liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Refine search result
1234567 151 - 200 of 506
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 151.
    Ekerstad, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Cardiology, NU (NÄL-Uddevalla) Hospital Group, Trollhättan-Uddevalla-Vänersborg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Heintz, Emelie
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), QRC Research Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alwin, Jenny
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Short-term Resource Utilization and Cost-Effectiveness of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in Acute Hospital Care for Severely Frail Elderly Patients2018In: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1525-8610, E-ISSN 1538-9375, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 871-878.e2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The objective of this study was to estimate the 3-month within-trial cost-effectiveness of comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) in acute medical care for frail elderly patients compared to usual medical care, by estimating health-related quality of life and costs from a societal perspective.

    Design

    Clinical, prospective, controlled, 1-center intervention trial with 2 parallel groups.

    Intervention

    Structured, systematic interdisciplinary CGA-based care in an acute elderly care unit. If the patient fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and there was a bed available at the CGA unit, the patient was included in the intervention group. If no bed was available at the CGA unit, the patient was included in the control group and admitted to a conventional acute medical care unit.

    Setting and Participants

    A large county hospital in western Sweden. The trial included 408 frail elderly patients, 75 years or older, in need of acute in-hospital treatment. The patients were allocated to the intervention group (n = 206) or control group (n = 202). Mean age of the patients was 85.7 years, and 56% were female.

    Measures

    The primary outcome was the adjusted incremental cost-effectiveness ratio associated with the intervention compared to the control at the 3-month follow-up.

    Results

    We undertook cost-effectiveness analysis, adjusted by regression analyses, including hospital, primary, and municipal care costs and effects. The difference in the mean adjusted quality-adjusted life years gained between groups at 3 months was 0.0252 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0082-0.0422]. The incremental cost, that is, the difference between the groups, was −3226 US dollars (95% CI: −6167 to −285).

    Conclusion

    The results indicate that the care in a CGA unit for acutely ill frail elderly patients is likely to be cost-effective compared to conventional care after 3 months.

  • 152.
    Ekerstad, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. NU NAL Uddevalla Hosp Grp, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Alexander, Karen
    Duke Clin Res Inst, NC USA.
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine.
    Lindenberger, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Frailty as an instrument for evaluation of elderly patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: A follow-up after more than 5 years2018In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 25, no 17, p. 1813-1821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background There is a growing body of evidence on the relevance of using frailty measures also in a cardiovascular context. The estimated time to death is crucial in clinical decision-making in cardiology. However, data on the importance of frailty in long-term mortality are very scarce. The aim of the study was to assess the prognostic value of frailty on mortality at long-term follow-up of more than 5 years in patients 75 years or older hospitalised for non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. We hypothesised that frailty is independently associated with long-term mortality. Design This was a prospective, observational study conducted at three centres. Methods and results Frailty was assessed according to the Canadian Study of Health and Aging clinical frailty scale (CFS). Of 307 patients, 149 (48.5%) were considered frail according to the study instrument (degree 5-7 on the scale). The long-term all-cause mortality of more than 5 years (median 6.7 years) was significantly higher among frail patients (128, 85.9%) than non-frail patients (85, 53.8%), (P amp;lt; 0.001). In Cox regression analysis, frailty was independently associated with mortality from the index hospital admission to the end of follow-up (hazard ratio 2.06, 95% confidence interval 1.51-2.81; P amp;lt; 0.001) together with age (P amp;lt; 0.001), ejection fraction (P = 0.012) and Charlson comorbidity index (P = 0.018). Conclusions In elderly non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients, frailty was independently associated with all-cause mortality at long-term follow-up of more than 6 years. The combined use of frailty and comorbidity may be the ultimate risk prediction concept in the context of cardiovascular patients with complex needs.

  • 153.
    Ekerstad, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Löfmark, Rurik
    Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics, LIME, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Lindenberger, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Frailty is independently associated with 1-year mortality for elderly patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction2014In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1216-1224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: For the large population of elderly patients with cardiovascular disease, it is crucial to identify clinically relevant measures of biological age and their contribution to risk. Frailty is denoting decreased physiological reserves and increased vulnerability. We analysed the manner in which the variable frailty is associated with 1-year outcomes for elderly non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients aged 75 years or older, with diagnosed NSTEMI were included at three centres, and clinical data including judgment of frailty were collected prospectively. Frailty was defined according to the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale. Of 307 patients, 149 (48.5%) were considered frail. By Cox regression analyses, frailty was found to be independently associated with 1-year mortality after adjusting for cardiovascular risk and comorbid conditions (hazard ratio 4.3, 95% CI 2.4-7.8). The time to the first event was significantly shorter for frail patients than for nonfrail (34 days, 95% CI 10-58, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty is strongly and independently associated with 1-year mortality. The combined use of frailty and comorbidity may constitute an important risk prediction concept in regard to cardiovascular patients with complex needs.

  • 154.
    Eklund, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Andersson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Josephson, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johannesson, Magnus
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Knutsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Does Parametric fMRI Analysis with SPM Yield Valid Results? - An Empirical Study of 1484 Rest Datasets2012In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 565-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The validity of parametric functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis has only been reported for simulated data.Recent advances in computer science and data sharing make it possible to analyze large amounts of real fMRI data. In this study,1484 rest datasets have been analyzed in SPM8, to estimate true familywise error rates. For a familywise significance threshold of5%, significant activity was found in 1% - 70% of the 1484 rest datasets, depending on repetition time, paradigm and parametersettings. This means that parametric significance thresholds in SPM both can be conservative or very liberal. The main reason forthe high familywise error rates seems to be that the global AR(1) auto correlation correction in SPM fails to model the spectra ofthe residuals, especially for short repetition times. The findings that are reported in this study cannot be generalized to parametricfMRI analysis in general, other software packages may give different results. By using the computational power of the graphicsprocessing unit (GPU), the 1484 rest datasets were also analyzed with a random permutation test. Significant activity was thenfound in 1% - 19% of the datasets. These findings speak to the need for a better model of temporal correlations in fMRI timeseries.

  • 155.
    Eklund, K.
    et al.
    Institute of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Box 455, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sonn, U.
    Institute of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Box 455, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Box 455, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, S.
    Institute of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Box 455, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden, The Vardal Institute, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Box 455, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    A cost-effectiveness analysis of a health education programme for elderly persons with age-related macular degeneration: A longitudinal study2005In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 27, no 20, p. 1203-1212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To analyse the cost-effectiveness of the activity-based Health Education Programme 'Discovering New Ways' versus a standard Individual Programme. Method: Two-hundred and twenty-nine persons were randomized to either the Health Education Programme or an Individual Programme. The present study is based on 131 persons who participated in the 28-month follow-up. Costs for the low vision clinic were documented prospectively along with external costs. A cost-effectiveness analysis was done using cases with an improved level of perceived security in daily activities as the effectiveness measure. Results: The Health Education Programme led to significantly more cases with an improved level of perceived security (45 vs. 10%, CI 95%: 21-49, p value < 0.001) and the total social cost per treatment was lower (28 004 vs. 36 341 SEK). Taken separately the low vision clinic costs were slightly higher due to a higher prescription of assistive devices, but external costs were lower for the Health Education Programme compared to the Individual Programme, though neither of these differences was statistically significant. Conclusion: The results suggest that replacing the standard Individual Programme with the Health Education Programme 'Discovering New Ways' is cost-effective as more persons experience increased security to a lesser total cost. © 2005 Taylor & Francis.

  • 156.
    Eklundh, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Cost-effectiveness of conventional and self-ligated brackets in treatment of malocclusion: An unregulated market for unregulated teeth2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: All treatments, especially funded by social means, should be subject to cost-effectiveness studies to ensure that the best possible optimization decision it taken between different treatment options. Within the health care area this is a well-developed area. For odontology in general, and orthodontic treatment in specific, this is an unknown territory and cost-effectiveness studies are rare. Malocclusion can be treated with several different systems. The sales pitch from system providers for braces - such as self-ligated brackets (SLB) promises e.g. shorten treatment duration, shorter chairtime, fewer visits, but the purchase cost of SLB systems is higher. Due to lack of results from unbiased RCT there is no guidelines. It is up to the dentist to use the treatment method/system of their own choice.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to estimate the cost-effectiveness of SLB compared to conventional brackets (CB) to determine which of the two systems that should be considered as the preferred choice of treatment in a publicly funded system.

    Method: Through an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) calculate the most costeffective system from a societal perspective which includes all costs. To estimate the health care cost, the Reference price list will be used as baseline for production cost for CB. With the use of secondary resources examine the cost driving components to estimate the production cost of SLB. To estimate the non-health care cost a matrix with downtime from work and travel costs was estimated accounting for travel to disclose the magnitude of these cost. The Outcome of the different treatment alternatives will be measured from different perspectives, such as state specific and general profiles. Treatment duration and foregone education will also be investigated.

