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  • 151.
    Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Fallde, Magdalena
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Waste(d) potential: a socio-technical analysis of biogas production and use in Sweden2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 107-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes a socio-technical perspective on Swedish biogas production and use, in order to identify characteristics which may improve and increase biogas production. Biogas could potentially reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Swedish road transport by 25%, and to that end transport policy endorses the use of biogas as vehicle fuel. Currently, however, only a small fraction of the biogas production potential is utilised. By analysing how social and technological context has influenced production and use of biogas over the past 70 years, using concepts from the theory of Large Technical Systems (LTS), features of importance for increasing biogas production are identified. Biogas is shown to be a complex issue, with different functions within the energy, transport and waste management systems. As there is not one coherent biogas system but many individual systems, with different objectives, local and sectorial measures are required in order to increase biogas production. In particular, the importance of biogas production as waste management is identified. In order to utilise the biogas potential and reduce GHG emissions from road transport, policy-makers and researchers are advised to address the plurality in biogas systems.

  • 152.
    Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjalmarsson, Linnea
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Policy for biomass utilisation in energy and transport systems: The case of biogas in Stockholm, Sweden2012In: World Renewable Energy Forum(WREF) 2012. Including 41st ASES Annual Conference, 37th National PassiveSolar Conference, 7th Renewable Energy Policy and MarketingConference, World Renewable Energy Congress XII, andColorado Renewable Energy Society (CRES) Annual Conference. Denver, Colorado, USA13 – 17 May 2012, Volume 1 of 6 / [ed] Cheryl Fellows, 2012, p. 4758-4765Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This interdisciplinary paper explains how biogas policy processes affect energy and transport systems in Stockholm, Sweden. The aim is to discuss future implications of the political biogas agenda, and analyse how municipal organic waste should be utilised to achieve greenhouse gas emission reductions. An energy systems analysis illustrates the environmental impact of biogas production and utilisation, while planning practice and political attitudes are studied in interviews with policy-makers. Conclusions include that demand for biogas as vehicle fuel and the influence of particular actors has led to an extensive political campaign for biogas. However, to maximise emission reductions, Stockholm’s waste should ideally be used to produce electricity, not biogas. With the current narrow system perspective and lack of long-term strategies, increased utilisation of renewable fuels in the transport system may be impeded.

  • 153.
    Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjalmarsson, Linnea
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wikström, Martina
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Mårten
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bridging the implementation gap: Combining backcasting and policy analysis to study renewable energy in urban road transport2015In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 37, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper combines backcasting and policy analysis to identify the opportunities for and barriers to the increased use of renewable energy and energy-efficient vehicles in an urban road transport system, namely, that of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2030. The combination of methods could bridge the implementation gap between scenario-based research and actual policy implementation and thus increase the chances of research being implemented in practice. In the case study, backcasting identifies a need for diverse fuels and vehicles and for immediate policy action. However, analysis of policy integration demonstrates that such action is unlikely given current policy structures. The fundamental lack of integration between energy and transport policy obstructs measures to increase the use of renewable fuels and more energy-efficient vehicles, which in turn obstructs the reduction of CO2 emissions from transport. The combination of backcasting and policy analysis is demonstrated to improve our understanding of the prerequisites for transitioning to a system based on renewable energy, and could thus be useful in further research.

  • 154.
    Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessing the climate impact of district heating systems with combined heat and power production and industrial excess heat2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 86, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat demand is a large contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the European Union (EU), as heat is largely produced using fossil fuel resources. Extended use of district heating (DH) could reduce climate impact, as DH systems can distribute heat produced in efficient combined heat and power (CHP) plants and industrial excess heat, thus utilising heat that would otherwise be wasted. The difficulty to estimate and compare GHG emissions from DH systems can however constitute an obstacle to an expanded implementation of DH. There are several methods for GHG emission assessments that may be used with varying assumptions and system boundaries. The aim of this paper is to illuminate how methodological choices affect the results of studies estimating GHG emissions from DH systems, and to suggest how awareness of this can be used to identify possibilities for GHG emission reductions. DH systems with CHP production and industrial excess heat are analysed and discussed in a systems approach. We apply different methods for allocating GHG emissions between products and combine them with different system boundaries. In addition, we discuss the impact of resource efficiency on GHG emissions, using the framework of industrial symbiosis (IS). We conclude that assessments of the climate impact of DH systems should take local conditions and requirements into account. In order for heat from CHP production and industrial excess heat to be comparable, heat should be considered a by-product regardless of its origin. That could also reveal opportunities for GHG emission reductions.

  • 155.
    Osbeck, Sofie
    et al.
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bergek, Charlotte
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Klässbo, Anders
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Harvey, Simon
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy efficiency opportunities within the powder coating industry2011In: Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress 2011 (WREC 2011), 9-13 May, Linköping., Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, Vol. 7, p. 1700-1707Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new challenge to reduce energy usage has emerged in Swedish industry because of increasing energy costs. Energy usage in the Swedish powder coating industry is about 525 GWh annually. This industry has a long and successful record of working towards reduced environmental impact. However, they have not given priority to energy saving investments. Electricity and LPG, for which end-user prices are predicted to increase by as much as 50 – 60% by 2020, are the main energy carriers used in the plants. This paper presents the results of two detailed industrial energy audits conducted with the aim of quantifying the energy efficiency potential for the Swedish powder coating industry. Energy auditing and pinch analysis methods were used to identify possible energy housekeeping measures and heat exchanging opportunities. The biggest users of energy within the plants are the cure oven, drying oven and pre-treatment units. The energy use reduction by the housekeeping measures is 8 – 19% and by thermal heat recovery an additional 8 – 13%. These measures result in an average energy cost saving of 25% and reduction of carbon dioxide emissions of 30%. The results indicate that the powder coating industry has a total energy efficiency potential of at least 20%.

  • 156.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Eidenskog, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sufficiency, change, and flexibility: Critically examining the energy consumption profiles of solar PV prosumers in Sweden2018In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 39, p. 12-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of consumers producing electricity at home, i.e., “prosumers”, is rapidly increasing in many European countries. This article analyses the electricity consumption and energy-saving behaviours of households that own photovoltaic (PV) systems in Sweden. Earlier studies of how home production of electricity affects consumption patterns are few and their results are mixed. We interviewed prosumers in Sweden and collected electricity-consumption data one year before and after they installed PVs. The differences between households were large and no general behavioural change could be detected. The interviews indicated that awareness of the energy system increased among all prosumers, but led to no substantial changes in how or when activities were performed. Most prosumers thought that the benefits of shifting their electricity load to other times were too small. The changes prosumers did make mostly concerned smaller adjustments. Households that increased their consumption justified this by their access to “free” electricity. Automation, i.e., using a timer, was relatively unknown or not used when known.

  • 157.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Visualizing energy consumption activities as a tool för developing affective policy2015In: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping University , 2015, p. 75-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reindl, Katharina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Understanding energy efficiency in Swedish residential building renovation: A practice theory approach2016In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 11, p. 247-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Examining renovation processes having reduced energy consumption as an explicit goal, this article considers how energy efficiency is made part of renovation processes, focusing on the planning and design phase. Interviews and participant observations of meetings have been conducted. Applying a framework developed in practice theory, we demonstrate the importance of understanding routines, technology, meanings, and knowledge in order to understand why renovation processes repeat themselves and why a renovation practice are hard to change. The analysis shows that the professionals were only engaged in decisions in relation to their own specialized areas, which benefited established solutions. The existing technical infrastructure, such as the HVAC shafts and the district heating system, largely determined what issues were up for discussion. It was clear that practical know-how were valued much higher than theoretical knowledge. The meaning of an energy efficient renovations for the professionals was to reduce the energy consumed as much as possible in every renovated building. With this in mind, we were surprised by how little energy efficiency was on the agenda. We can conclude that there was nothing in the studied processes that could trigger changes and dislodge the inertia of the practice. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 159.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    An interdisciplinary perspective on industrial energy efficiency2015In: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping University , 2015, p. 169-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Re-viewing industrial energy-efficiency improvement using a widened system boundary2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency in industry is important for reaching the targets within the EU strategy for increased sustainability. However, energy efficiency is not always prioritised within companies, and the improvement potential remains large. This paradox called an energyefficiency gap is explained by energy-efficiency barriers. The low interest in energy efficiency is also explained by the fact that it is not within companies’ core competences and not perceived as strategic. The public policies aiming at closing the gap have thus far been concentrated on the faster diffusion of energy-efficient technologies. This is not sufficient, and the gap can be extended by including energy management practices. To bridge the extended gap, there is a need to introduce an extended system perspective. The aim of this thesis is to  investigate the industrial energy-efficiency potential and possibilities for reaching this potential using an extended system boundary.

