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  • 151.
    Sunghee, Kim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Amundin, Mats
    Kolmårdens Djurpark, Sweden .
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olfactory discrimination ability of South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) for enantiomers2013In: Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, ISSN 0340-7594, E-ISSN 1432-1351, Vol. 199, no 6, p. 535-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a food-rewarded two-choice instrumentalconditioning paradigm we assessed the ability of SouthAfrican fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus, to discriminatebetween 12 enantiomeric odor pairs. The results demonstratethat the fur seals as a group were able to discriminatebetween the optical isomers of carvone, dihydrocarvone,dihydrocarveol, menthol, limonene oxide, a-pinene,fenchone (all p\0.01), and b-citronellol (p\0.05),whereas they failed to distinguish between the (?)- and(-)-forms of limonene, isopulegol, rose oxide, and camphor(all p[0.05). An analysis of odor structure–activityrelationships suggests that a combination of molecularstructural properties rather than a single molecular featuremay be responsible for the discriminability of enantiomericodor pairs. A comparison between the discrimination performanceof the fur seals and that of other species testedpreviously on the same set of enantiomers (or subsetsthereof) suggests that the olfactory discrimination capabilitiesof this marine mammal are surprisingly well developedand not generally inferior to that of terrestrial mammalssuch as human subjects and non-human primates. Further,comparisons suggest that neither the relative nor the absolutesize of the olfactory bulbs appear to be reliable predictorsof between-species differences in olfactorydiscrimination capabilities. Taken together, the results ofthe present study support the notion that the sense of smellmay play an important and hitherto underestimated role inregulating the behavior of fur seals.

  • 152.
    Svärd, C.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, A.
    University of British Columbia.
    Rosen, D. A. S.
    University of British Columbia.
    Joy, R.
    University of British Columbia.
    Trites, A. W.
    University of British Columbia.
    Fasting affects the surface and diving metabolic rates of Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus2009In: Aquatic Biology, ISSN 1864-7782, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 71-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in metabolic rates were measured in 3 captive female Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus that experienced fasts during summer and winter. We measured metabolic rates (via O2 consumption) before (MRs, surface) and after (DMR, dive + surface interval) the sea lions dove to 10–50 m depths. Measurements were obtained prior to and immediately after 9 to 10 d fasts, and during a 14 d recovery period. The sea lions lost significantly more body mass (Mb) during the winter fast (10.6%), compared with the summer (9.5%). Mass-corrected dive metabolic rate (cDMR = DMR × Mb–0.714) was not affected by dive depth or duration, but increased significantly following the winter fasts (13.5 ± 8.1%), but did not change during summer (–1.1 ± 3.2%). However, mass-corrected surface metabolic rate (cMRs) decreased significantly after both the summer (–16.4 ± 4.7%) and winter (–8.0 ± 9.0%) fasts. Consequently, the ratio between cDMR and cMRs was significantly higher in winter, suggestive of an increased thermal challenge and convective heat loss while diving. Increased cMRs following the fast indicated that digestion began during foraging and was not deferred, implying that access to ingested energy was of higher priority than optimizing diving ability. cDMR was elevated throughout the recovery period, independent of season, resulting in a 12% increase in foraging cost in winter and a 3% increase in summer. Our data suggest that Steller sea lions are more sensitive to changes in body condition due to food shortages in the winter compared with the summer.

  • 153.
    Wallén, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engström, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olfactory sensitivity for six amino acids: a copmarative study in CD-1 mice and spider monkeys2012In: Amino Acids, ISSN 0939-4451, E-ISSN 1438-2199, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 1475-1485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactorysensitivity of five CD-1 mice for the L- and D-forms ofcysteine, methionine, and proline was investigated. With allsix stimuli, the animals discriminated concentrationsB0.1 ppm (parts per million) from the odorless solvent, andwith three of the six stimuli the best-scoring animals wereeven able to detect concentrations\0.1 ppb (parts per billion).Three spider monkeys tested in parallel were found todetect the same six stimuli at concentrations\1 ppm, andwith four of the six stimuli the best-scoring animalsdetected concentrations B1 ppb. Both CD-1 mice and spidermonkeys displayed a higher olfactory sensitivity withthe L- and D-forms of cysteine and methionine than with theprolines, suggesting an important role of the sulfur-containingfunctional groups for detectability. Accordingly, theacross-odorant patterns of detection thresholds obtainedwith mice and spider monkeys showed a significant positivecorrelation. A comparison of the detection thresholdsbetween the two species tested here and those obtained inhuman subjects suggests that neither the number of functionalolfactory receptor genes nor the absolute or the relativesize of the olfactory bulbs reliably predicts a species’olfactory sensitivity for amino acids.