    Conclusions: When all production costs for SLB has been adjusted it shows that the total cost of SLB is slightly cheaper. The reduced number of visits required, less chairtime and shorter treatment period are the positive sides of the higher purchase cost of the SLB. Most of the outcome results are not statistically significant, but there is a tendency, with better average values for SLB. SLB seems to be the cheaper and with more effective outcome though not to the extent the provider promises. The difference of treatment duration is minimal and has no significant advantage. The foregone education for the patient is not possible to quantify in monetary terms but could have significant impact depending on different geographical areas but will small differences between the systems. Hence, in lack of unbiased studies and just focusing on average values, SLB dominates CB and should be the preferred choice of treatment until new long-term studies has been published.

  • 157.
    Eklöw, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eriksson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Marknaden för gymnasial utbildning och dess problematik2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When friskolereformen in Sweden was introduced in 1992, the market for secondary education became a competitive market. With new opportunities for schools to pursue secondary education business, the Swedish government hoped that students' preferences could be better met and that the use of resources would be more efficient. Questions answered in this paper is what characterizes the market, which strategies secondary schools uses, effects of asymmetric information and the factors that affect the degree of variation, and what the optimal degree of variation might be.The market for secondary education is mapped based on the SCP-model to get an overview of the market and its characteristics. Salop circle will be applied and detailed discussion about asymmetric information, variety and strategies on the secondary market will be made.In summary, it is noted that the market is characterized by monopolistic competition where it is difficult to predict the secondary schools' incentives. Furthermore, the market is characterized by being fully subsidized in the form of skolpeng with the reason that the positive impact of education on society. The strategies used in the market are marketing, acquisitions, grade inflation, complimentary products and research and development. As there is a lack of information on the market means that students do not make informative choices, which means that it becomes more difficult for individuals to achieve their full potential. Furthermore, the lack of information barriers to entry in the market and the opportunities to compete with quality weakens. The factors that affect the variation in the market were found to be individual preferences, the substitution tendencies, competition and economies of scale.

  • 158.
    Eliasson, Nina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Karlsson, Evelina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Traditionella taxiföretag och innovativa substitut: En analys av den teknologiska utvecklingens betydelse för taximarknaden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The taxi market has been, and is, undergoing a transformation. As a result of the technological development, new companies and substitutes have been established on the market. Uber, Bzzt and Lime are only three of all the new companies that have emerged in the recent years, and not only contribute with new, innovative substitutes for traditional taxi, but also increased competition in terms of accessibility through digital platforms.

    Purpose: The purpose of the essay is to analyze the influence of the technological development on the taxi market’s structure and function, with focus on Stockholm.

    Completion: The main framework of the essay is the Structure-Conduct-Performance model. For a more profound analysis three interviews were conducted with: Bzzt, Svenska Taxiförbundet and Taxi Stockholm. The essay also includes a study of the price level and a study of the accessibility to a taxi. The included companies are: Sverigetaxi, TaxiKurir, Taxi Stockholm, TOPCAB and Uber.

    Conclusions: The technological development have a large impact on the structure and function of the taxi market, since it contributes to a more customer-centered and efficient market. The market structure in Stockholm is similar to a hybrid market of an oligopoly and perfect competition, depending on the difference in size of the existing companies. The market has a uniform price level and a good accessibility, of which the latest has improved as a result of the development of the taxi companies own applications.

  • 159.
    Elie, Bouri
    et al.
    Holy Spirit Univ Kaslik, Lebanon.
    Naji, Jalkh
    Univ St Joseph, Lebanon.
    Dutta, Anupam
    Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gold and crude oil as safe-haven assets for clean energy stock indices: Blended copulas approach2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 178, p. 544-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examine the potential roles of gold and crude oil as safe-haven assets against extreme down movements in clean energy stock indices. We employ copulas on daily data from November 21st, 2003 to March 30th, 2018 covering two clean energy stock indices, the Samp;P Global Clean Energy and the WilderHill Clean Energy. Instead of adopting a priori selection of the best copula function based on a single copula, we consider single and mixture copulas to better illustrate the dependence between the pairs of variables under study. We also apply parametric as well as non-parametric tail dependencies measures. Empirical results show that both crude oil and gold are no more than weak safe-haven assets for clean energy indices. However, the superiority of crude oil to gold is evidenced in case of infinitely extreme market movements. This superiority is validated for WilderHill Clean Energy Index but endorsed to gold when examined against Global Clean Energy Index, in extreme market movements. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 160.
    Engström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Gustafsson, Niklas
    Swedish Equity Sectors Risk Management with Commodities: Revisiting dynamic conditional correlations and hedge ratios2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate changes in dynamic conditional correlations between Swedish equity sector indices and commodities using oil, gold, copper and a general commodity index. Additionally the purpose is to evaluate which of the two methods, DCC- GARCH or GO-GARCH that is more efficient in estimating correlation for hedge ratio calculation. Daily data on the FTSE30 index of Sweden and its sector indices have been studied between the years 1994 and 2017. A DCC-GARCH (1,1) and GO-GARCH (1,1) model with one autoregressive term AR(1) using multivariate Student t- and Multivariate Affine Negative Inverse Gaussian distribution were used to estimate conditional correlations. Correlations between Swedish FTSE30, its sector indices and commodities are considerably lower than previous research has found American or emerging markets correlation with commodities to be. This suggests better diversification opportunities with commodities for the Swedish market. Optimal hedge ratios (OHR) was calculated and back tested using a rolling window analysis with 1000 days forecast length and 20 days re-estimation window and evaluated using a calculated hedge effectiveness index (HE). Determined by HE, copper is the best hedge for the Swedish composite FTSE30 and sector indices using conditional correlation from the GO-GARCH during the data period. Gold is considered as a semi-strong safe haven due to its negative correlation with all sectors. Additionally, this study identifies a temporarily large increase in the correlation between the Swedish equities sectors and composite index with commodities around the years 2015/2016. This study also emphasizes the difference between stressful and calm periods in the market. 

  • 161.
    Enström, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Bergström, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Kompetens i beslutsfattande och dess inverkan på det privata sparandet: En analys av svenskarnas beslutsfattande gällande långsiktigt privat sparbeteende2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Beslutskompetensen som beskriver hur bra individer är på att fatta beslut, blir allt viktigare inom nationalekonomin och resultat från samtida forskning inom beteendeekonomi ifrågasätter neoklassiska nationalekonomiska teorier. Detta ihop med att allt fler personer i Sverige får en sämre ekonomisk levnadsstandard under pensionsåldern lade grunden till varför vi valde att isolera analysen till sambandet mellan det privata sparandet och beslutskompetensen hos en individ.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka och analysera sambandet mellan kompetensen i individers beslutsfattande och en individs långsiktiga sparande utifrån ett beteendeekonomiskt perspektiv.

    Metod: En tidigare studie inom beslutskompetensens område där studenter (n=200) var fokusgruppen, utförd av JEDI-Lab vid Linköpings Universitet låg till grund för den kvantitativa analys som gjordes med hjälp av regressioner i det ekonometriska programmet EViews. De resultat som vi erhöll användes sedan för att analysera sambandet mellan individers beslutskompetens och deras aktiva val att spara.

    Resultat: Beslutskompetensen visade sig inte ha någon statistisk inferens på sparbeteende hos individer. Dess underkategorier hade blandade negativa och positiva samband till sparbeteende. Alla kategorier utom hur man följer beslutsregler saknade statistiskt signifikanta resultat. Det tycks föreligga andra faktorer i ett sparbeteende än enbart en individs beslutskompetens, variabler som kön, självkontroll och den kortsiktiga diskonteringsräntan hos en individ har större betydelse för sparbeteende. Vi tror att resultaten kan vara påverkade av att den undersökta populationen var studenter och därmed reflekterar den yngre delen av den svenska befolkningen och inte befolkningen som helhet. Det finns mycket forskning kvar att göra, då beslutskompetens är ett relativt nytt område inom ekonomi och behöver vidareutvecklas för att kunna ge mer precisa svar om varför individer tar de ekonomiska beslut som de gör.

  • 162.
    Eriksson, Clas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University College, Västerås, Sweden .
    Persson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Democracy, income and pollution2013In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 291-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical evidence suggests that increased democracy reduces pollution. Using a median-voter model (where a democratization reform typically changes the income of the median voter), we analyze how the effect of a change of the individual income differs from the effect of a change in the economy-wide productivity in the determination of pollution. We find that a democratization reform that brings poorer groups into the franchise leads to lower pollution only if the elasticity of the marginal utility of consumption, σ, is smaller than unity. At the same time, the EKC literature suggests that a country tends to improve aspects of the environment as its per capita income rises, at least when it is above some critical level. For the model to be consistent with this observation, when σ < 1, the transformation function between income and pollution must be generous, i.e. little income has to be given up as pollution is reduced.

  • 163.
    Eriksson Funke, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Sandberg, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Är anchoring och framing ett problem vid rådgivning?– En explorativ studie om rådgivningsprocessen inom private banking2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: As the number of millionaires increased in Sweden, the number of private banking clients increased. The primary purpose within private banking is to achieve the client's financial goals through advising, without falling into psychological biases. In order to maintain an effective consulting requires a deeper knowledge of the existence of the psychological biases and their impact on the consulting process in private banking.Aim: The purpose of this thesis is to identify private banking advisers knowledge and strategies in the consulting process with a focus on the problematics of anchoring and framing. The thesis also aim to, based on relevant theories and previous research, analyze and evaluate the handling of anchoring and framing in the consulting process in private banking.Completion: The thesis exploratory and qualitative approach combines a literature review with interviews and tests with ten active advisers within private banking. The collected empirical data form the chart of private banking advisers knowledge and strategies in the consulting process with focus on the problematics of anchoring and framing. A chart which together with relevant theories and previous research is analyzed and evaluated in order to add value to the consulting process.Conclusion: Anchoring and framing exists in all parts of the consulting process and the private banking advisers handled their existence unconsciously. The advisers have a low ingoing knowledge of the phenomena anchoring and framing, but the bank has an interest to deepen their knowledge of the research field. Anchoring and framing is not an issue of vital sense in consulting process within private banking.