    In this thesis, the extended gap was quantified by means of classification of the energy data covering the most electricity-intensive Swedish industrial companies. The results show that technology-related measures represent 61% of energy savings, whereas management-related measures account for 38%. Energy efficiency due to management-related measures can be improved with lower costs. The energy-efficiency potentials for different levels of industrial motor systems were quantified, showing that the highest potential is found in the measures that include personal involvement and the optimisation of routines. This proves that the general approaches based on technological diffusion seem to not be sufficient to solve the energy paradox.

    The evaluation of the Swedish energy audit programme for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) proved that there is a lack of energy-related knowledge among SMEs. The implementation rate of measures proposed in the audits is only 54%, while there is also a need to reach the SMEs not covered by the programme. The international study of energy-efficiency potentials did not indicate energy management to be considered by SMEs at all.

    To bridge the extended gap, the external experts’ knowledge on how to work with energy efficiency has to stay within companies. For this, there is a need for methods based on longterm orientation as well as a systematic view of complicated processes. The methods should be universal and applied in a particular context. An example of such a method for large industries is presented in this thesis, whereas applying it to SMEs is problematic due to limited resources. Participating in networks for energy efficiency can be a way to initiate energy-efficiency work within SMEs on a continuous basis. Moreover, this thesis shows that there is a need for the development of a common taxonomy for energy data as well as the development of a central portal where energy data can be reported and stored. This would simplify the monitoring of energy end-use, the control of measures implementation and the comparison between processes, companies and sectors.

    List of papers
    1. Outsourcing Industrial Energy Management: Industrial Energy Efficiency Networks Provided As an Energy Service
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Outsourcing Industrial Energy Management: Industrial Energy Efficiency Networks Provided As an Energy Service
    2014 (English)In: Outsourcing: strategies, challenges and effects on organizations / [ed] Andre Deering, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2014, p. 71-98Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving industrial energy efficiency (IEE) is of the outmost importance for both individual industrial companies, and governments. Improved IEE leads to reduced energy costs for companies, and improved sustainability through reduced CO2 emissions. Despite a large untapped potential for improved IEE, many energy efficiency measures (EEM) remain unexploited due to the existence of various barriers to IEE. One of the reasons for the large untapped IEE potential is the apparent low level of energy management practices in industry. A promising approach to stress improved IEE, and improved energy management practices, are industrial energy efficiency networks (IEEN), which in essence is a type of energy service where energy management is partly outsourced to a third party. There is a need to study how IEENs could and should be structured. Successful networks have been under operation in many different areas and disciplines. A large part of the organizational issues of previous research on networks, could thus be transformed to IEENs, e.g. in terms of transition theory, transformation etc. The aim of this book chapter is to present a general model for the management of IEEN.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2014
    Keywords
    Energy efficiency networks, energy management practices, double-loop learning
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112281 (URN)978-1-63463-288-1 (ISBN)
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2014-11-21 Created: 2014-11-21 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Quantifying the extended energy efficiency gap: - evidence from Swedish electricity-intensive industries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantifying the extended energy efficiency gap: - evidence from Swedish electricity-intensive industries
    2015 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 51, p. 472-483Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is one of the major means of reducing CO2 emissions resulting from industrial use of energy. Both from a societal as well as business perspective it is of great importance to reduce industrial energy end use (EEU). The implementation of energy-efficient technologies as well as increased focus on energy management practices has been stated by previous research to be the two most important methods of improved industrial energy efficiency. To date, however, there are few (if any) studies that have analyzed the proportion of industrial energy savings that derive from implementation of new technology versus from continuous energy management practices. By analyzing substantial data from the Swedish PFE program this paper aims to quantify what previously has been referred to as the extended energy efficiency gap. Results show that about 61% of the analyzed 1254 energy efficiency measures are derived from the implementation of new technology, and the rest stems from management and operational measures. The results presented in this paper are of outmost importance for industrial energy managers and energy auditors as well as industrial associations and policy-makers in order to cost-effectively address these no-regret measures.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Energy management, Energy efficiency gap, Extended energy efficiency gap, PFE, Energy efficiency measures
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119842 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2015.06.012 (DOI)000371000900032 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2015-06-26 Created: 2015-06-26 Last updated: 2017-05-21Bibliographically approved
    3. International study on energy end-use data among industrial SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) and energy end-use efficiency improvement opportunities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>International study on energy end-use data among industrial SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) and energy end-use efficiency improvement opportunities
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 104, p. 282-296Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial sector is important to study in terms of improved energy efficiency, being one of the major energy-using sectors and responsible for a major share of CO2 emissions. The energy end-use (EEU) in the industrial sector is complex in general as processes are intertwined and interrelated. Moreover, bottom-up data of EEU on an aggregated level is scarce. Data for total energy supply like electricity, oil, coal, and natural gas exists but bottom-up data of what processes these energy carriers are used in, and moreover, where the major potential for implementation of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) exists, is less prevalent. This holds in particular for industrial small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This makes policy formulation and design for industry a great challenge. Knowledge on where and how energy is used, as well as where opportunities for improvement exist, may provide good support for developing the most effective policies. Therefore, the aim of this study has been to present and compare available bottom-up energy data for industrial SMEs in four countries, namely Belgium, Italy, Japan and Sweden. Results show that the existence and quality of bottom-up EEU data differs largely between the countries and the development of a general taxonomy of structuring EEU data as well as EEMs is needed. Without the development of such a general taxonomy, the deployment level of EEMs and carbon dioxide emission reductions is unlikely to ever reach its full potential as knowledge is missing on how large the potential is, in which processes the major potential is found, how far industry has reached in terms of deployment levels, and in which areas future energy policies are needed. In conclusion, this paper of EEU and EEM in industrial SMEs addresses the high importance of future research in creating a harmonized data categorization, as this will greatly support the transition towards sustainable industrial energy systems. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    SME; Industry; Energy efficiency; Energy audit
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120435 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.04.073 (DOI)000357552900028 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency [35488-1]

    Available from: 2015-08-12 Created: 2015-08-11 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    4. Energy-efficiency networks for SMEs: Learning from the Swedish experience
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy-efficiency networks for SMEs: Learning from the Swedish experience
    2016 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 65, p. 295-307Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for energy efficiency improvements in the industry is significant for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), but the implementation of energy-efficiency measures is not always possible owing to various barriers to energy efficiency. Working with energy management personnel inside companies can help to overcome these barriers. However, this is not a common practice among SMEs. Participation in industrial energy-efficiency networks (IEENs) can be a means of introducing customized energy management practices into SMEs. In such a network, industrial companies get support for a period of three to four years from an external network coordinator to determine energy efficiency potential, implement energy-efficiency measures, and monitor energy performance. The method has been used widely in Switzerland and Germany, while in other countries the experience has not proven successful thus far. To show the effects of networking among industrial companies, it is important to evaluate networks quantitatively and qualitatively. This aspect is missing from the field of energy efficiency research, not least with regard to evaluation methods. Thus, it is crucial to evaluate Swedish IEENs and suggest methods for evaluating IEENs. The aim of this study is to review IEENs with particular emphasis on Swedish IEENs. The results show that in Sweden, a common notion of IEENs has not yet been established, and projects with different characteristics and designs fall under the category of IEEN. The lack of a standard approach to running and evaluating IEENs makes it difficult to evaluate Swedish networks quantitatively. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2016
    Keywords
    Industrial energy efficiency; Energy management; Industrial energy efficiency networks; Evaluation method; Energy efficiency measures
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132043 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2016.06.088 (DOI)000383293800021 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2016-10-18 Created: 2016-10-17 Last updated: 2017-11-29
    5. Ex-post impact and process evaluation of the Swedish energy audit policy programme for small and medium-sized enterprises
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ex-post impact and process evaluation of the Swedish energy audit policy programme for small and medium-sized enterprises
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 135, p. 932-949Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial sector accounts for 35%-40% of total energy use in Sweden, where 30% of industrial energy use comes from non-energy-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This sector has not historically received much attention when it comes to improving energy efficiency due to limited resources, lower priority given to energy issues, rather small energy-saving potential for a single company, and great heterogeneity of the SMEs. However, the accumulative energy-saving potential for SMEs can be quite high and achieved at very low costs, partly because most improvements are found in support processes and are relatively easy to implement. Various public policies, such as industrial energy audit programmes, serve as a means for overcoming barriers to energy efficiency in the sector of SMEs. One example is the Swedish Energy Audit Programme (SEAP), a stand-alone audit programme functioning between 2010 and 2014. The aim of this paper is to examine the programme by means of process and impact evaluation. The results show that the programme resulted in annual net energy efficiency savings equivalent to 340 GWh/year or 6% of the 713 participating companies energy end use. The implementation rate in the audit programme was 53%. On average, the public cost of one implemented measure was (sic)700. Derived from the amount of energy saved, the audit programmes annual cost-effectiveness is (sic)7/MWh saved energy. This paper adds a significant scientific contribution due to the method used for evaluation. Multiple company visits and availability of quantitative data from 713 companies gave the possibility to address the additionality effects and estimate net energy savings more precisely. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2016
    Keywords
    Energy audit policy programme; Small and medium-sized enterprises; Energy policy; Energy efficiency measures; Energy policy evaluation
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131868 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.06.139 (DOI)000382792900081 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2016-10-13 Created: 2016-10-11 Last updated: 2017-11-29
  • 161.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Swedish energy networks among industrial SMEs2014In: ECEEE Industrial Summer Study Proceedings: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, 2014, p. 619-628Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and policy instruments for improved energy efficiency in industry have historically focused on large and energy-intensive companies, perhaps because a large part of the energy use is concentrated therein. However, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) account for 30 % of Swedish industrial energy use. Research shows that both the relative energy efficiency potential and the cost-effectiveness for implementing energy efficiency improvement measures in industrial SMEs is higher, compared with large and energyintensive companies. A significant difference between large companies and SMEs is their management capability, i.e. the difference between how energy is governed in-house companies. One way to approach SMEs is through energy efficiency networks, where 10–15 companies work together to improve energy efficiency. The networks are driven in turn by an external actor. The model has been successfully used in 70 networks in Switzerland and more than 50 in Germany, and is now emerging as a means to improve energy efficiency in Swedish industrial SMEs as well. While energy audit programs, nationally and internationally, is a thoroughly researched subject with developed methods, etc., this is not the case with networks, and in particular the Swedish networks. The aim of this paper is to study the current Swedish energy network activity in industrial SMEs. Results show that a large potential for improvement still exists in these networks, i.e. methods and tools used are still to be developed, as well as a more structured methodology on how the network are to be managed. Including experience from other country’s networks could contribute further to more effective Swedish industrial SME energy networks.

