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  • 151.
    Gosso, Luc
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Ornefalk, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Komponentbaserade ramverk: vilka faktorerpåverkar företag vid valet av ramverk?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An information system is something that evolves over time to enhance the company that is using it. The technology for building an information system is also evolving. New methods and new programming languages make system development easier. As new technology breaks ground and the demands of a company’s information system grow, the company will sooner or later get to a point where a change in the base of the system is necessary. Today a component-based framework is a common choice among companies. Our survey aims to find out what factors a company considers when they choose a new framework. Some of the factors we consider are how they affect the choice in the company, and if these same factors will influence the same choice in all companies.

    The results are based on a survey that we have done for six major companies. The results show that several factors affect the choice - independent or in combination with other factors. One of the most important factors is whether deeper knowledge about the framework can be acquired within the company or in the open market. It is also important that the supplier of the framework is reliable and well respected on the market. For guidance in these matters most companies turn to market forecasts from major IT research and advisory firms. We can also establish that the answers we got from the separate companies show large similarities concerning which factors they thought affected their choice the most.

  • 152.
    Grape, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    Comparing Costs of Browser Automation Test Tools with Manual Testing2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Testing is a necessary component of software development, but it is also an expensive one, especially if performed manually. One way to mitigate the cost of testing is to implement test automation, where the test cases are run automatically. For any organisation looking to implement test automation, the most interesting cost is time. Automation takes time to implement and one of the most obvious benefits of automation is that the automated test execution time is lower than that of manual execution. This thesis contains a literature study covering testing methodology, especially in regards to the domain of web application testing. The literature covered also included three economic models that may be used to calculate the costs of automation compared to manual testing. The models can be used to calculate the time it would take, or the number of necessary executions, for the total cost of test automation to be lower than of that of manual testing. The thesis is based on a case study of test automation for the StoredSafe platform, a web application. Three sets of test automation frameworks were used to implement three different test suits and the test implementation times were collected. The data collected were then used to calculate the time it would take, using the three economic models, for the cost of automated test cases to become equal to that of with manual testing. The data showed that the estimated time to reach breakeven for the three frameworks varied between 2½ and at worst 10 years, with an average of 3½ years. The models and data presented in this thesis may be used in order to estimate the cost of test automation in comparison to manual testing over longer periods of time, but care must be taken in order to ensure that the data used is correct in regards to one’s own organisation or else the estimate may be faulty.

  • 153.
    Grundberg, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Radio Netwok Test Configuration for Maximum Test Coverage: Model based load generation in system verification of a GSM Base Station Controller2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GSM has been developed during more than a decade and has grown to a very complex system. Due to the wide range of functionality, the high capacity and the complexity of the BSC the testing of stability and performance is time consuming. A simulator is needed for these tests as live networks are not available at this stage in the development process. The performance and stability need to be verified for each new release of functionality.

    This thesis describes a conceptual model of a GSM network. The conceptual model can be used to configure a simulated radio network and to communicate what is simulated on a conceptual level rather than a detailed level.

    The model presented consists of several sub models. The subscriber model describes the actions and movement of subscribers; the cell model describes the radio conditions experienced by a subscriber moving within one cell; and the cell network model describes the geographical and structural properties of the network.

    Together the models are used to compose scenarios with the aim to describe varying radio conditions, varying subscriber behavior and varying cell structures. The aim is that different features of the Ericsson base station controller shall be used in the different scenarios. The scenarios represent different parts of a radio network connected to the same base station controller.

  • 154.
    Gustafsson, Mariana S.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Constructing security: reflections on the margins of a case study of the use of electronic identification in ICT platforms in schools2014In: Privacy and Identity Management for Emerging Services and Technologies: 8th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.5, 9.6/11.7, 11.4, 11.6 International Summer School, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, June 17-21, 2013, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] M. Hansen, J.-H. Hoepman, R. Leenes, D. Whitehouse, Springer, 2014, p. 224-236Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses how people construct meanings regarding “the concept of security”, based upon the descriptions collected from participants in a case study of the use of electronic identification in ICT platforms in schools. The aim of the paper is to reflect on the concept of security by identifying and analyzing how people build their own understanding of security when using ICT platforms in schools. The analysis identifies three ontological instances of security: security as an ideal state of affairs, security as a value and information security. The analysis also clarifies the difference between the objective and subjective nature of security, as well as the differences between factual and perceived information security. As a result, I raise several research questions concerning “security”, and identify common assumptions with regard to constructing the concept of security. 

  • 155.
    Gäre, Klas
    et al.
    Internationella Handelshögskolan i Jönköping, Informatik.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Formative Infrastructure for IT-Adoption: Understanding the Dynamics of IT-Use in SME’s2010In: Sprouts Working Papers on Information Systems, ISSN 1535-6078, Vol. 10, no 67, p. 1-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IT has considerable importance for productivity increase and growth. IT use requires a lot of resources to create value. Few, if any, studies, take the perspective of SMEs' needs for infrastructure concerning use of IT. As resources are more limited in smaller enterprises, and the contexts and conditions for IT use in SMEs are not well known. Formative infrastructure is a way of understanding cognitive and technical arrangements needed for IT adoption and use, depending on IT resources crossing organizational boundaries. The purpose is to study conditions for IT-use in SMEs for a better understanding of how a formative infrastructure contributes to enterprises. The methodological point of departure and approach in this study is qualitative and explorative. More than 60 interviews are performed within a geographical region. Questions concern needs for infrastructure among SMEs, actors roles, and concepts constituting a formative infrastructure for IT adoption and use. Data was analyzed for similarities and patterns into themes and topics. A theoretical framework for formative infrastructure is presented as a multi theory lens for developing the concept of formative infrastructure. A formative IT infrastructure is constituted by the identified needs among SMEs, and it contains three parts; (1) sensemaking, (2) senegiving, and (3) service infrastructures. Formative IT infrastructure in SMEs is not a well known concept, concerning IT use in SME's. The need of for formative infrastructure in sensemaking IT adoption and use in SME's rely on external partners and other actors for sensemaking and sensegiving processes. Further research is needed for better understanding of actors and roles as well as arenas for sensemaking IT in SMEs. The emphasis on infrastructure for IT adoption processes will help SME's to more relevant investments.

  • 156.
    Gäre, Klas
    et al.
    Internationella Handelshögskolan i Jönköping, Informatik.
    Åbom, Carita
    Internationella Handelshögskolan i Jönköping, Informatik.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Formative Infrastructure for ICT-adoption in SME’s: A Study of Conditions for Progress2008In: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Information Systems / [ed] Golden, W., Acton, T., Conboy, K., van der Heijden, H., Tuunainen, V.K., Galway, Ireland: National University of Ireland , 2008, p. 1082-1093Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus in this paper is on conditions for ICT use in SMEs expressed as formative infrastructure. Questions concern needs for infrastructure among SMEs, actors roles, and concepts constituting a formative infrastructure for ICT-adoption and use. Few – if any – studies, take the perspective of SMEs’ needs for infrastructure concerning use of ICT. A formative ICT infrastructure is constituted by the identified needs among SMEs, and it contains three parts; (1) sensemaking, (2) sensegiving, and (3) service infrastructures. In SMEs there is less of infrastructure and less of overhead services and these are to be found outside the SME. The adoption processes in SMEs differ from the ones in larger enterprises. ICT adoption is the process where the formative infrastructure is maintained as well as changed by actors enacting this context. SMEs rely more on external relations in a public infrastructure. In dividing ICT infrastructure into two major areas – hard and formative infrastructure, the results indicate that, both are important, but formative ICT infrastructure in SMEs is a less known and a less elaborated concept. When analyzing the need for formative ICT infrastructure, three types, emerge – sensemaking infrastructure, sensegiving infrastructure, and service infrastructure, as three cornerstones of a formative ICT-infrastructure.

  • 157.
    Göbel, Hannes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    IT Service Management: Designprinciper för Informationssystemsartefakter2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    "Kunden är idag nöjdare"

    "Antalet kritiska fel i produktion har markant minskat"

    ”Vi har nått en högre kapacitetsnivå för flera processer”

    "Bättre kostnadskontroll för helheten samt för respektive  förvaltningsobjekt"

    "Ramverket mottogs bland medarbetarna på ett positivt sätt och kommer att hjälpa oss att arbeta mer effektivt”

    "Fått bättre kvalitet på data vilket ger möjlighet till bättre uppföljning och genomförande av proaktiva åtgärder"

    Citaten ovan vittnar om att det 36 månader långa forskningsprojekt som legat till grund för resultatet i avhandlingen har varit lyckat. Ytterligare ett bevis för framgången var att projektet blev tilldelat ”Årets IT Service Management Projekt” år 2013 med motiveringen att projektet på vetenskapliga grunder har arbetat för att effektivisera IT Service Management sektorn. Priset utdelades av den ledande internationella medlemsföreningen inom ITSM; itSMF. Men vad handlar då denna positiva respons om? Svaret är IT Service Management (ITSM) vilket är ett relativt nytt koncept där IT hanteras och levereras i form av kund- och processorienterade tjänster.

    Möjligheterna att fullt ut dra nytta av den samlade kunskapen inom ITSM-området är dock inte helt oproblematisk. Detta gäller framförallt för små och medelstora företag (SMF) som betraktar sig som IT-tjänsteleverantörer. Den främsta anledningen till detta är att befintliga stöd på marknaden, som avser att bistå organisationer med att leverera effektiva tjänster, inte är designade efter de förutsättningar som SMF besitter. Detta innebär att det finns en brist på goda stöd för denna stora grupp att skapa tjänster av hög kvalitet på ett kostnadseffektivt sätt. Detta kan leda till onödigt höga kostnader, minskad konkurrenskraft och minskade vinstmarginaler för organisationerna.