  • 164.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Institute Futures Studies, Sweden.
    When is it appropriate to reprimand a norm violation?: The roles of anger, behavioral consequences, violation severity, and social distance2017In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 396-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments on economic games typically fail to find positive reputational effects of using peer punishment of selfish behavior in social dilemmas. Theorists had expected positive reputational effects because of the potentially beneficial consequences that punishment may have on norm violators behavior. Going beyond the game-theoretic paradigm, we used vignettes to study how various social factors influence approval ratings of a peer who reprimands a violator of a group-beneficial norm. We found that ratings declined when punishers showed anger, and this effect was mediated by perceived aggressiveness. Thus the same emotions that motivate peer punishers may make them come across as aggressive, to the detriment of their reputation. However, the negative effect of showing anger disappeared when the norm violation was sufficiently severe. Ratings of punishers were also influenced by social distance, such that it is less appropriate for a stranger than a friend to reprimand a violator. In sum, peer punisher ratings were very high for a friend reprimanding a severe norm violation, but particularly poor for a stranger showing anger at a mild norm violation. We found no effect on ratings of whether the reprimand had the beneficial consequence of changing the violators behavior. Our findings provide insight into how peer punishers can avoid negative reputational effects. They also point to the importance of going beyond economic games when studying peer punishment.

  • 165.
    Eriksson, Kristin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Göransson, jessica
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Socialt arbetsintegrerande företag och dess påverkan på samhällets ekonomi – En fallstudie på Norrköpings Kommun2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how social enterprises affect the national economy by identifying the influence of the country council, the municipality, the health insurance office and the employment bureau. The method used is a cost benefit analysis, applied on one of the largest social enterprises in Norrköping; Prosanitas AB. In-depth interviews with enterprise participants are performed in order to investigate how their relationship with the identified actors has changed before and after they entered the enterprise. The mean values that emerged from the interviews are analyzed with public price lists from the identified external actors, in order to transform the effects into monetary units. The analysis shows that social profit is 18 times higher than the business profit and that the social profit per participant is approximately 83 000 SEK a year. The conclusion states that social enterprises are economically profitable, however, the municipality loses marginally. The policy implication indicates that a set of rules or classification is needed to distinguish serious from unserious companies. This would reduce agent costs for agencies and companies, providing them opportunity to invest in social enterprises. Key words: Social Enterprises, Cost Benefit Analysis, Norrköping, Sweden, National Economy, Prosanitas

  • 166.
    Eriksson, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Societal Cost of Skin Cancer in Sweden in 20112015In: Acta Dermato-Venereologica, ISSN 0001-5555, E-ISSN 1651-2057, Vol. 95, no 3, p. 347-348Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 167.
    Eriksson, Thérèse
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samhällskostnader för hudcancer 20112014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Under senare år har antalet nya fall av hudcancer kraftigt ökat. I Sverige har antalet dödsfall till följd av hudcancer ökat med 38 procent mellan åren 1997 och 2011. Denna utveckling leder inte enbart till ökat mänskligt lidande i samband med sjukdom utan också till en ökad ekonomisk börda för samhället. Det är därför av stor vikt att motverka denna oroande utveckling för att undvika en allt tyngre samhällsbörda till följd av hudcancer.

    Syfte

    I denna rapport presenteras förekomsten av olika hudcancerdiagnoser i Sverige 2011 samt samhällskostnaderna relaterat till dessa diagnoser. Dessutom redovisas en sammanställning av genomförda hälsoekonomiska utvärderingar av preventiva insatser mot hudcancer som finns publicerat internationellt.

    Resultatet från studien utgör även ett viktigt kunskapsunderlag i uppföljningen och vid måluppfyllelsebedömningen av miljökvalitetsmåletSäker strålmiljö.

    Resultat

    De totala kostnaderna för hudcancer i Sverige år 2011 beräknas till 1,58 miljarder kronor. Direkta kostnader (dvs. sjukvårdskostnader) uppgick till 909 miljoner kronor (58 procent), medan indirekta kostnader(dvs. produktionsbortfall) uppgick till 671 miljoner kronor (42 procent). Malignt melanom är den enskilda hudcancerdiagnos som står för de största samhällskostnaderna, 830 miljoner kronor. Det är framförallt kostnaderna kopplade till produktionsbortfall vid dödsfall som bidrar till att malignt melanom är den samhällsekonomiskt mest belastande hudcancerformen. Icke melanom hudcancer står dock för de största sjukvårdskostnaderna, 348 miljoner kronor. Detta beror främst på att dessa cancertyper sammantaget är betydligt vanligare förekommande än malignt melanom. Kostnaderna som presenteras i rapporten visar på en ökning med 331 miljoner kronor jämfört med de kostnader som presenterades år 2005 i en rapport av Tinghög et al på uppdrag av Statens strålskyddsinstitut (SSI).

    Konklusioner

    Den sammantagna slutsatsen baserad på litteraturöversikten av hälsoekonomiska utvärderingar av preventiva metoder mot hudcancer är att det idag saknas studier relevanta för den svenska kontexten där kostnadseffe - tiviteten bedömts. Svårigheten att kunna genomföra randomiserade kontrollerade studier är en bidragande orsak till detta. Framöver bör initiativ för att beräkna kostnadseffektivi eten av preventiva åtgärder efterlysas.

  • 168.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsson, Arthur
    Lund University, Department of Psychology, Lund, Sweden.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, United States of America.
    Bullshit-sensitivity predicts prosocial behavior2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 7, article id e0201474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bullshit-sensitivity is the ability to distinguish pseudo-profound bullshit sentences (e.g. “Your movement transforms universal observations”) from genuinely profound sentences (e.g. “The person who never made a mistake never tried something new”). Although bullshit-sensitivity has been linked to other individual difference measures, it has not yet been shown to predict any actual behavior. We therefore conducted a survey study with over a thousand participants from a general sample of the Swedish population and assessed participants’ bullshit-receptivity (i.e. their perceived meaningfulness of seven bullshit sentences) and profoundness-receptivity (i.e. their perceived meaningfulness of seven genuinely profound sentences), and used these variables to predict two types of prosocial behavior (self-reported donations and a decision to volunteer for charity). Despite bullshit-receptivity and profoundness-receptivity being positively correlated with each other, logistic regression analyses showed that profoundness-receptivity had a positive association whereas bullshit-receptivity had a negative association with both types of prosocial behavior. These relations held up for the most part when controlling for potentially intermediating factors such as cognitive ability, time spent completing the survey, sex, age, level of education, and religiosity. The results suggest that people who are better at distinguishing the pseudo-profound from the actually profound are more prosocial.

  • 169.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsson, Artur
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Donations to Outgroup Charities, but Not Ingroup Charities, Predict Helping Intentions Toward Street-Beggars in Sweden2019In: Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, ISSN 0899-7640, E-ISSN 1552-7395, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 814-838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how donation behavior to charitable organizations and helping intentions toward begging European Union (EU)-migrants are related. This question was tested by analyzing survey responses from 1,050 participants sampled from the general Swedish population. Although the overall results suggested that donations to charitable organizations were positively related to helping intentions toward beggars, the results differed substantially as a function of whether the organization was perceived to focus its efforts on outgroup victims or on ingroup victims. Specifically, whereas donation behavior toward outgroup-focused organizations clearly predicted more helping intentions toward beggars (also when controlling for demographics, education, income, religiosity, and political inclination), donation behavior toward ingroup-focused organizations predicted slightly less helping intentions toward beggars. We conclude that the type of charitable organization a person donates to might tell us more about his or her values and preferences than merely whether or not he or she donates at all.

  • 170.
    Fagerhierta, Nicklas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tidspress och ekonomiskt risktagande2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stress and time pressure is more present in todays labor markets. In financial markets a securities broker is forced to take decisions on investments under high cognitive load and under extreme time pressure. The research of decision under risk gained new ground with the development of the prospect theory and gave us new insights to the decision making of men. Prospect theory has shown that people are risk seekers when dealing with loss decisions and risk avert when dealing with profit decisions. The value function are defined over gains and losses. Losses looms larger then gains. Although much research conducted on the decision making under risk no previous research have been done showing how time pressure affects decision at risk by using skin conductance.

    This paper aimed through a randomized experiment with 23 participants examine how time pressure affects individuals' decisions related to risk. Furthermore, it intends to analyze whether time pressure mediate a possible effect of stress by using skin conductance.