  • 162.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy-efficiency networks for SMEs: Learning from the Swedish experience2016In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 65, p. 295-307Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for energy efficiency improvements in the industry is significant for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), but the implementation of energy-efficiency measures is not always possible owing to various barriers to energy efficiency. Working with energy management personnel inside companies can help to overcome these barriers. However, this is not a common practice among SMEs. Participation in industrial energy-efficiency networks (IEENs) can be a means of introducing customized energy management practices into SMEs. In such a network, industrial companies get support for a period of three to four years from an external network coordinator to determine energy efficiency potential, implement energy-efficiency measures, and monitor energy performance. The method has been used widely in Switzerland and Germany, while in other countries the experience has not proven successful thus far. To show the effects of networking among industrial companies, it is important to evaluate networks quantitatively and qualitatively. This aspect is missing from the field of energy efficiency research, not least with regard to evaluation methods. Thus, it is crucial to evaluate Swedish IEENs and suggest methods for evaluating IEENs. The aim of this study is to review IEENs with particular emphasis on Swedish IEENs. The results show that in Sweden, a common notion of IEENs has not yet been established, and projects with different characteristics and designs fall under the category of IEEN. The lack of a standard approach to running and evaluating IEENs makes it difficult to evaluate Swedish networks quantitatively. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 163.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ex-post impact and process evaluation of the Swedish energy audit policy programme for small and medium-sized enterprises2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 135, p. 932-949Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial sector accounts for 35%-40% of total energy use in Sweden, where 30% of industrial energy use comes from non-energy-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This sector has not historically received much attention when it comes to improving energy efficiency due to limited resources, lower priority given to energy issues, rather small energy-saving potential for a single company, and great heterogeneity of the SMEs. However, the accumulative energy-saving potential for SMEs can be quite high and achieved at very low costs, partly because most improvements are found in support processes and are relatively easy to implement. Various public policies, such as industrial energy audit programmes, serve as a means for overcoming barriers to energy efficiency in the sector of SMEs. One example is the Swedish Energy Audit Programme (SEAP), a stand-alone audit programme functioning between 2010 and 2014. The aim of this paper is to examine the programme by means of process and impact evaluation. The results show that the programme resulted in annual net energy efficiency savings equivalent to 340 GWh/year or 6% of the 713 participating companies energy end use. The implementation rate in the audit programme was 53%. On average, the public cost of one implemented measure was (sic)700. Derived from the amount of energy saved, the audit programmes annual cost-effectiveness is (sic)7/MWh saved energy. This paper adds a significant scientific contribution due to the method used for evaluation. Multiple company visits and availability of quantitative data from 713 companies gave the possibility to address the additionality effects and estimate net energy savings more precisely. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 164.
    Parks, Darcy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wallsten, Anna
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst, Linkoping, Sweden.
    The Struggles of Smart Energy Places: Regulatory Lock-In and the Swedish Electricity Market2019In: ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF GEOGRAPHERS, ISSN 2469-4452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visions of smart energy systems are increasingly influencing energy systems around the world. Many visions entail ideas of more efficient versions of existing large-scale energy systems, where smart grids serve to balance energy consumption and demand over large areas. At the other end of the spectrum are visions of smart energy places that represent a challenge to dominant, large-scale energy systems, based on smart microgrids that facilitate the self-sufficiency of local, decentralized energy systems. Whereas smart energy places do not necessarily aim to create completely isolated microgrids, they generally aim to strengthen the connection between energy consumption and production within delimited spaces. The aim of this article is to better understand how visions of smart energy places are translated into sociomaterial configurations. Smart Grid Gotland and Climate-Smart Hyllie were two Swedish initiatives where notions of place were central to the attempts to reconfigure the local energy system. Several solutions proposed within these smart energy places struggled because of regulatory lock-in to the existing spatial arrangements of the electricity market. There was a mismatch between the larger spatial scales institutionalized in the Swedish electricity market and the smaller scales introduced in these smart energy places. The conflicting spatial arrangements between electricity market and these initiatives suggest that demonstrations of smart energy places require some degree of protection from market regulations. Without this protection, visions of smart energy places might instead result in incremental changes to existing large-scale energy systems. Key Words: energy systems, place, smart cities, smart grids, visions.

  • 165.
    Pettersson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    La, Hanley
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Experimental and Numerical Investigation of an In-line TubeBank’s Cooling Potential2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within this thesis, an experimental and numerical study was performed on cooling of a 5x5 in-line tube bank placed within a duct using impinging jets. The Reynolds numbers investigated using the main inlet as reference were Re~2300 and Re~4500. The Reynolds number corresponding to the impinging jets was Re~147000.

    The aim of the study was to replicate the thermal conditions in an industrial tunnel kiln used for production of cylindrical objects. As the current cooling was fairly unknown due to difficulties in conducting proper measurements a miniature tunnel oven model had been built. The experimental part of the thesis was done on said miniature tunnel oven model which was at the time located at Gävle University (HiG).Prior to collecting the cooling data, an extensive groundwork was performed e.g. leakage test, jet and inlet velocity studies. The velocity measurements were conducted using a hot-wire anemometer.

    The simulation part was conducted using computational fluid dynamics simulations (CFD). A pre-study was performed in order to study the effect of using different settings in the CFD-setup. The study resulted in the use of steady RANS together with k – ω SST as turbulence model. First order schemes were used except for the energy equation which used second order. A mesh independence study was performed and showed a better agreement to experiments with the increase in mesh density.

    The experimental and numerical results showed good resemblance to each other for both the temperature and the heat transfer coefficient of the cylinders. The average deviation of the simulations to the experiments were 8.3% and 11.0% for the cylinder temperature and heat transfer coefficient respectively. By studying the obtained temperature and heat transfer coefficient contours obtained through ANSYS a more evenly distributed cooling was obtained by placing the impinging jets between cylinders compared to directly facing cylinders in a cylinder package. This was also apparent by observing the obtained results from the experimental study.

  • 166.
    Porté Laborde, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Comparison of different reactor configurations for ex‐situ biological biogas upgrading2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. The energy sector represents the main contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions, due to its reliance on fossil fuels. Renewable energies arise as current solutions. Nevertheless, they are still facing two central difficulties: the lack of large-scale energy storage technologies to deal with their intermittent nature (e.g. wind and solar power), and the absence of energetically dense fuel alternatives for the transportation sector. Additionally, biogas technologies are indispensable for achieving sustainable societies. They result in energy and nutrients recovery from waste, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and other kinds of pollutions. These technologies are required in circular economies, characterised by the nonproduction of disposable wastes. However, biogas needs to be upgraded to optimise its properties as energy carrier. Indeed, biogas upgrading results in a broader use for the gas, besides combined heat and power generation; enabling its efficient transport, large-scale storage, and use as vehicle fuel.

