-5629, E-ISSN 1552-6658, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 377-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For several decades, management educators have discussed the difficulty of accommodating the competing values of academic rigor and organizational relevance. Only a few articles, however, consider approaches for integrating theory and practice in educational programs for working managers. Building on 15 years of experience in executive education, this article presents an approach grounded in experiential and action learning, which combines personal learning and organizational action without compromising academic standards. The following educational practices are discussed and evaluated: reflection reports, personal learning contracts, roundtable examinations, live cases, action-oriented thesis work, and organizational knowledge theaters. Taken together, the approach constitutes a powerful program design to address multiple learning loci and combinations of reflection and action, albeit one with considerable challenges and difficulties, as the authors discuss.

  • 158.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Management Education in a Mode 2-Society: Knowledge Co-Production and In-Vivo Implementation2007In: INTED 2007 Conference,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 159.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Rethinking Project Management Education: Responding to the Challenges of a Mode 2-Society2007In: Project Management Conference: Excellence in Teaching and Learning,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 160.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Norway.
    Rethinking project management education: Social twists and knowledge co-production2008In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 286-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Projects play an important role in modern enterprises, not only as arenas for corporate renewal and capability integration, but also for the development of leadership capacity. As a consequence, the area of project management is becoming increasingly important for universities and management educators. Previous research and reports, however, have given severe critique to much of the project management education for its lack of relevance and rigor - but offered surprisingly little guidance as to what to do to deal with the problems. In this paper, our aim is to contribute to the current debate about project management education for practicing managers. We draw on more than ten years of experience from two senior-level education programs to show how educational practices can be developed to stimulate knowledge co-production between practitioners and academia. We suggest a model based on a "social twist" of experiential learning theory and discuss six learning modes of how to rejuvenate, stretch and improve project management education.

  • 161.
    Berglund, Amie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danell, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    "Inte sjutton läser man alla de där papperna man får": En kvalitativ studie om hur MiFID II påverkat Principal agent problem vid investeringsrådgivning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: On January 3, 2018, the EU directive Markets in Financial Instruments Directive II (MiFID II) came into effect. The directive is intended to expand investor protection through eliminating information asymmetry and conflicts of interest in the financial market, while also harmonizing the regulations between nations within the EU. For investment advising, the directive results in more extensive documentation and stricter regulation of how fees and risks are communicated, as well as how incentives are handled; all with the aim of protecting investors. At the same time, the general public shows low interest in personal finance, as well as inadequate financial knowledge.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to further the understanding of how the introduction of the EU directive MiFID II has affected the principal-agent problem that arises during investment advising, from an investment firm perspective.

    Completion: This is a qualitative case-study which utilizes a phenomenological research perspective and an abductive approach. The empirical material has been collected through semi-structured interviews at investment firms with a total of seven respondents, whom were selected through goal-oriented convenience sampling. 

    Conclusion: The study concludes that the principal-agent problems in investment advising have not been eliminated. According to our interpretation of the traditional theories, information asymmetry is nearly non-existent. Yet it remains a significant problem due to lack of interest and an inability to assimilate the information. Thus, we argue that the theoretical framework should be revised to include these barriers, as they may lead to information asymmetry. Conflicts of interest have been reduced, but still remain to some extent. Furthermore, the motivation to act based on self-interest still remain. Hence, the study shows that MiFID II has not turned the principal-agent relationship into a stewardship relationship.

    Contribution: The theoretical contribution to information asymmetry challenges the assumption that the principal is interested in all the information that is of relevance for them. The study show that this is not always the case. Apart from information asymmetry arising when ascertaining the actions of the agent is expensive or difficult, it can also arise due to the principal’s lack of interest or inability to assimilate the information. Moreover, MiFID II has made it more difficult for the agent to act in their own self-interest, should it deviate from the interest of the principal. The directive has not, however, affected the intrinsic motivation of the agent. Thus, we cannot assume that the elimination of these problems causes a principal-agent relationship to transform into a stewardship relationship. Through an increased understanding of how binding legislation affects principal-agent problems, the empirical contribution can help regulatory bodies in their work to mitigate the aforementioned problems. Hence, the study may help to not only expand existing legislation, but also in the development of future legislation and directives. By providing an outside perspective of what conflicts of interests could arise in investment advising, the empirical contribution could also be of use for investment firms in their work to identify and manage conflicts of interest

  • 162.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Womens entrepreneurship, neoliberalism and economic justice in the postfeminist era: A discourse analysis of policy change in Sweden2018In: Gender, Work and Organization, ISSN 0968-6673, E-ISSN 1468-0432, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 531-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1990s, there has been investment in womens entrepreneurship policy (WEP) in Sweden, which continued until 2015. During the same period, Sweden assumed neoliberal policies that profoundly changed the position of women within the world of work and business. The goals for WEP changed as a result, from entrepreneurship as a way to create a more equal society, to the goal of unleashing womens entrepreneurial potential so they can contribute to economic growth. To better understand this shift we approach WEP as a neoliberal governmentality which offers women entrepreneurial or postfeminist subject positions. The analysis is inspired by political theorist Nancy Fraser who theorized the change as the displacement of socioeconomic redistribution in favour of cultural recognition, or identity politics. We use Frasers concepts in a discourse analysis of Swedish WEP over two decades, identifying two distinct discourses and three discursive displacements. Whilst WEP initially gave precedence to a radical feminist discourse that called for womens collective action, this was replaced by a postfeminist neoliberal discourse that encouraged individual women to assume an entrepreneurial persona, start their own business, compete in the marketplace and contribute to economic growth. The result was the continued subordination of women business owners, but it also obscured or rendered structural problems/solutions, and collective feminist action, irrelevant.

  • 163.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    To play or not to play: That is the question: Entrepreneuring as gendered play2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 206-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can play be used to unravel the discourse of the gendered hero entrepreneur and instead describe mundane entrepreneuring? Further, how can the doing of gendered social orders be problematized when entrepreneuring is equated with play? In this article we answer these questions by engaging with the French social theorist Caillois (1961) conceptualization of play as being at the heart of all higher culture. Two ethnographic cases act as our vehicle in analysing play as entrepreneuring. From a rich description of these cases we find that it is not a question of playing or not playing, but about how to play. All four forms of play described by Caillois are present, which illustrates the variation of entrepreneuring and the richness of activities conducted in the doing of entrepreneurship. Further, both ways of playing discussed by Caillois are found. Whilst these two ways are interrelated on a continuum in the theory of play, they have been separated in entrepreneurship discourse, where they underpin the tendency to differentiate between the hero entrepreneur and ordinary people. Finally, we engage in a more interpretive and reflective discussion on entrepreneuring as performative acts through which social orders can be not only reproduced but also transformed.