    The results show that there is an increase in risk aversion for gains. This risk aversion was also statistically significant at the 1% level when each participant's responses were used and almost at 5% level when the mean values from each participant was used. Upon loss a risk -seeking behavior could be noticed but it was not statistically significant at the 5 % level. Stress levels as measured by skin conductance showed that the time-pressed group showed signs of stress. However, no stress data was significant at the 5 % level.

  • 171.
    Fahlström, Zara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Askestad, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Vem gynnas av föräldraskap?: Ett vinjettexperiment vid Linköpings universitet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that parenting is important for an individual's career development. In both Sweden and the US there has been support for a pay gap between individuals who have children and those who do not have children. Mothers have a lower wage than women without children, while it is not clear if dads have a better or worse career development than men without children. Research indicates that it may be caused by individuals' different attitudes, perceptions and behavior towards individuals with family which differs based on a social norm concerning the parents' careers. The decision to start a family may therefore affect an individual's finances and long-term career. To promote equal pay for equal work, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms for this development in order to design effective measures to reduce the pay gap. The purpose of this paper is therefore to analyze parenthood’s importance to an individual's career in terms of hiring, compensation and promotion.

    In a vignette experiment 11,059 full-time program students in grades two to five, at Linköping University, were asked to answer an online questionnaire. The questionnaire has been designed based on the status characteristic theory (SCT) to investigate whether parenting is seen upon as having a negative or positive status that may explain differences in career outcomes. Based on the identity economics a number of background questions were included to investigate whether there is a connection between respondents' backgrounds, personal traits, and thereby potential identities. Collected primary data has been analyzed using hypothesis testing and regression analysis. The results indicate that employability, wage and promotion, are not affected by parenting but of perceived competence. However, support is found for that respondents' background, mainly gender and age, but also in some cases faculty affiliation, affect the outcome of the variables. The results thus contributes to a deeper understanding of what affects the seemingly inexplicable career differences. 

  • 172.
    Finell, Philip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Hiller, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    The Price and Volatility Dynamics in the Swedish-Norwegian Renewable Electricity Certificate MarketA Study of Spillover Effects and Regulatory changes2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The market for renewable electricity certificates (REC) is the primary support system for renewable energy in Sweden and Norway. Regulatory uncertainty and equity markets have previously been proven to impact the volatility of the REC spot contract. As policy makers, renewable electricity investors and other stakeholders aim for profitability and efficient regulation, additional insights of the dynamics in the  REC market is needed. This study examines regulatory uncertainty on both REC spot  contract and forward contracts by estimating breakpoints on GARCH variance using the  Bai-Perron (1998) procedure. Spillover  effects from Brent Crude Oil, OSEBX and OMXS30 to the REC contracts are estimated using the Cross-Correlation Function. Significant break points linked to regulatory  events in the market are found in all of the  REC contracts. The REC spot contract is  found to be independent of Brent Crude Oil but affected by the OSEBX and OMXS30. Significant spillovers from Brent Crude Oil and equity markets are found in all of the forward contracts.

  • 173.
    Fors Rosén, Oskar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Tilfors, Arvid
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Nolltaxa i Östergötlands kollektivtrafik - en lönsam åtgärd?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Östergötlands län fyller Östgötatrafiken en viktig samhällsroll som ansvariga för kollektivtrafiken. I länet sker över 30 miljoner resor årligen med Östgötatrafikens buss- och pendeltågstrafik. I Sverige och internationellt har det tidigare genomförts försök med nolltaxa i kollektivtrafiken, bland annat för att få fler att resa kollektivt, för att minska utsläpp och uppnå tidsbesparingar. Syftet med uppsatsen är att genomföra en samhällsekonomisk lönsamhetskalkyl för nolltaxa i kollektivtrafiken i Östergötland. Lönsamhetskalkyler bygger på välfärdsteori, där målet är att undersöka om ett projekt ökar välfärden för att slutligen användas som underlag till beslutsfattare.

    Arbetets lönsamhetskalkyl visar att nyttorna för samhället i första hand består av värdet av ökade resor och tidsbesparingar. Utsläpp från koldioxid och andra emissioner minskar även då fler börjar resa kollektivt. Kostnaderna i kalkylen utgörs främst av en ökad resursåtgång för att möta ett ökat resande. Totalt är nettonuvärdet negativt med cirka 0,5 miljoner kronor, vilket indikerar att projektet inte är lönsamt för samhället. Eventuellt är nettonuvärdet mer negativt beroende på om en omdiskuterad snedvridningseffekt även inkluderas i beräkningen. Vidare är nettonuvärdet avhängigt ett antagande om viss beläggningsgrad i busstrafiken under högtrafik, varför vidare undersökning kring den faktiska beläggningsgraden är av intresse. 

  • 174.
    Forsberg Lind, Alice
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Olsson, Josefin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Förväntar sig kvinnor och män olika ingångslön?En studie utförd på studenter vid en humanistisk- och teknisk utbildning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning har visat att kvinnor ofta får en lägre ingångslön än män. I Sverige baseras lönehöjningar generellt på en procentsats av ens nuvarande lön, vilket innebär att kvinnor får det svårt att komma i kapp männen lönemässigt. En svensk undersökning från 2014 visar att kvinnliga studenter i snitt förväntar sig 2 054 kronor lägre i ingångslön än manliga studenter. Olika förväntningar på ingångslön mellan könen kan vara en möjlig förklaring till varför kvinnor också får en lägre ingångslön. Utländsk forskning har visat att det finns skillnader mellan kvinnliga och manliga studenters löneförväntningar, dock finns det få svenska studier som behandlar ämnet. Utifrån detta är syftet med denna uppsats att undersöka om det finns skillnader mellan kvinnliga och manliga studenters förväntningar på ingångslön, samt vad löneförväntningar och eventuella skillnader mellan könen kan bero på. Uppsatsen ämnar även att undersöka om det finns en mer framträdande skillnad på en teknisk än en humanistisk utbildning. Detta eftersom det är intressant att undersöka om kvinnors förväntningar påverkas av att de är i minoritet i en generellt sett manlig yrkeskategori.

    Studien genomfördes med en webbaserad enkätundersökning som skickades till studenter på en teknisk och en humanistisk utbildning vid Linköpings universitet. Utifrån studiens resultat kan slutsatsen dras att kvinnorna på den tekniska utbildningen förväntar sig en lägre ingångslön än männen på utbildningen. Samma slutsats kan inte dras för studenter på den humanistiska utbildningen, då resultaten visar att förväntningar på ingångslön inte skiljer sig åt mellan könen. En möjlig förklaring till skillnaden mellan könen på den tekniska utbildningen kan vara att kvinnor på den tekniska utbildningen är utsatta för en negativ stereotyp, att de är mindre lämpade att studera en teknisk utbildning än män. En annan potentiell förklaring kan vara att det eventuellt finns en större variation av yrkesområden, med olika ingångslön, för studenterna på en teknisk utbildning. Resultaten av studien visar sammantaget att på den tekniska utbildningen påverkas studenternas förväntningar på ingångslön av; vilket kön en person har, nivå på självförtroende samt konkurrensbenägenhet i matematik. Självförtroende och konkurrensbenägenhet påverkar löneförväntningarna positivt. På den humanistiska utbildningen beror studenternas förväntningar på ingångslön enbart på om de är villiga att förhandla, vilket har en positiv påverkan på förväntningarna.

  • 175.
    Forslind , Helén
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Does the financing of extended producer responsibility influence economic growth?2009In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 297-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of how the financing of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) affects the overall performance of the economy is important as products covered by EPR comprise an increasing part of the economy. in this paper, an Overlapping Generations (OLG) model with endogenous growth is applied to the case and a comparison between two financing schemes, an insurance solution and a pay-as-you-go (PAYG) solution, is made with respect to the effect on the level of production, the growth rate, the impact of a productivity shock and the risk exposure. It is found that in the case of a funded solution, both the level of production and the growth rate in production is higher than in the PAYG case, and the short-run effect of productivity shock is bigger. The policy indication is clear: EPR should be attached to a financing scheme if welfare is to be maximised.

  • 176.
    Forslind, Helén
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Financing a Car Scrapping Premium: A Comparison between a Pay-as-you-go System and a Funded System2006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet medavhandlingen är att studera hur ekonomin påverkas av utökatproducentansvar. Utökat producentansvar är ett sätt attinternalisera miljökostnader i marknadspriset. Producentansvaretför bilar, så som det implementerats i den svenska lagstiftningen,har lagts till den tidigare lagtiftningen utan några störreanpassningar. Effekterna av detta har inte tidigare utretts. Förstanalyseras dess konsekvenser i en översiktiglig artikel. Därefterföljer en ekonometrisk artikel vars syfte är att testa effekten avden nuvarande bilskrotningspremien. Det visade sig att en höjdpremie ökar antalet återlämnade fordon. Sedan används en rättsekonomisk ansats för att förutsättningslöstanalysera nedskräpningsproblematiken.Därefter jämförs två atlernativa sätt att finansiera premien, ettfonderat system jämförs med ett "pay-as-you-go" system. The purpose of this thesis is to encrease the understanding of howExtended Producer Responsibility (EPR) affects the economy. EPR isa principle stating that producers should be responsible for theenvironmental impacts of their products throughout the life cycle.In foru out of five essays, scrapping of end-of-life vehicles inSweden is used as an example.