    Ett forskningsprojekt vid Högskolan i Borås har under tre år utvecklat ett ramverk som syftar till att stödja SMF i sitt arbete med att effektivisera sina tjänsteleveranser. Ramverket består av metoder, modeller och IT-artefakter. Syftet med avhandlingen är att beskriva arbetet med dessa artefakttyper samt att presentera kunskapsbidrag bland annat i form av designprinciper. Designprinciperna syftar till att underlätta och stödja utvecklingen av ITSM-relaterade informationssystemartefakter (IS-artefakter) för SMF. Den forskningsmetod som använts har varit en variant av Action Design Research (ADR). Forskningsmetoden hanterar utveckling, intervention och utvärdering av artefakter och ligger inom ramen för Design Research (DR). Bidraget i avhandlingen relaterar därför till de dubbla uppgifterna i DR: 1) kunskapsbidrag riktade till forskarsamhället och 2) kunskap som är riktat till praktiker. De kunskapsbidrag som presenteras för forskarsamhället utgörs främst, men är inte begränsade till, designprinciper och förfining av de teorier som legat till grund för designprinciperna. Bidraget till praktiker utgörs främst av, men är inte begränsade till, de olika typer av IS-artefakter som designats och utvärderats under studien.

  • 158.
    Hafström, Johan H
    et al.
    Institutionen för Informationsteknologi och Systemvetenskap, Högkolan i Östersund.
    Nordström, Malin
    Institutionen för Informationsteknologi och Systemvetenskap, Högkolan i Östersund.
    Systemförvaltning: faktisk verksamhet, problem och möjligheter1991Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with the present work is to examine how corporations and organizations maintain their information systems, if the Applied Mode! (Hafström, Nordström; 1991) contain all parts required for working system maintenance and according to this discuss problems and possibilities of system maintenance. We realized a literature study and interviewed people who are involved in the process of system maintenance. The result of the literature study is presented by definitions of conceptions and the result of three examinations. A summary of the interviews is made. From the received information we developed the definition of the system maintenance conception. Applied Mode! is developed and the result is Rocket Maintenance Model. Further on we discuss problems and possibilities of system maintenance and finally we are giving our opinion how to start the work by structuring the system maintenance process.

  • 159.
    Hagdahl, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Development of IT-supported Inter-organisational Collaboration: A Case Study in the Swedish Public Sector2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration across the organisational boundaries takes place for different reasons. One of them is to solve complex problems that cannot be dealt with by a single organisation. The area of vocational rehabilitation constitutes an example of inter-organisational collaboration motivated by a need for joint problem solving. Individuals are admitted to vocational rehabilitation with the aim of entering or re-entering the labour market. These individuals constitute a heterogeneous group with different kinds of problems, based on e.g. their social situation, long-term diseases and/or substance abuse. As a result, they are handled at more than one welfare state agency at the time, and the practitioners working at these agencies need to collaborate to find individual solutions for their clients. The expected positive effects of such collaboration are long-term planning, increased quality of the casee management, and reductions of invested time and money.

    In this thesis, an interpretive case study of inter-organisational teamwork within the vocational rehabilitation is presented. The aim of the study was to investigate how the collaboration could be supported by information technology.

    During a time period of two years, practitioners from three welfare state agencies took part in the research project, The activities included observations of the teamwork, individual interviews with the practitioners and design of information technology that should support the teamwork. An essential part of the design activities was the user representatives' direct participation in the design group, composed by practitioners and researchers. To stimulate the participation, methods with its origin in the participatory design approach were used.

    The design requirements that were defined included support for the team's communication and joint documentation of cases, and also information sharing about previous, present and future rehabilitation activities. The teamwork was characterised by an open, positive atmosphere where the practitioners were trying to find solutions for the clients within the frames of the current rules and regulations, limited by the resources allocated for vocational rehabilitation activities. However, the environment was also found to be dynamic with changing, and in some cases conflicting, enterprise objectives, Furthermore, the enterprise objectives were not broken down into tangible objectives on the operational level.

    The physical team meetings and the meetings with the clients constituted essential parts of the work practices and it is concluded that these meetings should not be substituted by technology. The case management could, however, be supported by a flexible tool that meets the users' needs of freedom of action.

  • 160.
    Hagemann, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Björk, Hanna
    Department of Computer and Information Science.
    A System for Driver Identity Verification2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Different security issues are a top subject around the world, especially since the terror threats seem to intensify. In the same time, the transport industry suffer from problems with smuggling and theft of valuable goods. One way to increase the security might be to have a verification system installed in commercial trucks, in order to assure that the driver is the proper one.

    This thesis has two purposes. One is to find appropriate methods for driver verification and build a prototype of a verification system which can be used for testing and further development. The other is to study how truck drivers perceive such a system and how their conception goes along with the growing demand for higher security. The present work is the result of a cooperation between an engineer and a cognitive scientist. The thesis focuses on the transport industry and was performed for Volvo Technology Corporation (VTEC), Gothenburg, Sweden.

    Eleven available verification methods were studied. To enable a well-based selection of methods to implement in the prototype, inquiries and interviews with truck drivers and haulage contractors were carried out to complement the theoretical study.

    One regular and three biometric verification methods were chosen for the test; fingerprint verification, face recognition, voice recognition and PIN verification. These methods were put together to a prototype system that was implemented in a truck simulator. A graphical user interface was developed in order to make the system user friendly. The prototype system was tested by 18 truck drivers. They were thoroughly interviewed before and after the test in order to retrieve their background, expectations and opinions as well as their perceptions and experiences of the test.

    Most of the test participants were positive to the prototype system. Even though they did not feel a need for it today they believed it to “be the future”. However, some participants felt uncomfortable with the system since they felt controlled by it. It became clear how important it is to have a system that respect the users’ privacy and to assure that the users are well informed about how the system is used. Some of the technology used for the verification system requires more development to fit in the automotive context, but it is considered to be possible to achieve a secure and robust system.

  • 161.
    Haglund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kärnverksamhetsdriven Information Assurance: Att skapa tilltro till beslutskritisk information2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet är utfört på uppdrag av Generic Systems i syfte att bl.a. utreda begreppet Information Assurance (IA) utifrån given definition (IA is the process of establishing trust for the information we use in our business). Fokus kom att hamna på taktiska militära ledningssystem inklusive ingående individer.

    Det finns ett stort behov av en sådan här studie av flera anledningar bl.a. eftersom det just nu pågår ett paradigmskifte; från förvaltar- till förbrukarattityd och från need to know till need to share. Det innebär alltså att ett helt nytt synsätt på information håller på att växa fram

    Första slutsatsen som drog var att IA är ett verkligt multidisciplinärt ämne som kräver djupa kunskaper inom många och vitt skilda områden t.ex. systemvetenskap, datasäkerhet och organisationsteori. En annan slutsats jsom drogs var att för att en användare ska känna tilltro till information måste tre grundkrav vara uppfyllda: användaren måste ha förtroende för systemet som förmedlar informationen, informationen i sig måste uppvisa vissa kvaliteter och slutligen påverkar egenskaper hos användaren den upplevda tilltron.

    Med utgångspunkt i Försvarsmaktens behov så visade det sig att de centrala förändringarna som krävs för att uppnå effekten IA bland annat är ökat fokus på användbarhet i systemutvecklingen och flexiblare individanpassad utbildning. Utbildningen måste tillse såväl tillräcklig teknisk kompetens som säkerhetsmedvetande hos personalen. Andra delar som bör förändras är informationsarkitekturen; ökad separation mellan datamodell och informationsmodell är önskvärd.

  • 162.
    Haglund, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Karlsson, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    HTML5 as a platform independent tool to render IoT-data2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores advantages and challenges of specifying how IoT data is presented to an end user in AR using HTML5. Our conclusion is that HTML5 is a way of defi- ning data where competence is easy to come by and cross platform usability is good. The primary advantage is the capability of deciding how something is rendered and have it look the same way on any number of different platforms. The challenges are that cross platform compatibility is not perfect. Even platforms such as a native Android application, that has support for rendering HTML, suffered from very poor performance compared to a PC. Platforms not supporting HTML5 natively, in this case Unity and Vuforia, caused further challenges and required a separate headless browser application to render the web page. Our conclusion is that you can use HTML5 to define the appearance of data visualization across multiple platforms, even though they may have no native support for rendering the DOM. It worked without issues within a browser running on a PC, came with performance issues inside an Android webview and required additional middleware and limited interaction in Unity.

  • 163.
    Hammarlund, Pär
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Simulation and Analyis of a Continuous Variable Cam Phasing Internal Combustion Engine2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of fuel efficient internal combustion engines (ICE)have resulted in a variety of different solutions. One of those are the variable valve timing and an implemenation of such is the Continuous Variable Cam Phasing (CVCP). This thesis have used a simulation package, psPack, for the simulation of the gas exchange process for an ICE with CVCP. The purpose of the simulations was to investigate what kind of design parameters, e.g. the length of an intake pipe or the duration of combustion, that were significant for the gas exchange process with the alternation of intake pressure, engine speed and valve setting. The parameters that showed a vast impact were those who affected the amount of residual gas and the temperature of the air charge. Furthermore a validation was made between simulation data acquired from psPack and measured data provided in Heywood (1988). The validation showed that for the general behaviour the simulation results from psPack corresponded well to the measured data.

  • 164.
    Harnesk, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Galzie, Zara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mobile Devices in the Public Healthcare Sector: Perceptions, Experiences and Expectations of Nursing Care Providers2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are high expectations regarding mobile technology and how it can be used to promote improvements in the quality and efficiency in healthcare. There appears to be a gap between the goals and strategy on the macro level and the micro level experiences of the usage of mobile devices among healthcare professionals.

     

    The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions, experiences and expectations of nursing care providers at two wards with regards to the recently implemented mobile platform COSMIC Nova Ward and other related IT artefacts. Special emphasis has been on COSMIC Nova Ward Tablet, a part of COSMIC Nova Ward, facilitated in iPad MINIs. It is designed to act as a tool to facilitate the provision of care and has been introduced at both the wards during a pilot project. Even though the two wards are similar in both practice and structure, the pilot project resulted in failure at one of the wards and a relative success at the other.

     

    A comparative case study of the perceptions, experiences and expectations of the nursing personnel at the two wards was conducted in order to highlight the differences in the outcomes of the pilot project. By reflexively comparing these with theory, it was concluded that there are several factors other than adequacy of the IT system that determine the outcome of the implementation of a mobile platform in a clinical setting.