  • 164.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Kock, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Wallo, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    HELIX Competence Centre – Knowledge for Sustainable Working Life2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe HELIX Competence Centre at Linköping University and its work to contribute to sustainable working life. Research in HELIX Competence Centre is based on an interactive approach between researchers from different disciplines and partner organizations, including industrial organizations, public organizations, labour market organizations, and civil society organizations. The research programme includes four research themes: 1) Sustainable development processes in industrial production systems; 2) Growth and development in small enterprises; 3) Sustainable, innovative, and coordinated health and welfare processes; and 4) Diversity and inclusion in working life. Other activities include seminars and partnership meetings with different topics and a yearly HELIX day. The research and activities led by HELIX Competence Centre constitute an approach to integrate social and economic sustainability, produce scientific knowledge, and add value to practice in the partner organizations.

  • 165.
    Bergman, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nyemad, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hållbar stiftelseförvaltning: Jakten efter en lösning på målkonflikten mellan avkastning, risk och hållbara investeringar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: SRI has grown in importance for investors, apart from risk and return. Universities do as moral leaders of society have a responsibility to reach an elevated level of sustainability. Donors, beneficiaries, students, organizations of interest and opinion formers differ in their demands and objectives for asset management in university foundations. This fuel a conflict of objectives that has no immediate solution.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to, from an investing perspective, map and analyse Swedish university foundations’ view upon and management of conflicts of objectives between return, risk management and internal as well as external demands for sustainable and responsible investments. A partial purpose is to give perspective and develop suggestions for guidelines for how a sustainable foundation management can be accomplished in relation to objectives for risk and return given restrictions for what is allowed investments from a sustainable perspective.

    Completion: We have conducted ten qualitative interviews with foundationand asset managers. The framework used to analyse our data have been built up from evidence based asset management summarized by William F. Sharpe. This has been extended with proven knowledge and legislation.

    Conclusion: The foundation managers do not fully interpret the conflict of objectives as a large problem and claim they have solved it. They believe sustainability and satisfying returns can be combined. We have although found a lack of risk awareness. We conclude that by having a continuous approach, prioritize the objectives and define sustainability a better solution can be reached.

  • 166.
    Bergman, Karolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundin, Daniela
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Speaking About Voice: A Study on Communicating Brand Personality Through Virtual Assistants2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problematization: Earlier research on brand communication emphasize the importance of communicating a brand consistently throughout all marketing channels and media. Virtual assistants (VAs) are a new marketing media and a relatively new technology with which a brand can communicate with customers. However, the theory and knowledge about how to use it as a communication tool for a brand is limited. With human communication attributes being a unique characteristic of VAs as a marketing medium, it is suggested that these can be used to clarify and supplement the traits of a brand’s personality.

    Research Questions:

    • How is brand personality communicated via integrated marketing communications?

    • How does communication with VAs affect the consumers’ perception of a brand’s personality?

    Purpose: This report investigates, through theories on integrated marketing communication, brand and communication, how brand personality can be communicated through a voice. The study also shows how human conversation attributes are of importance in conversation with virtual assistants, and how these affect brand personality.

    Conclusion: The study has shown that virtual assistants could provide the opportunity to augment a brand’s personality as a result of their ability to adopt human communication attributes. If the conversational expectations are not fulfilled, the impression of the VA, and therefore the brand it represents, will be negatively affected. If VAs overcome the communication and social obstacles, of which some are presented in this study, they can become a valuable medium for communicating brand personality.

    Knowledge Contribution: This study has given an understanding for human-to-brand conversation through voice and what aspects that may be considered when developing a VA for marketing purposes. A theoretical model has been developed to show how brand personality and communication attributes can affect the brand communication through virtual assistants.

  • 167.
    Bergman, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Umaganthan, Darsen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning i kommunala och privata bostadsbolag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sustainability reporting has become an important aspect for Swedish companies, which has been shown by the significant increase of the magnitude and quality sustainability reports as of late. A considerable amount of previous studies has examined the relationship between variables such as size, industry affiliation and visibility with the extent of sustainability reports. Managerial attitudes, company culture and ownership are however factors which are less researched when related to the extent of reported sustainability. Studies can thereby be made on municipally and privatelyowned housing companies, seeing as the ownership differs between the two organizations, in order to contribute to the field of research.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the extent of reported sustainability in municipally and privately-owned housing companies.

    Method: This quantitative study is executed through a deductive approach in which hypotheses are formulated through existing theories. The extent of reported sustainability is operationalized through a content analysis on secondary data consisting of annual reports and sustainability reports collected from 30 municipally and 30 privately owned housing companies. The collected data is then analysed with OLS- regression analysis.

    Conclusion: The results of the study show a correlation between the variable ownership and the extent of reported sustainability in the form of a significant positive correlation between municipally owned housing companies and the extent of reported sustainability. Out of the measures; size, profitability, risk and equality which were tested in the study, only size showed a significant correlation with the extent of reported sustainability. The study thereby concludes that ownership is an important variable to take into consideration when studying sustainability reports.

  • 168.
    Bergström, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Zuazu, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Past, Present and Future of Brand Trust: A case study done in the Swedish market2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the declining direction that brand trusthas taken, throughout the past years in the Swedish market. Analyzing the present situation tobe able to build a picture of future solutions that brands could use in trying to build trust. By investigating the cause and then through these defined methods and tools be able to break this trend.

    Method: With a qualitative method consisting of semi-structured interviews with 7 communication- and marketing agencies within in southern part of Sweden. With the aim of getting an expert view of the problem´s past and present, to be able to build an assumption about the future of brand trust in this market.

    Theory: A theoretical framework consisting on the definition of brand trust, with a description of the micro- and macro perspectives. With theories about factors behind brand trust and also the markets mistrust of such. Some of which, authenticity, communication, satisfaction and customer loyalty arise as needed to build and uphold trust. These factors are described with the help of models, developed for this paper´s comprehension.

    Conclusion: The result has indicated that the decline is due to digitization, expectations/satisfaction and confusion for the consumer. Moreover, the result in the long termperspective is to build authenticity and genuineness, choose the right target groups, communicate the right expectations, dare to participate in public topics and build the brand with a purpose. Blockchain has also been located as a possible future solution.

  • 169.
    Bergström, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Svensson, Mariel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Value creation and relationships in transformation: A study of social media in the travel industry2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years the Internet has greatly changed the travel industry and the emergence of social media has driven this change further. In the past travel companies have been natural links between customers and suppliers but today customers can buy travel directly from the supplier, making it difficult for travel companies to attract new customers and retain existing customers. As social media is revolutionizing the way people communicate, the trend suggests that it is becoming increasingly important for firms to take part in this technological development to interact with customers.

    Although Internet and social media has a major impact on firm-to-customer and customer-to-customer conversations, there is little guidance in academic literature and organizational contexts on how to use social media in an effective way. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to describe and explain how social media has transformed the relationships between selected Swedish travel companies and their customers, and how these firms create and sustain value and relationships through social media. Furthermore, we will give implications for management on how to utilize social media to create and sustain value and relationships.