  • 177.
    Forslind, Helén
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Implementing extended producer responsibility: the case of Sweden’s car scrapping scheme2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 619-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the consequences of implementing extended producer responsibility (EPR). The analysis identifies to what extent EPR creates economic incentives, and what the financial consequences are. The case of car scrapping in Sweden is used as an example. EPR gives rise to two responsibilities; the consumer has the responsibility to return the product, the end-of-life vehicle, and the producer has the responsibility to handle the end-of-life management. EPR implicitly assumes that consumers will fulfil their responsibility without any economic incentive. This has no empirical support in the literature. The consumers will bear the costs associated with dismantling although the producer is responsible for the payment. This responsibility gives rise to a major future financial liability.

  • 178.
    Forslind, Helén
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Return to Sender: Essays on Extended producer Responsibility2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis to increase the understanding of how Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) affects the economy. EPR is a principle stating that producers should be responsible for the environmental impact of their products throughout the life cycle. In four out of five essays, scrapping of end-of-life vehicles in Sweden is used as an example.

    In Essay I the interdependency of the consumers’ and the producers’ responsibilities are stressed. It is concluded that the financial solution should be separated from the producer in order to ensure that future liabilities can be met.

    The main contribution of Essay II is that an increased premium will result in an increased number of returned vehicles. In Essay III it is shown that when the environmental harm is constant and relatively low, a deposit-refund system is preferred to an unfounded system. In cases where high environmental harm occurs the optimal choice would be a system combining both deposits and fines.

    Essay IV concludes that a funded system would have been a better way to finance the premium than an unfunded system in terms of higher rate of return. In Essay V the analysis is no longer limited to ELVs, and a model with endogenous growth is applied to the case where all the products in the economy are covered by EPR. It is found that both the growth and the level of output is favoured by the choice of a funded scheme.

    List of papers
    1. Implementing extended producer responsibility: the case of Sweden’s car scrapping scheme
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementing extended producer responsibility: the case of Sweden’s car scrapping scheme
    2005 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 619-629Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the consequences of implementing extended producer responsibility (EPR). The analysis identifies to what extent EPR creates economic incentives, and what the financial consequences are. The case of car scrapping in Sweden is used as an example. EPR gives rise to two responsibilities; the consumer has the responsibility to return the product, the end-of-life vehicle, and the producer has the responsibility to handle the end-of-life management. EPR implicitly assumes that consumers will fulfil their responsibility without any economic incentive. This has no empirical support in the literature. The consumers will bear the costs associated with dismantling although the producer is responsible for the payment. This responsibility gives rise to a major future financial liability.

    Keywords
    Extended producer responsibility; Car scrapping; Economic incentives
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14261 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2003.12.017 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-01-31 Created: 2007-01-31
    2. The Effect of a Premium in the Swedish Car Scrapping Scheme: An Econometric Study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of a Premium in the Swedish Car Scrapping Scheme: An Econometric Study
    2008 (English)In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 43-55Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In order to handle the increasing problem of abandoned end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Sweden, an incentive system was introduced in 1975. One of the cornerstones of the system is a premium received by the owner when an ELV is returned for dismantling. The premium is intended to create an economic incentive to return the ELV. The European Union (EU) directive regarding extended producer responsibility for ELVs does not demand any incentive system. This study applied time series econometrics to model the relationship between the number of returned ELVs and the size of the premium using Swedish data. The main contribution of this study is that a positive relationship between the number of returned ELVs and the size of the premium was established. The results indicate that an increased premium would result in an increased number of returned ELVs. This implies that the efficiency of the EU directive could be increased if combined with an incentive system.

    Keywords
    econometrics, incentives in industry, automobiles, scrapping, European Union, Vehicles, premiums, transportation, economic models, Sweden, end-of-life vehicles, extended producer responsibility, public policy, time series econometrics
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14262 (URN)
    Note

    DOI does not work: 10.1007/s10018-007-0138-6

    Available from: 2007-01-31 Created: 2007-01-31 Last updated: 2018-03-09
    3. The Economics of Environmental Law Enforcement: End-of-Life Vehicles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Economics of Environmental Law Enforcement: End-of-Life Vehicles
    2007 (English)In: European Journal of Law and Economics, ISSN 0929-1261, E-ISSN 1572-9990, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 223-236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abandoned End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs) have been an environmental concern for a long time in a number of countries. This article examines different ways to address the issue by changing the incentive structure for agents. Following (Polinsky A. M., & Shavell, S. (2000). The Economic theory of public enforcement of law. Journal of Economic Literature, 38, 45–76.) a model is used to compare a fine-based system with a deposit-refund system; a combination of the two is then considered. It is shown that when the environmental harm is relatively low and constant, a deposit-refund system is preferred. When cases of high environmental harm are included, the optimal choice would be a combined system.

    Keywords
    End of life vehicles, Extended producer responsibility, Law enforcement, Fine based system, Deposit-refund system, Environmental harm
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14263 (URN)10.1007/s10657-007-9017-7 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-01-31 Created: 2007-01-31 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    4. Financing a Car Scrapping Premium: A Comparison between a Pay-as-you-go System and a Funded System
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Financing a Car Scrapping Premium: A Comparison between a Pay-as-you-go System and a Funded System
    2006 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet medavhandlingen är att studera hur ekonomin påverkas av utökatproducentansvar. Utökat producentansvar är ett sätt attinternalisera miljökostnader i marknadspriset. Producentansvaretför bilar, så som det implementerats i den svenska lagstiftningen,har lagts till den tidigare lagtiftningen utan några störreanpassningar. Effekterna av detta har inte tidigare utretts. Förstanalyseras dess konsekvenser i en översiktiglig artikel. Därefterföljer en ekonometrisk artikel vars syfte är att testa effekten avden nuvarande bilskrotningspremien. Det visade sig att en höjdpremie ökar antalet återlämnade fordon. Sedan används en rättsekonomisk ansats för att förutsättningslöstanalysera nedskräpningsproblematiken.Därefter jämförs två atlernativa sätt att finansiera premien, ettfonderat system jämförs med ett "pay-as-you-go" system. The purpose of this thesis is to encrease the understanding of howExtended Producer Responsibility (EPR) affects the economy. EPR isa principle stating that producers should be responsible for theenvironmental impacts of their products throughout the life cycle.In foru out of five essays, scrapping of end-of-life vehicles inSweden is used as an example.

    Keywords
    extended producer responsibility, end-of-life vehicles, economic incentives, growth, producentansvar, pantsystem, tillväxt
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14264 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-01-31 Created: 2007-01-31 Last updated: 2009-05-14
    5. Does the financing of extended producer responsibility influence economic growth?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does the financing of extended producer responsibility influence economic growth?
    2009 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 297-302Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The question of how the financing of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) affects the overall performance of the economy is important as products covered by EPR comprise an increasing part of the economy. in this paper, an Overlapping Generations (OLG) model with endogenous growth is applied to the case and a comparison between two financing schemes, an insurance solution and a pay-as-you-go (PAYG) solution, is made with respect to the effect on the level of production, the growth rate, the impact of a productivity shock and the risk exposure. It is found that in the case of a funded solution, both the level of production and the growth rate in production is higher than in the PAYG case, and the short-run effect of productivity shock is bigger. The policy indication is clear: EPR should be attached to a financing scheme if welfare is to be maximised.

    Keywords
    Extended producer responsibility; Financing; Overlapping generations model; Pay-as-you-go system; Public policy
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16855 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2008.07.002 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-02-21 Created: 2009-02-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13
  • 179.
    Forslind, Helén
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Economics of Environmental Law Enforcement: End-of-Life Vehicles2007In: European Journal of Law and Economics, ISSN 0929-1261, E-ISSN 1572-9990, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 223-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abandoned End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs) have been an environmental concern for a long time in a number of countries. This article examines different ways to address the issue by changing the incentive structure for agents. Following (Polinsky A. M., & Shavell, S. (2000). The Economic theory of public enforcement of law. Journal of Economic Literature, 38, 45–76.) a model is used to compare a fine-based system with a deposit-refund system; a combination of the two is then considered. It is shown that when the environmental harm is relatively low and constant, a deposit-refund system is preferred. When cases of high environmental harm are included, the optimal choice would be a combined system.

  • 180.
    Forslind, Helén
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Effect of a Premium in the Swedish Car Scrapping Scheme: An Econometric Study2008In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 43-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to handle the increasing problem of abandoned end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Sweden, an incentive system was introduced in 1975. One of the cornerstones of the system is a premium received by the owner when an ELV is returned for dismantling. The premium is intended to create an economic incentive to return the ELV. The European Union (EU) directive regarding extended producer responsibility for ELVs does not demand any incentive system. This study applied time series econometrics to model the relationship between the number of returned ELVs and the size of the premium using Swedish data. The main contribution of this study is that a positive relationship between the number of returned ELVs and the size of the premium was established. The results indicate that an increased premium would result in an increased number of returned ELVs. This implies that the efficiency of the EU directive could be increased if combined with an incentive system.