  • 154.
    Wang, Tobias
    et al.
    Department of Zoophysiology University of Aarhus, Denmark.
    Altimiras, Jordi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klein, Wilfried
    Institute of Zoology University of Bonn, Germany.
    Axelsson, Michael
    Department of Zoology University of Gothenburg.
    Ventricular haemodynamics in Python molurus: Separation of pulmonary and systemic pressures2003In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 206, no 23, p. 4241-4245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vascular pressure separation by virtue of a two-chambered ventricle evolved independently in mammals and birds from a reptilian ancestor with a single ventricle, and allowed for high systemic perfusion pressure while protecting the lungs from oedema. Within non-crocodilian reptiles, ventricular pressure separation has only been observed in varanid lizards and has been regarded as a unique adaptation to an active predatory life style and high metabolic rate. The systemic and pulmonary sides of the ventricle in Python molurus are well separated by the muscular ridge, and a previous study using in situ perfusion of the heart revealed a remarkable flow separation and showed that the systemic side can sustain higher output pressures than the pulmonary side. Here we extend these observations by showing that systemic blood pressure Psys exceeded pulmonary pressure Ppul almost seven times (75.7±4.2 versus 11.6±1.1 cm H2O). The large pressure difference between the systemic and pulmonary circulation persisted when Psys was altered by infusion of sodium nitroprusside or phenylephrine. Intraventricular pressures, measured in anaesthetised snakes, showed an overlap in the pressure profile between the pulmonary side of the ventricle (cavum pulmonale) and the pulmonary artery, while the higher pressure in the systemic side of the ventricle (cavum arteriosum) overlapped with the pressure in the right aortic arch. This verifies that the pressure differences originate within the ventricle, indicating that the large muscular ridge separates the ventricle during cardiac contraction.

  • 155.
    Wiren, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gunnarsson, U
    Uppsala University.
    Andersson, L
    Uppsala University.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Domestication-related genetic effects on social behavior in chickens - Effects of genotype at a major growth quantitative trait locus2009In: Poultry Science, ISSN 0032-5791, E-ISSN 1525-3171, Vol. 88, no 6, p. 1162-1166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication is an evolutionary process in which animals become adapted to a life in close proximity to humans. There are typically specific selection pressures associated with this, including living in larger social groups than their wild ancestors. We hypothesized that the genotype at a major growth QTL could affect aspects of social behavior in chickens as well. We performed social behavior tests in red junglefowl (RJF) and White Leghorn (WL) chickens and in chickens from a selected advanced intercross line (SAIL) between RJF and WL, selected for different genotypes at a microsatellite marker locus within the QTL region. Four-week-old pure WL inspected strangers significantly more than pure RJF. Male 4-wk-old SAIL birds, homozygous for the WL allele at the marker locus, differed from those with RJF alleles in a similar way as the pure WL differed from RJF. Furthermore, 155- to 170-d-old male SAIL birds homozygous for the WL allele at the marker locus were less aggressive to unfamiliar conspecifics in a dominance test. The results suggest that domestication has caused changes in social behavior, which, in males, may partly depend on variations in the genotype at the growth QTL where the avian homolog of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) is located. This gene is therefore one of several putative candidate genes for future research.