    The results of our research confirm that social media is transforming the relationships between firms and customers. From our findings we conclude that the customer has become more empowered, that interaction now occurs through a two-way communication and that social media has made industries and relationships more transparent. The results also indicate that firms do not realize the value that can be created through social media for the customer as well as for the firm. The use of social media among the interviewed firms varies with some firms using social media through many tools and some firms not using social media at all.

    Our findings implicate that being aware of what value is created and why the firm is involved in a certain social media tool increases the likelihood of success. The firm should further not be afraid to experiment with social media. However, social media also presents challenges. As social media is characterized by rapidly changing trends, it is difficult to predict what will happen not only in a distant future, but even so just a few years ahead.

  • 170.
    Berndtson, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kjellin, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Age Management -Nyckeln till ett längrearbetsliv?: En studie om ett hållbart arbetsliv och potentiellaeffekter till följd av en höjd pensionsålder2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People live increasingly longer lives. Compared with the average life expectancy in Sweden, which has been steadily increasing over time, the retirement age has remained relatively constant. This means that a pension that has been earned during the same amount of working years now has to be able to cover more years of living. Hence, the introduction of an increased retirement age is timely, and required in order to maintain economic comfort in Sweden. According to the Government’s Public Investigations (2012:28), there are good grounds to make the assumption that workers will be able to stay longer in the workplace. However, the Work Environment Authority (2016) believes that some physically demanding work could become difficult for an elderly workforce to perform. Development in society points to the fact that an increased retirement age will become reality, which means that Age Management is becoming increasingly relevant as people will stay in the work life up to a higher age than before. There may be need for more concrete tools in order to handle an older workforce in practice, since they may have other needs that should be met in order to make older employees stay longer in the labor market. The research currently available on Age Management has been conducted primarily at an individual level. There is less research concerning changes that need to be made at an organizational level, therefore this study aims to illustrate how organizations would handle a scenario where elderly people stay at the workplace up to a higher age.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to, through a qualitative approach, analyze how companies work with Age Management today and what effects an increased retirement age would lead to. This is done in order to be able to determine whether Age Management could be used as a tool to handle any challenges that might arise when introducing an increased retirement age.

    Completion: The study is phenomenological and characterized by a qualitative approach. The empirics has been collected through goal-driven selection. Eleven case companies and four other relevant parties have been interviewed in total.

    Conclusion: The study results in the conclusion that an increase in retirement age will affect companies in the following areas: competence, health, attitudes and working environment. The definitive conclusion is that there is need for Age Management as a management tool as work with Age Management will contribute towards a more sustainable working life, where the likelihood will be greater that older employees will choose to stay in the working life the extra years an increase in retirement age would mean.

  • 171.
    Berntsson, Filippa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lärandeorienterad utvärdering av managementkonsulter: En studie om utvärderingens bidrag till organisatoriskt lärande2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The use of Management Consultants has increased during the past 40 years and is now more common in organisations. This has resulted in much research regarding the purchasing processes of Management Consultants, but less regarding how organsiations evaluate these services. Evaluation of complex services has previously been categorised as a formal process, but today, there are indications that informal evaluations are more and more common. Moreover, industries today are highly influenced by the possession of knowledge, why organisations should find interest in continuously improved performance. Organisations should therefore focus on general continuous learning, which could be stimulated by evaluations through the use of Management Consultants.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to contribute with knowledge regarding how organisations evaluate the work of management consultants and how the evaluation can contribute to organisational learning.

    Methodology: This study concerns three cases, three organisations that include management consultants in their daily operations. This is a qualitative study, where data was collected through semi-structured interviews with both procurement managers and project managers.

    Conclusions: This study argues for three evaluation strategies, included in organisational use of Management Consultants, the informal evaluation, the individual evaluation and the project-based evaluation. The study is among the first to state the presence of informal evaluations in organisations. Moreover, the study argues that evaluations can favour organisational learning, principally when information from individual evaluations are crystalised and spread through organisation’s internal networks. It can be further noted that lean production can influence learning through evaluations on a negative note, since organisations who use lean often choose not to save information related to evaluations.

  • 172.
    Besterman, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Larsson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aktieavkastningars relation till fundamental multiplar: En studie om fundamentala värdedrivare och prisanomalier på marknaden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies has presented evidence of abnormal stock returns when applying valuemultiple based strategies in assembling portfolios. The previous studies has not consideredthe fundamental theoretical values that determine the value multiple. As a consequence, it isof interest to examine the performance of portfolios assembled with respect to thesefundamental value drivers. With the use of regression analysis, it is of interest to find out ifportfolios can be constructed that outperform the market portfolio in a sense of risk adjustedreturns.

    Purpose: This study aims to empirically examine if future stock returns can be derived from therelationship between their fundamentally determined multiples and the market multiple.

    Implementation: With the help of regression analysis of value multiples this study derives their equilibriumprice of stocks and apply deviation from equilibrium in construction of portfolios.

    Conclusion: The results indicate that a strategy based on regressions of the EV/EBITDA multiple maygenerate superior risk adjusted portfolio returns than suggested by the efficient markethypothesis during the period between 2006-2016. Similar results was found using the P/Emultiple however these results could not be statistically confirmed. Using the EV/S multipleno risk adjusted abnormal returns could be proven.

  • 173.
    Bibat, Mark Noel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Guillot, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    How is Creativity Affected by Directiveness During the Project’s Implementation Phase?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, creativity is crucial to implement for the success of companies. Meanwhile, directivity seems to have a very negative reputation in the first sight. The objective of this paper is to identify and present a situation of creativity during the implementation phase of a project where directivity is used.

    This study consists of two phases. The first one is the ambition to create a primary model based on the present theories which are namely creativity, implementation phase and directivity. The second phase then aspires to draw the potential connections with the help of a qualitative study led on five different projects managers. This should help refine the primary model which will also make it easier to understand such complex notion.

  • 174.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Frankelius, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Adaptation of the CDIO-framework in Management Courses for Engineering Students - a Micro-level Approach2016In: Proceedings of the 12th International CDIO Conference, Turku, Finland, June 12-16 2016 / [ed] Jerker Björkqvist, Kristina Edström, Ronald J. Hugo, Juha Kontio, Janne Roslöf, Rick Sellens & Seppo Virtanen, 2016, p. 366-375Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CDIO-Framework is developed in order to enable engineering students to engineer (Crawley et al 2014) and is relatively straightforward when applied on courses and projects that have a high degree of practical, hands-on engineering elements, such as e.g. developing software or a physical product/prototype. However, in many engineering programs a large part of the courses concern managerial aspects such as project management, leadership, marketing, innovation and entrepreneurship, especially in later years of a program. We are well aware of the fact that the CDIO-framework is developed to work on program-level, however, applied on management courses, commonly only the Conceive and Design can be obtained. Furthermore, these courses are not always structured in such a way that they immediately builds on each other. This dilemma has caused us to adapt CDIO to circumstances of the courses that we give and to reflect upon how more of the CDIO spirit can be transferred to our own modules and activities on course level. The aim of this paper is therefore to develop ways for application on a micro-level where the CDIO spirit can be implemented in management courses at engineering programs. In the paper we give three different practical cases where the CDIO-framework have been applied. The cases show that CDIO works both on micro-level, e.g. in two hour exercises and within the frame of individual courses. For management courses, and especially courses in entrepreneurship and marketing, the framework need to apply a more extrovert focus, i.e. on verification of customer needs and benefits, rather than on technological solutions. 