  • 181.
    Forsström, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Lind, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    The Role of Uncertainty in the Scandinavian Banking Sector2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we analyse the impact of uncertainty shocks in the Scandinavian banking sector. We apply the spillover approach developed by Diebold and Yilmaz (2009; 2012; 2014), followed by network analysis. Furthermore, the dynamics of uncertainty shocks are examined by applying a quantile regression approach. We study the effects of financial uncertainty, economic policy uncertainty, geopolitical risk and housing market uncertainty on the seven banks Swedbank, Nordea, SEB, Svenska Handelsbanken, DNB, Danske Bank and Jyske Bank. We study these uncertainties on global, regional and local level between 2005 and 2018. We find that the Swedish banks are greater emitters of contagion, compared to the Norwegian and Danish banks, where SEB and Nordea are the banks emitting and receiving the most spillovers. Moreover, the connectedness within the banking sector tend to increase in times of heightened uncertainty, such as during the Global Financial Crisis and the European Sovereign Debt Crisis. Global financial uncertainty is shown to affect the Scandinavian banks the most, followed by regional and local financial uncertainty. The same pattern can be seen for economic policy uncertainty, although at lower levels of spillovers. Reversely, housing market uncertainty is seen to increase going from global, regional to local, where the impact of local housing market uncertainty has a considerable amount of spillovers to the Scandinavian banks. Geopolitical risk is shown to have limited spillovers to the Scandinavian banks. The result of the quantile regressions suggests that financial uncertainty is affecting the banks’ returns negatively during bearish market conditions, whilst the relationship is positive during bullish market conditions. Moreover, we find that financial uncertainty is a quicker transmitter of spillovers than housing market uncertainty. Finally, we conclude that uncertainty shocks affecting the Scandinavian banks negatively tend to take effect instantaneously, while the effects of positive shocks are delayed.

  • 182.
    Fredriksson, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Minskar handel den ekonomiska ojämlikheten i utvecklingsländer?: En studie över tidigare europeiska kolonier med kust2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The impacts of trade on the society are a common subject of debate, both in the research field of economics and in the political debate. The lack of consensus poses a risk in political decision-making. New trade agreements are being implemented while the role of developing countries is growing on the global market. Hence, there is an increasing importance of examining the actual impacts of trade. This study, therefore, analyses the impact of trade on the economic inequality in developing countries. This study hypothesizes that trade decreases inequality, which is in accordance with classical economic theory. Using a panel data regression on 41 countries over 23 years, this study examines how Gini index interacts as the dependent variable with trade flow and seven control variables. The countries studied are mainly limited to former European colonies with coastal lines to reduce the risk of heterogeneity within the sample. This study finds that trade reduces inequality, although the result should be interpreted with care due to statistically insignificant effects. This study also finds that presence of corruption is of importance when the relationship between trade and inequality is examined.

  • 183.
    Fredriksson, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Arnell, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Råvarufutures efter finanskrisen:: Förändrade diversifieringsmöjligheter för svenska investerare?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a way to hedge ones financial portfolio, it has been increasingly popular among investors to take positions in commodity futures in the past decades, as they have been seen as showing low or negative correlation against the stock market historically. Several previous studies show a new relationship between the two since the financial crisis of 2008. These studies find that the correlation increased during the last decade. They find a structural break at the crisis significantly shifting the correlation upward, to the point that the hedging effect of bringing in commodity futures to your portfolio may be changed. The earlier studies reach different conclusions of what follows after the crisis is over and the market stabilizes again. Some suggest that the correlation will fall back to its previous levels, whereas others think it will stay at the high level they see today.Our study try to find an extended answer to what has happened after the crisis as we use data several years after the previous studies, up to 2014. By using Swedish instead of American data can we determine if the relation between commodities and the two markets has been affected differently by the financial crisis. Our study also differ from others by using single individual commodities instead of a broader index, with the aim to see if we can find differences between the commodities. The commodities used are Oil, Natural Gas, Gold, Copper, Coffee, Wheat, Live cattle, Cotton and Lumber.

    We consider an econometric approach as the best way to answer the questions we raise. We are using the dynamic conditional correlation method, or DCC GARCH, which is widely used in previous papers and that allow us to measure the dynamic properties of the correlation.Our conclusion is that we can see some movement in the correlation around 2008, differing among the commodities, but that we do not find any proof for a long lasting effect in the years after 2008. We therefore conclude that our result points toward that the correlation against the Swedish stock market differs from the American. We argue that an investor in a Swedish stock portfolio can continue to hedge with commodity futures, even though it might be of importance to consider which commodities to invest in rather than thinking of them as a homogenous group.

  • 184.
    Fritzell, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Strand, Liam
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    The Opportunity Cost Neglect of Money and Time: The Role of Mental Budgeting2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers often fail to consider the alternative ways to spend money when making decisions to buy consumer goods, this is called opportunity cost neglect. In this experimental study, our objective was to replicate the previous research of Frederick et al. (2009) showing that reminding individuals about the opportunity cost affects their decisions. Furthermore, we also wanted to extend the knowledge about this behavior by investigating whether individuals neglect the opportunity cost when making financial decisions or decisions about time allocation. In addition, we hypothesized that individuals who conduct mental budgeting (i.e., they categorize-, budget-, and track expenditures to mental accounts), are more likely to neglect the opportunity cost since they do not treat money as fungible.

    In an online experiment, we measured how being reminded about the opportunity cost would affect the probability of an individual buying a cheap and an expensive consumer goods, of investing money, and of watching a movie. Furthermore, we measured how being reminded about the opportunity cost affects the decision of those who conduct mental budgeting and those who do not. Our results showed that individuals neglect opportunity cost of the expensive consumer good and time (p=0.1). We found a positive relation between conducting mental budgeting and opportunity cost neglect for the expensive consumer good (p=0.1) and the deposit account (p=0.05), but no such effect in the other three scenarios.

    Our results imply that, due to opportunity cost neglect of time, people might be even further from optimal decision making than previously suggested since it extends to decisions about time allocation, and perhaps to investments; and people who conduct mental budgeting sometimes spend less/save more when reminded about the opportunity cost.

  • 185.
    Förlin, Betty
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Hosseinbor, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Utrikesfödda - framtidens fattigpensionärer?: En kvantitativ studie som undersöker marginalskattens påverkan på skillnaden i pensionsinkomster mellan inrikes- och utrikesfödda2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the effect of a marginal tax on differences in future pension incomes, both between men and women, and between domestic born and foreign born. The purpose of this paper is examined by using an econometric OLS model. The dependent variable, disposable pension income, is conducted by using the Swedish Pensions’ Authority ́s typology model. We use data for wage income to generate the individuals’ future pension incomes through the typology model, given certain assumptions. The results show that the effect of an increased marginal tax on future pension income is more negative for foreign born, compared to domestic born. The effect is also more negative for women than for men. These results indicate that a lower marginal tax rate can reduce the differences in future pension incomes between the research groups. Moreover, the results illustrate that the effect of an increased marginal tax on future pension income is less negative for high-income earners. This implies that a lower marginal tax would reduce the differences in future pension incomes. Furthermore, the results indicate that the marginal tax rate for high-income earners should increase further, in order to further reduce the differences in future pension incomes.

  • 186.
    Granath, Klara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Kling, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Investigating the Relation Between Microcredit and Female Entrepreneurship in Lao PDR2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Even though the idea of microcredit is to stimulate entrepreneurial activities in developing countries, there is an ongoing debate whether this is achieved. Many argue that only providing credit is not enough and see a need for additional components in promoting entrepreneurial activities for the stimulation of economic growth. Moreover, the importance of including women in economic development is widely acknowledged. In Lao People's Democratic Republic where many women run their own businesses and a majority of microcredit borrowers are women, we aimed to examine the relation between microcredit and female entrepreneurship. This was accomplished by conducting semi-structured interviews with 13 Laotian female microcredit borrowers running businesses, as well as interviews with seven representatives from organizations related to microcredit and female entrepreneurship. To understand the female entrepreneurs and the environment in which they operate, we developed a model where factors related to the loan agreement, networking, motivation, gender division of labor and training were identified as important components in the context of Lao PDR. The results support the view that a credit only approach is not enough for the development of female entrepreneurship in Lao PDR.

  • 187.
    Green, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Handeland, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Immigration och tillväxt: En ekonometrisk paneldatastudie om sambandet mellan immigration och ekonomisk tillväxt i Europa2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to evaluate economic theory of immigration and economic growth. We use Borjas theory (1995) about the economic benefits from immigration as a point of departure. Borjas theory says that the costs of immigration must be compared to the economic benefits of immigration. If the benefits of immigration are great enough, immigration can be compared to an investment with a high rate of return. To maximize the gains of immigration the immigrating population should complement the factors of production of the receiving country. To examine the relationship between immigration and growth econometric models using panel data for the EU25 countries over the time period 2004–2015 have been estimated. To test if our results are robust we use three different measurements of immigration: quantity of immigrants, refugee population and number of new citizens. The results show a significant positive relationship between immigration and growth, supporting Borjas hypothesis of benefits of immigration. The thesis further discusses if the economic growth actually is a product of the lowering of wages or if endogenous technological change as a result of an increase in human capital is the answer. Immigration as an answer to Europe’s demographic changes is also discussed. The conclusion of the thesis is that there is a positive relation between immigration and growth, which aligns with the economic theory, but that it is difficult to comment on the underlying mechanisms of the relationship. Conclusively a joint immigration policy for the EU is recommended for the purpose of fully capturing the economic benefits of immigration. 