     

    These findings were then compared with existing legislation and policies, in order to identify potential discrepancies between the nursing personnel’s usage of IT with the regional and national goals and strategy. It was then determined that there needs to be a clear connection between the usage of IT and the goals and strategy within healthcare.

  • 165.
    Harnesk, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Hellström, John
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Effekter av e-tjänster inom den offentliga vården: En kvalitativ fallstudie om hur e-tjänster kan påverka en offentlig vårdorganisations verksamhet och dess medarbetare2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    E-services are becoming increasingly prevalent in various contexts. Organizations in the public sector have also embraced this trend and today provide e-services with different purposes, e.g. various e-health services. Although there are advantages of e-services compared to traditional channels, they are not free of problems; a public organization must, among other things, provide an availability that private organizations may not need. This in turn means that the business needs to adapt its internal IT systems to handle incoming cases, which affects both the organization’s business and its employees. As today’s demands exceeds the resources, and that the population in Sweden is growing older, demands increase on the health care’s business. Citizens have to take greater responsibility for their own healthcare, which involves changes in working methods through effective e-services. Therefore, we examined the consequences this has within the business, as well as how the use of e-services affects the employees’ working routines and administrative work.

    The study aims to identify and analyze consequences, opportunities and obstacles with e-health and e-services within a public health care organization. In this way, we see that the study may help with possible explanations to the challenges that arise from the use of e-services in the public health care. The intention is also to identify and describe possible gaps between expected effects of strategies and the outcome in the operational business, which we see can contribute to greater understanding of the differences and how they might be handled. The study is based on a qualitative case study on Region Östergötland, where we have collected empirical data through interviews. The interviews have then been interpreted and analyzed to provide an illustration of how the organization strategically works with e-services in the public healthcare and how this is manifested in the business.

    The study results and conclusions show that there are both positive and less desirable effects of e-services within the operational level of the business. The same also applies to certain strategic decisions, particularly the decision to make patient records available through the e-service My health care contacts. We consider that an important contribution of the study is to highlight the needs from the operational health care business, as well as the importance of taking these into account in the development of e-health and e-service related strategies. We consider that another contribution of the study is the need to reflect on the business implications that may arise as a result of e-services.

  • 166.
    Harring, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Ingelman, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Mätning i produktionen till följd av en investering: En produktionsplanerares kompass i mätetalsskogen2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna leda och styra ett tillverkande företag krävs det att man mäter rätt saker för att skapa sig ett gediget beslutsunderlag. Vad som är rätt att mäta är dock ingen självklarhet. Många företag vet inte alltid varför de mäter just det de mäter och vissa mätningar görs av ren tradition. I vissa specifika situationer, till exempel vid en stor investering i exempelvis produktionen, är det intressant att mäta innan investeringen genomförs och sedan jämföra detta med tidpunkt efter att investeringen tagits i bruk för att identifiera förbättringar till följd av investeringen.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att ta fram övergripande faktorer och specifika mätetal som ett tillverkande företag bör följa upp beroende på vissa inre och yttre omständigheter kring företaget. Inre omständigheter syftar till olika tillverkningsegenskaper och produktegenskaper, och de yttre omständigheterna syftar till bland annat konkurrensfaktorer. Vi har utifrån detta skapat ett ramverk ur vilket man identifierar företagens inre och yttre omständigheter samt kopplar dessa till företagets mål vilket resulterar i specifika mätetal som passar just det aktuella företaget.

    För att kunna ta fram ramverket har vi i examensarbetet genomfört litteraturstudier, förintervjuer med tre tillverkande företag och telefonintervjuer med cirka 30 tillverkande företag. Vi har studerat befintliga prestationsmätningsmodeller ur vilka vi har kunnat sammanställa viktiga mätetal indelade i strukturerade grupper. Med hjälp av litteraturstudien och förintervjuerna kunde en hypotes med förväntat resultat av telefonintervjuerna formuleras. Resultatet av telefonintervjuerna diskuterades sedan tillsammans med hypotesen vilket resulterade i tabeller med mätetal för de framtagna faktorerna vilka ramverket slutligen bygger på.

  • 167.
    Hartig, Olaf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Potsdam, Germany.
    Pirro, Giuseppe
    Italian National Research Council ICAR CNR, Italy.
    SPARQL with property paths on the Web2017In: Semantic Web, ISSN 1570-0844, E-ISSN 2210-4968, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 773-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linked Data on the Web represents an immense source of knowledge suitable to be automatically processed and queried. In this respect, there are different approaches for Linked Data querying that differ on the degree of centralization adopted. On one hand, the SPARQL query language, originally defined for querying single datasets, has been enhanced with features to query federations of datasets; however, this attempt is not sufficient to cope with the distributed nature of data sources available as Linked Data. On the other hand, extensions or variations of SPARQL aim to find trade-offs between centralized and fully distributed querying. The idea is to partially move the computational load from the servers to the clients. Despite the variety and the relative merits of these approaches, as of today, there is no standard language for querying Linked Data on theWeb. A specific requirement for such a language to capture the distributed, graph-like nature of Linked Data sources on the Web is a support of graph navigation. Recently, SPARQL has been extended with a navigational feature called property paths (PPs). However, the semantics of SPARQL restricts the scope of navigation via PPs to single RDF graphs. This restriction limits the applicability of PPs for querying distributed Linked Data sources on the Web. To fill this gap, in this paper we provide formal foundations for evaluating PPs on the Web, thus contributing to the definition of a query language for Linked Data. We first introduce a family of reachability-based query semantics for PPs that distinguish between navigation on the Web and navigation at the data level. Thereafter, we consider another, alternative query semantics that couples Web graph navigation and data level navigation; we call it context-based semantics. Given these semantics, we find that for some PP-based SPARQL queries a complete evaluation on the Web is not possible. To study this phenomenon we introduce a notion of Web-safeness of queries, and prove a decidable syntactic property that enables systems to identify queries that areWeb-safe. In addition to establishing these formal foundations, we conducted an experimental comparison of the context-based semantics and a reachability- based semantics. Our experiments show that when evaluating a PP-based query under the context-based semantics one experiences a significantly smaller number of dereferencing operations, but the computed query result may contain less solutions.

  • 168.
    Hashmi, Mir Mahammed Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Explore Hyderabad: An Interactive Web-based GIS Application Prototype2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Products are displayed in a shelf to market and sell to the public. It creates an interest and attracts people towards it. Likewise, any country or city can showcase itself by using Web over the internet which will attract the tourists from around the world. This example can be used for the city of Hyderabad. Hyderabad has truly become an international city and there are many multinational companies establishing themselves. It is rapidly becoming a hot spot for tourists from around the world because of its exotic locations and facilities provided by the government. The city has been famous for historical monuments and culture, but in the recent years it has developed into a world class IT destination for many multinational IT companies and due to this it has attained world recognition on the global scenario. The time is to reap the benefits of this image and promote the city’s tourist sector by globally marketing the tourist attractions, facilities and services in an innovative and better way so that tourists from around the world visit the city and thereby contribute to the country’s economy with the foreign currency.

    This research deals with developing a Web-based GIS application that can promote the city’s tourist activities and also provide the users with an innovative way to access the spatial content of the city. GIS content forms the core component of this application as it provides the users with the spatial information about the place that is very close to reality. It supports the human tendency of “What you see is what you believe” by displaying the spatial information on the map. The application has been developed with the latest mapping server technology provided by Environmental Science Research Institute’s ArcIMS 9.1. This server software provides simple and easy methods to launch a Web-based GIS application over the Internet.

  • 169.
    Hasic, Mirsad
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Informationssäkerhetsarbete på Linköpings Universitet: En kvalitativ studie av IT-avdelningen och en institution2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats behandlar jag området informationssäkerhet som har sin grund i det IT- samhälle som vi lever i idag. För att studera objektet Linköpings universitet har jag använt mig av Oscarssons [Osc01] ISV-modell vars syfte är att öka förståelsen för hanteringen av informationssäkerhet i verksamheter samt informationssäkerhetens betydelse för olika verksamheter.Den teori som jag tar upp i denna uppsats behandlar olika aspekter på hur arbetet med informationssäkerhet kan och bör ske. Den tar även upp problematiken med hur man ska gå till väga för att ändra användarnas attityd gentemot informationssäkerhet.Det empiriska materialet till denna uppsats har jag hämtat in genom intervjuer utformade utifrån Oscarssons [Osc01] ISV-modell. Jag har studerat LIU-IT som är Linköpings universitets huvudsakliga leverantör av skyddsartefakter samt en av de större institutionerna. Det egna empiriska materialet har jag sedan kompletterat med sekundär data.De slutsatser som kunnat dras utifrån denna uppsats är att informationssäkerhetsnivån på LIU-IT skiljer sig markant från den studerade institutionen. LIU-IT och den institution som jag studerat är överens om att de primära hoten gentemot informationssäkerheten på Linköpings universitet utgörs av de egna användarna, virus samt hackers.När det gäller arbetet med informationssäkerhet så skiljer sig LIU-IT en del jämfört med den studerade institutionen. Till exempel genomför man riskanalyser med jämna mellanrum samt håller sig uppdaterade om de olika hot som florerar på Internet idag. Den institution som jag studerat arbetar inte aktivt med att utforma rutiner som skall följas vid arbetet med informationssäkerhet. Man förlitar sig på att användarna ska ta det största ansvaret och inte äventyra institutionens informationssäkerhet.Linköpings universitet decentraliserar även arbetet med informationssäkerhet vilketbidrar till att glappet mellan institutionen och LIU-IT ökar för varje dag som går. Jag anser att mycket av den problematik som finns runt hanteringen av informationssäkerhet skulle kunna lösas om man centraliserade arbetet med informationssäkerhet. Genom att centralisera arbetet med informationssäkerhet så skulle man sträva åt samma håll till skillnad mot vad som är fallet idag.