  • 175.
    Bikic, Sabina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sheibani, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att bedöma eller inte bedöma problem med fortsatt drift, det är frågan: En kvantitativ studie om revisorns bedömning av fortsatt drift2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Going  concern  assessment  is  a  subject  that  causes  many auditors anxiety. At the same time it is a fundamental prerequisite for performing audit of high quality. Previous studies in the field have studied the phenomenon based on secondary data. This study aims at using primary data based on alternative research methods to supplement earlier studies through a Swedish context.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explain the differences in the auditor’s going concern assessment.

    Method: The study is based on a quantitative research method with a deductive approach. A cross-sectional design has been used and research data has been collected through auditor’s participation through a survey. This study has been supplemented with qualitative data collected through follow- up interviews

    Conclusion: The result of the study indicate that auditors are a homogeneous group and that there are a number of underlying factors that are crucial in assessing going concern, such as ongoing dialogue with client and access to the clients future oriented profitability information.

  • 176.
    Bilanovic, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eidberg, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Riskkapital i svensk elitidrott: Framtiden för elitidrottsföretag?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During the 2000s, many clubs in the Swedish Hockey League and the Swedish premier football division Allsvenskan have suffered from financial problems. Many elite sports clubs have changed from previously beeing non-profit organizations to, through corporatisation, operate as elite sports businesses. Private equity is a tool that is used to develop business operations in various industries, where venture capitalists or private equity firms buys into a company. Elite sports businesses, however, are affected by regulations that potentially limit the elite sports businesses possibilities to use private equity.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze if elite sports clubs in Swedish football and ice hockey can develop their business with private equity.

    Research method: The study has a qualitative approach in which interviews were conducted with representatives from ten elite sports clubs in Swedish football and ice hockey.

    Results: The study shows that elite sports clubs in Swedish football and ice hockey should be able to use venture capital to develop their business. Current regulations, the 51-percent rule, inhibits the clubs in their use of private equity, since venture capitalists are limited in their possibility to control their investment. If the venture capitalist is allowed to take on an active ownership role, we see the use of private equity as a opportunity to develop the business in today's elite sports businesses.

  • 177.
    Binder, Julia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Akella, Sharanya
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    An approach to increase Perceived Consumer Effectiveness: Investigating the effect of Just-World Belief and empowering statements on PCE2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers demand for sustainable and ethical products; products that protect the environment as well protect the well-being of workers in every way. Ethical products are a part of sustainability development where companies are obliged to follow guidelines and provide workers with good daily wages and various possibilities to enhance their life. The thesis focuses on ethical consumption and specifically takes a closer look at fair-trade tea. Fair-trade products are produced in a fair way and follow strict guidelines to make sure every worker is cared and provided a respectful life. Due to increase of sustainable products in the market, consumers have become largely aware of the consequences caused by products to the environment. However, when it comes to ethical products, consumers have a disbelief towards unfair situations workers experience. Some consumers believe labor malpractices are often exaggerated and some consumers believe that the victim actually deserves the situation. Even though some consumers would like to contribute, others tend to turn away with a thought that their purchase would not make any significant difference which leads them to not purchase fair- trade products. The thesis explores how and what factors influence such consumers’ minds, with the focus to increase PCE - Perceived Consumer Effectiveness (consumer’s belief that their purchase contributes to a positive outcome). The thesis further examines if PCE directly influences purchase intentions if Belief in Just World and empowering statements influence PCE. Results show that high belief in Just World negatively influences Perceived Consumer Effectiveness. Empowering statements increase awareness on ethical issues and decreases skepticism towards ethical products. The thesis contributes to the theory of PCE and in-store marketing techniques. Triggering PCE at the stores during the point of purchase influences consumers intentions to buy a certain product.

  • 178.
    Bird, Miriam
    et al.
    University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS.
    Why family matters: the impact of family resources on immigrant entrepreneurs’ exit from entrepreneurship2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We integrate insights from the social embeddedness perspective with research on immigrant entrepreneurship to theorize on how family resources influence exit from entrepreneurship among previously unemployed immigrant entrepreneurs. Results from a cohort study of immigrant entrepreneurs in Sweden reveal that family resources are important for immigrants to integrate economically into a country. We find that having family members in geographical proximity increases immigrant entrepreneurs’ likelihood of remaining in entrepreneurship. Further, family financial capital enhances immigrant entrepreneurs’ likelihood of remaining in entrepreneurship as well as their likelihood of exiting to paid employment. Although often neglected in immigrant entrepreneurship studies, resources accruing from spousal relationships with natives influence entrepreneurs’ exit behavior. We discuss contributions for research on entrepreneurial exit, entrepreneurs’ social embeddedness, and immigrant entrepreneurship.

  • 179.
    Bird, Miriam
    et al.
    University of St. Gallen, Center for Family Business, Dufourstrasse 40a, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm School of Economics, Center for Entrepreneurship and Business Creation, P. O. Box 6501, S-113 83 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Why family matters: The impact of family resources on immigrant entrepreneurs' exit from entrepreneurship2016In: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 18p. 687-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We integrate insights from the social embeddedness perspective with research on immigrantentrepreneurship to theorize on how family resources influence exit from entrepreneurshipamong previously unemployed immigrant entrepreneurs. Results from a cohort study of immigrantentrepreneurs in Sweden reveal that family resources are important for immigrants to integrateeconomically into a country. We find that having family members in geographicalproximity increases immigrant entrepreneurs' likelihood of remaining in entrepreneurship.Further, family financial capital enhances immigrant entrepreneurs' likelihood of remainingin entrepreneurship as well as their likelihood of exiting to paid employment. Although oftenneglected in immigrant entrepreneurship studies, resources accruing from spousal relationshipswith natives influence entrepreneurs' exit behavior. We discuss contributions for research onentrepreneurial exit, entrepreneurs' social embeddedness, and immigrant entrepreneurship.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-10-12 11:45
  • 180.
    Bjelkengren, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Lönnqvist, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Balanserade styrkort i banker på den svenska marknaden2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Between 1980 and 1990 there was an ongoing debate about internal management in companies. Management solely based on financial indicators was criticized because it didn’t allow for improvements in customer satisfaction, innovation, product/service quality and more. The balanced scorecard can be used as a tool for planning and follow-up. The main purpose of the balanced scorecard is to translate an organizations strategic goal and vision to a set of performance measures. These measures are organized into different perspectives, these are usually a financial perspective, a customer focused perspective, an internal process perspective and an innovation perspective. The majority of the largest banks in Sweden use a balanced scorecard. One of the most important things for success in the banking industry is to have satisfied customers. The importance of customer satisfaction put pressure on the internal management as banks wants to keep their existing customer base and also expand it. Therefore it’s interesting to see if a typical balanced scorecard for Swedish banks exists.