  • 188.
    Grudemo, Stefan
    et al.
    VTI.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Folkomröstningen om en väg i Finngösaravinen - Analys av valresultatet beträffande ett vägprojekt i Partille2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 189.
    Grudemo, Stefan
    et al.
    VTI.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Går det att få med intrångsvärden i Vägverkets samhällsekonomiska kalkyler?2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 190.
    Gråd, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Riis, Sonny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Att dela eller inte dela?: Vad som möjliggör respektive förhindrar produktdelningssystem2014Student paper other, 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Product sharing systems is recently starting to become a more common phenomenon. Carpools exist in more than 40 Swedish towns and both Stockholm and Gothenburg have established bicycle sharing systems. Other products for which sharing systems have been established throughout Sweden are clothing and tools. From the point of view of the consumer, product sharing systems is a form of consumption which can be placed somewhere in between renting and privately owning a product, where the consumers usually pay a membership fee or a monthly fee to have access to the products whenever they need them. The concept is relatively new, and there are many products for which product sharing systems do not exist. As a consequence, previous research in the area is scarce, with the exception of car pools. However, some research discussing product sharing systems in general exists, such as the research by Lamberton & Rose and Mont. In this thesis, previous research is further developed by analyzing what enables and hinders product sharing systems, and for what type of products these systems are suitable. A mix between a quantitative and a qualitative method is used, as both interviews with owners of sharing systems and a questionnaire survey with potential consumers are carried out. To analyze the concept, institutional and behavioral economic theory is used as well as traditional microeconomics. Both the interviews and the survey indicate that the general knowledge of product sharing systems is low and that it is hard in general for companies to reach out to new users. For the consumers, one of the biggest problems is the perceived risk of not having access to the products when they are needed. Another conclusion is that products for which variety is desired, such as clothing and books, that are used frequently, are especially suitable for product sharing systems.

  • 191.
    Gustafsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Lundgren, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Likviditetsfällan går igen: Fallet USA 2008/092009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Likviditetsfällan är en ekonomisk anomali där expansiv penningpolitik blir verkningslös för att transmissionsmekanismen genom vilken penningmängdsökningar påverkar produktionen inte fungerar normalt. Makroteorin tenderar att bortse från de delar av teorin som krävs för att analysera likviditetsfällan. Det handlar främst om elasticiteten i efterfrågan på realbalans och hur den påverkar LM-kurvans lutning. Klassisk IS-LM-analys tenderar dessutom att inte betona den intertemporala dimensionen i konsumtions- och investeringsbeslut, vilket kan ha en avgörande betydelse vid en likviditetsfälla.

    Mycket tyder på att den amerikanska ekonomin är på väg att fastna i en likviditetsfälla som – om den inte neutraliseras av en framgångsrik stabiliseringspolitik – kommer ha negativa effekter för hela världsekonomin.

  • 192.
    Gustafsson, Mimmi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmgren, Joel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Könsskillnader i arbetslöshet: En ekonometrisk analys av Sveriges kommuner2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under den ekonomiska krisen i Sverige på nittiotalet skedde två trendbrott på den svenskaarbetsmarknaden. Den totala arbetslösheten steg markant för att sedan ligga kvar på betydligthögre nivåer än tidigare, och dessutom förändrades arbetslöshetens sammansättning. Innankrisen var män arbetslösa i mindre utsträckning än kvinnor men från och med krisens utbrotthar män tenderat att vara mer arbetslösa än kvinnor. Syftet med denna uppsats är att utredavad könsskillnaderna i arbetslösheten i Sveriges kommuner beror på.En ekonometrisk analys av Sveriges kommuner ligger till grund för studien och genomförsmed en Fixed Effects-modell. Datamaterialet som ligger till grund för studien avser åren1996-2012 och är uppdelat på kommunnivå. Kvoten mellan mäns och kvinnors arbetslöshetfungerar som beroendevariabel och förklaras av variabler för olika näringsgrenar,utbildningsnivå, andelen kvinnor i kommunen och kommunfullmäktige, andelen individermed utländsk bakgrund, kommunens nettoinvesteringar samt bruttoregionprodukten iSveriges län.

    Resultaten visar att en könssegregerad arbetsmarknad påverkar könsskillnader i arbetslöshet.Män påverkas generellt sett mer av förändringar i andelen anställda i olika näringsgrenar änkvinnor. När det gäller utbildning minskar kvoten mer ju högre utbildningen är och attkoefficienten blir negativ beror på att kvinnors arbetslöshet ökar mer än mäns. Vidare harandelen individer med utländsk bakgrund i en kommun en negativ inverkan på kvoten, vilketäven gäller kommunens nettoinvesteringar samt bruttoregionprodukten. Andelen kvinnor i enkommun har positiv effekt på kvoten medan andelen kvinnor i kommunfullmäktige ärinsignifikant. Baserat på detta resultat bör beslutsfattare som vill minska könsskillnaderna iarbetslösheten arbeta för att könssegregeringen på arbetsmarknaden och skillnaderna mellanpojkar och flickor i skolan minskar, för att integreringen av nyanlända förbättras och attkönssammansättningen i förtroendevalda församlingar blir jämnare. Åtgärder som dessaskulle kunna minska arbetslösheten samtidigt som jämställdheten ökar.

  • 193.
    Gustavsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Levén, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Predictability of Speculative Bubbles: An examination of the log-periodic power law model2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we examine the ability of the log-periodic power law model to accurately predict the end of speculative bubbles on financial markets through modeling of asset price dynamics on a selection of historical bubbles. The methods we use are based on a nonlinear least squares estimation which yields predictions of when the bubble will change regime.We find evidence which support the occurrence of LPPL-patterns leading up to the change in regime; asset prices during bubble periods seem to oscillate around a faster-than-exponential growth. In most cases the estimation yields accurate predictions, although we conclude that the predictions are quite dependent on at which point in time the prediction is conducted. We also find that the end of a speculative bubble seems to be influenced by both endogenous speculative growth and exogenous factors. For this reason we propose a new way of interpreting the predictions of the model, where the end dates should be interpreted as the start of a time period where the asset prices are especially sensitive to exogenous events. We propose that negative news during this time period results in a regime shift of the bubble. This study is the first to address both the possibilities and the limitations of the LPPL-model, and should therefore be considered as a contribution to the academia.

  • 194.
    Gärtner, Manja
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. German Inst Econ Res DIW Berlin, Germany.
    The prosociality of intuitive decisions depends on the status quo2018In: Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, ISSN 2214-8043, E-ISSN 2214-8051, Vol. 74, p. 127-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research came to contradictory conclusion about the prosocial nature of intuitive decisions, as compared to deliberate decisions. This paper proposes the prosociality of the status quo allocation as a determinant of the prosociality of intuitive decisions. I present results from two experiments (N = 1,649) that manipulate time pressure and elicit response times in a binary dictator game. One of the choices is prosocial while the other is pro-self. The status quo option is varied to be equal to the prosocial allocation in one treatment and the selfish allocation in a second treatment. In a third treatment, there is no status quo allocation. Time pressure is found to increase selfishness in treatments without a status quo and has no effect on choices in treatments with a status quo. However, the status quo systematically affects response times. Prosocial choices are made significantly faster than selfish choices under a prosocial status quo and selfish choices are made significantly faster than prosocial choices under a selfish status quo.

  • 195.
    Gärtner, Manja
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Möllerstrom, Johanna
    Humboldt University, Germany; Research Institute Ind Econ IFN, Sweden.
    Seim, David
    Research Institute Ind Econ IFN, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Individual risk preferences and the demand for redistribution2017In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 153, p. 49-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Redistributive policies can provide an insurance against future negative economic shocks. This, in turn, implies that an individuals demand for redistribution is expected to increase with her risk aversion. To test this prediction, we elicit risk aversion and demand for redistribution through a well-established set of measures in a representative sample of the Swedish population. We document a statistically significant and robust positive relation between risk aversion and the demand for redistribution that is also economically important. We show that previously used proxies for risk aversion (such as being an entrepreneur or having a history of unemployment) do not capture the effect of our measure of risk aversion but have distinctly different effects on the demand for redistribution. We also show evidence indicating that risk aversion can explain significant parts of the well-studied relations between age and gender on the one hand and demand for redistribution on the other. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 196.
    Gärtner, Manja
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sandberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Is there an omission effect in prosocial behavior? A laboratory experiment on passive vs. active generosity2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 3, article id e0172496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate whether individuals are more prone to act selfishly if they can passively allow for an outcome to be implemented (omission) rather than having to make an active choice (commission). In most settings, active and passive choice alternatives differ in terms of factors such as the presence of a suggested option, costs of taking an action, and awareness. We isolate the omission effect from confounding factors in three experiments, and find no evidence that the distinction between active and passive choices has an independent effect on the propensity to implement selfish outcomes. This suggests that increased selfishness through omission, as observed in various economic choice situations, is driven by other factors than a preference for selfish omissions.