  • 170.
    Hasson, Henna
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Cty Council, Sweden.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Augustsson, Hanna
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Cty Council, Sweden.
    Ingvarsson, Sara
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Korlen, Sara
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Malardalen Univ, Sweden.
    To do or not to do-balancing governance and professional autonomy to abandon low-value practices: a study protocol2019In: Implementation Science, ISSN 1748-5908, E-ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 14, article id 70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundMany interventions used in health care lack evidence of effectiveness and may be unnecessary or even cause harm, and should therefore be de-implemented. Lists of such ineffective, low-value practices are common, but these lists have little chance of leading to improvements without sufficient knowledge regarding how de-implementation can be governed and carried out. However, decisions regarding de-implementation are not only a matter of scientific evidence; the puzzle is far more complex with political, economic, and relational interests play a role. This project aims at exploring the governance of de-implementation of low-value practices from the perspectives of national and regional governments and senior management at provider organizations.MethodsTheories of complexity science and organizational alignment are used, and interviews are conducted with stakeholders involved in the governance of low-value practice de-implementation, including national and regional governments (focusing on two contrasting regions in Sweden) and senior management at provider organizations. In addition, an ongoing process for governing de-implementation in accordance with current recommendations is followed over an 18-month period to explore how governance is conducted in practice. A framework for the governance of de-implementation and policy suggestions will be developed to guide de-implementation governance.DiscussionThis study contributes to knowledge about the governance of de-implementation of low-value care practices. The study provides rich empirical data from multiple system levels regarding how de-implementation of low-value practices is currently governed. The study also makes a theoretical contribution by applying the theories of complexity and organizational alignment, which may provide generalizable knowledge about the interplay between stakeholders across system levels and how and why certain factors influence the governance of de-implementation. The project employs a solution-oriented perspective by developing a framework for de-implementation of low-value practices and suggesting practical strategies to improve the governance of de-implementation. The framework and strategies can thereafter be evaluated for validity and impact in future studies.

  • 171.
    He, Qing
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Comprehensive Analysis of Optimal Link Scheduling for Emptying a Wireless Network2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communications have become an important part of modern life. The ubiquitous wireless networks and connectivities generate exponentially increasing data traffic. In view of this, wireless network optimization, which aims at utilizing the limited resource, especially spectrum and energy, as efficiently as possible from a network perspective, is essential for performance improvement and sustainable development of wireless communications.

    In the dissertation, we focus on a fundamental problem of wireless network optimization, link scheduling, as well as its subproblem, link activation. The problem type arises because of the nature of wireless media and hence it is of relevance to a wide range of networks with multiple access. We freshen these classic problems up by novel extensions incorporating new technologies of interference management or with new performance metrics. We also revisit the problems in their classic setup to gain new theoretical results and insights for problem-solving. Throughout the study, we consider the problems with a general setup, such that the insights presented in this dissertation are not constrained to a specific technology or network type. Since link activation and scheduling are key elements of access coordination in wireless communications, the study opens up new approaches that significantly improve network performance, and eventually benefit practical applications.

    The dissertation consists of five research papers. The first paper addresses maximum link activation with cooperative transmission and interference cancellation. Papers II and III investigate the minimum-time link scheduling problem in general and a particular class of networks, respectively. In Paper IV, we consider the scheduling problem of emptying a network in its broad form and provide a general optimality condition. In Paper V, we study the scheduling problem with respect to age of information.

    List of papers
    1. Maximum Link Activation with Cooperative Transmission and Interference Cancellation in Wireless Networks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maximum Link Activation with Cooperative Transmission and Interference Cancellation in Wireless Networks
    2017 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, ISSN 1536-1233, E-ISSN 1558-0660, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 408-421Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We address the maximum link activation problem in wireless networks with new features, namely when the transmitters can perform cooperative transmission, and the receivers are able to perform successive interference cancellation. In this new problem setting, which transmitters should transmit and to whom, as well as the optimal cancellation patterns at the receivers, are strongly intertwined. We present contributions along three lines. First, we provide a thorough tractability analysis, proving the NP-hardness as well as identifying tractable cases. Second, for benchmarking purposes, we deploy integer linear programming for achieving global optimum using off-theshelf optimization methods. Third, to overcome the scalability issue of integer programming, we design a sub-optimal but efficient optimization algorithm for the problem in its general form, by embedding maximum-weighted bipartite matching into local search. Numerical results are presented for performance evaluation, to validate the benefit of cooperative transmission and interference cancellation for maximum link activation and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2017
    National Category
    Communication Systems Telecommunications
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112447 (URN)10.1109/TMC.2016.2546906 (DOI)000393808500009 ()
    Conference
    2014 IEEE 25th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), September 2-5, Washington DC, DC, USA
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council; EU FP7 Marie Curie [324515, 329313]; National Science Foundation [CCF-0728966, CCF-1420651]; ONR [N000141410107]

    Available from: 2014-11-27 Created: 2014-11-27 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Minimum-Time Link Scheduling for Emptying Wireless Systems: Solution Characterization and Algorithmic Framework
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Minimum-Time Link Scheduling for Emptying Wireless Systems: Solution Characterization and Algorithmic Framework
    2014 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ISSN 0018-9448, E-ISSN 1557-9654, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 1083-1100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a set of transmitter-receiver pairs, or links, that share a wireless medium and address the problem of emptying backlogged queues with given initial size at the transmitters in minimum time. The problem amounts to determining activation subsets of links, and their time durations, to form a minimum-time schedule. Scheduling in wireless networks has been studied under various formulations before. In this paper, we present fundamental insights and solution characterizations that include: 1) showing that the complexity of the problem remains high for any continuous and increasing rate function; 2) formulating and proving sufficient and necessary optimality conditions of two baseline scheduling strategies that correspond to emptying the queues using one-at-a-time or all-at-once strategies; and 3) presenting and proving the tractability of the special case in which the transmission rates are functions only of the cardinality of the link activation sets. These results are independent of physical-layer system specifications and are valid for any form of rate function. We then develop an algorithmic framework for the solution to this problem. The framework encompasses exact as well as sub-optimal, but fast, scheduling algorithms, all under a unified principle design. Through computational experiments, we finally investigate the performance of several specific algorithms from this framework.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2014
    Keywords
    Algorithm; optimality; scheduling; wireless networks
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104836 (URN)10.1109/TIT.2013.2292065 (DOI)000330286100022 ()
    Available from: 2014-02-28 Created: 2014-02-28 Last updated: 2018-08-14
    3. Polynomial Complexity Minimum-Time Scheduling in a Class of Wireless Networks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polynomial Complexity Minimum-Time Scheduling in a Class of Wireless Networks
    2016 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Control of Network Systems, ISSN 2325-5870, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 322-331Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a wireless network with a set of transmitter-receiver pairs, or links, that share a common channel, and address the problem of emptying finite traffic volume from the transmitters in minimum time. This, so called, minimum-time scheduling problem has been proved to be NP-hard in general. In this paper, we study a class of minimum-time scheduling problems in which the link rates have a particular structure. We show that global optimality can be reached in polynomial time and derive optimality conditions. Then we consider a more general case in which we apply the same approach and obtain an approximation as well as lower and upper bounds to the optimal solution. Simulation results confirm and validate our approach.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
    Keywords
    algorithm, interference, optimality, scheduling, wireless networks
    National Category
    Communication Systems Telecommunications
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112446 (URN)10.1109/TCNS.2015.2512678 (DOI)000384701100010 ()
    Note

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

    Available from: 2014-11-27 Created: 2014-11-27 Last updated: 2019-07-15Bibliographically approved
    4. A general optimality condition of link scheduling for emptying a wireless network
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A general optimality condition of link scheduling for emptying a wireless network
    2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON INFORMATION THEORY, IEEE , 2016, p. 1446-1450Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider link scheduling in wireless networks for emptying the queues of the source nodes, and provide a unified mathematical formulation that accommodates all meaningful settings of link transmission rates and network configurations. We prove that, any scheduling problem is equivalent to solving a convex problem defined over the convex hull of the rate region. Based on the fundamental insight, a general optimality condition is derived, that yields a unified treatment of optimal scheduling. Furthermore, we demonstrate the implications and usefulness of the result. Specifically, by applying the theoretical insight to optimality characterization and complexity analysis of scheduling problems, we can both unify and extend previously obtained results.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2016
    Series
    IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory. Proceedings, ISSN 2157-8095, E-ISSN 2157-8117
    Keywords
    convex programming;radio links;radio networks;telecommunication scheduling;convex hull;convex problem;general optimality condition;link scheduling;link transmission rates;network configurations;optimal scheduling;source nodes;wireless network;Complexity theory;Information theory;Interference;Optimal scheduling;Processor scheduling;Scheduling;Wireless networks;complexity;optimality;scheduling;wireless networks
    National Category
    Computer Engineering Information Systems Software Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131357 (URN)10.1109/ISIT.2016.7541538 (DOI)000390098701102 ()
    Conference
    IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), 2016, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain, July l0-l5, 2016
    Available from: 2016-09-15 Created: 2016-09-15 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
  • 172.
    He, Qing
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ephremides, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A general optimality condition of link scheduling for emptying a wireless network2016In: 2016 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON INFORMATION THEORY, IEEE , 2016, p. 1446-1450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider link scheduling in wireless networks for emptying the queues of the source nodes, and provide a unified mathematical formulation that accommodates all meaningful settings of link transmission rates and network configurations. We prove that, any scheduling problem is equivalent to solving a convex problem defined over the convex hull of the rate region. Based on the fundamental insight, a general optimality condition is derived, that yields a unified treatment of optimal scheduling. Furthermore, we demonstrate the implications and usefulness of the result. Specifically, by applying the theoretical insight to optimality characterization and complexity analysis of scheduling problems, we can both unify and extend previously obtained results.

  • 173.
    Hedenskog, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perceive those things which cannot be seen: A cognitive systems engineering perspective on requirements management2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-functional requirements contribute to the overall quality of software, and should therefore be a part of any development effort. However, in practice they are often considered to be too difficult to handle.

    The purpose of this thesis is to gain understanding of where the nature and origin of these difficulties may lie. The focus is on a specific type of non-functional requirements: usability requirements. The basis for the thesis is two case studies, the results of which are presented herein:

    The first case study describes the work environment of radio network optimizers by presenting needs regarding task performance and the use of knowledge, qualities of current tools, and the expected qualities of new technology. The original purpose of this study was to investigate how a higher level of automation in the software tools used for managing the radio network would impact the optimizers’ work. As a result of the ethnographical method used, the first study revealed that there was a body of user requirements that were not addressed in the tool development.

    This led to the second case study, specifically examining the difficulties of managing usability requirements. The study took place over the course of two years, at a company that is a large supplier of systems for radio network control. The purpose was to seek knowledge about the requirements engineering process at the studied company, in order to better understand the environment, people and tasks involved in controlling this process. The motivation for this was to find an answer to the question of why some requirements are not addressed in the tool development, even though they are important to the tool users. It was also the ambition to identify and describe areas in the requirements engineering process that might be improved. The requirements engineering process was analyzed from a cognitive systems engineering perspective, which is suitable for analysis and design of complex, high variety systems, such as the system that controls the requirements management process.

    The result from the second case study is a description of the difficulties of handling requirements, specifically usability requirements. The impacts of the process, the organization, and the culture are discussed, as is the overall task of controlling the requirements engineering process.

    The study concludes that:

    - The engineering production culture impacts the way non-functional (especially usability-) requirements are addressed in software development.

    - Lack of knowledge of potential problems with usability requirements can be a state which is maintained by a self-reinforcing process.

    - A discrepancy between where responsibility for managing requirements is, and where resources are, can cause problems where usability requirements are concerned.

    It was also empirically verified that:

    - A cognitive systems engineering approach can be successfully applied to this type of system, and easily incorporates cultural aspects in the analysis.

  • 174.
    Hedström, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Spår av datoriseringens värden: Effekter av IT i äldreomsorg2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Visioner om IT lovar många och positiva förändringar i samhället. Detta gäller inte minst inom svensk äldreomsorg där IT ses som ett verktyg för att utveckla och förbättra äldreomsorgen. Genom att datorisera äldreomsorgen finns förhoppningar om goda effekter som bättre tillgång till information i samband med möte med den äldre, förbättrad samverkan över organisationsgränser samt bättre uppföljning.

    Den här avhandlingen handlar om datorisering av äldreomsorg, de aktörer genom vars intressen och värden IT-system utvecklas, och de värden som IT-systemen skapar. Då värden styr handlande, prioriteringar, beslut samt hur vi värderar det vi upplever påverkar värden utveckling och utvärdering av IT-system. Därmed studeras effekter som spår av värden. Detta är en kvalitativ studie som illustrerar hur fyra administrativa och äldreomsorgsstödjande IT-system i tre svenska kommuner har utvecklats genom olika aktörsgruppers värden och vilka värden dessa IT-system uppfattas stödja. Avhandlingsarbetet har en stark empirisk bas som har utvecklats genom att jag har deltagit i upphandling samt utveckling av IT-system för äldreomsorg i Örebro samt Linköpings kommun. Dessutom har jag studerat upplevda effekter av att använda IT-system som stöd för arbete inom äldreomsorg i Göteborg stad och Linköpings kommun.

    Avhandlingens resultat visar att datorisering av äldreomsorg drivs av och värderas utifrån fyra värdeområden: förvaltningsvärden, integrationsvärden, omsorgsvärden och professionsvärden. Förutom ovanstående resultat presenteras datoriseringsprocessernas aktörs-grupper och deras värden samt en jämförelse av värden som drivkrafter eller konsekvenser. Sju sammanfattande resultat avslutar beskrivningen av avhandlingens kunskapsbidrag.

  • 175.
    Hellbe, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leung, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION: HOW APIS DRIVE BUSINESS MODEL CHANGE AND INNOVATION2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years, information technology has created opportunities to improve and extend businesses and to start conducting business in new ways. With the evolution of IT, all businesses and industries are becoming increasingly digitized. This process, or coevolution, of IT and business coming together is called digital transformation. One of the recent trends in this digital transformation is the use of application programmable interfaces (APIs). APIs are standardized digital communication interfaces, used for communication and exchange of information between systems, services and devices (such as computers, smartphones and connected machines). API communication is one of the foundational building blocks in recent disruptive technology trends such as mobile and cloud computing.

    The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of the business impact that is created in digital transformation related to the use of APIs. To investigate this novel area, an exploratory study is performed where a frame of reference with an exploratory framework is created based on established academic literature. The exploratory framework consists of three main parts which cover the research questions, including Business Drivers, Business Model Change & Innovation and Challenges & Limitations related to API-enabled digital transformation. The framework is used to gather empirical data consisting of two types, interviews (primary data) and contemporary reports (secondary data). Interviews are performed with API-utilizing companies, consulting firms and IT solution providers and contemporary reports are published by consulting and technology research and advisory firms.

    Two main business drivers are identified in the study. The first is Understanding & Satisfying Customer Needs which is derived from companies experiencing stronger and changing demands for automated, personalized value-adding services. This requires higher degree of integration across channels and organizations. The second driver is Business Agility, which derives from higher requirements on adapting to changing environments while maintaining operational efficiency. Cost Reduction is also mentioned as a third and secondary driver, as a positive side-effect in combination with the other drivers. The identified impact on business models is that business model innovation is mostly happening in the front-end of business model towards customers. Several examples also exist of purely API-enabled businesses that sell services or manage information exchanges over APIs. The challenges and limitations identified are mostly classic challenges of using IT in businesses and not specific to use of APIs, where the general consensus is that IT and business need to become more integrated, and that strategy and governance for API-initiatives need to be established.

  • 176.
    Herrera, I.
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Grotan, T. O.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Woltjer, R.
    Swedish Def Research Agency FOI, Sweden.
    Nevhage, B.
    Swedish Def Research Agency FOI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, S.
    Swedish Def Research Agency FOI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Trnka, J.
    Swedish Def Research Agency FOI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Adini, B.
    Ben Gurion University of Negev, Israel.
    Cohen, O.
    Ben Gurion University of Negev, Israel.
    Forsberg, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Jonson, Carl-Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Applying resilience concepts in crisis management and critical infrastructures-the DARWIN project2017In: RISK, RELIABILITY AND SAFETY: INNOVATING THEORY AND PRACTICE, CRC PRESS-TAYLOR & FRANCIS GROUP , 2017, p. 2137-2144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent crises and disasters, both natural and man-made have led to the conclusion that there is a need for a resilient approach to preparing for and dealing with such events is needed. In this context, the DARWIN project aims to improve response to expected and unexpected crises affecting critical infrastructures and social structures by developing management guidelines on resilience concepts and innovative training modules for crisis management. The guidelines will cover essential resilience abilities of stakeholders to anticipate, monitor, respond, adapt, learn and evolve, to ensure efficient operation in face of crises. This paper uses a selection of resilience concepts to illustrate how resilience management guidelines can be used to understand and improve crises management. The application of the concepts to this specific case is an experiment to guide further work. This experiment shows that resilience guidelines should enable discovery on how multiple actors operate in a flexible manner and adapt in rapidly changing environment. Further work, needs to specify a set of guidelines co-developed and tested with end-users.

  • 177.
    Herzog, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An approach to systems engineering tool data representation and exchange2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades computer based tools have been introduced to facilitate systems engineering processes. There are computer based tools for assisting engineers in virtually every aspect of the systems engineering process from requirement elicitation and analysis, over functional analysis, synthesis, implementation and verification. It is not uncommon for a tool to provide many services covering more than one aspect of systems engineering. There exist numerous situations where information exchanges across tool boundaries are valuable, e.g., exchange of specifications between organisations using heterogeneous tool sets, exchange of specifications from legacy to modern tools, exchange of pecifications to tools that provide more advanced modelling or analysis capabilities than the originating tool or storage of specification data in a neutral format such that multiple tools can operate on the data.

    The focus in this thesis is on the analysis, design and implementation of a method and tool neutral information model for enabling systems engineering tool data exchange. The information model includes support for representation of requirements, system functional architecture and physical architecture, and verification and validation data. There is also support for definition of multiple system viewpoints, representation of system architecture, traceability information and version and configuration management. The applicability of the information model for data exchange hasbeen validated through implementation of tool interfaces to COTS and proprietary systems engineering tools, and exchange of real specifications in different scenarios. The results obtained from the validation activities indicate that systems engineering tool data exchange may decrease the time spent for exchanging specifications between partners developing complex systems and that the information model approach described in the thesis is a compelling alternative to tool specific interfaces.

  • 178.
    Hess, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Drivkrafter bakom mobila IT-tjänster: En studie ur utvecklares och användares perspektiv2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fenomenen mobilitet och mobila IT-tjänster är något som är mycket aktuellt idag inom flera sektorer. Mobilitet förknippas med ett oberoende av att vara på en viss plats vid en viss tid och det kan skapa helt nya förutsättningar för kommunikation mellan medarbetare som jobbar i fält eller är på resande fot. Att kunna införa mobila IT-tjänster i sin verksamhet är för företag något som kan öka effektiviteten, spara resurser och minska fel i rapporteringen. Transportnäringen, vården, service och underhåll, försäljning, övervakning är verksamhetsområden där mobila IT-tjänster införts som hjälpmedel. Området har dock kantats av såväl missbedömningar som succéer. Mobila IT-tjänster som används inom företag kallas mobile business.

    Med hjälp av insamlat material från böcker, artiklar och rapporter samt vår kvalitativa och kvantitativa undersökning kan vi konstatera att utvecklingen av mobila IT-tjänster är problematiskt. Vi kan också konstatera att det finns en god insikt om denna problematik hos dem som utvecklar dessa tjänster och att användarna överlag har en god acceptans av tjänsterna. Vi påstår att det finns två krafter som driver utvecklingen av dessa tjänster idag. Den rent tekniska drivkraften som har sin utgångspunkt i att förbättra tekniken i sig för att på den vägen skapa nya attraktiva tjänster och den rent behovsdrivna som via kundernas behov försöker använda och anpassa den teknik som redan finns.

  • 179.
    Hettinger, Astrid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Backlund Lindgren, Thea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Konsten att lita på främlingar: En studie om projektledares arbete för att främja tillit i virtuella team2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization is a phenomena that is, because of the advances in technology, becoming more and more common. New tools for communication enables project teams to collaborate across the globe. Hence, Virtual Teams are emerging to become the new routine way of working. However, even though virtual teams are a new way of working, many project managers are expected to lead in the same way as in traditional project teams.

    In this qualitative bachelor thesis in informatic we have studied how trust emerges in virtual teams, and what challenges this presents. Moreover, we used these results in order to investigate and present how project managers can foster trust in virtual teams. We conducted three interviews at one of Sweden’s largest organizations with project managers well experienced with working in virtual teams.

    The conclusion indicates that project managers through several activities indeed can foster trust in virtual teams. In virtual teams the project manager’s interaction with the other team members is limited by the technical tools used for communication. This results in a strong dependency between trust and virtual communication. The project manager can, by establishing a continuous communication within the team, reach a higher level of coordination. This enables every team member to move forward in the same direction, towards the same end result, despite the distance between them, fostering trust.

  • 180.
    Hinnersjö, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Savelid, Christin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stöd från förstudien vid system- och verksamhetsutveckling: En kvalitativ studie med förbättringsförslag kring förstudie- och utvecklingsarbete.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har länge varit vanligt att informationssystem i verksamheter har haft uppenbara brister i funktionalitet och därför snarare varit ett hinder än det stöd som de förväntas vara i verksamheten, detta beror i många fall på hur utvecklingen av dessa går till. Ett misslyckande i utvecklingen av ett informationssystem är inget ovanligt och kan innebära att tidsplan, budget eller systemets funktion inte efterföljer förväntningarna. Då det finns en verksamhet kring systemet är det vanligt att denna glöms bort i utvecklingen och systemet stödjer då inte denna verksamhet som det är tänkt. En mycket viktig del i dessa utvecklingar är den inledande förstudien, där utvecklingens alla delar ska behandlas. Det ska tas beslut om tidsplan, budget, krav på funktion och andra viktiga aspekter.

    Syftet med studien är att se hur förstudien påverkar ett system- och verksamhetsutvecklingsprojekt som helhet. Vi syftar även till att se hur förväntningarna på utvecklingen, ledningens inverkan samt hur arbetsformen projekt påverkar vid utveckling.

    För att ta reda på detta har vi lagt en teoretisk grund i dessa områden och sedan frågat erfarna verksamhets- och systemutvecklare i vad de anser. Detta resulterade i en mängd problem och en mängd lösningar/styrkor som är ofta förekommande i utvecklingarna.

    Efter att ha jämfört och analyserat resultatet kunde vi avgöra vilka av dessa problem och styrkor som har störst inverkan på utvecklingen. Vi såg att förstudien har en stor inverkan på det fortsatta utvecklingsarbetet i hur noggrant och på vilket sätt den genomfördes. Ledningen, projektformen och förväntningarna påverkar även utvecklingen i hög grad och alla dessa delar behöver vara väl fungerande för att inte stjälpa arbetet. Detta har lett fram till en figur som kan tas till hjälp i förstudiearbetet av verksamhets- och systemutvecklingar samt en tabell över problem att undvika och föreslagna lösningar på dessa.

  • 181.
    Hjertstrand, Måns
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Strategi, syften och visioner för intranät: av intranät i samband med uppgradering.2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Intranets can streamline workflow processes, improve communication and add value to the employees of an organization. Companies that don’t take advantage of the potential in their intranet is a common phenomenon. In connection with a migration project dealing with a switch of content management system it turned out that SAS Technical Services lacked clear objectives and strategies for the use of their intranet. Thereby they didn’t make the most of the possibilities an intranet brings.

    The work with this thesis began with collecting the experiences the company could take with them from the migration project. This was followed by a mapping over the use of the intranet and the employees’ attitudes towards it. Furthermore it was examined what benefit the intranet generated and how it could be increased. Tools used for this work were interviews and surveys among others.

    The results show that there are several areas where there is room for

    improvement. Areas that are primarily covered are organizational change, information management, usability, competition and knowledge management. The results are made concrete in objectives with strategies how to reach these.

  • 182.
    Holgersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Krigsman, Carl
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Övergången från papper till surfplatta i en kommunalpolitisk kontext: En fallstudie med slutanvändarnas perspektiv i fokus2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays digitalization is a hot topic, especially in the public sector. Sweden as a country isworking hard with digitalization, and is reflected in the municipalities and their work. Arelatively common phenomenon today is that the municipalities implements tablets for theirelected representatives (politicians). The tablet replaces the previous paper processes regardingdocument management at meetings and decision making for political matters. Themunicipalities themselves and the media means that this should streamline and make the workmore efficient, be a better environmental alternative and contribute to the paperless office.However, previous studies regarding this is limited. There are no previous studies thatdemonstrates what is being streamlined nor how the tablet contributes to this. However, thereare some studies of the tablet as a substitute for paper which shows that the paperless office isa myth and almost impossible to reach. Other studies also show flaws with the tablet, regardingreadability, as a tool at the meeting and that the tablet itself is not streamlining anything.Since previous studies regarding this phenomenon was limited, we felt that we wanted to digdeeper into this and study how the transition from paper to tablet is experienced by the users.We felt that aspects regarding what the tablet is really contributing with, how well of a substitutefor paper it is, readability and what possibilities there is with a tablet. We felt that these aspectswere unanswered but also important since the implementation of tablets is more and morecommon among municipalities in Sweden. Which became our purpose with this study and wasrealized through a mixed method study at the municipality of Mjölby.We chose to do a mixed, abductive and interpretative study with both interviews and aquestionnaire in order to reach as good width as possibly. The study was conducted at themunicipality of Mjölby since they recently did a transition, just as the one that we wanted tostudy. We chose to focus on aspects discussed in previous studies regarding the tablet as awork tool and the ones that appeared during the interviews.The first and foremost conclusion we could draw was that the tablet actually is a good substitutefor paper since it got multiple and similar characteristics as the paper. The tablet is also a goodartefact to read on and to use for everyday work, at least according to the interviewees at thismunicipality. The experienced effects of the tablet are flexibility, mobility and simplicity forthe politicians, since a lot of the paper is now gone. The tablet has also been beneficial for theadministration and the administrative personnel at Mjölby duo to less consumption of paper,more streamlined work process of distributing all the documents. However, we concluded thattoo little of the actual efficiency is reaching the users. It is clear that business and workflowprocesses requires change so efficiency will benefit both administration and the politicians.Regarding improvements and problems with the tablet we identified that a lot is concerned withthe ability to translate and transfer functionality from the paper to the tablet. What is good andsimple with the paper must also exist with the tablet, in order for the users to be pleased. Butalso, the importance to take advantage of the possibilities that arises with the transition from ananalog to a digital work environment. It is not enough to just be pleased with the digitalizationitself, continuous development opens up for many possibilities.

  • 183.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. School of InformaticsUniversity of SkövdeSkövdeSweden.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    External User Inclusion in Public e-Service Development: Exploring the Current Practice in Sweden2017In: 16th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2017, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 4-7, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Janssen, M et al, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10428, p. 60-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the last decade e-government research has underlined the importance of an external user perspective in public e-service development and there have been numerous attempts to provide guidance and directions for government agencies in this matter. Individual research studies show little progress in this matter, but a more generalisable picture of the current state of external user inclusion is missing. The aim of this paper is to provide a better and more generalisable understanding of Swedish government agencies’ current practice of external user inclusion in public e-service development. In order to do so, we have interviewed Swedish government agencies regarding their perceptions on external user inclusion. Our findings show mixed results regarding attitudes towards and current practice of external user inclusion. It is clear that organisational size and previous experience of public e-service development matter. At the same time challenges such as a general lack of resurces and a lack of time are seen as general barriers, regardless of agency level and size.

  • 184.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Exploring User Participation Practice in Public E-Service Development: Why, How and in Whose Interest?2018In: The Electronic Journal on e-government (EJEG), ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 72-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    User participation is seen as an important enabler for successful public e-service development. However, at the same time development of public e-services is still often characterised by an internal government perspective with little consideration for external users’ perspectives. This paper challenges the overly positive attitude that is surrounding user participation in e-government research. The paper aims to illustrate and problematize various aspects that influence why, how, and in whose interest user participation is conducted in public e-service development. First, via a literature review, we identify a set of dimensions for critically exploring how, why, and in whose interest user participation is conducted in public e-service development projects. Second, we use these dimensions in order to characterise and analyse three empirical public e-service development cases in order to test the utility, usefulness, and feasibility of the identified dimensions. Our findings highlight the importance of questioning and elaborating on the motives behind user participation (the why) in public e-service development. We also identify two basic forms of how user participation is addressed in public e-service development projects: 1) veneered participation, and 2) ad-hoc participation. Furthermore, we argue that any decisions made regarding user participation in public e-service development should be based on conscious and informed choices concerning why user participation is needed and what it may bring for different stakeholders and their interests.

  • 185.
    Holland, Oliver
    et al.
    Kings Coll London, England.
    Steinbach, Eckehard
    Tech Univ Munich, Germany.
    Prasad, R. Venkatesha
    Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Liu, Qian
    Dalian Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Dawy, Zaher
    Amer Univ Beirut, Lebanon.
    Aijaz, Adnan
    Toshiba Res Europe Ltd, England.
    Pappas, Nikolaos
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chandra, Kishor
    Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Rao, Vijay S.
    Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Oteafy, Sharief
    Depaul Univ, IL 60604 USA.
    Eid, Mohamad
    New York Univ Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.
    Luden, Mark
    Guitarnrner Co, OH 43086 USA.
    Bhardwaj, Amit
    Tech Univ Munich, Germany.
    Liu, Xun
    Kings Coll London, England.
    Sachs, Joachim
    Ericsson Res, Sweden.
    Araujo, Jose
    Ericsson Res, Sweden.
    The IEEE 1918.1 "Tactile Internet" Standards Working Group and its Standards2019In: Proceedings of the IEEE, ISSN 0018-9219, E-ISSN 1558-2256, Vol. 107, no 2, p. 256-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEEE "Tactile Internet" (TI) Standards working group (WG), designated the numbering IEEE 1918.1, undertakes pioneering work on the development of standards for the TI. This paper describes the WG, its intentions, and its developing baseline standard and the associated reasoning behind that and touches on a further standard already initiated under its scope: IEEE 1918.1.1 on "Haptic Codecs for the TI." IEEE 1918.1 and its baseline standard aim to set the framework and act as the foundations for the TI, thereby also serving as a basis for further standards developed on TI within the WG. This paper discusses the aspects of the framework such as its created TI architecture, including the elements, functions, interfaces, and other considerations therein, as well as the novel aspects and differentiating factors compared with, e.g., 5G Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communication, where it is noted that the TI will likely operate as an overlay on other networks or combinations of networks. Key foundations of the WG and its baseline standard are also highlighted, including the intended use cases and associated requirements that the standard must serve, and the TIs fundamental definition and assumptions as understood by the WG, among other aspects.

  • 186.
    Holmberg, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Decision Support System for Fault Isolation of JAS 39 Gripen: Development and Implementation2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a result of the increased requirements on availability and costs of the aircraft Jas 39 Gripen. The work has been to specify demands and to find methods suitable for development of a decision support system for the fault isolation of the aircraft. The work has also been to implement the chosen method. Two different methods are presented and a detailed comparison is performed with the demands as a starting point. The chosen method handle multiple faults in O(N2)-time where N is the number of components. The implementation shows how all demands are fulfilled and how new tests can be added during execution. Since the thesis covers the development of a prototype no practical evaluation with compare of manually isolation is done.

  • 187.
    Holmgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Mean Value Modelling of the intake manifold temperature2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The emission legislations and the new On Board Diagnostics (OBD) legislations are becoming more strict and making the demands on control and fault detection higher. One way to

    control and diagnose the engine is to use a control/diagnose strategy based on physical models and therefore better models are necessary. Also, to be competitive and meet the markets demand of higher power, longer durability and better fuel economy, the models needs to be improved continuously. In this thesis a mean value model of the intake system that predicts the charge air temperature has been developed. Three models of different complexity for the intercooler heat-exchanger have been investigated and validated with various results. The suggested intercooler heat-exchanger model is implemented in the mean value model of the intake system and the whole model is validated on three different data sets. The model predicts the intake manifold temperature with a maximum absolute error of 10.12 K.

  • 188.
    Hripcsak, George
    et al.
    Columbia Univ, NY 10032 USA; NewYork Presbyterian Hosp, NY 10032 USA.
    Wigertz, Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Clayton, Paul D.
    Columbia Univ, NY 10032 USA; Univ Utah, UT 84108 USA.
    Origins of the Arden Syntax2018In: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, ISSN 0933-3657, E-ISSN 1873-2860, Vol. 92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arden Syntax originated in the 1980s, when several knowledge-based systems began to show promise, but researchers recognized the burden of recreating these systems at every institution. Derived initially from Health Evaluation through Logical Processing (HELP) and the Regenstrief Medical Record System (RMRS), the Arden Syntax defines medical logic that can be encoded as independent rules, such as reminders and alerts, with the hope of creating a public library of rules. It was first vetted at an informatics retreat held in 1989 at Columbia Universitys Arden Homestead. The syntax was intended to be readable by clinician experts but to provide powerful array processing, which was derived largely a programming language called APL. The syntax was improved and implemented by a number of researchers and vendors in the early 1990s and was initially adopted by the consensus standards organization, the American Society for Testing and Materials. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 189.
    Hultgren, Adán
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Kan en tjänsteverksamhet effektiviseras utan att det inverkar negativt på dess servicekvalitet?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Telekombranschen står idag inför en rad olika utmaningar. Bland annat erbjuds varor och tjänster som är komplexa och de informationssystem som används är ofta eller inte alls anpassade efter de egna säljprocesserna. Samtidigt har produkterna som telekombranschen erbjuder fått minskad betydelse då aktörernas produkter är mycket lika varandra. Till följd av detta har servicekvaliteten fått en ökad betydelse samtidigt som denna påverkar verksamhetens effektivitet.

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen har varit att genom en fallstudie hos ett telekombolag identifiera faktorer och områden som effektiviserar verksamheten utan att servicekvaliteten försämras. Vi har utgått från två frågeställningar där vi valt att undersöka hur tjänsteverksamheter kan effektiviseras utan att det kompromissas på servicekvaliteten. Vidare har vi intresserat oss för hur effektivitet och servicekvalitet påverkas av varandra.

    Som datainsamlingsmetod har vi framförallt tillämpat det kvalitativa tillvägagångssättet genom att intervjua säljare och butikschefer. Vi har även genomfört observationer för att bredda insamlingen av data. Som kompletterande metod har vi även valt att tillämpa verktyg från systemutvecklingsmetoden FA/SIMM. Metoden har hjälpt oss i kartläggandet av verksamhetens olika processer samt i identifierandet av problem, mål och behov.

    I analysen har vi främst utgått från teorier om servicekvalitet, effektivitet och informationssystem. Analysen mynnar ut i en slutsats där vi identifierar enhetlighet, kommunikation och information, informationssystem samt utbildning som viktiga områden för att kunna säkerställa att kvalitativ service bibehålls vid effektivisering av verksamheten i ett företag. Det enhetliga handlar om att alla olika delar i en verksamhet ska sträva mot samma mål så att inte uppfattningen om varumärket tar skada. Beträffande kommunikation och information bör denna inte vara tvetydlig gentemot kunden eller på annat sätt fluktuera beroende på vilken del av ett företag en kund kommer i kontakt med. Rörande anpassningsbarhet och förmågan att leverera service snabbt har vi funnit att informationssystemen har en avgörande betydelse. Slutligen har vi funnit att utbildningen av personal ytterligare är en framgångsfaktor för säkerställande av kvalitativ service.

  • 190.
    Hultgren, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    eTjänster som social interaktion via användning av IT-system: en praktisk teori2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The eService phenomenon is based on IT systems being used so that service providers supply services to clients without actually meeting them face-to-face. The extent of eServices is expected to increase in all aspects of society. Therefore eServices are increasingly discussed within the field of research and among practitioners, and therefore it is important that we are able to analyse these services in the process of developing and evaluating IT systems. One problem is, however, the lack of a developed perspective of eServices that would enable us to understand them in a meaningful way. In existing perspectives eServices are usually regarded as technical phenomena resulting in the social relationships that these services are based on, are not properly observed. Another problem is that the customer perspective is not given enough attention. As a result eServices are primarily considered to be support for existing service operations or for the service provider to automate operations and customers to carry out the work themselves through self-service activities.

    The research contribution of this thesis is a practical theory of eServices, which is applicable in practice and results in a meaningful understanding when used as support for eService analyses. This theory is based on the fundamental view that eServices are social interactions through the use of IT systems and that communication and customer benefits are in the forefront. It is also based on a broader view on the use of IT for other than support for self-service operations. The practical theory of eServices consists of a set of rules that help 1) decide when it is meaningful to describe a phenomenon as an eService, 2) describe how one eService can be analysed, and 3) describe how a number of eServices can co-exist in the screen documents where they are presented.

    The research contribution has been developed through practical inquiry, a multi grounded qualitative approach and through a gradual development of knowledge. The theoretical basis of this thesis derives from the disciplines: informatics, sociology and service marketing.

  • 191.
    Hussain, Mudassar
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding.
    Free Viewpoint TV2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work regards free viewpoint TV. The main idea is that users can switch between multiple streams in order to find views of their own choice. The purpose is to provide fast switching between the streams, so that users experience less delay while view switching. In this thesis work we will discuss different video stream switching methods in detail. Then we will discuss issues related to those stream switching methods, including transmission and switching. We shall also discuss different scenarios for fast stream switching in order to make services more interactive by minimizing delays.

    Stream switching time varies from live to recorded events. Quality of service (QoS) is another factor to consider which can be improved by assigning priorities to the packets. We will discuss simultaneous stream transmission methods which are based on predictions and reduced quality streams for providing fast switching. We will present prediction algorithm for viewpoint prediction, propose system model for fast viewpoint switching and make evaluation of simultaneous stream transmission methods for free viewpoint TV. Finally, we draw our conclusions and propose future work.

  • 192.
    Håkansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Larsson, Carl-Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    User-Based Predictive Caching of Streaming Media2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Streaming media is a growing market all over the world which sets a strict requirement on mobile connectivity. The foundation for a good user experience when supplying a streaming media service on a mobile device is to ensure that the user can access the requested content. Due to the varying availability of mobile connectivity measures has to be taken to remove as much dependency as possible on the quality of the connection. This thesis investigates the use of a Long Short-Term Memory machine learning model for predicting a future geographical location for a mobile device. The predicted location in combination with information about cellular connectivity in the geographical area is used to schedule prefetching of media content in order to improve user experience and to reduce mobile data usage. The Long Short-Term Memory model suggested in this thesis achieves an accuracy of 85.15% averaged over 20000 routes and the predictive caching managed to retain user experience while decreasing the amount of data consumed.

  • 193.
    Håkansson, Klas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Modeling and Control of an Electro-Pneumatic Actuator System Using On/Off Valves2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To control the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and the exhaust brake, the position of a butterfly valve connected to a piston inside a pneumatic cylinder is controlled by altering the pressure inside the cylinder. This thesis evaluates the possibility to do this with pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled On/Off valves. The whole electro-pneumatic actuator system is built out of two On/Off valves and a cylinder.

    A mathematical model of the system is constructed. The complete system model on state space form consists of nine states and is nonlinear. The model captures the dynamics of the system. The statics of the system is not captured as accurately. The model is still good enough to be used as aid when developing control strategies, since position feedback is available.

    Automatic control strategies for the system are first developed and tested in simulation. The first approach is PID control. Because of the nonlinear properties of the system the results from a PID with a constant proportional part is unsatisfactory. To cope with the nonlinearities, a fuzzy controller is constructed; the results prove somewhat better, but not as good as expected due to implementation difficulties.

    In a test bench the system is controlled by a P controller with feedforward from position. The feedforward strongly reduces the nonlinear behavior of the system. With this implementation the results that were hoped for with the fuzzy controller are reached.

  • 194.
    Högberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Video telephony in an IP-based set-top box environment2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis evaluates and shows an implementation of a video telephony solution for network connected set-top boxes based on the SIP protocol for managing sessions.

    Unlike other video telephony implementations the set-top box does not handle both audio and video, but only video. A separate phone is used to handle audio. To maintain compatibility with other video telephony implementations, which expect a single SIP device with both audio and video capabilities, a mechanism to merge the audio (SIP-phone) and video (set-top box) into a single entity was developed using a back-to-back user agent.

    Due to the set-top boxes'limited hardware it could be impossible to have video compression and decompression performed by the set-top boxes. However, numerous performance tests of compression algorithms showed that the computational power available in the set-top boxes is sufficient to have acceptable frame rate and image quality in a video telephony session. A faster CPU or dedicated hardware for video compression and decompression would however be required in order to compete with dedicated video telephony systems available today.

    The implemented video telephony system is based on open standards such as SIP, RTP and H.261, which means interoperability with other video telephony implementations, such as Microsoft's Windows Messenger 4.7, is good.

  • 195.
    Hörlin, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    ToIP functionality in Asterisk2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the thesis the advantages with Text over IP (ToIP) is explained and it is motivated why it is a good idea to integrate this in Asterisk. It also presents an implementation of a ToIP extension in Asterisk.

    ToIP means communicating over a network based on Internet protocols with real-time text. Real-time text means a character is sent to the receiving terminal as soon the sender has typed it or with a small delay.

    In the thesis IM and ToIP is compared in a survey. The result point at IM is not better than ToIP even though it is much more commonly used. VoIP can not replace ToIP either because there are occasions when ToIP is better for instance if the person using it is deaf or if a person want to make a private conversation in a noisy room.

    Asterisk is an IP-PBX. PBX stands for Private Branch Exchange which means a private telephone system which is part of a larger network system that exchange information.

    An IP-PBX is a PBX based on the Internet. Asterisk and many other IP-PBX can also exchange calls between the PSTN ant the Internet. By including ToIP in Asterisk it will be possible to exchange ToIP calls.

    The implementation described is not only including ToIP in Asterisk but also a translation function between the text format called t140 and another text format called t140 with redundancy.

    The idea is to extend the translation function in the future to more text formats.

  • 196.
    Ingemarsson, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fåk, Viiveke
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Blom, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Computer Security 19811976Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of COMPUTER SECURITY 1981 is to prediet the demand for protection of eleetronic data processing (EDP) and for the information processed. To predict the future demands on computer security we have discussed the issue with several people involved in one way or another with EDP. These discussions, our own knowledge other background material have been the material for discussions amongst the authors. The results are divided into two parts. In the first part (section 4) we have been as objective as possible. In the latter part (section 5) we have discussed the differences between the results in section 4 and our own opinion as proffessional researchers.

    In addition the report covers a summary of how EDP is used 1981 and a section describing the structure of the security field (which we have used in the interviews) and an outline of the investigation.

  • 197.
    Isaksson, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Model-based Diagnosis of a Satellite Electrical Power System with RODON2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As space exploration vehicles travel deeper into space, their distance to earth increases.The increased communication delays and ground personnel costs motivatea migration of the vehicle health management into space. A way to achieve thisis to use a diagnosis system. A diagnosis system uses sensor readings to automaticallydetect faults and possibly locate the cause of it. The diagnosis system usedin this thesis is a model-based reasoning tool called RODON developed by UptimeSolutions AB. RODON uses information of both nominal and faulty behavior ofthe target system mathematically formulated in a model.The advanced diagnostics and prognostics testbed (ADAPT) developed at theNASA Ames Research Center provides a stepping stone between pure researchand deployment of diagnosis and prognosis systems in aerospace systems. Thehardware of the testbed is an electrical power system (EPS) that represents theEPS of a space exploration vehicle. ADAPT consists of a controlled and monitoredenvironment where faults can be injected into a system in a controlled manner andthe performance of the diagnosis system carefully monitored. The main goal of thethesis project was to build a model of the ADAPT EPS that was used to diagnosethe testbed and to generate decision trees (or trouble-shooting trees).The results from the diagnostic analysis were good and all injected faults thataffected the actual function of the EPS were detected. All sensor faults weredetected except faults in temperature sensors. A less detailed model would haveisolated the correct faulty component(s) in the experiments. However, the goal wasto create a detailed model that can detect more than the faults currently injectedinto ADAPT. The created model is stationary but a dynamic model would havebeen able to detect faults in temperature sensors.Based on the presented results, RODON is very well suited for stationary analysisof large systems with a mixture of continuous and discrete signals. It is possibleto get very good results using RODON but in turn it requires an equally goodmodel. A full analysis of the dynamic capabilities of RODON was never conductedin the thesis which is why no conclusions can be drawn for that case.

     

  • 198.
    Izer, Illo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Feratovic, Jasmin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Förstudiens betydelse för ömsesidig passform mellan standardsystem och verksamhet: En kvalitativ fallstudie om förhållandet mellan leverantör och kund2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies today choose to obtain packaged software instead of self-developed and customized systems. Packaged software is a complete software package that consists of modules and functionalities that will be brought into an organization. There exists, however, problematic aspects when it comes to adapting businesses and packaged software. These issues are important to identify early in the pre-study to be prepared for the complications that can occur and simultaneously preventing obstacles.We want therefore highlight the importance of the pre-study in this composition. The main focus is on how to work with a pre-study to adapt the businesses in the best possible way. The aim is to examine the challenges of a prestudy process that affect the adaptation of IT systems and businesses. In order to achieve the purpose and come to a result, we have answered these two questions:• How does a Swedish company work practically with a prestudy to meet the customer’s demands and requests to adapt the packaged software and the businesses to each other?• What are the challenges for the case company when it comes to the adaptation of packaged software and businesses to each other? 

    The starting point to meet the purpose and questions in this study are based on a literature overview and empirical based data.The method is based on a qualitative case study performed at the company IT Software, we have interviewed three respondents who described their perceptions and experiences of pre-study and how system and businesses should be adapted. Two of the respondents were from the supplier IT Software and the third respondent was from IT Softwares customer company. Thereby, we got both the supplier and customer perspective. The result of the case study in this composition addresses that the customer need to adapt their processes and ways of working to the system in the highest degree. In the study, we highlight the most important aspects in the pre-study that should be taken into consideration so the adoption between businesses and system get an optimal fit. These aspects include the personnel who work with the pre-study, requirements, requests and competence etc.

  • 199.
    Izosimov, Viacheslav
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Scheduling and Optimization of Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety-critical applications have to function correctly even in presence of faults. This thesis deals with techniques for tolerating effects of transient and intermittent faults. Reexecution, software replication, and rollback recovery with checkpointing are used to provide the required level of fault tolerance. These techniques are considered in the context of distributed real-time systems with non-preemptive static cyclic scheduling.

    Safety-critical applications have strict time and cost constrains, which means that not only faults have to be tolerated but also the constraints should be satisfied. Hence, efficient system design approaches with consideration of fault tolerance are required.

    The thesis proposes several design optimization strategies and scheduling techniques that take fault tolerance into account. The design optimization tasks addressed include, among others, process mapping, fault tolerance policy assignment, and checkpoint distribution.

    Dedicated scheduling techniques and mapping optimization strategies are also proposed to handle customized transparency requirements associated with processes and messages. By providing fault containment, transparency can, potentially, improve testability and debugability of fault-tolerant applications.

    The efficiency of the proposed scheduling techniques and design optimization strategies is evaluated with extensive experiments conducted on a number of synthetic applications and a real-life example. The experimental results show that considering fault tolerance during system-level design optimization is essential when designing cost-effective fault-tolerant embedded systems.

  • 200.
    Jacob, Fredriksson
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Framgångsfaktorer för effektiv och säker vägtrafikledning: Utveckling av utvärderingsverktyget FST för Trafikverkets operativa ledningscentraler för vägtrafik2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hela samhället tjänar på en säker och lättframkomlig trafik både ur ett samhällsekonomisk och individuellt perspektiv. Trafikverkets trafikledningscentraler arbetar aktivt för att se till att alla som vistas på vägarna gör så på ett så säkert sätt som möjligt. Studien har konstaterat att det finns ett växande behov av att kunna utvärdera trafikledningens funktionalitet därav har ett utvärderingsverktyg utvecklats. Empiriskt material har införskaffats genom observationsintervjuer på Trafikverkets trafikledningscentraler för vägtrafik, totalt införskaffades 42 timmar observationsintervjuer över 6 dagar. Genom en kvalitativ tematisk analys har framgångsfaktorer eller teman identifierats för effektiv och funktionell trafikledning. Dessa faktorer, bland annat kontroll, verifiering och kommunikation ligger som grund för det utvärderingsverktyg som tagits fram.

    En första analys av systemet utfördes med hjälp av Nielsens heuristiker för att kartlägga behovet av gränssnittsstudier. I materialet visade det sig att de största utmaningarna låg på en högre nivå och en bredare analys av trafikledningen krävdes för att skapa ett mer användbart verktyg. Möjligheterna till att skapa en god situationsmedvetenhet visade sig vara nära kopplat till systemets övergripande funktionalitet vilket bidrog till studiens inriktning och resultat. Resultatet av den kvalitativa analys som utförts över systemet ligger som grund för det utvärderingsverktyg som skapats. Förhoppningen är att verktyget kan bidra med att vidareutveckla och utvärdera dagens vägtrafikledning. Resultatet i studien belyser även vikten av att kontrollera för flertalet olika faktorer inom vägtrafikledning när en trafikledningscentrals funktionalitet kartläggs.

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