  • 156.
    Wirén, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Correlated selection responses in animal domestication: the behavioural effects of a growth QTL in chickens2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying animal domestication offers an opportunity to understand the mechanisms of evolution. Domestication is associated with a change in selection pressures; selection for production traits is introduced, and animals are faced with larger and denser social groups. It is not unexpected then that domestication produces a simultaneous change in a number of traits, both physiological and behavioural. This correlated change in traits, e.g. egg production and social behaviour has been termed the “domestic phenotype”. However, it has been shown that selection for one trait alone among the many associated with the domestic phenotype can lead to simultaneous changes in others. This may be a result of such traits being inherited together because of pleiotropy or close linkage of several genes affecting different traits. A chicken growth QTL has previously been found in an intercross between White Leghorn layers (WL) and their main wild ancestor, the red junglefowl (RJF). This QTL has also been found to influence explorative and social behaviours. This thesis aims to characterize this QTL further with respect to social and emotional behaviours, and tries to clarify whether pleiotropy or linkage is responsible for the many observed effects. This is done using behavioural phenotyping, genetic marker genotyping, QTL- and gene expression analysis of an intercross line between RJF and WL, and to some extent of the parental RJF and WL lines themselves. The results show that domestication in these chickens has led to increased social tolerance to unfamiliar conspecifics and a tendency to a decrease in the propensity of chickens to explore the environment, and that these effects are partly explained by the previously described growth QTL. The results also indicate that close linkage of genes, rather than pleiotropy, may be responsible for the multiple effect of the QTL, as different traits to some extent seem to be influenced by different areas within the larger QTL region. This information, in combination with that of other studies and with existing and upcoming genetic research techniques, may be used in the design of future breeding programs that take animal behaviour and welfare as well as production traits into account. Findings like these may also be of use in directing research in human psychiatric genetics.

    List of papers
    1. Domestication-related genetic effects on social behavior in chickens - Effects of genotype at a major growth quantitative trait locus
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Domestication-related genetic effects on social behavior in chickens - Effects of genotype at a major growth quantitative trait locus
    2009 (English)In: Poultry Science, ISSN 0032-5791, E-ISSN 1525-3171, Vol. 88, no 6, p. 1162-1166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication is an evolutionary process in which animals become adapted to a life in close proximity to humans. There are typically specific selection pressures associated with this, including living in larger social groups than their wild ancestors. We hypothesized that the genotype at a major growth QTL could affect aspects of social behavior in chickens as well. We performed social behavior tests in red junglefowl (RJF) and White Leghorn (WL) chickens and in chickens from a selected advanced intercross line (SAIL) between RJF and WL, selected for different genotypes at a microsatellite marker locus within the QTL region. Four-week-old pure WL inspected strangers significantly more than pure RJF. Male 4-wk-old SAIL birds, homozygous for the WL allele at the marker locus, differed from those with RJF alleles in a similar way as the pure WL differed from RJF. Furthermore, 155- to 170-d-old male SAIL birds homozygous for the WL allele at the marker locus were less aggressive to unfamiliar conspecifics in a dominance test. The results suggest that domestication has caused changes in social behavior, which, in males, may partly depend on variations in the genotype at the growth QTL where the avian homolog of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) is located. This gene is therefore one of several putative candidate genes for future research.

    Keywords
    chicken, behavior, genetics, AVPR1a
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18900 (URN)10.3382/ps.2008-00492 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-06-05 Created: 2009-06-05 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. A Growth QTL on Chicken Chromosome 1 Affects Emotionality and Sociality
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Growth QTL on Chicken Chromosome 1 Affects Emotionality and Sociality
    2011 (English)In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 303-311Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication of animals, regardless of species, is often accompanied by simultaneous changes in several physiological and behavioral traits (e.g. growth rate and fearfulness). In this study we compared the social behavior and emotional reactivity, as measured in a battery of behavioral tests, of two groups of chickens selected from a common genetic background, an advanced intercross line between the ancestral red junglefowl ("RJF") and the domesticated White Leghorn layer ("WL"). The birds were selected for homozygosity for alternative alleles at one locus (a microsatellite marker), centrally positioned in a previously identified pleiotropic growth QTL on chromosome 1, closely linked to one major candidate gene (AVPR1a) for certain aspects of social behavior. Birds homozygous for the WL allele ("WL genotype") had a modified pattern of social and emotional reactions than birds homozygous for the RJF allele ("RJF genotype"), shown by different scores in a principal components analysis. These results suggest that the growth QTL affects a number of domestication related behavioral traits, and may have been a primary target of selection during domestication. The QTL contains a multitude of genes, several of which have been linked to social behavior (for example the vasotocin receptor AVPR1a targeted in this experiment). Future studies aimed at making a higher resolution genotypic characterization of the QTL should give more information about which of these genes may be considered the strongest candidates for bringing about the behavioral changes associated with animal domestication.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Science Business Media, 2011
    Keywords
    Chicken, QTL, Domestication, Behavioral genetics, Social behavior, Emotionality
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67037 (URN)10.1007/s10519-010-9377-6 (DOI)000287749700014 ()
    Available from: 2011-03-25 Created: 2011-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-11
    3. Effects of a Chicken Growth QTL on Behaviour are due to Linkage rather than Pleiotropy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of a Chicken Growth QTL on Behaviour are due to Linkage rather than Pleiotropy
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    earlier studies, we have found pleiotropic effects of a growth QTL in chickens on behavioural traits that have changed as a result of domestication. In this study we performed a) a refined analysis of the QTL in an advanced intercross line between Red Junglefowl (RJF) and White Leghorn layers (WL) to investigate if different behavioural and physiological traits are associated with different regions of the QTL, and b) brain gene expression analysis (using qRT-PCR) in RJF and WL, comparing the expression between breeds of a number of genes within the growth QTL that may be considered candidates for affecting behavioural traits. The refined QTL analysis was performed on 62 birds from a selected line corresponding to the F7 generation of an RJF×WL intercross (SAIL). The gene expression analysis was performed on 12 RJF and 10 WL birds. In addition to recording of weight data, the SAIL birds were exposed to a behavioural test measuring aspects of sociality and emotionality. The QTL analysis found a significant association between body weight at 8 days of age and a 1.7 MB region in the QTL, and a suggestive association between emotionality related behaviours and a different part, 7.5 MB large, of the QTL. The gene expression analysis showed differential expression of AVPR2 (receptor for vasotocin), possibly AVPR1a (another vasotocin receptor) and NRCAM (involved in neural development) in the lower frontal lobes of the brains of RJF and WL birds. It therefore seems that linkage of several different genes affecting different traits, rather than pleiotropy of one or a few, may explain the many effects of this QTL, and that AVPR2, AVPR1a and NRCAM cannot be discarded as candidate genes for the observed effects.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73984 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-01-18 Created: 2012-01-18 Last updated: 2015-03-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Social preference and support seeking in chickens is related to genotype on a growth QTL
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social preference and support seeking in chickens is related to genotype on a growth QTL
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A growth related QTL on chicken chromosome 1 has previously been shown to influence both emotionality and social behaviour in an intercross line between Red Junglefowl (RJF, ancestor of all domestic chicken breeds) and the domesticated White Leghorn layer (WL). Social support from a familiar animal has been shown to attenuate stress response in other species. In this study we therefore used the RJF×WL intercross line to investigate whether stress in the form of physical restraint affects the way birds allocate their time between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics in a social preference test. A refined QTL study was performed, focussing on the region of the previously reported growth QTL to find possible loci affecting traits related to social preference and social support. A significant QTL was found to influence both social preference under undisturbed circumstances and social support seeking in response to stress. A WL allele at this QTL was associated with a preference for unfamiliar individuals but also with a shift towards familiar ones in response to stress. A second, suggestive, QTL also affected social support seeking, but in the opposite direction; a WL allele was associated with seeking social support from unfamiliar individuals. It is difficult to speculate on causative genes, but it is worth noting that AVPR1a (known for effects on social behaviour), AVPR2, NRCAM (related to autism) and GRIP1 (Glutamate Receptor Interacting Protein) are located this chromosomal area.

    Keywords
    Chicken; domestication; QTL; social behaviour; social support
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73985 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-01-18 Created: 2012-01-18 Last updated: 2015-03-11Bibliographically approved
  • 157.
    Wirén, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Domestication-related variation in social preferences in chickens is affected by genotype on a growth QTL2013In: Genes, Brain and Behavior, ISSN 1601-1848, E-ISSN 1601-183X, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 330-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growth-related QTL on chicken chromosome 1 has previously been shown to influence domestication behaviour in chickens. In this study, we used Red Junglefowl (RJF) and White Leghorn (WL) as well as the intercross between them to investigate whether stress affects the way birds allocate their time between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics in a social preference test (‘social support seeking’), and how this is related to genotype at specific loci within the growth QTL. Red Junglefowl males spent more time with unfamiliar chickens before the stressful event compared to the other birds, whereas all birds except WL males tended to spend less time with unfamiliar ones after stress. A significant QTL locus was found to influence both social preference under undisturbed circumstances and social support seeking. The WL allele at this QTL was associated not only with a preference for unfamiliar individuals but also with a shift towards familiar ones in response to stress (social support seeking). A second, suggestive QTL also affected social support seeking, but in the opposite direction; the WL allele was associated with increased time spent with unfamiliar individuals. The region contains several possible candidate genes, and gene expression analysis of a number of them showed differential expression between RJF and WL of AVPR2 (receptor for vasotocin), and possibly AVPR1a (another vasotocin receptor) and NRCAM (involved in neural development) in the lower frontal lobes of the brains of RJF and WL animals. These three genes continue to be interesting candidates for the observed behavioural effects.

  • 158.
    Wirén, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effects of a Chicken Growth QTL on Behaviour are due to Linkage rather than PleiotropyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    earlier studies, we have found pleiotropic effects of a growth QTL in chickens on behavioural traits that have changed as a result of domestication. In this study we performed a) a refined analysis of the QTL in an advanced intercross line between Red Junglefowl (RJF) and White Leghorn layers (WL) to investigate if different behavioural and physiological traits are associated with different regions of the QTL, and b) brain gene expression analysis (using qRT-PCR) in RJF and WL, comparing the expression between breeds of a number of genes within the growth QTL that may be considered candidates for affecting behavioural traits. The refined QTL analysis was performed on 62 birds from a selected line corresponding to the F7 generation of an RJF×WL intercross (SAIL). The gene expression analysis was performed on 12 RJF and 10 WL birds. In addition to recording of weight data, the SAIL birds were exposed to a behavioural test measuring aspects of sociality and emotionality. The QTL analysis found a significant association between body weight at 8 days of age and a 1.7 MB region in the QTL, and a suggestive association between emotionality related behaviours and a different part, 7.5 MB large, of the QTL. The gene expression analysis showed differential expression of AVPR2 (receptor for vasotocin), possibly AVPR1a (another vasotocin receptor) and NRCAM (involved in neural development) in the lower frontal lobes of the brains of RJF and WL birds. It therefore seems that linkage of several different genes affecting different traits, rather than pleiotropy of one or a few, may explain the many effects of this QTL, and that AVPR2, AVPR1a and NRCAM cannot be discarded as candidate genes for the observed effects.

  • 159.
    Wirén, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Social preference and support seeking in chickens is related to genotype on a growth QTLManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A growth related QTL on chicken chromosome 1 has previously been shown to influence both emotionality and social behaviour in an intercross line between Red Junglefowl (RJF, ancestor of all domestic chicken breeds) and the domesticated White Leghorn layer (WL). Social support from a familiar animal has been shown to attenuate stress response in other species. In this study we therefore used the RJF×WL intercross line to investigate whether stress in the form of physical restraint affects the way birds allocate their time between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics in a social preference test. A refined QTL study was performed, focussing on the region of the previously reported growth QTL to find possible loci affecting traits related to social preference and social support. A significant QTL was found to influence both social preference under undisturbed circumstances and social support seeking in response to stress. A WL allele at this QTL was associated with a preference for unfamiliar individuals but also with a shift towards familiar ones in response to stress. A second, suggestive, QTL also affected social support seeking, but in the opposite direction; a WL allele was associated with seeking social support from unfamiliar individuals. It is difficult to speculate on causative genes, but it is worth noting that AVPR1a (known for effects on social behaviour), AVPR2, NRCAM (related to autism) and GRIP1 (Glutamate Receptor Interacting Protein) are located this chromosomal area.

  • 160.
    Wirén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A growth QTL affects emotionality and sociality in chickens2010In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 819-819Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestic animals have long been selected for preferable physiolog-ical traits such as high body weight, fast growth rate, high milk yieldetc. Whether intentional or not, this intense selection has also had sideeffects on the behaviour of animals. Such side effects may be due to pleiotropy of production related genes, or close linkage with genes affecting behaviour. In this study we aimed at investigating the genetic factors responsible for changes in production traits and their correlation to behaviour by comparing birds from an advanced intercross between domestic White Leghorn laying hens and their wild ancestor, the red junglefowl. Social behaviour and emotional reactivity of chickens homozygous for a White Leghorn allele of agrowth QTL (‘‘WL genotype’’) was compared to that of chickens homozygous for the red junglefowl allele (‘‘RJF genotype’’). Young WL genotype birds reacted in a more passive manner to a simulated predator attack and interacted more with their mirror image. When adult, WL genotype birds required more induction attempts before entering tonic immobility than RJF genotype birds. These results suggest that the growth QTL affects a number of domestication related behavioural traits, and may have been a primary target of selection. The QTL contains a multitude of genes, several of which have been linked to social behaviour in other species. Future studies aimed at making a higher resolution phenotypic characterization of the QTL should give more information about which of these genes may be considered candidates for bringing about the behavioural changes associated with animal domestication.

  • 161.
    Wirén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Growth QTL on Chicken Chromosome 1 Affects Emotionality and Sociality2011In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 303-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication of animals, regardless of species, is often accompanied by simultaneous changes in several physiological and behavioral traits (e.g. growth rate and fearfulness). In this study we compared the social behavior and emotional reactivity, as measured in a battery of behavioral tests, of two groups of chickens selected from a common genetic background, an advanced intercross line between the ancestral red junglefowl ("RJF") and the domesticated White Leghorn layer ("WL"). The birds were selected for homozygosity for alternative alleles at one locus (a microsatellite marker), centrally positioned in a previously identified pleiotropic growth QTL on chromosome 1, closely linked to one major candidate gene (AVPR1a) for certain aspects of social behavior. Birds homozygous for the WL allele ("WL genotype") had a modified pattern of social and emotional reactions than birds homozygous for the RJF allele ("RJF genotype"), shown by different scores in a principal components analysis. These results suggest that the growth QTL affects a number of domestication related behavioral traits, and may have been a primary target of selection during domestication. The QTL contains a multitude of genes, several of which have been linked to social behavior (for example the vasotocin receptor AVPR1a targeted in this experiment). Future studies aimed at making a higher resolution genotypic characterization of the QTL should give more information about which of these genes may be considered the strongest candidates for bringing about the behavioral changes associated with animal domestication.

  • 162. Worley, K.
    et al.
    Gillingham, M.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kennedy, L.
    Pizzari, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kaufman, J.
    Richardson, D.
    Single locus typing of MHC class I and class II B loci in a population of red jungle fowl2008In: Immunogenetics, ISSN 0093-7711, E-ISSN 1432-1211, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 233-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In species with duplicated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, estimates of genetic variation often rely on multilocus measures of diversity. It is possible that such measures might not always detect more detailed patterns of selection at individual loci. Here, we describe a method that allows us to investigate classical MHC diversity in red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), the wild ancestor of the domestic chicken, using a single locus approach. This is possible due to the well-characterised gene organisation of the 'minimal essential' MHC (BF/BL region) of the domestic chicken, which comprises two differentially expressed duplicated class I (BF) and two class II B (BLB) genes. Using a combination of reference strand-mediated conformation analysis, cloning and sequencing, we identify nine BF and ten BLB alleles in a captive population of jungle fowl. We show that six BF and five BLB alleles are from the more highly expressed locus of each gene, BF2 and BLB2, respectively. An excess of non-synonymous substitutions across the jungle fowl BF/BL region suggests that diversifying selection has acted on this population. Importantly, single locus screening reveals that the strength of selection is greatest on the highly expressed BF2 locus. This is the first time that a population of red jungle fowl has been typed at the MHC region, laying the basis for further research into the underlying processes acting to maintain MHC diversity in this and other species. © 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  • 163.
    Wright, D
    et al.
    IFM Linköpings universitet.
    Kerje, S
    Dept of Medical Science Uppsala University.
    Lundström, K.
    Dep of Food Science Swedish University of Agricultural Science.
    Babol, J.
    Dep of Food Science Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Uppsala.
    Schultz, K.
    Dep of Animal Environment and Health Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, L.
    Dep of Animal Breeding and Genetics Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Quantitative trait loci analysis of egg and meat production traits in a red junglefowl · White Leghorn cross2006In: Animal Genetics, ISSN 0268-9146, E-ISSN 1365-2052, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 529-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Egg and production traits are of considerable economic importance in chickens. Using a White Leghorn × red junglefowl F2 intercross, standard production measures of liver weight and colour, egg size, eggshell thickness, egg taste and meat quality were taken. A total of 160 markers covering 29 autosomes and the Z chromosome were genotyped on 175–243 individuals, depending on the trait under consideration. A total of nine significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) and three suggestive QTL were found on chicken chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, E47W24 and E22C19W28.

  • 164.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    QTL Mapping of Behaviour in the Zebrafish2011In: Zebrafish Models in Neurobehavioural Research / [ed] A.V. Kalueff and J.M. Chachat, New York, USA: Humana Press, 2011, 1, p. 101-141Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of complex traits is one of the greatest current challenges in biology, and the exact mechanism whereby individual genes cause small quantitative variation in any given trait still remains largely unresolved. In the case of behavioural traits, with lower heritabilities and repeatabilities as compared to other character-types, this problem is exacerbated even further. One of the principal forms of genetic analysis for quantitative traits is via QTL (quantitative trait loci) mapping, with the power of this approach even greater in model organisms due to the array of genomic tools available. These tools give a genuine possibility of identifying the actual causative genes or nucleotides responsible for the variation (the quantitative trait nucleotide, or QTN). The zebrafish displays a range of behaviours that are both complex and bear a striking similarity to some of the behavioural measurements performed in other model organisms, notably affecting anxiety and social aggregation. The combination of the behavioural variation present in the zebrafish and the genetic and genomic advantages to QTL mapping available for this species paves the way for its use in generating a new model for the genetic dissection of such trait types. This chapter aims to first discuss the zebrafish as a behavioural model suitable for QTL mapping, focussing in particular on the behaviours of shoaling and predator inspection, before giving an overview of what is contained in a QTL study and the types of crossings, analysis and their relevance to behavioural QTL mapping. Finally two case studies are presented, one of anxiety behaviour in mice, one of shoaling and boldness behaviour in zebrafish.

  • 165.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    QTL Mapping Using Behavioral traits in the Adult Zebrafish2012In: Zebrafish Protocols for Neurobehavioral Research / [ed] Allan V. Kalueff and Adam Michael Stewart, Humana Press, 2012, p. 301-312Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       Zebrafish (Danio rerio) play an integral role in biomedical research, enabling researchers to examine physiological mechanisms and pathways relevant to human pathogenesis and its therapy. That, along with their low cost, easy manipulation, short reproductive cycles, and physiological homology to humans, has made zebrafish a vital model organism for neuroscience research. Zebrafish Protocols for Neurobehavioral Research addresses protocols for both larval and adult models, written by the leading experts in the field of zebrafish research.  Part I of this book takes advantage of the high-throughput nature of larval models to offer protocols for research requiring high output, easily manipulated screens. The second half of the book focuses on the robust and sophisticated behaviors of adult zebrafish, suitable for the neurophenotyping of complex traits and multi-domain disorders.  Importantly, these models complement each other, working together to provide researchers with valuable insights into neurobiology of normal and pathological behavior. Thorough and cutting-edge, this volume is a useful, authoritative reference guide that should hold a coveted spot in zebrafish laboratories across the globe

  • 166.
    Wright, Dominic
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rubin, C
    Uppsala University.
    Schutz, K
    AgResearch Ltd.
    Kerje, S
    Uppsala University.
    Kindmark, A
    University of Uppsala Hospital.
    Brandstrom, H
    University of Uppsala Hospital.
    Andersson, L
    Uppsala University.
    Pizzari, T
    University of Oxford.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Onset of Sexual Maturity in Female Chickens is Genetically Linked to Loci Associated with Fecundity and a Sexual Ornament2012In: Reproduction in domestic animals, ISSN 0936-6768, E-ISSN 1439-0531, Vol. 47, no SI, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Onset of sexual maturation is a trait of extreme importance both evolutionarily and economically. Unsurprisingly therefore, domestication has acted to reduce the time to sexual maturation in a variety of animals, including the chicken. In comparison with wild progenitor chickens [the Red Junglefowl (RJF)], domestic layer hens attain maturity approximately 20% earlier. In addition, domestic layers also possess larger combs (a sexual ornament), produce more eggs and have denser bones. A large quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis (n = 377) was performed using an F2 intercross between a White Leghorn layer breed and a RJF population, with onset of sexual maturity measured and mapped to three separate loci. This cross has already been analysed for comb mass, egg production and bone allocation. Onset of sexual maturity significantly correlated with comb mass, whilst the genetic architecture for sexual maturity and comb mass overlapped at all three loci. For two of these loci, the QTL for sexual maturity and comb mass were statistically indistinguishable from pleiotropy, suggesting that the alleles that increase comb mass also decrease onset of sexual maturity.

  • 167.
    Wright, Dominic
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rubin, C-J
    Dept. of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, BMC, Uppsala University.
    Martinez Barrio, A
    Dept. of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Schütz, K
    Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics, Uppsala University.
    Kerje, S
    Dept. of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, BMC, Uppsala University.
    Brändström, H
    Dept. of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, BMC, Uppsala University.
    Kindmark, A
    Dept. of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, BMC, Uppsala University.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, L
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The genetic architecture of domestication in the chicken: effects of pleiotropy and linkage2010In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 19, p. 5140-5156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent of pleiotropy and epistasis in quantitative traits remains equivocal. In the caseof pleiotropy, multiple quantitative trait loci are often taken to be pleiotropic if theirconfidence intervals overlap, without formal statistical tests being used to ascertain ifthese overlapping loci are statistically significantly pleiotropic. Additionally, the degreeto which the genetic correlations between phenotypic traits are reflected in thesepleiotropic quantitative trait loci is often variable, especially in the case of antagonisticpleiotropy. Similarly, the extent of epistasis in various morphological, behavioural andlife-history traits is also debated, with a general problem being the sample sizes requiredto detect such effects. Domestication involves a large number of trade-offs, which arereflected in numerous behavioural, morphological and life-history traits which haveevolved as a consequence of adaptation to selective pressures exerted by humans andcaptivity. The comparison between wild and domestic animals allows the geneticanalysis of the traits that differ between these population types, as well as being ageneral model of evolution. Using a large F2 intercross between wild and domesticatedchickens, in combination with a dense SNP and microsatellite marker map, bothpleiotropy and epistasis were analysed. The majority of traits were found to segregate in11 tight ‘blocks’ and reflected the trade-offs associated with domestication. These blockswere shown to have a pleiotropic ‘core’ surrounded by more loosely linked loci. Incontrast, epistatic interactions were almost entirely absent, with only six pairs identifiedover all traits analysed. These results give insights both into the extent of such blocks inevolution and the development of domestication itself.

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