    Aim: The aim for this study is to describe the design and usage of the balanced scorecard in the largest Swedish banks. Further we want to develop a typical scorecard for Swedish banks.

    Method: Qualitative methods with interviews have been applied.

    Results & Conclusion: The balanced scorecard is used as a planning tool, a tool for communication. The most important parts of the balanced scorecard in Swedish banking are the financial perspective, the customer perspective and the employee perspective.

  • 181.
    Bjelkengren, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Thörnblad, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Går det att mäta effektiviteten av marknadsföring i sociala medier?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och problem: Företag kan använda sig av sociala medier som exempelvis Facebook, Twitter och bloggar för marknadsföring. Genom att kommunicera i sociala nätverk på Internet har företagen möjligheter att föra en dialog med kunder vilket kan bidra till att relationer uppstår mellan kunderna och företagen. En studie som möjliggör ytterligare beskrivningar av egenskaper hos sociala medier och dess fördelar och nackdelar vore intressant. Företag upplever svårigheter att koppla marknadsföringen i sociala medier till tydliga affärsresultat. Personalen saknar kunskaper för målformulering, implementering och utvärdering. Risken finns att företag investerar kapital i marknadskommunikation som inte ger ett synligt resultat. Därför ska en studie göras av företag som har personal med kunskaper inom sociala medier och mätningen av effektiviteten i dem.

    Syfte: Uppsatsen ämnar undersöka hur svenska marknadsföringsbyråer och medieföretag mäter effektiviteten av marknadsföring i sociala medier samt vilka fördelar och nackdelar de förknippar med marknadskommunikationen.

    Metod: I studien har kvalitativ metod använts och fem intervjuer har genomförts med fallföretag som använder marknadsföring i sociala medier.

    Slutsats: Företagen i studien använder målformulering som utgångspunkt för mätning av effektivitet. Det kan göras med både kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder. Datorprogram kan användas för at mäta antal klick medan en anställd på företaget kan utvärdera antalet positiva och negativa kommentar i ett socialt nätverk. Det är svårt att fastställa ett monetärt värde på resultatet av marknadsföring i sociala medier. Legitimitet för att mäta effektiviteten i denna marknadsföring finns så länge målen är tydliga, tidsbundna och mätbara. Studiens empiriska resultat stämmer överens med vad som sägs i teorin om fördelar med marknadsföring i sociala medier. Det möjliggör interaktion, relationsskapande och har en kostnadsfördel. Sociala fungerar som ett extra marknadsföringsverktyg eller som komplement till de andra kanalerna. En effektiv segmentering kan uppnås genom marknadsföring i sociala medier utifrån konsumenters intressen, stil och smak.

    Förslag till vidare forskning: Olika områden som är intressanta för vidare forskning har identifierats. Ett alternativ är studier av strategier om marknadskommunikation i sociala medier. Ett annat är en undersökning av de datorprogram som finns tillgängliga för att mätning av effektiviteten i sociala medier.

  • 182.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Integration through framing: A study of the Cloetta Fazer merger2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What does it mean to integrate an organization after a merger? The purpose of the study on which this thesis is based was to explore, depict and reflect on how a management group strived to achieve socio-cultural integration. The findings are illustrated by applying the idea of framing to the on-going communication at integration meetings in a Nordic confectionery company. At these meetings, the management group - with different national, functional and organizational backgrounds - worked with creating a new, shared culture. Paradoxically, the intention of the managers was to keep their old cultures at the same time as they wanted to create something new. In this text, culture has been regarded as a frame of reference. This makes it possible to talk about culture in relation to other constructs in the integration process. The use of the frame concept in the analysis of the integration discourse revealed different frames at work, and how people observed in the study moved towards a shared frame of reference during the integration process. Over time, there was frame alignment at the integration meetings towards a one company frame. On a deeper level, the one company frame seemed to be motivated by people’s desire to belong in the new company and to make sense of what was going on. This was expressed in the faith frame. At the integration meetings, the faith frame was challenged by the game frame. The game frame enhanced the competitive aspect of business. It is suggested that recognition of the competitive aspects of integration could increase our understanding of the integration process.

  • 183.
    Björk, Ellinor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hästen i redovisningen och i beskattningen: Klassificering och värdering av ridhästar i redovisningen och kravet vinstsyfte för beskattning av hästverksamheter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The horse sector has increased significantly in recent years and the rules for accounting concerning sport horses regarding classification and valuation needs to be reviewed. Sport horses are a complex asset and the value may differ significantly. The tax office has strict requirements on the profit criteria for taxation of horse business as a business operation.

    Aim: To examine how horse breeding, training and competing business classifies and values sport horses as assets. On this basis, examine development opportunities for Annual Accounts Act and the general recommendations, K2 and K3, regarding the classification and valuation of horses in businesses that is neither agricultural or forestry. Further investigate if the development opportunities in the Annual Accounts Act can affect the application of the profit criteria the tax office have on horse businesses as a business operation.

    Method: The study was conducted with qualitative methods. Laws, general recommendations and standards for how sport horses should be classified and valued has been reviewed. Five different horse business have been given the opportunity to answer questions concerning the valuation and classification of horses as assets. The review of laws, general recommendations and standards have been compared with how it is done according to the companies’ responses. Development opportunities have been identified by the comparison for Annual Accounts Act, general rules and standards. To gain insight in how the tax office applies the profit criteria for business operations, a review has been done of the tax offices own documents, literature and empirical material from people that is familiar in the area.

    Results: Sport horses is classified and valued typically according to Annual Accounts Act. However, it appears that horses classifies as current assets even though the intent is permanent use. The study identifies that the approach to that all horses are always for sale is the reason for the misclassification and it is the literature of accounting for horse businesses that should account for such an approach is not consistent with accepted accounting principles. The term agriculture needs to be extended in chapter 34 in K3 to include more business, and the chapter would thus include horse businesses. Fair value accounting would facilitate evidence of profit criteria to get taxed as business but in conclusion can it be stated that the benefits of fair value do not weigh up the disadvantages.

  • 184.
    Björklund, Angelina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Ngan, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Human Resource Management in charitable organizations: A case study of Rädda Barnen2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the nonprofit sector has grown and charitable organiza-tions have become more important. HRM has got a more significant role and it is no longer enough to build an organization on the perception that "doing good is good enough". Since charitable organization often have both employees and volunteers and they have different needs, goals and competence levels it is crucial to manage both groups in a suitable way in order to achieve the organizational goals. For that reason we will focus on how charitable organizations can use Human Resource Management to motivate their staff in order to get a desirable performance and a better outcome.

    The purpose with our research is to see how HRM is used in order to manage the volunteers and employees in a charitable organization and what consequences this de-sign has for the organization. Since previous research has not focused on both employ-ees and volunteers our research will fill an important gap and therefore our ambition is to contribute to the research society by acknowledging this phenomenon.

    In this research we have done a single qualitative case study of Rädda Barnen and conducted two interviews.

    We have discovered that both groups are managed differently in the four areas of HRM (flows, performance, involvement & development) since they have different needs, goal and competence levels. Furthermore, we found that Rädda Barnen has been struggling with retaining (and recruiting) volunteers.

  • 185.
    Björklund, Lowe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fogelström, Alma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effektivitet inom sjukvården: En kvalitativ fallstudie om avlastning för sjukhuspersonal inom en sektion vid ett sjukhus i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this Bachelor Thesis was to describe if and in what way the connection with the RIA-project within the section at the hospital in Sweden has been effective in relation to the goal that has been established by the section.

    The theoretical framework proceeds from two models that deals with effectiveness which have been adapted to the human resource. The framework treats efficiency and effectiveness with associated subheadings, specifically: Resources, competency, job assignments and goal.

    The study was a qualitative case study with a descriptive nature and a deductive approach. Primary data was collected with accessibility selection with semi-structured interviews with seven respondents. The empirical findings were analysed with a thematic analysis method with themes related to the theoretical framework. The study collected secondary data from books, academic articles and academic journals.

    Empirical data was collected from hospital staff and hospital management within the section at the hospital in Sweden.

    The study reaches the conclusion that the connection with the RIA-project within the section at the hospital in Sweden has been effective in relation to the goal that has been established by the section, but not to what degree it has been effective. The human resources can do more right things, the hospital staff uses its competence to a higher degree and the hospital staff can perform job assignments right in relation to what is associated with their profession. This in turn have led to faster processing and contributed to efficiency which in turn have led to effectiveness in relation to the goal that has been established by the section.

  • 186.
    Björkman, Joanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Glanz, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Multilateral Trading Facility: En institutionell analys av multilateral trading facilities påverkan på transaktionskostnader2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The MiFID-directive was implemented in 2007, with the main purpose to increase competition in the European stock markets. At the same time, the abolishment of the exchange monopoly made it possible for several new market venues to emerge on the stock market, such as multilateral trading facilities (MTF). With this establishment the stock markets have gone through a structural change, which may have led to changes in transaction costs and given occurrence of unexpected effects. This is something that today, five years after the implementation of MiFID, is discussed frequently.

    AIM: The main purpose of this study is to map, and from institutional theory analyse how the introduction of multilateral trading facilities have changed and influenced transaction costs in Swedish market venues that realize stock trading. A sub-purpose is to describe the institution multilateral trading facility and its emergence.

    COMPLETION: The study uses a qualitative method where interviews have been made with suitable parties at the stock market in Sweden. The qualitative interviews have contributed to a detailed empirical description of the establishment of MTF and how they have affected the stock market. Further, the interviews along with a review of directives and laws, has created a documentation of MTF. To assess the impact on transaction costs an analysis with gathered empirical data and institutional economic theory has been made.

    CONCLUTION: The study shows that transaction costs have changed since the establishment of MTF. Reduced trade costs have led to lower transaction costs, at the same time the total transaction costs of market data has increased. Unexpected effects are mainly due to increased investments in terms of market access fees and technology-related costs, which have resulted in high transaction costs. Even trade outside the open market has increased. MiFID and MTF have in some way affected all parties. No specific winners have been selected, however, the authors state that institutional investors have lost more than they have won.

  • 187.
    Blank, Veronica
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Collin, Sven-Olof
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Tagesson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Högskolan Kristianstad, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Broberg, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Högskolan Kristianstad, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Explaining municipal audit costs: Considering the principal2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Blank, Veronica
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Tagesson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Högskolan Kristianstad, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Broberg, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Högskolan Kristianstad, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Collin, Sven-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    What explains the content and extent of social disclosures on corporations’ Internet homepages?2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Blohm, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Konradsson, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Konstruktionen av stress: En kvalitativ studie om hur stress upplevs i banksektorn2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Work is constantly changing due to digitalization and access to information is rapidly increasing. These changes affect the banking sector and studies have shown that work related stress increases as a result. One can easily associate stress in the banking sector with problems in the work environment since that is what studies and surveys are focusing on. At the same time, many people find the banking sector attractive, as a workplace. This study is necessary, because we need a better understanding about how stress can be perceived in modern professions, characterized by the processing of information.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to increase the understanding of how stress is perceived, using the banking sector as an example. Further, we aim to illustrate the problem concerning the concept stress.

    Methodology: This is a qualitative case study using the perspective of social constructivism. The empirical data has been collected through semi-structured interviews with three Swedish banks. The study has an inductive approach.

    Conclusion: This study shows that the banking sector is an intensive workplace and involves high demands as long working hours, complex tasks, deadlines and responsibility. These demands contribute to a lot of stress. Negative stress is perceived when the sense of control is lost and when a conflict between work and personal life arises. Positive stress is perceived when a sense of challenge appears and, to some extent, with a feeling of adrenaline. The results have proven that stress in the banking sector is perceived in various ways, both negative and positive. The concept stress might therefore need to be altered and be less associated with a negative value.

  • 190.
    Blomdahl, Philip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pettersson, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Allmännytta kontra affärsmässighet i kommunala bostadsbolag: Samspel mellan individer och institutioner2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Swedish municipal housing companies should by the law:lag (2010:879) om allmännyttiga kommunalabostadsaktiebolag operate in a charitable (allmännyttigt)purpose and according to businesslike (affärsmässiga)principles. There is a lack of unified explanations of whatthese concepts mean which in turn leads to preferential rightof interpretation. Varying interpretations withinorganisations like Hyresgästföreningen, and SverigesKommuner och Landsting (SKL) exists which lead this studyto go a step further and investigate interpretations made byindividuals working within Swedish municipal housingcompanies. The law (2010:879) is seen as a nationalinstitution in this study, while regulatory documents(ägardirektiv) represent local institutions, where local ideasare present. This vagueness within the law is the basis toinvestigate the interaction between national/local institutionsand individuals within the companies.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to provide an understanding ofhow municipal housing companies manage the complexityand the relationship between the concepts affärsmässigaprinciper and allmännyttigt syfte. The interaction betweenthe individuals and institutions will be the central focus.

    Method

    This qualitative study is based on an abduktiv approach, witha hermeneutic perspective. The qualitative analysis has beenmade with a case studie where two municipal housingcompanies participated. Six semi-structured interviews havebeen made with CEO, CFO and chairman from the involvedcompanies.

    Conclusion

    The study shows that the interaction between the individualsand the institutions are well functioning in such way thatboth parts are leading and driving. The individuals follow thenational institution, in the same way they are shaping itthrough the wide preferential rights of interpretation. Longtermthinking is the companies’ main argument to meet theconcepts of the law (2010:879). Finally, we believe the lawputs a spoke in the wheels of the companies, as constructionin suburban areas is difficult to reconcile to business likeprinciples.

  • 191.
    Blomgren, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hasslevall, Kristoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Är vi redo för Augmented Reality?: En studie i eftermarknadsservice med teknisk innovation.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In today’s digitalized society there are high demands from customers on how things should work. Companies face demands on how they should provide their customers with a attractive offerings and with today's fast growing technologies new ways of offering service are presented. AR-technology has recently started being used as a tool in companies’ aftermarket service within B2B and it allows for service technicians to, remotely provide aid, problem solve and repair of the machines with the assistance of an expert. Aftermarket service can, if performed correctly, give companies competitive advantages and is believed to be a large future profit maker. There is a hype surrounding AR-technology, new technologies are a driving force for new services and consumers are demanding fast service, but there are still studies missing regarding AR-technology in the aftermarket service on the B2C market.Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the attitudes of the different operators within the supply chain, from three different dimensions, towards the introduction of AR- technology in companies’ aftermarket service towards consumers, and also to improve the understanding of its effect on the service process.

    Method: The study uses a qualitative method where we have performed an explorative case study on the introduction of AR-technology in companies’ aftermarket service. The empirical data have been gathered by 14 semi-structured interviews with respondents from three different operators within our studied supply chain.

    Result: The operators, within the supply chain, all agree that there are clear advantages with the introduction of AR-technology in the aftermarket service as knowledge transfer, facilitated by AR-technology, can promote self-service which can mean cost and time savings for both the company and the consumers. There are though questions regarding the actual use of the technology and if the technology in some cases may become redundant. There are also questions about how a shift of service closer to consumers may affect companies ́ stable revenue flow in the aftermarket service and also their customer relations.

  • 192.
    Bogered, Gustaf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rundquist, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Management Control Systems as a Package and the Impact on Organizational Ambidexterity: A Case Study of a R&D Organization in a Swedish Medical Technology Company2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The idea of MCSs operating together in a package is not a new concept. However, not many empirical studies have been made where MCSs have been studied as a package despite studies showing the importance in doing so. The assessment of the performance implications of MCSPs has traditionally been limited to financial measures. Theory suggests that the performance of a MCSP ought to be assessed on a broader scale than conventional output measures. Organizational ambidexterity has been positively associated with a broad variety of performance measures and thus it is used as an assessment tool in this study in response to the need for performance measurement on a broader scale than financial output.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the MCSP in two different phases in the case organization and assess how the MCSP in these two phases promotes the organization’s ability to achieve organizational ambidexterity.

    Methodology: This study uses a qualitative research strategy and is limited to a single case study in a R&D organization within a Swedish medical technology company. Semistructured qualitative interviews have been used to collect empirical data.

    Conclusion: The MCSP in the two phases is composed of different MCSs that were found to be used differently. Within the MCSP in both phases, several linkages were revealed between control elements and that some MCSs function to achieve the purposes of other MCSs. This study further concludes that the MCSP of the current phase was found to promote organizational ambidexterity better than the MCSP in the previous phase due to it promoting a better balance between exploitation and exploration.

  • 193.
    Bolin, Theodor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sellman, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    En analys av effekterna som uppstår när lågprisvarumärken samarbetar med lyxvarumärken inom modebranschen: Är co-branding lösningen för framtidens modebransch?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since 2004 when H&M collaborated with Karl Lagerfeld has co-branding become a well-known phenomenon that now serves as a marketing strategy for clothing brands in different segments. These collaborations often generate positive aspects for the partners who are involved. There are however risks if the collaborations are not executed properly. The fashion industry has evolved in the last years and the consequences of collaborations have affected it to some extent.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to research and create a developed understanding of the effects that may arise when a low-budget brand and a luxurious brand create a clothing collection together. The study also wants to examine potential synergies that a collaboration may generate, how these collaborations are influenced by todays fashion industry, as well as what the future might look like.

    Methodology: This study applies a qualitative research method where empirical data has been gathered through semi-structured interviews with seven experts who have knowledge about the subject areas that are relevant to the study. The empirical data has been analyzed with the help of previous studies in order to fill the knowledge gaps that exist for collaborations within the fashion industry.

    Conclusions: The study establishes that collaborations can indeed affect both the low-budget brand and the luxurious brand’s brand equity. It also found that the positive effects outweigh the negative. Low-budget brands however, tend to be more rewarded than luxurious brands in these collaborations. Influences from pop culture and new types of consumers have gained an increased power on both the fashion industry and the collaborations within it. The future is deemed uncertain by the experts but co-branding is however portrayed as a possible solution for the complicated fashion market that exists today.

  • 194.
    Bolinder, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    CSR – nyckeln till framgång avseende anställdas motivation?: En kvalitativ undersökning om den upplevda motivationen i en kontext med CSR2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Due to increasing external demands corporate social responsibility has been adapted more frequently by companies in their daily activities. In recent years, researchers have started to develop an interest in CSR’s importance regarding the motivation of employees. In order to succeed with CSR-activities and increase employee motivation, information is required to be continuously communicated in a consistent, clear and interesting way. An industry where motivated employees are known to be important is the service industry, since employees are a big part of the service provided. Therefore, it is relevant to study how CSR-activities can be used to increase motivation of employees working in the service sector.

    Aim The aim of this study is to explore how CSR affects the motivation of employees working at companies within the service industry in Sweden. Furthermore, the internal communication of CSR is examined and how this contributes to motivation. Thus, the purpose of the study is to investigate and identify the factors that are perceived to be important for employees in order to be motivated by the company's CSR efforts.

    Methodology The study adopts a case study design since the goal of the study has been to perform a detailed examination of a specific case. The method used is a qualitative method and an iterative approach has been used, combining an inductive and deductive approach, and the authors have been shifting between theory and empirical evidence during the process. Data has been collected through interviews and questionnaires.

    Conclusions Through our empirical data collection we have been able to identify a number of factors in the field of CSR that could lead to success in terms of employee motivation. Furthermore, the challenges that exist to make CSR a motivating factor for employees are the choice of communication channels and adapting leadership between different individuals. In summary, CSR has been shown to influence employee motivation positively if combined with efficient communication and leadership.

  • 195.
    Bolling, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bucan, Nikolina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Revisionsriskmodellen: En studie i hur revisorer uppfattar användandet av modellens olika delar2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Criticism has been leveled at the design of theaudit risk model, even though it is an importantpart of the assessment of audit risk in the planningphase. As a result of this, it is relevant to studyusers’, namely auditors’, approach to the audit riskmodel and its use.

    Purpose The purpose of this thesis is to explain auditors'interpretation of the use of the various risks in theaudit risk model.

    Method The study uses a quantitative approach. The datahas been collected through a survey usingSurveyMonkey and then analyzed with SPSS.

    Conclusions Our results show that the auditors who participatedin the survey felt that inherent risk was mostimportant, followed by control risk, and thereafterdetection risk. However, we see that theassessment of inherent and control risks iscombined and that they are influenced by eachother, which strengthens several previous studies.

  • 196.
    Bolton, Ruth N.
    et al.
    Arizona State Univ, AZ 85287 USA.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Cheung, Lilliemay
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Gallan, Andrew
    Depaul Univ, IL 60604 USA.
    Orsingher, Chiara
    Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Zaki, Mohamed
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Customer experience challenges: bringing together digital, physical and social realms2018In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 776-808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore innovations in customer experience at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. It explicitly considers experiences involving new technology-enabled services, such as digital twins and automated social presence (i.e. virtual assistants and service robots). Design/methodology/approach Future customer experiences are conceptualized within a three-dimensional space - low to high digital density, low to high physical complexity and low to high social presence - yielding eight octants. Findings The conceptual framework identifies eight dualities, or specific challenges connected with integrating digital, physical and social realms that challenge organizations to create superior customer experiences in both business-to-business and business-to-consumer markets. The eight dualities are opposing strategic options that organizations must reconcile when co-creating customer experiences under different conditions. Research limitations/implications A review of theory demonstrates that little research has been conducted at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. Most studies focus on one realm, with occasional reference to another. This paper suggests an agenda for future research and gives examples of fruitful ways to study connections among the three realms rather than in a single realm. Practical implications This paper provides guidance for managers in designing and managing customer experiences that the authors believe will need to be addressed by the year 2050. Social implications This paper discusses important societal issues, such as individual and societal needs for privacy, security and transparency. It sets out potential avenues for service innovation in these areas. Originality/value The conceptual framework integrates knowledge about customer experiences in digital, physical and social realms in a new way, with insights for future service research, managers and public policy makers.

  • 197.
    Bolton, Ruth
    et al.
    ASU.
    Tarasi, Crina
    Eastern Michigan.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstads universitet.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstads universitet.
    What drives the drives of customer satisfaction? Understanding how across-channel participation and country of origin affect the drivers of customer satisfactioin2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Bonnevier, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nyman, Lowisa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    European Market Infrastructure Regulation: En institutionell analys av implementeringsproblematiken och dess kostnader2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to the financial crisis of year 2008. European Market Infrastructure Regulation, EMIR, was introduced to increase transparency and reduce the counterparty risk on the European derivatives market. The market demonstrates that the implementation has been problematic and an indistinct designing is expressed. According to studies, increased transaction costs have occurred due to the regulation. Operators that usually not are included by oversight by the Swedish FSA, now are due to EMIR which contributes to an implementation problem essential to analyse.

    Aim: The aim with the study is to investigate and by institutional theory analyse what costs and problems that occurs at the implementation of EMIR and to discuss solutions for these.

    Completion: To accomplish the aim of the study, the writers have used institutional theory and a qualitative approach. The empirical data is treated with focus on the implementation problems that affected parts experienced due to EMIR. The empirical data will be concluded with semi – structured interviews. The affected parts, in the study, are different stakeholders on the market that has developed because of the implementation of EMIR. With the theory as background different solutions to the implementation problems will be discussed in the analysis.

    Conclusion: The regulation is considered to be unclear and complex which results in increased transaction costs. Several costs and problems have been identified in conjunction with the implementation of EMIR. The different solution provided is explained to depend on if the participant is considered a small or a big contestant on the market. The writer can ultimately se a long – term utility with EMIR.

  • 199.
    Booson, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Swahn, Lowe
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Popularitet på aktiemarknaden: En undersökning av aktiers popularitets effekt på risk och avkastning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Over the past few decades it has been generally accepted that market premiums come with an associated level of risk. Even the most widely used pricing model today, CAPM, leans on this assumption. In an article written by Ibbotson and Idzorek (2014) this assumption is challenged as the main driver of market premiums and returns. The article contains evidence that relatively high returns have been earned through buying less  popular stocks on the U.S. stock market. Surprisingly the risk-return dimension exhibited an inverse relationship. This evidence from the U.S. stock market motivates us to investigate to what extent this effect can also be seen on the Swedish stock market.

    Aim: The aim of this thesis is to identify and analyze the effect of a stock`s popularity on the risk and return.

    Completion: In this quantitative study, share turnover and market capitalization have been used as approximations for popularity. The effects of stocks popularity on risk and return have been are examined by evaluating the performance of portfolios when categorizing the stocks by share turnover and market capitalization. The statistical relationship between popularity and return is analyzed using regression analysis. This study has both studied the effect of last year's popularity, as well as the effect of the popularity of the same year.

    Conclusion: When various approximations for the popularity dimension are studied and compared, this study shows no marked effect of stock`s popularity from the previous year on risk and return. The study finds no statistically significant relationship between the previous year ́s popularity and return. However, there is a positive statistically correlation between popularity and return when measured during the same year as when the popularity was measured. In addition, the results establish evidence for the stock turnover as a good measure of popularity.

  • 200.
    Borg, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Persson, Sabine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Remitteringar - ett tvåvägsflöde: En flerfallsstudie om hur finansieringsformen hos invandrarföretagare i Sverige påverkar deras vilja att remittera2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Given that the labor market for immigrants in Sweden has high unemployment and that immigrants to a large extent start businesses, makes it interesting to see how they finance the start-up. It also makes it interesting to try to understand the reasons that may lay behind the choice of funding source. However, many immigrants who want to start a business in Sweden encounter problems early in the process since banks tend to discriminate immigrants and not grant them loans to the same extent as to those born in Sweden. The constraints in access to capital through formal options open up for more informal alternatives. One solution could be to go through friends and family who still live  in their country of origin, through so-called reverse remittances. The reason behind the choice of funding source was studied through interviews with immigrant entrepreneurs divided into two groups; one group that received reverse remittances as funding source and one group that used bank loans and/or other funding sources. Additionally this study also looked at the linked relationship between entrepreneurs receiving and sending remittances. Since the greater part of the immigrant entrepreneurs that where interviewed had not been in contact with the bank before choosing source of funding, discrimination cannot be said to be the reason behind funding by reverse remittances. This study shows that the main reason for the use of reverse remittances rather is because the immigrant entrepreneurs belong to strong transnational networks built up by a high level of trust. No specific differences in the remittance pattern between the two sample groups have been found. It is rather the culture within the transnational network, strong ties to the remittance receiver and an expressed need for money that seem to decide whether immigrant entrepreneurs send remittances or not. This study has not either been able to point out whether there is a relationship between receiving and sending remittances among immigrant entrepreneurs in Sweden, apart rom some insinuations that the entrepreneurs funded by reverse remittances tend to remit to a slightly larger extent.

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