  • 197.
    Hagger, Martin S.
    et al.
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Alberts, Hugo
    Maastricht Univ, Netherlands.
    Anggono, Calvin Octavianus
    Brawijaya Univ, Indonesia.
    Batailler, Cedric
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Birt, Angela R.
    Mt St Vincent Univ, Canada.
    Brand, Ralf
    Potsdam Univ, Germany.
    Brandt, Mark J.
    Tilburg Univ, Netherlands.
    Brewer, Gene
    Arizona State Univ, AZ 85287 USA.
    Bruyneel, Sabrina
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Calvillo, Dustin P.
    Calif State Univ San Marcos, TX USA.
    Campbell, W. Keith
    Univ Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Cannon, Peter R.
    Massey Univ, New Zealand.
    Carlucci, Marianna
    Loyola Univ, MD USA.
    Carruth, Nicholas P.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, CO USA.
    Cheung, Tracy
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Crowell, Adrienne
    Texas AandM Univ, TX USA.
    De Ridder, Denise T. D.
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Dewitte, Siegfried
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Elson, Malte
    Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
    Evans, Jacqueline R.
    Florida Int Univ, FL 33199 USA.
    Fay, Benjamin A.
    Florida Int Univ, FL 33199 USA.
    Fennis, Bob M.
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Finley, Anna
    Texas AandM Univ, TX USA.
    Francis, Zoe
    Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Heise, Elke
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Germany.
    Hoemann, Henrik
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Germany.
    Inzlicht, Michael
    Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Koole, Sander L.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Koppel, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kroese, Floor
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Lange, Florian
    Hannover Med Sch, Germany.
    Lau, Kevin
    Arizona State Univ, AZ 85287 USA.
    Lynch, Bridget P.
    Univ Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Martijn, Carolien
    Maastricht Univ, Netherlands.
    Merckelbach, Harald
    Maastricht Univ, Netherlands.
    Mills, Nicole V.
    Calif State Univ San Marcos, TX USA.
    Michirev, Alexej
    Maastricht Univ, Netherlands.
    Miyake, Akira
    Univ Colorado Boulder, CO USA.
    Mosser, Alexandra E.
    Florida Int Univ, FL 33199 USA.
    Muise, Megan
    Mt St Vincent Univ, Canada.
    Muller, Dominique
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Muzi, Milena
    Potsdam Univ, Germany.
    Nalis, Dario
    Univ Bamberg, Germany.
    Nurwanti, Ratri
    Brawijaya Univ, Indonesia.
    Otgaar, Henry
    Maastricht Univ, Netherlands.
    Philipp, Michael C.
    Massey Univ, New Zealand.
    Primoceri, Pierpaolo
    Univ Zurich, Switzerland.
    Rentzsch, Katrin
    Univ Gottingen, Germany; Univ Bamberg, Germany.
    Ringos, Lara
    Loyola Univ, MD USA.
    Schlinkert, Caroline
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Schmeichel, Brandon J.
    Texas AandM Univ, TX USA.
    Schoch, Sarah F.
    Univ Zurich, Switzerland.
    Schrama, Michel
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Schuetz, Astrid
    Univ Bamberg, Germany.
    Stamos, Angelos
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ullrich, Johannes
    Univ Zurich, Switzerland.
    vanDellen, Michelle
    Univ Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Wimbarti, Supra
    Gadjah Mada Univ, Indonesia.
    Wolff, Wanja
    Potsdam Univ, Germany.
    Yusainy, Cleoputri
    Brawijaya Univ, Indonesia.
    Zerhouni, Oulmann
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Zwienenberg, Maria
    Curtin Univ, Australia; Univ Bordeaux, France.
    A Multilab Preregistered Replication of the Ego-Depletion Effect2016In: Perspectives on Psychological Science, ISSN 1745-6916, E-ISSN 1745-6924, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 546-573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Good self-control has been linked to adaptive outcomes such as better health, cohesive personal relationships, success in the workplace and at school, and less susceptibility to crime and addictions. In contrast, self-control failure is linked to maladaptive outcomes. Understanding the mechanisms by which self-control predicts behavior may assist in promoting better regulation and outcomes. A popular approach to understanding self-control is the strength or resource depletion model. Self-control is conceptualized as a limited resource that becomes depleted after a period of exertion resulting in self-control failure. The model has typically been tested using a sequential-task experimental paradigm, in which people completing an initial self-control task have reduced self-control capacity and poorer performance on a subsequent task, a state known as ego depletion. Although a meta-analysis of ego-depletion experiments found a medium-sized effect, subsequent meta-analyses have questioned the size and existence of the effect and identified instances of possible bias. The analyses served as a catalyst for the current Registered Replication Report of the ego-depletion effect. Multiple laboratories (k = 23, total N = 2,141) conducted replications of a standardized ego-depletion protocol based on a sequential-task paradigm by Sripada et al. Meta-analysis of the studies revealed that the size of the ego-depletion effect was small with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that encompassed zero (d = 0.04, 95% CI [-0.07, 0.15]. We discuss implications of the findings for the ego-depletion effect and the resource depletion model of self-control.

  • 198.
    Hagman, William
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decision Research, Eugene, USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Public Views on Policies Involving Nudges2015In: Review of Philosophy and Psychology, ISSN 1878-5158, E-ISSN 1878-5166, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 439-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When should nudging be deemed as permissible and when should it be deemed as intrusive to individuals’ freedom of choice? Should all types of nudges be judged the same? To date the debate concerning these issues has largely proceeded without much input from the general public. The main objective of this study is to elicit public views on the use of nudges in policy. In particular we investigate attitudes toward two broad categories of nudges that we label pro-self (i.e. focusing on private welfare) and pro-social (i.e. focusing on social welfare) nudges. In addition we explore how individual differences in thinking and feeling influence attitudes toward nudges. General population samples in Sweden and the United States (n=952) were presented with vignettes describing nudge-policies and rated acceptability and intrusiveness on freedom of choice. To test for individual differences, measures on cultural cognition and analytical thinking were included. Results show that the level of acceptance toward nudge-policies was generally high in both countries, but were slightly higher among Swedes than Americans. Somewhat paradoxically a majority of the respondents also perceived the presented nudge-policies as intrusive to freedom of choice. Nudge- polices classified as pro-social had a significantly lower acceptance rate compared to pro-self nudges (p<.0001). Individuals with a more individualistic worldview were less likely to perceive nudges as acceptable, while individuals more prone to analytical thinking were less likely to perceive nudges as intrusive to freedom of choice. To conclude, our findings suggest that the notion of “one-nudge- fits-all” is not tenable. Recognizing this is an important aspect both for successfully implementing nudges as well as nuancing nudge theory. 

  • 199.
    Hagman, William
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dickert, Stephan
    Queen Mary University of London, London, UK; Klagenfurt University, Klagenfurt, Austria.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The effect of paternalistic alternatives on attitudes toward default nudges2019In: Behavioural Public Policy, ISSN 2398-0648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nudges are increasingly being proposed and used as a policy tool around the world. The success of nudges depends on public acceptance. However, several questions about what makes a nudge acceptable remain unanswered. In this paper, we examine whether policy alternatives to nudges influence the public's acceptance of these nudges: Do attitudes change when the nudge is presented alongside either a more paternalistic policy alternative (legislation) or a less paternalistic alternative (no behavioral intervention)? In two separate samples drawn from the Swedish general public, we find a very small effect of alternatives on the acceptability of various default nudges overall. Surprisingly, we find that when the alternative to the nudge is legislation, acceptance decreases and perceived intrusiveness increases (relative to conditions where the alternative is no regulation). An implication of this finding is that acceptance of nudges may not always automatically increase when nudges are explicitly compared to more paternalistic alternatives.

  • 200.
    Hallenborg, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Edell, Hannes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Prioriteringar inom vården: Ett beteendeexperiment som undersöker om prioriteringar inom vården påverkas av cost neglect och patientens identifierbarhet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the authors investigate whether healthcare priorities are affected by cost neglect and patient identifiability using a behavioural experiment. The experiment is performed by distributing six different surveys to a sample of Sweden's population. Respondents responding are randomized to one of these surveys. In total there are six experimental groups, one for each survey. 1019 respondents have participated in the experiment, evenly distributed among the six experimental groups. In each of the surveys the respondents’ considered seven different scenarios. Six of these address prioritization in health care where respondents decide on the treatment they want to give a patient or patient group. The seventh scenario is a replication, expansion and modernization of Fredericks et al. experiments conducted in 2009. In the replication the respondents decide if they want to buy or not to buy a mobile phone.

    What separates the questionnaires are different frames. The frames aim to change variables so that the authors can investigate the effect of the different frames. The variables that are changing are the patients’ identifiability, the presentation of the opportunity cost and the presentation of the treatment cost. In addition to the scenarios, a number of control questions were asked. Such as how the respondent experienced the questionnaire, the respondent's age, sex, education and experience in the field of health care.                       Results from the experiment validate Fredericks et al. study.  There is little evidence that cost neglect affects decision-making in health care. Finding that healthcare professionals are affected by the patient's identifiability but not the rest of the population. Finally, the study finds that the type of treatment, lifesaving or quality of life improving, has a significant influence on decision making, where life-determining treatments are prioritized to a lesser extent than life-quality improvement.

1234567 151 - 200 of 506
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf