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  • 151.
    Nellie, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Pettersson, Jennie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Variationer i normal språklig förmåga hos vuxna jämfört med neural aktivitet2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the brain is an important prerequisite for human language there is a great interest to gain more knowledge about healthy brain activity during language mediated communication. This study examines variations in high level language ability relating to demographic factors like gender and age and relates language ability to neural activity.

    Eighteen individuals in ages between 22 and 64 were included and divided into groups in relation to gender and age. The material used to assess language ability was derived from Testbatteri för Bedömning av Subtila Språkstörningar (Laakso, Brunnegård, Hartelius & Ahlsén, 2000), Swedish Lexical Decision Test (Almkvist, Adveen, Henning & Tallberg, 2007) and a reading test (Högskoleprovet). The results were correlated with measured brain activity using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and language paradigms. ANOVA was applied to discover possible demographic variances in language ability as well as in brain activity.

    The results showed no significant differences in language ability. On the other hand there was a tendency that younger individuals scored higher on language tests than older. Naming ability was inversely related to neural activity in Broca. Neural differences were also found regarding gender and age. Men showed generally more activation than women. Younger individuals, as well as the individuals with high wordgeneration ability, activated more subtle areas than others. This study also points to a relation between high language ability and high cognitive ability.

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  • 152. Nordh, Matilda
    et al.
    Hurtig, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Treating Stuttering with the Lidcombe-Program.: Parents’ Experiences and a Follow-up on Children undergone Treatment of Stuttering with the Lidcombe-Program.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Lidcombe-program (LP) is an empirically developed treatment program for stuttering based on behavioral therapy that adopts operant conditioning as methodology. The program is designed for children up to the age of six, and it is mainly conducted in the home environment by a parent under the supervision of a speech-language pathologist (Onslow, 2003a). In countries around the world, studies of outcomes of the program have shown positive effects (Lincoln &Onslow, 1997). LP is conducted in Sweden, but no major long-term study has been performed.Criticism towards LP regards that the intervention would affect the relationship between thechild and the parent in negative ways (Woods, Shearsby, Onslow & Burnham, 2002).The present study is a follow up of children and parents who have undergone treatment withLP. The aim was to investigate how childrens’ fluency of speech changed after treatmentand to examine how parents' experiences of the program can be characterized. Ten parents were included in the study, and they all answered a questionnaire about the experiences of thetreatment. Fluency of speech was documented and assessed in eight children.The results of the present study showed that all of the participating childrens’ stuttering was significantly reduced after treatment. A strong significant correlation between the time the child spent in treatment and the percentage of stuttered syllables at baseline was observed. The majority of the parents had positive experiences of the treatment, and would recommend the program to other families. However, parents also found it difficult to execute the therapy, mainly as regards finding the time in the everyday life of the family. In addition, four of the participating parents disregarded the treatment manual and shared the responsibility of implementing the treatment with their spouse, but this did not appear to influence the outcome of the treatment.

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  • 153.
    Norkvist Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tollander, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Prövning av måttet Läpp-till-Lyft (L-t-L) på vuxna utan sväljsvårigheter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Lip-to-Lift (L-t-L) is a bedside-method for measuring oral transit time at swallow. It was designed for a swallowing examination of persons on nursing homes where weight loss was noted in people with average L-t-L-time >5 seconds (Sandin, 2005). The measurement was validated and evaluated by Eriksson, Bremer Zerpe (2008).

    Objectives: The study objective was to examine L-t-L on a group of young adults without swallowing disorders and as to examine the inter- and intra-judgereliability of the measure.

    Questions:

    • What is the L-t-L-time for young adults without swallowing disorders?
    • Are there any gender differences regarding L-t-L-time?
    • How high is the inter/intra-judge reliability of L-t-L?

    Method: Examination of L-t-L-time was carried out on 20 young adults, aged 19-27 years, without swallowing disorders after Sandin’s (2005) instructions. Measurements of 20 swallows per person were made.

    Results: The average L-t-L-time of young adults without deglutition-difficulties was 1.13 seconds (sd =.14). No significant gender differences were seen. The intra-judge reliability (.63 and .81) was higher than the inter-judge reliability (.58). A higer inter-judge reliability was found at swallowing 1-10 when compared to swallowing 1-5.

    Conclusion: The fairly good inter-judge reliability suggests that the measure may have some reliability if the measurement is carried out by different examiners. The relatively high intra-judge reliability indicates that the L-t-L-measurement might be  more reliable on follow-ups on patients made by the same examiner.

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    Prövning av måttet Läpp-till-Lyft (L-t-L) på vuxna utan sväljsvårigheter
  • 154.
    Nygren, Mariana
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden .
    Tyboni, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Sweden .
    Lindstrom, Fredric
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    van Doorn, Jan
    Umeå University, Sweden .
    Gender Differences in Childrens Voice Use in a Day Care Environment2012In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 26, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The prevalence of dysphonia is higher in boys than in girls before puberty. This could be because of the differences in boys and girls voice use. Previous research on gender differences in prepubescent childrens voice parameters has been contradictory. Most studies have focused on examining fundamental frequency. Objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate voice use in boys and girls in a day care environment based on the voice parameters fundamental frequency (Hz), vocal intensity (dB SPL), and phonation time (%) and to ascertain whether there were any significant gender differences. Study Design. Prospective comparative design. Method. The study was conducted in a day care environment where 30 children (17 boys and 13 girls aged 4-5 years) participated. The participants voices were measured continuously for 4 hours with a voice accumulator that registered fundamental frequency, vocal intensity level, phonation time, and background noise. Results. Mean (standard deviation) fundamental frequency was 310 (22) and 321 (16) Hz, vocal intensity was 93 (4) and 91 (3) dB SPL, and phonation time was 7.7 (2.0)% and 7.6 (2.5)% for boys and girls, respectively. No differences between genders were statistically significant. Conclusion. The finding of no statistically significant gender differences for measurements of voice parameters in a group of children aged 4-5 years in a day care environment is an important finding that contributes to increased knowledge about young boys and girls voice use.

  • 155.
    Nyström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderqvist, Pärnilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Läsförmåga hos elever i årkurs 4 och 6: med avseende på fakta- och inferensfrågor samt lässätt2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine students' text comprehension in grades 4 and 6. Participants were 61 students without documented or suspected reading and writing difficulties, in grades 4 and 6. The focus was on texts designed by Bishop and Adams (1992), containing two types of questions: literal and inference questions, and three different ways of presenting the text; listening, silent reading and silent reading with the text available when responding to the questions. The texts have been previously used in research and as a tool for clinical, qualitative estimate of reading comprehension in speech and language pathologists’ assessments. Investigation was also conducted for working memory, vocabulary, and phonological and orthographical decoding. The results show that students have a significantly higher score in terms of literal questions when the text is available in responding to the questions, versus listening and silent reading. The results also show that literal and inference questions do not differ. No differences between gender and grades were encountered. Conclusions are drawn that students with typical reading development in grades 4 and 6 do not have any difficulty in answering neither literal nor inference questions, concerning the three texts in this study. 

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  • 156.
    Nyström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Vinblad, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    …med gult hår och tofs, sa du?: En studie av referentiell kommunikation och snabb benämningsförmåga hos ungdomar med utvecklingsstörning2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Referentiell kommunikation innebär att kunna delge andra information så att de förstår, samt att själv förstå när man lyssnar och även att vara medveten om när man själv inte har förstått (Sonnenschein & Whitehurst, 1984). Genom en referentiell kommunikationsuppgift har lyssnaregenskaper inom referentiell kommunikation undersökts hos ungdomar med lindrig till måttlig utvecklingsstörning, samt en mentalt åldersmatchad kontrollgrupp. Snabb benämning (Rapid Automatized Naming) av enstaviga och flerstaviga ord har också testats, och huruvida samband mellan resultat i kommunikationsuppgiften och snabb benämning föreligger. För att mäta referentiella lyssnarförmågor har olika typer av efterfrågningar studerats, det vill säga hur individen uttrycker sig för att efterfråga mer information. Resultatet visar att kontrollgruppen producerar signifikant fler av efterfrågningstyperna begäran av utökad information och kontrollfrågor. Båda grupperna var mycket heterogena i kommunikationsuppgiften vad gäller antalet efterfrågningar hos varje individ. I målgruppen återfanns ett signifikant samband mellan efterfrågningstypen aningen-eller-frågor och långsam benämningshastighet av enstaviga ord. En klinisk implikation av resultatet i studien är att en del individer i målgruppen skulle kunna gynnas av träning i referentiell kommunikation.

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    ...med gult hår och tofs, sa du?
  • 157.
    Persson, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hedenqvist, Clara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Titta, lyssna och härma!: En studie som undersöker imitationsförmågan för auditivt och visuellt presenterat material hos typiskt utvecklade barn mellan 4 och 8 år.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka imitationsförmågan för auditivt och visuellt presenterat material hos typiskt utvecklade barn mellan fyra och åtta år. Den visuella imitationen undersöktes i form av meningsfulla samt icke-meningsfulla handlingar. Den auditiva imitationen undersöktes i form av meningsfull meningsrepetition samt icke-meningsfull nonordsrepetition. Ytterligare ett test gjordes för att undersöka barnens icke-verbala intelligens. I studien deltog 10 typiskt utvecklade barn med svenska som modersmål, sjuflickor och tre pojkar mellan 4;11␣8;0år.

    Studiens  huvudfynd  var  att  barnens visuella uppmärksamhet var en avgörande faktor för hur barnen klarade av att imitera handlingarna. De meningsfulla handlingarna med objekt var lättare för barnen att utföra i jämförelse med de icke-meningsfulla handlingarna utan objekt. Resultatet på det icke-verbala intelligenstestet korrelerade med barnens ålder och de icke- meningsfulla handlingarna. Även nonord och meningsrepetition korrelerade med varandra. Vid analys av den auditiva modaliteten visade det sig att två- och fyrstaviga icke-meningsfulla nonord var något lättare att imitera än trestaviga. Ett konstaterande vid meningsrepetitionen var att barnens prestation såg olika ut beroende på meningens längd.

    Resultaten i denna studie måste tolkas med reservation för att undersökningen gjorts på en mycket liten grupp och vidare forskning inom ämnet vore önskvärt för ett mer tillförlitligt resultat. Slutsatsen är att det troligtvis inte förefaller finnas någon underliggande imitativ förmåga som medierar förmågan att imitera för visuellt och auditivt presenterat material. Ett samband mellan barnens visuella uppmärksamhet och deras prestation av imitativa handlingar kan dock konstateras.

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    Titta, lyssna och härma!
  • 158.
    Petersson, Joel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Järåsen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    En fältstudie av röstanvändning och självskattade röstbesvär hos lärare2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studier har visat att lärare är en yrkeskategori som är överrepresenterad bland patienter med en diagnostiserad röststörning på logopedmottagningar i Sverige. Det beror på den röstbelastning lärare utsätts för i arbetet där rösten är ett viktigt redskap. På logopedmottagningen görs röstinspelningar i en tyst miljö för att kunna analysera röstens kvalitet. För att få en helhetsbild av patienternas röstbeteende har en apparat utvecklats som kan registrera röstbeteende utanför logopedmottagningen, kallad VoxLog. Det är en modern röstackumulator som registrerar grundtonsfrekvens, röststyrka, bakgrundsbuller samt fonationstid hos den enskilde individen. Studiens syfte var att undersöka fyra högstadielärares röstanvändning under en femdagarsperiod med hjälp av VoxLog och låta dem fylla i Rösthandikappindex inklusive halsskalan, RHI-T, i början och slutet av perioden. Resultaten från VoxLog och självskattningsformuläret RHI-T analyserades för att få en bild av lärarnas röstanvändning.

    I studien ingick fyra högstadielärare som alla jobbar med matematik och NO-ämnen, två män och två kvinnor mellan 38 och 46 år. Deltagarna bar röstackumulatorn VoxLog under en arbetsvecka, måndag till fredag under all vaken tid.

    Resultaten visade att lärarna i studien använder rösten mer under arbetet jämfört med på fritiden. Bullernivåerna som uppmättes låg under den skadliga nivån på 75 dB hos alla deltagare utom en. Bullernivåerna var emellertid högre på arbetet jämfört med på fritiden. Individuella skillnader i grundtonsfrekvens och röststyrka under femdagarsperioden påvisades även. Bland annat noterades en tendens till förhöjd röststyrka på eftermiddagarna. Ingen av deltagarna skattade sig själva inom den patologiska gränsen på 20 poäng gällande RHI. Den kategori som skattades högst av deltagarna var halsskalan.

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    En fältstudie av röstanvändning och självskattade röstbesvär hos lärare
  • 159.
    Pettersson, Mariana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Thorén, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Normativa värden för läppkraft hos barn mellan fem och tio år: Relaterat till bilabial stavelseproduktion2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lip force has been found to affect the ability to achieve satisfying speech production and swallowing. A normative value for lip force in adults has been measured to 15 Newton (N). Corresponding value for children measured with Lip Force Meter 100 (LF100) does not exist. In the current study lip force was measured in children between the ages of five and ten years. The aim of the study was to obtain normative values for children with typical development in separate age groups. Production of syllable with initial bilabial plosive was further calculated to see if any correlation between lip force and syllable production existed. An examination of learning effect in repeated measures was also executed. The age group 5:0-5:11 only included four participants. This age group was therefore not included in the statistical measurements.

    The common mean for lip force in all children was 14.98 N. The mean for each age group was 12.75 N for 5:0-5:11 year olds, 14.69 N for 6:0-6:11, 16.93 N for 7:0-7:11, 14.97 N for 8:0-8:11 and 14.14 N for the age group 9:0-9:11 years. In the current study no significant differences in lip force was found between age groups.

    The common mean for syllable production in all children was 5.50 syllables/second. A significant difference between the ages six and seven year olds as well as six and nine year olds was found, where the older age groups showed higher values. No significant correlation was found between lip force and syllable production.

    Analysis of the learning effect over three lip force measurements showed tendencies for increased lip force at the last measure. The difference was not significant. In the present study no statistical measurements for gender differences were executed for each separate age group due to small numbers. Measurements in age group 6:0-9:11 showed tendencies for higher values of both lip force and syllable production for girls. These differences were not significant.

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  • 160.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Language development in normal children and in disease: An interactional approach to typical language development and children with language impairment2012In: Handbook of growth and growth monitoring in health and disease / [ed] Victor R. Preedy, New York: Springer , 2012, 1, p. 1363-1378Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth is one of the human body’s most intricate processes: each body part or region has its own unique growth patterns. Yet at the individual and population levels, growth patterns are sensitive to adverse conditions, genetic predispositions, and environmental changes. And despite the body’s capacity to compensate for these developmental setbacks, the effects may be far-reaching, even life-long. The Handbook of Growth and Growth Monitoring in Health and Disease brings this significant and complex field together in one comprehensive volume: impact of adverse variables on growth patterns; issues at different stages of prenatal development, childhood, and adolescence; aspects of catch-up growth, endocrine regulation, and sexual maturation; screening and assessment methods; and international perspectives. Tables and diagrams, applications to other areas of health and disease, and summary points help make the information easier to retain. Together, over 180 self-contained chapters in 15 sections cover every area of human growth, including:

    • Intrauterine growth retardation.
    • Postnatal growth in normal and abnormal situations.
    • Cells and growth of tissues.
    • Sensory growth and development.
    • Effects of disease on growth.
    • Methods and standards for assessment of growth, and more.
  • 161.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Recycling in clinical interaction involving children with and without language impairment.2008In: Communication & Medicine, ISSN 1612-1783, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 35-64Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Rayner, Manny
    et al.
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Gerlach, Johanna
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Starlander, Marianne
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Tsourakis, Nikos
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Kruckenberg, Anita
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Chua, Cathy
    Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia.
    A web-deployed Swedish spoken CALL systembased on a large shared English/Swedish feature grammar2012In: Proceedings of the SLTC 2012 workshop on NLP for CALL / [ed] Lars Borin and Elena Volodina, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012, p. 37-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a Swedish version of CALL-SLT,a web-deployed CALL system that allows beginner/intermediate students to practise generativespoken language skills. Speech recognitionis grammar-based, with language modelsderived, using the Regulus platform, fromsubstantial domain-independent feature grammars.The paper focusses on the Swedishgrammar resources, which were developedby generalising the existing English featuregrammar into a shared grammar for Englishand Swedish. It turns out that this can be donevery economically: all but a handful of rulesand features are shared, and English grammaressentially ends up being treated as a reducedform of Swedish. We conclude by presentinga simple evaluation which compares theSwedish and French versions of CALL-SLT.

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  • 163.
    Ricklefs, Theodor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tunedal, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Perceptuell bedömning av barns avvikande klusilproduktion: Hur tolkas klusilord med avvikande voice onset time av vuxna naiva lyssnare?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Voice onset time, VOT, är en akustisk tidsparameter som anses återspegla talmotorisk kontroll. VOT är den mest pålitliga akustiska parametern för att särskilja tonande och tonlösa klusiler. I tidigare studier har VOT-värden för svenska barn uppmätts. Det har visat sig att barn med fonologisk språkstörning har avvikande VOT jämfört med typiskt utvecklade barn. Dock saknas undersökningar av hur lyssnare tolkar klusilord med avvikande VOT. Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka hur klusilproduktioner med avvikande VOT-värden uppfattas av vuxna personer utan särskilda kunskaper om barns tal och språk.

    34 personer (19 män och 15 kvinnor) i åldrarna 22-60 år bedömde 102 ordproduktioner med avvikande VOT-värden av barn i åldrarna 4:0 till 11:12 år. Deltagarna identifierade i genomsnitt 79 % av ordproduktionerna korrekt. Ord med avvikande kort VOT gav en något högre felsvarsfrekvens än ord med avvikande lång VOT. I regel uppfattades ord med avvikande lång VOT som tonlösa, medan ord med avvikande kort VOT uppfattades som tonande. Inga ålders- eller könsskillnader påträffades. Resultaten visar att VOT inte är den enda avgörande faktorn för huruvida en klusil uppfattas som tonande eller tonlös; andra faktorer spelar också in.

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  • 164.
    Samuelsson , Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Using conversation analysis to study prosodic problems in a child with language impairment2009In: CHILD LANGUAGE TEACHING and THERAPY, ISSN 0265-6590 , Vol. 25, no 1, p. 59-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prosody carries a lot of information relevant for our understanding of spoken messages. In addition, prosody plays an important role in signalling attitudes and emotions. Prosodic features also constitute an important resource that participants use to achieve mutual understanding in interaction. The aim of this study was to point to possible recurring patterns in the prosodic structure of language testing activities. A further aim was to discuss similarities between English and Swedish in these patterns.

    The main findings indicated a systematic use of prosody in the language testing activity Questions are mainly posed with rising intonation and answers are produced with rising intonation. Evaluations are produced with a final fall in the intonation. There was also some support for the assumption that this pattern occurs within a similar activity involving an English-speaking child and his SLT.

    The results of the present study showed that analysis of conversation and prosody in its conversational context is useful in order to reveal possible functions of features that would have been overlooked with a more deficit driven perspective.

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  • 165.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Prosody intervention: A single subject study of a Swedish boy with prosodic problems2011In: CHILD LANGUAGE TEACHING and THERAPY, ISSN 0265-6590, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 56-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish has a complicated prosodic system, compared, for example, with English. A large proportion of Swedish children with language impairment (LI) have prosodic problems to some extent. There are few descriptions in the literature of prosody intervention, which means that clinicians must rely on their overall linguistic and therapeutic knowledge when designing intervention for prosodic problems. The aim of the present study is to design an intervention package for prosodic problems in children and to evaluate this intervention. The article reports a single subject multiple baselines case study. The participant was a boy (aged 4 years and 6 months) with prosodic problems, mainly on word level but also on phrase and discourse level. The intervention was devised to address his problems and focused on word level prosody. The intervention was carried out over 6 weeks, comprising six 60-minute sessions. Post-intervention assessments were carried out immediately after intervention and 9 weeks later. The participant improved his overall prosodic skills significantly, as assessed by a procedure designed to capture prosody at word, phrase and discourse level. An evaluation of a spontaneous speech sample was also made by a panel of three experienced listeners, and they found some improvement in the participants prosody in connected speech, although this was not significant.

  • 166.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Prosody intervention for children2010In: Embedding Evidence practice in Speech and Language Therapy: International Examples / [ed] Hazel Roddam & Jemma Skeat, Chchester: Wiley-Blackwell , 2010, 1, p. 189-195Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Like all health professionals, speech and language therapists (SLTs) need to keep themselves up-to-date with the research evidence base that is relevant to their field of practice and be able to show how this contributes to their clinical decision-making. However, it is not always clear to practitioners how evidence-based practice (EBP) can be properly embedded in their day-to-day activities. In this valuable book, Hazel Roddam and Jemma Skeat present a wealth of instructive examples by SLT contributors from around the world, showing how clinicians, educators, and researchers have risen to the EBP challenge.  Embedding evidence-based practice in speech and language therapy  showcases the creative ways that SLTs are developing knowledge and skills for EBP, creating contexts that support the use of evidence in practice, and working towards making evidence easily accessible and usable. It includes real-life examples of how SLTs have encountered a clinical problem or situation and have accessed and used the evidence within their day-to-day practice.The contributors come from a wide range of work settings, from services situated within large organizations to those in independent practice, and represent a range of clinical areas, from paediatric to adult and across speech, language, voice, fluency, Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC), and dysphagia. This book is written for an audience of clinical practitioners, at any stage of their career, and is additionally a valuable resource for SLT students and lecturers.

  • 167.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Elin
    Linköping Community, Sweden.
    Persson, Hanna
    Kiruna Hospital, Sweden.
    The use and characteristics of elderspeak in Swedish geriatric institutions2013In: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 616-631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of elderspeak in a Swedish context and to describe its characteristics. Elderspeak refers to adjustments made in communication with elderly people; adjustments similar to those made in interaction with infants. Previous findings show that adjustments of communication are made within several linguistic domains, and are a part of the communicative environment of elderly people. Five people working in different forms of geriatric institutions participated in this study, and data consist of recordings of interactions between caregivers and residents (without dementia) and interactions between caregivers and colleagues. The recordings were transcribed and analyzed by means of perceptual, semantic and acoustic analyses. The findings demonstrate that caregivers, to a varying extent, adjusted their communication within several linguistic domains. The adjustments were mainly made within the prosodic domain, but there were also adjustments made within other language domains.

  • 168.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ferreira, Janna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Recycling in communication involving a boy with autism using picture exchange system (PECS)2013In: Aided communication in everyday interaction / [ed] Niklas Norén, Christina Samuelsson and Charlotta Plejert, Guildford: J & R Press , 2013, p. 324-Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book argues for the importance of the participants' perspective within both theory and practice on the function of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) aids in everyday talk-in-interaction. Interactional approaches such as Conversation Analysis (CA) and Topical episode analysis are used to analyze and demonstrate.

  • 169.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Intonational Patterns of Nonverbal Vocalizations in People With Dementia2011In: American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementia, ISSN 1533-3175, E-ISSN 1938-2731, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 563-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonverbal vocalizations in dementia are important clinically since they generally have been regarded as disruptive behavior that is disturbing. The aim of the present study is to describe the interactional pattern, including the prosodic package, of nonverbal vocalizations in a participant in a late stage of dementia. The acoustic analysis shows that the vocalizations do not differ significantly from the verbal utterances regarding mean fundamental frequency or pitch range. The mean fundamental frequency, F(0), of the utterances from Anna was significantly higher than the mean F(0) from the other elderly participants. The analysis demonstrates that there is a singing-like type of vocalizations that does not resemble the previously described patterns of nonverbal vocalizations. This pattern of the nonverbal vocalization does not resemble the intonation of Annas verbal utterances. The other participants perceive Annas vocalizations as potentially meaningful turns. Nonverbal vocalizations in clinical settings should be taken as communicative contributions.

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  • 170.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Experiences from Two Swedish Speech and Language Pathology Education Programmes Using Different Approaches to Problem-Based Learning2012In: Problem-Based Learning in Clinical Education: The Next Generation / [ed] Susan Bridges, Colman McGrath and Tara L. Whitehill, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012, p. 47-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many programmes within higher education, including speech language pathology (SLP) education, students are expected to develop collaborative skills alongside acquisition of theoretical knowledge. The focus of the present chapter is to evaluate SLP graduates’ opinions on how well prepared for the professional life they feel after their education. A questionnaire, focusing on perceived professional skills in relation to education, was distributed to former SLP students from two programmes with different applications of problem-based learning (PBL). A total of 55 students (69%) completed the questionnaire. PBL has been identified as one efficient way to facilitate the development of speech and language pathology students’ abilities to meet the demands of self-directed learning in everyday worklife. Moreover, it has been shown that the use of PBL throughout the programme is beneficial to the perception of attaining general competencies. It is also demonstrated that the students from both the PBL throughout and the semi-PBL curricula rated themselves high on many specific competencies.

  • 171.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    LundeborgHammarström, Inger
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Specific and general competencies of graduates from Swedish speech and language pathology education2008In: The Second International Conference on PBL in Speech-Language Pathology,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      The topic of the present study is the relationship between the pedagogical philosophy of education and the professional outcome, mainly regarding general competencies. The overall purpose of the study is to evaluate postgraduates- opinions on how well prepared for the professional life they feel after their speech and language pathology education. Previous research have shown differences in professional skills between problem-based learning (PBL) and non-PBL graduates (Prince, van Eijs, Boshuzien, van der Vleuten & Scherpbier, 2005). Those differences mainly concern general competencies such as organizational skills and teamwork. These findings get further support from the evaluation of the Swedish medical education programmes, where PBL-graduates report better communicational, co-operational and leadership skills than non-PBL graduates (Grundutbildningsenkäten, 2006). PBL is a student centred pedagogical philosophy where students are encouraged to be very active. In PBL real-life problems become the context in which students learn academic content as well as professional skills (Biggs, 2003). The first Swedish speech language pathology program using PBL throughout the program was completed in 2007, and the graduate students have participated in an evaluation of the program. A comprehensive questionnaire, focusing on perceived professional skills in relation to education, was distributed to the students of this program, to students from a partial PBL curriculum who graduated the same year and to students from a partial PBL curriculum who finished in 2002. Preliminary results indicate that the PBL graduates feel well prepared for meeting the demands of the professional life. The results also suggest that the students who finished their education six years ago feels more able to evaluate their education. These students also seem more satisfied. The present study adds further knowledge concerning outcomes of higher medical education. It also points to differences between PBL graduates and non-PBL graduates regarding professional experiences. The study also provides information on how the opinions of the educational experience changes over time.

  • 172.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Clarification requests in everyday interaction involving children with cochlear implants2014In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 130-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to explore the form and function of clarification request sequences in interaction involving children with cochlear implants. Clarification request sequences are investigated in everyday interaction, and it is demonstrated that children with CI use both general/open and specific requests for clarification. It is also shown that there is relatively lower frequency of requests for clarification in interactions involving children with CI with high intelligibility scores. The results may be useful in clinical assessment and intervention demonstrating the importance of assessing interactional ability in everyday interaction.

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  • 173.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Prosody and working memory in children with cochlear implants2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Prosody, Grammar and Working Memory in Children with Cochlear Implants2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 175.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nettelbladt, Ulrika
    Institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper, avdelningen för logopedi, foniatri och audiologi, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Studiet av talrubbningar hos barn ur ett historisktperspektiv.: Om ämnets etablering i Sverige.1998In: Svensk medicinhistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 1402-9871, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 115-137Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 176.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nettelbladt, Ulrika
    Lunds universitet.
    Anward, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Role of Interactional Prosody in Language testing Activities in Swedish.2011In: Speech Prosody in Atypical Populations: Assessment and Remediation / [ed] Vesna Stojanovik & Jane Setter, London: J&R Press , 2011, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is based on recent findings and will report current original research in the field of speech prosody in atypical populations.

    With contributions from experts working on the prosody of a specific client group, the book will cover both paediatric and adult groups within a single volume, and will promote this often neglected area of clinical assessment and management.

    As well as being a key reference for those who are conducting research in this area, the book will be an invaluable tool for speech and language therapists who currently rarely assess prosody because of the lack of information relevant to them.

  • 177.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Reuterskioeld, Christina
    Department Commun Science and Disorders, New York.
    Nettelbladt, Ulrika
    Lund University .
    Sahlen, Birgitta
    Lund University Hospital.
    Production and perception of metrical patterns in Swedish children with language impairment2011In: LOGOPEDICS PHONIATRICS VOCOLOGY, ISSN 1401-5439, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between perception and production of metrical patterns in Swedish children with language impairment (LI), in order to add to the knowledge on underlying explanations of LI. A further aim was to explore whether omissions are mainly related to prosodic aspects or to linguistic function. Children with LI omitted significantly more unstressed syllables than did children with typical language development. Exploration of the relationship between perception and production of phrasal stress patterns demonstrated that children with LI might be divided into three subgroups: Group a: children who perform better on perception than production; Group b: children who perform better on production than perception; and Group c: children with rather poor results on both perception and production.

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  • 178.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Linneaus centre HEAD, Lund University, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Phonology, prosody and working memory in children with cochlear implants2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 179.
    Stenberg, Noomi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wik, Susanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Action Naming Test (ANT) - Reanalys och normering av insamlade data i en population svenska vuxna2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have demonstrated a difference between the ability to name verbs and nouns in patients with brain injury and among control groups (Caramazza& Hills, 1991; Mätzig, Druks, Masterson &Vigliocco, 2009; Szekely et al., 2005). On the other hand,words explaining an activity are in some studies considered to be more demanding to interpret, which may be a contributing factor to the differences in the naming ability. (Liljeström et al., 2008; Mätzig et al., 2009).

    Action Naming Test (ANT) is a verb naming test designed by Obler and Albert 1979 (Barth Ramsay, Nicholas, Au, Obler & Albert, 1999), which was translated into Swedish andestablished to normative data by Lindahl and Oskarsson as part of a master’s thesis in Speech and Language Pathology (2011). In this study, some words generated severalincorrect responses and were considered as problematic;therefore, a re-analysis of the collected material was requested. The purpose of the present study was to make a new analysis of the collected data and develop new normative valuesfor ANT in a Swedish population of adults, without the problematic words.

    In order to investigate which wordsresulted in many incorrect responses and the reasons behind, a new review based on the model developed by Barth Ramsay and colleagues (1999)was madeof the 120 collected test protocols, as well as an analysis of the incorrect responses.Afterthisreview and analysis of the incorrect responses and the word’s frequency in Swedishwere made, twelve words were excluded. Comparison of results between three age groups (20-30 years, 31-65 years and 66-83 years), two levels of education (≤ 12 years and ≥ 13 years) and genders were made both before and after the removal of the twelve words. In both cases, significant differences were foundbetween the oldest age group and the two younger groups. Likewise,a significant difference between the two levels of educationremained. No significantgender differenceswere found.

    Throughthe analysis of incorrect responses,it appeared that many of them were due either to misinterpretation of the image, or to the very low frequency of use of the translated words. Words that were translated into verb phrases instead of independent verbs also resulted in difficulties. Several studies have shown that using a video instead of picture as stimuli simplifies verb naming (den Ouden, Fix, Parrish & Thompson, 2009; d’Honincthun & Pillon, 2005) because, then, the aspects of time and movement will not be lost. Since translating testsfrom other languages is complicated, designing a whole new Swedish verb naming test, where choice of stimuli is considered, is preferable.

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    Action Naming Test (ANT) Reanalys och normering av insamlade data i en population svenska vuxna
  • 180.
    Suljanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rydin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Benämningsförmåga och språkförståelse hos äldre individer: Boston Naming test och Token test i en population 85-åringar2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Well-established normative data for elderly adults is of great importance in order to distinguish between normal aging and signs of dementia. Short versions of Boston Naming test and Token test are included in screening batteries and frequently used in neuropsychological examinations. However, existing normative data for BNT30 and Token test include few individuals aged 80 years and above and are limited regarding to only include optimally healthy participants with high education level. This cross-sectional study includes 213 cognitively intact 85-year-olds. The aim was to examine their results of naming performance and language comprehension measured with short versions of Boston Naming test (BNT30) and Token test, subtest V, then to compare the results of the present study with existing normative data for BNT30 and Token test. All participants were initially recruited in the Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment (ELSA-85) project, a population-based study of 85-year-old residents of Linköping, Sweden. The results obtained in the present study regarding BNT30 (M = 24.71 ±3.13) and Token test (M = 4.88 ±1.05), show lower test scores with greater variance than those reported in existing normative data. Association between demographic variables and performance on the tests was also examined. Data presented in the study revealed that education and gender influence naming performance measured with BNT30. The normative data gathered from this study includes the largest sample so far of individuals over the age of 80 and is more demographically diverse than in previous studies. Therefore the norms provided in this study are more representative for cognitively intact 85-year-olds. However, we question the validity of the version of Token test included in CAB (Cognitive Assessment Battery).

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    Benämningsförmåga och språkförståelse hos äldre individer
  • 181.
    Suljanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rydin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Språkliga förmågor i relation till Theory of Mind och implicit/explicit False-Belief förståelse: En studie med barn i treårsåldern2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that linguistic abilities are closely linked with Theory of Mind (ToM). Recently, studies using eyetracking technology have been able to investigate ToM understanding with implicit measures. The findings suggest that children as young as two years old appear to have a well-developed implicit ToM understanding. Results from one of these studies have found that language development could play a crucial role in the acquisition of ToM, suggesting that there may be a causal link between language and ToM. An important aspect to further understand ToM development is to investigate the impact of language in the acquisition of ToM understanding. It remains unclear whether specific aspects of language are more relevant to ToM development than others and how language abilities and ToM are interconnected. The aim of the present study was to investigate how ToM ability and False Belief understanding relates to linguistic abilities of typically developing three-year-olds and if childrens´ demographic factors affect these abilities. The study included a total of 21 children.  Language competence was assessed with measures of reception and production of syntax and a measure of vocabulary production, as part of the semantic ability. In order to investigate ToM ability, measures of different types of mental-state understandings were included. False Belief understanding was assessed with explicit measures, using standard FB tasks, and with implicit measures, using eyetracking technology. The results obtained in the present study confirm that linguistic abilities and ToM ability are strongly related, and that semantic ability is the part of language that has the strongest influence on ToM understanding. The results also indicate that receptive syntax is more important to specifically FB understanding, than to ToM ability in general. The childrens´ demographic factors were not found to affect their language ability, ToM ability or FB understanding. Regarding children's implicit FB understanding the results of the implicit measures reveal that the majority of the participating children did not understand the purpose of the test and therefore no conclusions of their implicit understanding could be drawn. This finding contradicts previous research including younger children. Questions remain concerning implicit measures, indicating the importance of further research in this field. The present study also discusses the complexity of the relationship between linguistic abilities and ToM.

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    Rydin & Suljanovic (2013)
  • 182.
    Sundström, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Åhlund, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Bedömning av prosodisk förmåga hos vuxna med förvärvad hjärnskada.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Prosody is the melody and rhythm of speech and language. Prosodic ability is of great importance for communication, and has been shown to be affected in adults with acquired brain injury. Studies have shown that Swedish children with specific language impairment have prosodic  difficulties to a greater extent than e.g. English speaking peers. It is thereby possible that prosodic ability is more vulnerable also in Swedish speaking adults with acquired brain injury.

    The aim of the present study was to assess prosodic ability in adults with acquired brain injury, and to evaluate the prosodic assessment procedure that was used. The relationship between prosodic ability and general language ability, location of injury and post-onset time was examined. Fifteen adults with acquired brain injury participated, six women and nine men, aged between 30 and 82 years. The participants were tested with an assessment procedure for prosody and parts of Neurolinguistic Assessment of Aphasia (A-ning).

    Prosodic problems were found at word, phrase and discourse level. No clear links between prosodic ability and location of injury or time post-onset were found. However, a deviant usage of focal accents with a preserved ability to produce word accents as a result of right hemisphere injuries was found. Furthermore, a relationship between prosodic ability and general language ability was found.

    The prosodic procedure was proven useful for assessment of adults with acquired brain injury, but it needs additional revision.

    The present study contributes with additional knowledge of prosodic ability in native Swedish speaking adults with acquired brain injury.

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  • 183.
    Södersten, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Thorsdotter, Malina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Terström, Sten
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Long-term Measures of Voice Use and Environmental Noise Levels using a Portable Voice Accumulator2011In: Pan European Voice Conference (PEVOC9), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High vocal demands and speaking in environmental noise have both been identified as risk factors for voice disorders. Long-term field documentation of voice use might provide important information on those factors. The purpose was to explore how long representative measurements need to be, and whether long-term data from the field can usefully supplement voice assessments made in the laboratory. Eight patients diagnosed with occupational voice disorders were chosen consecutively from a waiting list for voice therapy at the Karolinska University Hospital. They were matched to vocally healthy colleagues regarding gender, occupation and work place. The sixteen participants underwent a series of voice assessments in the laboratory: audio recording, voice range profile, laryngostroboscopy, and subjective evaluations using the Voice Handicap Index. A long-term registration during 14 days was performed for each participant using the portable voice accumulator VoxLog. Voxlog has a neck collar with an accelerometer measuring fundamental frequency and phonation time, and a microphone measuring the level of voice intensity and of environmental noise.  The participants wore the Voxlog from morning to night for two full weeks.  They kept a diary of daily activities and rated voice symptoms four times daily. Preliminary results show that data obtained from the first week were similar to data from the second week; and that fundamental frequency and voice intensity were higher in the field than in the laboratory. The results provide a basis for discussion about valid voice outcome measures.

  • 184.
    Tronnier, Mechtild
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    On vocal drop-out and voice quality in children. Voicing sustainment and voice quality in children2008In: FONETIK 2008,2008, Göteborg: Göteborg Universitet, Inst Lingvistik , 2008, p. 15-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The present perceptual investigation pursues the question wether the evaluation of a child's voice as hoarse, breathy or hyperfunctional can be correlated to the degree of non-periodical sections in the signal based on the lack of regular oscillations of the vocal folds. The results show that this is not the case: children with clearly hoarse voices produce a stable and measurable fundamental frequency. In addition, children who show a tendency toward unstable fundamental frequency are not evaluated as hoarse, neither breathy nor hyperfunctional.   

  • 185.
    van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV.
    Gauffin, Helena
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics UHL.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Engström, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV.
    Language deficits in Epilepsy, an fMRI study2012In:  , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 186.
    van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gauffin, Helena
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics UHL.
    Ulrici, Daniel
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Engström, Maria
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Language deficits in Epilepsy, an fMRI study2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive functions in people with epilepsy are affected by focality, number of generalized seizures, side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) or the underlying disease (Kwan, 2001). Newly diagnosed patients have cognitive deficits even before starting on AEDs. Performance declines already in the first year after diagnosis and the impairment continues in the following years (Taylor, 2010; Baker, 2011). In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) the hippocampal damage seems to be progressive and accompanied by thinning of neocortex (Briellmann, 2002; Bernhardt, 2009). Widespread structural and functional abnormalities in left TLE can affect more distant networks (Bonilha, 2009); a damage pattern also seen in right TLE (Karunanayaka, 2011).

  • 187.
    van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Engström, Maria
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Laterality shifts in neural activation coupled to language ability2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The right-hemispheric homologues to Broca’s and Wernicke’s area play an important, but currently poorly understood role in language ability. In the current study, we tested 27 healthy adults for their language ability. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data when the participants performed a sentence reading and a word fluency task. The fMRI data were used to calculate a measure of brain laterality – the laterality index – in the inferior frontal gyrus, the superior and middle temporal gyrus, and the angular gyrus. These laterality measurements were correlated with performance scores on language tasks administered prior to fMRI. We expected to see that high performance was characterized by a more efficient, i.e. decreased, neural activation pattern in typical language areas. Furthermore, we expected to see activation in additional, right-hemispheric brain regions in high performing subjects as a sign of neural adaptability.

    High performance in a test measuring subtle language deficits (BeSS test) was related to increased activation in the right middle temporal gyrus when the participants were reading sentences. Thus, semantic ability correlated negatively with laterality in the temporal lobe, but not in the frontal lobe. For increased verbal fluency ability, we did observe a decreased left-hemispheric dominance in the inferior frontal gyrus when the participants were generating words. Increased task demands in the word generation task were not related to brain activation, but in the sentence reading task, the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus did exhibit an increase in activation when the sentences increased in difficulty. This result was independent of individual language ability. Increased brain activation at increased difficulty of a language task is interpreted as a sign that the brain recruits additional resources upon higher demands. The negative correlation between language ability and laterality in the in right-hemispheric middle temporal gyrus indicates a higher degree of neural adaptability in the temporal lobes of high skilled individuals.

  • 188.
    van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ragnehed, Mattias
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics UHL.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Engström, Maria
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Right-hemispheric cortical contributions to language ability in healthy adults2012In: Brain and Language, ISSN 0093-934X, E-ISSN 1090-2155, Vol. 120, no 3, p. 395-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigated the correlation between individual linguistic ability based on performance levels and their engagement of typical and atypical language areas in the brain. Eighteen healthy subjects between 21 and 64 years participated in language ability tests, and subsequent functional MRI scans measuring brain activity in response to a sentence completion and a word fluency task. Performance in both reading and high-level language tests correlated positively with increased right-hemispheric activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (specifically Brodmann area 47), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and the medial temporal gyrus (Brodmann area 21). In contrast, we found a negative correlation between performance and left-hemispheric DLPFC activation.

    Our findings indicate that the right lateral frontal and right temporal regions positively modulate aspects of language ability.

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  • 189.
    Wallner, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Weström, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Avdramatiserande strategier i logopedisk intervention: En samtalsanalytisk studie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att studera de avdramatiserande strategier som förekommer under logopedisk afasi- och barnintervention samt att jämföra dessa interventionstyper. Vidare syftade studien till att beskriva hur dessa strategier påverkar interaktionen mellan logoped och patient.

    Vald analysmetod har influerats av Conversation Analysis (CA) eftersom det är en metod som kan användas för studier av interaktionen mellan människor. Materialet för analysen har utgjorts av sex samtal inom afasiintervention och åtta samtal inom barnintervention.

    Vid analysen av materialet till föreliggande studie blev det tydligt att det främst är logopeden som använde avdramatiserande strategier och detta skedde något oftare inom barnintervention än inom afasiintervention. I samma material var det relativt ovanligt att patienten använde avdramatiserande strategier. I de fall detta förekom bland patienter var det för att skydda sitt eget ansikte, till skillnad från logopedens användning som främst syftade till att skydda patientens ansikte.

    I resultaten framkom inga större skillnader gällande vilka avdramatiserande strategier som användes, däremot fanns skillnader i hur ofta de användes samt i hur de tillämpades. En annan tydlig skillnad vid jämförelse av interventionstyperna var att logopeden inom barnintervention oftare använde en stigande grundton som en artighetsstrategi, vilket i vissa situationer fungerar avdramatiserande. Gällande interaktionen ser de avdramatiserande strategierna till att samtalet fungerar och förs framåt inom de båda interventionstyperna. Behovet av de avdramatiserande strategierna blev tydligt när de inte fungerade och patienten till följd av detta upplevde ansiktshot.

    Sammanfattningsvis låg den största skillnaden mellan de studerade interventionstyperna i hur logopeden anpassade de olika strategierna till en vuxen person med afasi respektive ett barn med språkstörning.

     

     

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  • 190.
    Weström, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Örneholm, Isabelle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Interaktion och intervention: En undersökning av kommunikativa behov hos personer med afasi och dysartri i vardagliga och kliniska samtal2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In speech and language intervention, the ability to interact is seldom evaluated; rather intervention is evaluated in terms of improved testresults.  If goal-setting in intervention also is based on everyday communicative needs, the relevance of the treatment may be increased and intervention outcome may be implemented in the patient’s natural environment.

    The present study, as part of a research-project, is based on analyses of interaction and interviews to examine everyday conversations and speech and language intervention. The aim was to explore if there is a relation between everyday communication needs and goal-setting in speech and language intervention for people with aphasia. A further aim was to investigate if there are everyday communicative needs that may form goals for speech and language intervention.

    Two individuals with aphasia and one individual with both dysarhtria and aphasia participated in the study. Three speech and language pathologists and two relatives also participated in the study. Everyday interaction and intervention sessions were recorded and transcribed according to Conversation Analysis principles and analysed from an interactional perspective. Interviews regarding intervention and everyday communication were carried out with all participants. Recordings were presented and discussed with all participants, in so called retrospections.

    Four phenomena that illustrate communication needs of the participating patients were identified: repair, alternative and augmentative communication, co-construction and feedback. Analysis, interviews and retrospections have revealed that communication needs can form the basis of goal-setting in speech and language intervention. It is also demonstrated that intervention mainly is based on the everyday communication needs of the patient. Retrospections were also shown to be useful in order to observe communication needs in everyday life and in order to evaluate speech and language intervention. The retrospections were found to be beneficial to an open dialogue between speech and language pathologist, patient and relatives regarding the content and aim of the intervention.

     

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  • 191.
    Wimnell, Rebecca
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Ölmestig, Carin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Finns inte på kartan: Att nå fram till ord som inte finns med på bliss standardkarta med hjälp av enbart bliss standardkarta2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate which types of words that are easy and difficult toreach with Bliss Swedish standard chart and also which strategies that is more and lessefficient. The participants, 24 female students with no functional limitations, were grouped inpairs. One in each pair was given the task to explain 12 target words that is not present onBliss standard chart, by using only Bliss standard chart. The other person in each pair wasgiven the task to guess which words that were asked for. Since former studies have indicatedthat word class, level of frequency and level of abstraction can affect words' degree ofdifficulty, the target words in this study were chosen based upon those factors. The resultsdemonstrated that the word class of the target words did not affect their degree of difficulty.The frequency of the target words affected their degree of difficulty in some ways. The levelof abstraction of the target words was the factor that affected the degree of difficulty the most.Since the abstract and infrequent target words were most difficult, it may be a good idea toinclude those types of words on the Bliss chart. Some of the strategies that were beneficial forcommunication were the blisser’s use of syntax and syntactic prompting. Another strategy thatwas beneficial for the communication was giving the blisser enough time to finish herphrases. It may be appropriate to recommend those strategies to Bliss users and theircommunication partners.

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    Finns inte på kartan
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