    This project shows how electricity and gas systems can be integrated through an innovative Power-to-Gas technology which is able to partially solve these problems. The technology is based on the synergy of coupling biogas plants to hydrogen generation systems powered by off-peak electricity surpluses from intermittent renewable energies (e.g. solar and wind power), and subsequent biological methanation of the CO2 from the biogas and the produced H2 in an ex-situ anaerobic reactor. At first, this thesis presents a detailed definition of the overall innovative system and its different components. Subsequently, focus is put on the search for the most suitable biological methanation technology for industrial purposes. Through experimental work, this thesis examines and compares four different anaerobic reactor configurations, aiming to determine the most effective technology among the ones studied. Expressly, the experiment investigated different diffusion techniques for injection of the gases in the liquid media, together with diverse pore-sizes for the mentioned diffusers. The leading reactor configuration transformed 98.4% of the injected H2 at the highest loading rate tested (3.6 LH2/LR.d), upgrading biogas from a CH4 concentration of 60% to 96% in volume. The performance of the different setups is examined, and origins for the biological efficiency variations are elucidated, in order to help with the selection of subsequent experimental prototypes. Given its early stage of development, this biomethanation unit process forms the pivotal technology of the overall system. As soon as this technique is developed, a fully commercial system will be available to initiate major environmental and socio-economic benefits.

  • 167.
    Päivärinne, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Utilisation of Excess Heat Towards a Circular Economy: Implications of interorganisational collaborations and strategic planning2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to significantly lower the environmental impact from human activities, numerous efforts and approaches related to the transformation of human activities have developed during the last decades. Examples of such efforts are policies and strategies at different levels, some with a top-down approach focusing on extensive institutional changes, and some with a bottom-up approach focusing on industrial actors and industry-led activities.

    One essential aspect of these efforts concerns the energy used producing the products and services provided within our society. This includes, for example, improved efficiency of processes in order to minimise the amount of energy used, or optimisation of efficiency by using energy with the lowest possible exergy value. It can also be about re-use of energy, which is the focus of this thesis. Heat, which is the main by-product of all energy systems, can be utilised for heating purposes to lower the primary energy demand for heating. Increased utilisation of excess heat, however, requires collaboration between normally unrelated actors, those with a supply of and those demanding excess heat.

    In Sweden, which is a Northern European country with high demand for heat, the tradition of large energy-intensive manufacturing industries generating large amounts of excess heat, in combination with well-established district heating distribution systems, constitute good conditions for excess heat utilisation. Despite the fact that Sweden is among the world leaders in utilising excess heat, there is however, still a large unutilised potential.

    From this background, the objective of this thesis is to identify challenges behind excess heat utilisation for heating purposes, and to propose practical suggestions to facilitate expanded excess heat utilisation. The overall objective is analysed with a focus on drivers and barriers behind interorganisational collaborations on excess heat utilisation, important components of interorganisational business models and how the technical conditions regarding supply and demand could be facilitated by strategic municipal spatial planning processes. The research is largely based on interviews conducted with societal actors with different perspectives on excess heat utilisation; energy companies, industries generating high-grade excess heat, facilities generating low-grade excess heat, facilities demanding low-grade excess heat, experts of utilisation of low-grade excess heat, branch organisations, municipal spatial planners, energy- and climate advisors, and developers. Document studies have been conducted in order to collect case specific knowledge. The research questions are explored based on literature studies on the principles of industrial symbiosis, business model perspective and strategic planning. Further, they are examined in a Swedish context.

    It is concluded that the three perspectives complement each other by providing a system perspective on increased utilisation of excess heat as they seek to contribute both environmental and financial benefits at both a company and societal level. In order to facilitate further utilisation of excess heat it is important to focus on the organisational factors of humility, honesty, transparency, trust, fine-grained information transfer, joint problem solving, and shared visions of common goals, which are important conditions behind development of functional and long-term durable collaborations. Business models for collaboration could contribute to the creation of these organisationally important conditions. Such business models could also provide knowledge on how to create and capture joint values. For some collaborations involving actors lacking the technical knowledge related to the capturing and distribution of excess heat, a third-party providing services related to the technical knowledge required could be beneficial. Collaborations in which one of the actors consists of an energy company often entail the technical knowledge required. This implies that different collaborations involving different types of actors and under different prevailing financial, technical and organisational conditions require customised and flexible business solutions. Local authorities could, through their overall function, initiate interorganisational collaborations on excess heat within the framework of municipal spatial planning. The results do however show that the investigated planning processes could develop more extensive stakeholder participation to include further societal actors related to excess heat. More extensive stakeholder participation, have the potential to initiate new development of collaborations on excess heat between normally unrelated actors, both with and without involvements of third-party knowledge brokers. A broader participation is also expected to result in increased knowledge on how to plan to further facilitate the condition of excess heat utilisation.

    List of papers
    1. Excess heat supply collaborations within the district heating sector: Drivers and barriers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Excess heat supply collaborations within the district heating sector: Drivers and barriers
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1941-7012, E-ISSN 1941-7012, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 033117-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article combines the theoretical field of Industrial Symbiosis (IS) with a business model perspective to increase the knowledge about drivers and barriers behind the emergence of excess heat supply collaborations between district heating companies and industrial firms. The increased knowledge is gained by identifying and examining drivers and barriers associated with collaborative efforts to funnel excess heat produced by industrial firms into district heating grids in Sweden. An increased recovery of excess heat has the potential to reduce the primary energy demands of district heating systems. This study examines both existing and potential developments of industrial collaborations of excess heat-based district heating systems. The focus of the study consists of two Swedish cases of existing collaboration between district heating companies and pulp and paper industries as well as 16 industrial firms that all produce unused excess heat as a by-product. Confirming earlier research results, this study shows that financial issues are both the main drivers and the main barriers behind the emergence and development of inter-organisational collaborations. In addition, this study confirms earlier research that found the trust, joint problem solving, and fine-grained information transfer are important elements of successful collaboration. This study complements and clarifies these three features by including honesty and shared visions on common goals as important qualities needed for well-functioning collaborations. Combining the IS and the business model perspective has made it possible to examine more factors related to collaboration. The business model perspective has contributed with knowledge about central components of the business agreement between the collaborating parties, and the IS-perspective has contributed knowledge of the important organisational factors behind the emergence and development of long-term sustainable business agreements between firms.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2015
    National Category
    Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120359 (URN)10.1063/1.4921759 (DOI)000357684800018 ()
    Available from: 2015-07-31 Created: 2015-07-31 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    2. Exploratory Study of Combining Integrated Product and Services Offerings with Industrial Symbiosis in Order to Improve Excess Heat Utilization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploratory Study of Combining Integrated Product and Services Offerings with Industrial Symbiosis in Order to Improve Excess Heat Utilization
    2015 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 30, p. 167-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the implications of combining an Integrated Product and Services Offering (IPSO) (also known as PSS) with Industrial Symbiosis (IS) in order to facilitate the increased utilization of Excess Heat (EH). To do so, five different EH cases originating from an IS perspective have been investigated. Based on an IPSO-focused literature review, those five EH cases are analyzed to identify potential pros and cons, if an IPSO perspective is applied, in order to further improve EH utilization. The results indicate that applying the IPSO concept, in combination with IS, has the potential to facilitate and improve EH utilization. However, also of importance is having a clear and well-formulated business agreement, as well as mutual trust and a well-functioning dialogue between the parties involved in the EH supply collaboration.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Industrial ecology (IE) Inter-Organizational Collaborations Product Service Systems (PSS) Third Party Access (TPA).
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121587 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2015.02.101 (DOI)000361471300029 ()
    Available from: 2015-09-26 Created: 2015-09-26 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
    3. Combining Integrated Product and Service Offerings with Industrial Symbiosis - a study of opportunities and challenges
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining Integrated Product and Service Offerings with Industrial Symbiosis - a study of opportunities and challenges
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 127, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines opportunities and challenges of combining Integrated Product and Service Offerings (IPSOs) (also known as PSS) with Industrial Symbiosis (IS) in order to facilitate an increased utilization of Excess Heat (EH). This is done by an investigation of ten different EH examples. The results indicate that the main opportunities are associated with how the IPSO and IS perspectives complement each other, and how this combination increases the understanding of both the practical and organizational factors related to EH supply collaborations. Since all EH supply collaborations are unique, they require customized solutions and thereby flexible IPSO providers. The results show that the need for an IPSO provider with knowledge of heat distribution is highest in examples where the district heating sector does not constitute one of the two original actors. Still, the benefits of a neutral third party have also proved to be desirable in examples where the district heating sector is involved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Business agreements, District heating, Industrial ecology (IE), Inter-organizational collaborations, Product Service Systems (PSS)
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143194 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.04.026 (DOI)000377311200021 ()
    Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2017-11-22Bibliographically approved
  • 168.
    Rasmussen, Josefine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Energy-efficiency investments and the concepts of non-energy benefits and investment behaviour2014In: eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2014, Vol. 2, p. 733-744Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the attention for energy efficiency today, the industry does not seem to adopt energy-efficient technology to the extent necessary. A reason which has been stressed is that not all benefits are included in the evaluation of energy-related investments, leading to an underestimation of their potential. Previous findings suggest that quantifying non-energy benefits can help showing the financial possibilities of energy-efficient technologies and increase the probability of adopting these investments. However, the literature today lacks a distinct definition of this type of benefits, even though they clearly are of high importance for evaluating investments in energy efficiency. The aim of this paper is thus to define and categorise the benefits related to industrial energy-efficiency investments by reviewing the existing literature within the field, definitions which until now have been scarce in the literature. The paper also aims at covering the investment behaviour for energy-efficiency investments, including evaluation methods and the decision-making process, thereby assessing on what basis investment decisions are made. Closely related to this is the aspect(s) of strategy; there are findings also emphasising the importance of an investment’s strategic character as well as corporate energy strategy for investments in energy efficiency. This paper contributes to the field of industrial energy efficiency in two ways. Firstly, by reviewing the literature on both non-energy benefits and the investment behaviour within the energy field and secondly, by clarifying the concept of non-energy benefits.

  • 169.
    Rasmussen, Josefine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Investment Process for Capital Investments: The case of industrial energy-efficiency investments and non-energy benefits2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Capital investments play a crucial role for the business of every firm. In an industrial context, energy efficiency is an important means to meet future energy needs and in the same time reduce climate impact. In this thesis, the investment process for capital investments is therefore studied by addressing the case of industrial capital investments improving energy efficiency. The thesis specifically aims to illuminate how additional benefits, i.e. non-energy benefits, are and can be acknowledged in the investment process by applying an ex-ante perspective. The thesis holds the decision-making process as unit of analysis and aims to contribute with insights on firm level. Especially in an energy-efficiency context, such a process perspective has only been scarcely applied.

    The thesis is based on a literature review and two empirical studies. The literature review is the starting point of the thesis and reviews the literature on benefit concepts and investment behaviour of energy-efficiency investments. It is then followed by an explorative study in which thirteen industrial Swedish firms are interviewed on how they consider non-energy benefits. Investment motives and critical aspects for adopting energy-efficiency investments are also addressed. It also includes a questionnaire, distributed and collected during a networking event for energy-intensive firms within Swedish manufacturing industry. The second empirical study is a case study conducted at a Swedish pulp and paper firm. It aims to take a comprehensive perspective on the investment process as well as to analyse how and when non-energy benefits are acknowledged in the investment process. This case study approach  enables participants at different levels in the organisation to be engaged in the study and new perspectives to be addressed.

    The results indicate a general investment process passing through the phases identification, development and selection. Investment motives, information, internal coordination and external actors appear as key aspects of the investment process. Energy-efficiency investments are primarily initiated due to cost-savings motives. However, the subsequent investment process appears as consistent for all investment categories; the investment process described here is thus not specific for energy-efficiency investments only. The results instead indicate an investment process influenced by investment size; it influences the extent to which information is collected and assessed before making the decision, i.e. level of procedural rationality, as well as how the investment project is coordinated within the firm. Last, suppliers are involved in the investment process to a large extent from an early stage.

    Regarding non-energy benefits, the results indicate that various benefits have been observed but far from all are acknowledged in the investment process. They are to a larger extent acknowledged for larger investments when more resources are devoted to the investment process. Quantifiable non-energy benefits improve the business case for energy-efficiency investments and non-energy benefits should thus be quantified to the extent possible. Yet, nonenergy benefits characterised by a lower level of quantifiability could still be important, such as benefits related to work environment, and should therefore be considered. However, the findings indicate a frequent use and reliance upon an investment manual, implicating a need for simplicity when addressing the additional benefits. This indicates that there should be an emphasis on a limited number of main benefits, rather than seeking to acknowledge all possible benefits.

    List of papers
    1. How do firms consider non-energy benefits? Empirical findings on energy-efficiency investments in Swedish industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do firms consider non-energy benefits? Empirical findings on energy-efficiency investments in Swedish industry
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 113, p. 472-482Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When industrial firms invest in energy efficiency, the effect may go beyond energy cost savings and produce additional non-energy benefits as well. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding experiences in non-energy benefits and the extent to which these are acknowledged by industry. This study attempts to explore firms perspectives on non-energy benefits of industrial energy-efficiency investments and if and how non-energy benefits are considered in the investment process. Moreover, this study also explores investment motives and critical aspects of adopting energy-efficiency investments. Based on a questionnaire and interviews with representatives of Swedish industrial firms, the results indicate that energy efficiency seems to be an important issue for the firms, but profitability and payoff appear to be the most important factors for adopting an investment, implying that it is often difficult to meet the payoff requirements with energy cost savings alone. In the meantime, various non-energy benefits are observed, but there seems to be a lack of knowledge of how these should be quantified and monetised. To facilitate such an assessment of non-energy benefits and to include them in the investment analysis, a measurement framework is provided. It is concluded that including non-energy benefits in the investment analysis can contribute to a framing of energy-efficiency investments that can meet the firms requirements for profitability assessment, which can further enhance opportunities for energy-efficiency investments in industry. Thus, the study contributes with new insights into the energy-efficiency investment process and the extent to which non-energy benefits are considered, along with the methods for measuring them.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2016
    Keywords
    Energy efficiency; Investments; Non-energy benefits; Explorative study; Investment decisions
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126262 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.11.070 (DOI)000370993200046 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency; Department of Management and Engineering at Linkoping University

    Available from: 2016-03-21 Created: 2016-03-21 Last updated: 2019-04-11
  • 170.
    Reindl, Katharina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Implementing energy measures in renovations for multi-family dwellings: Influence and practice of professionals2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging buildings will sooner or later be in need of renovation, which opens opportunities to reduce energy use. Even if economically feasible energy measures or technologies exist, they are not always implemented, leading to an energy efficiency gap. This dissertation deals with how energy measures are handled and why they are enabled or disabled during the planning and design of renovations. During renovations, different kinds of building professionals are engaged, here referred to as middle professionals. The meeting practice of the professionals is investigated, with a focus on how the middle professionals exert influence from the middle-out and to the top and bottom, and how and why they enable or disable measures aimed at energy efficiency or reduction. Three renovation projects are followed in the municipality-owned housing company Stångåstaden, in Linköping, Sweden. The housing company’s goal is to reduce the amount of purchased energy by 25% by 2025. Methods applied during the research are semi-structured interviews, participant observations and document analysis. The conclusions show that energy measures were implemented, but more can be done in renovations. Predefined meeting agendas make the process efficient but not flexible, thus it can be difficult to introduce innovations and alternative ways of thinking into the process. The professionals usually selected measures they had used before. Energy calculations attracted little interest compared to the aggregated knowledge from previous projects, and experience and tacit knowledge were highly valued. This and more lead to a renovation process where it is difficult for energy to enter the current meeting practice.

  • 171.
    Ricardo, Parra
    et al.
    Consultora Crowsnest Chile.
    Nehler, therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barriers to, drivers for and non-energy benefits for industrial energy efficiency improvement measures in compressed air systems2016In: eceee Industrial Summer Study proceedings – Industrial Efficiency 2016: Going beyond energy efficiency to deliver savings, competitiveness and a circular economy, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased global competition and scarcity of resources drives industrial companies to cut costs where energy can be a significant part, not the least for energy-intensive companies. Improved energy efficiency in industry is complex as is regards numerous various energy using processes which are heavily intertwined. One such energy using process is compressed air systems (CAS) which is used in most industrial companies worldwide. With a few exceptions, previous research on barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency has treated energy efficiency improvement measures as one entity. However, since the characteristics of energy efficiency improvement measures differs, technology-specific measures will face different barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency which will affect the investment decision accordingly. The same applies for the non-energy benefits (NEBs) related to energy efficiency improvement measures. The aim of this paper is to study barriers to, drivers for and NEBs for energy efficiency improvement measures in CASs. Carried out as an interview study combined with a questionnaire, the paper results show that the major barriers are related to the investment, e.g. other priorities for capital investments and access to capital. Major drivers are related to in-house energy management practices, and major benefits include productivity gains and avoidance of capital expenditure. Further research is emphasized in the CAS field.

  • 172.
    Rohracher, Harald
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Intermediaries and the governance of choice: the case of green electricity labelling2015In: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping University , 2015, p. 307-329Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Sa, Aida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambuschini 4, Milano, Italy.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambuschini 4, Milano, Italy.
    Classification of Industrial Energy Management Practices: A case study of a Swedish foundry2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2581-2588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concerns, stricter legislation and inflated energy costs together yield improved energyefficiency as an important pillar in every industrial sector. Mindful of this challenge, energy management and itsrelated practices are deemed to be one of the major instruments to improve energy efficiency within manufacturingcompanies. Despite the importance of this issue, there is no precise and unanimous definition for energy managementpractices. Moreover, very few papers investigate energy efficiency opportunities and/or energy management practicesin foundry industry. This paper aims to identify, classify and characterize energy management practices through theirdefinition, with respect to energy efficiency, that could take place in a foundry industry.

  • 174.
    Sa, Aida
    et al.
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Assessing the driving factors for energy management program adoption2017In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 74, p. 538-547Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of energy management (EnM) became a topical issue in industrial settings as a result of the energy crises that affected the global community in the 1970s. However, EnM was not implemented within industry with all its potential to improve energy security, raise the maturity level of EnM and increase sustainability. According to the results of previous empirical investigations, the expected interest in energy programs is not found and there is no clear understanding about program adoption criteria within an industry. Keeping in mind the adoption of energy investment through conformation with financial analysis and choosing the investments through contextual factors in the organization (e.g. organizational energy culture, power relationships, EnM system, expertise availability, managers mindset) together with characteristics of EnM program as two macro perspectives in energy efficiency literature, this paper aims to understand the main driving factors which lead organizations to either adopt or not adopt a particular program (always with respect to energy management). Moreover, it aims to express the impact of those driving forces of implementing a successful EnM program which could contribute to better understanding of suitable EnM configuration. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 15 manufacturing companies of varying size and in different sectors located in Sweden. After analyzing the minimum required steps to establish EnM, assessing the adoption of practices according to their energy strategy, and through assessing EnM maturity level, we found a low level of risk (which arises from lack of certainty and awareness) and the programs alignment with the core business as prominent driving factors for all sizes which foster positive investment decision making through top management. On the contrary, complexity of industry (for large manufacturing companies) and access to capital (for small and medium-sized companies) are the main barriers to adopting those programs.

  • 175.
    Sa, Aida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Industrial Energy Management Gap Analysis2015In: Innovative Energy & Research, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency (EE) is recognized as an essential strategy in energy and climate change mitigation policies (IPCC, 2014). Greater competition, unpredictable energy markets and control on greenhouse gas emissions, drives manufacturing industries to manage their energy demand carefully and use it efficiently. Energy management (EnM) as a cost reduction and risk protection strategy against the unpredictable energy market is a robust tool and support function which helps industries to improve their EE level. However, since energy cost in comparison with total production costs in manufacturing companies has the small portion consequently it receives little attention.

  • 176.
    Sa, Aida
    et al.
    Sharif Univ Technol, Iran.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Rafiee, Majid
    Sharif Univ Technol, Iran.
    Assessing Swedish Foundries Energy Management Program2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 2780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With regard to increased sustainability, managers not only need to know WHAT is needed for their company to improve, but also HOW to do so in detail is equally important. Energy management (EnM) is a pillar to the transformation of industrial energy systems towards enhanced energy efficiency and increased sustainability. One way to develop more and improve EnM both practically and theoretically is to shed light on how the combination of techniques and operation can contribute to successful EnM. This paper, therefore, through investigation of 10 Swedish foundries aims to present the structure of the energy strategy and associated practices at first; second, to assess industrys EnM program and maturity level; and third, to identify and understand the nature of energy efficiency promoting factors within studied cases.

  • 177.
    Sa, Aida
    et al.
    Sharif Univ Technol, Iran.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rafiee, Majid
    Sharif Univ Technol, Iran.
    Industrial Energy Management Systems and Energy-Related Decision-Making2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 2784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transitions is todays debate in almost all topics both in academia and practice. Energy transitions among others, have received relatively more attention, due to the global demand for increasing energy efficiency and lowering environmental impacts. In recent decades, energy management systems, through implementing energy management programs and related practices within industrial companies, have played a vital role in enhancing industrial energy efficiency performance levels. However, still there are problems at very first step of energy management program installation, which is decision-making. Despite market and non-market failures, lack of information, inadequate knowledge, the consequent increase in the perception of risk and uncertainty can be addressed as potential reasons for mentioned problems. Another essential reason can be explained through how an energy program is characterized by people who are attending at an energy-related decision desk. Keeping in mind that allocation of the budget for any investment should not only have financial conformation, but also a strategic value for the company, this paper aims to discuss the impacting parameters on industrial energy-related decision-making and behavior patterns with respect to the critical role of industrial energy management systems.

  • 178.
    Sannö, Anna
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wollin, Johan
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Birgitta
    IVL, Swedish Environmental Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Approaching Sustainable Energy Management Operations in a Multinational Industrial Corporation2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large share of the energy efficiency improvement measures available for industrial companies remains unadopted due to the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. One of the main means of overcoming barriers to energy efficiency is via energy management operations. The major parts of the published scientific papers have covered energy management on a company level or on a sector level. However, so far, the literature is scarce regarding empirical studies on energy management on a corporate level. With the aim of filling the research gap, the aim of this paper is to empirically assess the performance of an in-house energy management program adoption from the year of initiation and four years ahead in the multinational company Volvo CE. The paper was conducted as a case study including a participative approach, which has not previously been done in energy management research. This paper adds value, through complementing the existing literature on energy management on a factory or sector level, by highlighting the importance of leadership, speed of execution, and cultural transformation on a corporate level.

  • 179.
    Schwabecker, Julia
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Between the Paths of Modernity: The European Commission’s Shaping of European Nuclear Energy Policy between 1999 and 20122015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A powerful symbol of modernity, in its early days, nuclear energy was associated with images of progress and dreams of a better life. At the start of the European process of integration, it was hoped that peaceful cooperation in nuclear matters would bring about lasting peace in the European continent. Today, the idea of uniting European nations through the common development of electronuclear technology may appear odd. Yet, more than a half century after the start of the European project of integration, the Euratom Treaty firmly calls for the creation of conditions necessary for the speedy establishment and growth of the nuclear industry, while the European Commission, an organization situated at the heart of the European integration project, officially frames this energy source as indispensable for the long-term transformation of the European energy system in a more sustainable direction.

    However, this development of European nuclear energy policy was neither  natural nor inevitable. General European energy policy was standing at a crossroads at the turn of the century and the European Commission’s official position was split between two fundamentally different understandings of the role of nuclear power. Starting in 1999, when the European Union raised the status of its commitment to sustainable development to a constitutional and legally binding objective, and ending the analysis with the post-Fukushima policy response in 2012, this study explores how the Commission shaped electronuclear policy in light of the Union’s commitment to sustainable development. Stressing the role of the operationalization of sustainable development in the general energy sector, it explores how a particular conceptualisation of the nuclear energy development trajectory came to be considered natural and desirable while the other conceptualization was marginalised and became increasingly less relevant, discussing the implications of this development for the process of transforming the European energy system. Drawing broadly on the critical constructivist approach, the study is based on the assumption that the normative structure of the international system, which is underpinned by the industrial society’s ideals about modernity, justifies disproportionate focus on technological and industrial development and exploitation of nature. Because states and supranational polities alike define and redefine their interests and identities within this normative fabric of international society which in turn reflects ideas about what is legitimate and desirable, the study reflects on the critical potential of the concept of sustainable development to transform this normative framework.

  • 180.
    Soepardi, Apriani
    et al.
    Univ Natl Dev Vet, Indonesia; Brawijaya Univ, Indonesia.
    Pratikto, Pratikto
    Brawijaya Univ, Indonesia.
    Santoso, Purnomo Budi
    Brawijaya Univ, Indonesia.
    Tama, Ishardita Pambudi
    Brawijaya Univ, Indonesia.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Linking of Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvement in Indonesias Steel Industry2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use in Indonesias steel industry accounts for about 20-35% of total production costs. Consequently, energy end-use efficiency is a crucial measure that is used to reduce energy intensity and decrease production costs. This article aims to investigate the relationships among different barriers to energy efficiency improvement (EEI), using a framework with the following six constructs: government policy, the financial-economic factor, the managerial-organizational factor, the technological factor, workforce, and quality and type of feedstock and fuel used. The data were collected from steel firm practitioners in Indonesia, using a questionnaire to test our framework. The results demonstrate that the applied framework was applicable. We find that EEI is moderately influenced by all constructs but that the managerial-organizational factor has the greatest direct effect on improvements and is the most significant factor.

  • 181.
    Solding, Petter
    et al.
    Production and Energy Technology, Swerea SWECAST AB, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Petku, Damir
    Vestas Guldsmedshyttan AB, Guldsmedshyttan, Sweden.
    Mardan, Nawzad
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using simulation for more sustainable production systems: methodologies and case studies2009In: International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, ISSN 1939-7038, E-ISSN 1939-7046, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 111-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased competition in the global market-place is forcing industrial manufacturers to develop their production systems by increasing flexibility, improving quality and lowering production costs. With the help of simulation techniques, the understanding of manufacturing systems can be enhanced and alternative solutions can be tested. Simulation has, therefore, played an important role in industrial development in recent years. At the same time, energy-related costs have been neglected by Swedish industry due to historically low energy costs in Sweden, in comparison with such costs in other European countries. The developments in the energy market, with uncertainty concerning future prices, have increased the need for energy efficiency. The research described in this paper focuses on methodologies developed to enhance the efficient analyses of energy systems in manufacturing plants by using discrete event simulation. The focus is on electricity use. The paper briefly presents the main features of the methodologies and describes the results from four case studies carried out in the Swedish foundry industry. The methodology improves efficiency by identifying those processes that are important, the activities that must be undertaken and the types of analyses that can be undertaken.

  • 182. Sommarin, Per
    et al.
    Svensson, Anders
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A method for bottom-up energy end-use data collection – results and experience2014In: eceee 2014 Industrial Summer Study: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. However, one of the major challenges today related to improved energy efficiency in industry is the lack of well-structured bottom-up data for various sectors. The aim of this paper is to present a structured method on the collection of industrial bottom-up data, and unique results from a case study of the Swedish foundry industry where the method has been applied. Results show that the method is useful in receiving unique energy-end-use data for the industry, and shows that the energy end-use for similar companies in regard to different process-specific energy users can be very large. Results also show how different energy end-users can be categorized and thus benchmarked in a structured way. The study was a part of the project Foundrybench, with the effort to develop a guideline on how an energy audit may be carried out in the foundry industry, and to develop industry-specific key performance indicators.

  • 183.
    Streicher, Kai Nino
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sustainable energy system pathways: Development and assessment of an indicator-based model approach to enhance sustainability of future energy technology pathways in Germany (SEnSys)2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After the nuclear fallout in Japan, Germany decided to back out from nuclear energy while at the same time changing the energy supply from fossil to renewable sources. This elaborate plan, known as Energiewende, will require significant economic and structural efforts that will have profound impacts on the environment and society itself. It is therefore crucial to identify possible technological pathways that can lead to a renewable energy supply, while reducing negative impacts on a holistic scope.

    In order to analyse alternative energy technology scenarios in Germany, this thesis focuses on the development of an indicator-based numerical Sustainable Energy Systems (SEnSys) model approach. Other than previous approaches, the SEnSys model considers full aggregated impacts of technological pathways leading to future configurations. With the help of an exemplary case study on two alternative energy technology scenarios (Trieb1 and Trieb2), the feasibility of the SEnSys model in evaluating sustainability is subsequently assessed.

    The results can affirm the findings of previous studies concerning lower economic and environ- mental impacts for scenario Trieb2, with small shares of renewable energy imports, compared to scenario Trieb1 based on only local but fluctuating renewables. Additionally, the results are in accordance with other relevant studies, while offering new valuable insights to the topic. Given a comprehensive revision of the identified uncertainties and limitations, it can be stated that the SEnSys model bares the potential for further analysing and improving sustainability of energy technology scenarios in Germany and other countries.

  • 184.
    Sundström, Christofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jung, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blom, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Analysis of optimal energy management in smart homes using MPC2016In: 2016 EUROPEAN CONTROL CONFERENCE (ECC) , Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, p. 2066-2071Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced building management systems utilize future information, such as electricity spot prices, weather forecasts, and predicted electric loads and hot water consumption, to reduce the maximum electric power consumption and energy cost. A model predictive controller (MPC) is implemented for a household with one hour sample intervals, including hot water usage, charging of an electric vehicle, and domestic heating, but also an accumulator water tank to be used as an additional thermal energy storage. Both the maximum total power used in the house and the energy cost are included in the cost function to evaluate how these properties are affected by different system designs. The MPC solution is compared to the global optimal solution using dynamic programming indicating comparable performance. The robustness of the MPC is evaluated using a prediction of the future household electric consumption in the controller. Results also show that a significant part of the cost reduction is achieved for as small prediction horizons as five hours. Analysis shows that including an accumulator tank is useful for reducing the total energy cost, while reducing the peak power is mainly achieved by increasing the prediction horizon of the MPC.

  • 185.
    Sundström, Christofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krysander, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Smart Energy Usage for Vehicle Charging and House Heating2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In northern Europe the electricity price is set by hourly rates one day in advance. The price fluctuates due to supply and demand, and these fluctuations are expected to increase when solar and wind power are increased in the energy system. The potential in cost reduction for heating a house and charging of an electrified vehicle by using a smart energy management system in a household is investigated. Dynamic programming is used and a simulation study of a household in Sweden comparing this optimal control scheme with a heuristic controller is carried out. The time frame in the study is one year and a novel way of handling the fact that the vehicle is disconnected from the grid at some times is developed. A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle is considered, but the methodology is the same also for pure electric vehicles. It is found that the potential in energy cost reduction for house heating and vehicle charging is significant and that using a smart energy management system is a promising path of cost reduction, especially with the introduction of electrified vehicles. 

  • 186.
    Svensson, Anders
    et al.
    Swerea Swecast AB, Sweden.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An analytical model for identifying and addressing energy efficiency improvement opportunities in industrial production systems - Model development and testing experiences from Sweden2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, p. 2407-2422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency is one of the most effective strategies for achieving energy sustainability and independence locally, regionally and globally. Industry accounts for 40% of global energy usage each year, which suggests its potentially significant impact on overall energy use. The rapid development of standards for more efficient equipment and components are pushing manufacturers towards further improvements on a component level. However, it has been shown that the largest efficiency potential is actually found in higher system levels in which components serve, such as production processes, ventilation or hydraulic systems. Even though the importance of increasing energy efficiency at a systemic level has been widely acknowledged in recent years, practical approaches are seldom discussed in the literature. This gap between aspiration and achievement calls for the development of new approaches to foster system efficiency in industrial systems. This paper presents a systems analysis and corresponding model to increase the energy efficiency of industrial processes that involve intensive usage of electric motor systems. The model originates from traditional value stream mapping. Three case studies representing three different industrial processes were conducted to develop and validate the model. In total, 31 energy efficiency measures were identified, 29 of which address actions beyond component levels. Alongside identifications of energy efficiency measures, the model promotes the creation of conditions for cross-functional worker participation. By applying this model, the knowledge and skills gained by industrial personnel working with improved energy efficiency, maintenance and production processes can be used immediately to generate improvement suggestions. The paper concludes that this model, based on a simplified energy-focused value stream mapping, could broaden the scope of energy efficiency actions, engage a larger group of workers within the organisation and increase systems efficiency. This can be further used as a practical tool for finding continuous improvement possibilities that will result in strengthened competitiveness and more cost-effective and sustainable manufacturing. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 187.
    Svensson, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Confluent Round Jets2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unconfined multiple interacting confluent round jets are interesting from a purely scientific point of view, as interaction between neighboring jets brings additional complexity to the flow field. Unconfined confluent round jets also exist in various engineering applications, such as ventilation supply devices, sewage disposal systems, combustion burners, chemical mixing or chimney stacks. Even so, little scientific attention has been paid to unconfined confluent round jets.

    The present work uses both advanced measurement techniques and computational models to provide deeper understanding of the turbulent flow field development of unconfined confluent round jets. Both Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) have been used to measure mean velocity and turbulence properties within two setups, consisting of a single row of 1×6 jets and a square array of 6×6 confluent jets.

    Simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of the 6×6 setup were conducted using three different Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models: the standard k-ε, the RNG k-ε and the Reynolds Stress model (RSM). The results from the CFD simulations were compared with experimental data.

    The employed RANS turbulence models were all capable of accurately predicting mean velocities and turbulent properties in the investigated confluent jet array. In general the RSM and k-ε std. models provided smaller deviations between numerical and experimental results than the RNG k-ε model. In terms of mean velocity the second-order closure model (RSM) was not found to be superior to the less complex standard k-ε model.

    The validated CFD model was employed in a parametrical investigation, including five independent variables: inlet velocity, nozzle diameter, nozzle edge-to-edge spacing, nozzle height and the number of jets in the array. The parametrical investigations made use of statistical methods in the form of response surface methodology. The derived response surface models provided information on the principal influence and relative importance of the investigated parameters within the investigated design space.

    The positions of the jets within the array strongly influence both mean velocity and turbulence. In all investigated setups the jets experience merging and combining. Square arrays also include considerable jet convergence, which was not present in the 1×6 jet array. Due to the jet convergence in square arrays the turbulent flow field, especially for jets far away from the array center, is affected by mean flow curvature.

    Jets located along the sides of square jet arrays experience strong jet-to-jet interactions that result in considerable jet deformation, shorter potential core, higher turbulent kinetic energy and faster velocity decay compared to other jets. Jets located at the corners of the array do not interact as strongly with neighboring jets as do the jets along the sides. The locations of merging and combined points differ considerably between different jets and different jet configurations.

    As the jets combine a zone with uniform stream-wise velocity and low turbulence intensity forms in the center of square jet arrays. This zone has been called Confluent Core Zone (CCZ) due to its similarities with the potential core zone of a single jet. Within the CCZ the appropriate scaling length changes from nozzle diameter to the effective source diameter.

    The parametrical investigation showed that nozzle diameter and edge-to-edge nozzle spacing were the most important of the investigated parameters, reflecting a strong dependence on dimensionless jet spacing, S/d0. Higher S/d0 delays both merging and combining of the jets and leads to a CCZ with lower velocity and longer downstream extension. Increasing the array size leads to a reduced combined point distance, a stronger inwards displacement of jets in the outer part of the array, and reduced entrainment near the nozzles. A higher inlet velocity was found to increase the jet convergence in the investigated square confluent jet arrays. Nozzle height generally has minor impact on the investigated response variables.

    List of papers
    1. Near-field development of a row of round jets at low Reynolds numbers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Near-field development of a row of round jets at low Reynolds numbers
    2014 (English)In: Experiments in Fluids, ISSN 0723-4864, E-ISSN 1432-1114, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 1789-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on an experimental investigation of the near-field behavior of interacting jets at low Reynolds numbers (Re = 2125, 3290 and 4555). Two measurement techniques, particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), were employed to measure mean velocity and turbulence statistics in the near field of a row of six parallel coplanar round jets with equidistant spacing. The overall results from PIV and LDA measurements show good agreement, although LDA enabled more accurate measurements in the thin shear layers very close to the nozzle exit. The evolution of all six coplanar jets showed initial, merging, and combined regions. While the length of the potential core and the maximum velocity in the merging region are Reynolds number-dependent, the location of the merging points and the minimum velocity between jets were found to be independent of Reynolds number. Side jets at the edges of the coplanar row showed a constant decay rate of maximum velocity after their core region, which is comparable to a single round jet. Jets closer to the center of the row showed reducing velocity decay in the merging region, which led to a higher maximum velocity compared to a single round jet. A comparison with the flow for an in-line array of 6 × 6 round jets showed that the inward bending of streamwise velocity, which exists in the near field of the 6 × 6 jet array, does not occur in the single row of coplanar jets, although both setups have identical nozzle shape, spacing, and Reynolds number.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109451 (URN)10.1007/s00348-014-1789-2 (DOI)000340838300014 ()
    Available from: 2014-08-19 Created: 2014-08-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Near-field mixing of jets issuing from an array of round nozzles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Near-field mixing of jets issuing from an array of round nozzles
    2014 (English)In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 47, p. 84-100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents results of an experimental study of the confluence of low Reynolds number jets inthe near field of a 6 6 in-line array of round nozzles. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser DopplerAnemometry (LDA) were employed to measure mean velocities and turbulence statistics. The comparisonof the results from PIV and LDA measurements along different cross-sectional profiles and geometricalcenterlines showed good agreement. However, LDA enabled more accurate results very close to the nozzleexits. The evolution of all the individual jets in the array into a single jet showed flow regions similarto twin jets (i.e., initial, converging including mixing transition, merging and combined regions). The lateraldisplacements play an important role for a confluent jet, where all jets to some degree are deflectedtowards the center of the nozzle plate. The jet development in terms of velocity decay, length of potentialcore and lateral displacement varies significantly with the position of the jet in the array. A comparisonwith single jet and twin jets flow showed considerable differences in velocity decay as well as locationand velocity in the combined point. The flow field of confluent jets showed asymmetrical distributionsof Reynolds stresses around the axis of the jets and highly anisotropic turbulence. Additionally, the lateraldisplacement as well as the turbulence development in the proximal region of the studied confluent jetwas shown to be dependent on Reynolds number.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Low Reynolds number round jet, Jet-to-jet interaction, Multiple jet array, Confluent jets, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA)
    National Category
    Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106380 (URN)10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.01.007 (DOI)000336773700008 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2008-31145-61023-37
    Available from: 2014-05-06 Created: 2014-05-06 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    3. Numerical and experimental investigation of flow behavior in a confluent jet ventilation system for industrial premises
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical and experimental investigation of flow behavior in a confluent jet ventilation system for industrial premises
    2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A conventional supply principle, such as rmxing or displacement ventilation, in industrial applications often results in low ventilation efficiency and high draught. A possible way to improve the ventilation efficiency in industrial premises is to implement a new type of supply system known as confluent jet ventilation. The confluent system can be described as a number of free jets issued in a plane, parallel to each other. In the proximity of the diffuser, the confluent jets behave as separate jets, but downstream the jets starts to merge with each other and eventually behave as a single jet. The main advantage of the confluent jet system is its ability to conserve momentum in an efficient way. The high level of momentum makes the ventilation system less sensitive to mechanical disturbances and buoyancy forces than displacement ventilation. This effect can be used to enhance the ventilation efficiency.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate both numerically and experimentally the flow behavior of a confluent jet system in the region close to the diffuser.

    In the present study, a diffusor consisting of 36 jets with an in-line anangement using equidistant spacing has been studied. The Reynolds number of the jet, based on the nozzle diameter, is Red= 3290. ARANS simulation using the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) has been used to predict the mean velocity field and the tmbulence characteristics of the confluent jet configuration. The numerical simulations are compared with measurements using Particle Image Velocimetty (PIV), performed in a region extending out to a downsttream distance of 26 times the nozzle diameter. The flow behavior of the confluent jets showed good agreement with the experimental results.

    Keywords
    Confluent jet ventilation system, Near zone behavior, PIV measurements, CFD, Reynolds Stress Model
    National Category
    Energy Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89789 (URN)
    Conference
    The 10th International Conference on Industrial Ventilation, September 17-19, 2012, Paris, France
    Projects
    Ett nytt ventilationskoncept för industrilokaler
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2008-31145-61023-37
    Available from: 2013-03-13 Created: 2013-03-06 Last updated: 2015-04-15Bibliographically approved
    4. Numerical and experimental investigation of the near zone flow field in an array of confluent round jets
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical and experimental investigation of the near zone flow field in an array of confluent round jets
    2014 (English)In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 46, p. 127-146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical simulations, using three different turbulence models (i.e., standard kε, RNG kε and Reynolds Stress Model [RSM]) is performed in order to predict mean velocity field as well as turbulence characteristics in the near zone of a 6 × 6 in-line array of unconfined confluent round jets. The numerical results are compared with experimental data acquired by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV).

    All the turbulence models used are able to reproduce the mean velocity field and the development of turbulent kinetic energy of the confluent round jets, but in general, the standard kε and RSM model show better agreement with experimental data than the RNG model. In terms of mean velocity the second-order closure model (RSM) is not found to be superior to the less advanced standard kε model in spite of the mean flow curvature present in the flow field. The RSM model, however, provides information on individual Reynolds stresses. RSM show satisfactory agreement of streamwise normal Reynolds stress and shear stress, but generally underpredicts the normal Reynolds stress in the spanwise direction.

    In comparison with plane twin jets, confluent round jets show a longer merging region. Within the merging region the maximum velocity of the confluent jets decay linearly. As the jets enter the combined region confluent jets have hardly any velocity decay, which leads to a higher maximum velocity for a combined confluent jet than a single round jet.

    The jet’s position within the configuration has a substantial impact on the velocity decay, length of the potential core, and the lateral displacement of the confluent jets. Side jets show faster velocity decay, shorter potential core and higher turbulence level compared to central jets. Side jets are also deformed and has a kidney shaped cross-section in the merging region. Corner jets interact less with neighboring jets compared to side jets, thereby extending the potential core and reducing the velocity decay in the merging region compared to side jets.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Multiple jet array; Confluent jet; Reynolds Stress Model (RSM); Standard k–ε; RNG k–ε; Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)
    National Category
    Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106378 (URN)10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.01.004 (DOI)000335103200010 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2008-31145-61023-37
    Available from: 2014-05-06 Created: 2014-05-06 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    5. A computational parametric study on the development of confluent round jet arrays
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A computational parametric study on the development of confluent round jet arrays
    2015 (English)In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 53, p. 129-147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and response surface methodology is employed in a parametrical investigation of an in-line array of confluent round jets. Confluent round jet arrays are common within several fields of engineering, as detailed knowledge of the flow field development of confluent round jets is of great importance to design engineers working with, for example, chemical mixing, multiple jet burners, waste water disposal systems or ventilation supply devices. In this paper, five independent factors affecting flow field development are investigated with a multi-variable approach using a Box–Behnken design method.

    The results include decay of maximum velocity, turbulence intensity, location of merging and combined points and development of volumetric flow rate. Dimensionless nozzle spacing, S/d0S/d0, is an important design parameter and has a large impact on several properties, such as merging and combined points, decay of maximum velocity, and development of turbulence intensity. Other factors, such as the number of jets per row and inlet velocity, are also of importance. The analysis of decay in maximum velocity led to the definition of a new zone of development, referred to as the Confluent Core Zone (CCZ), as its behaviour is reminiscent of the potential core of a single jet. The CCZ has uniform velocity, lacks considerable decay in streamwise velocity and has a rather low turbulence intensity. The CCZ has a characteristic footprint in confluent round jet arrays, and its properties are investigated in detail.

    The development of volumetric flow can be divided into two regions. The initial region, close to the nozzles, features a high entrainment but decreasing entrainment rate. As the jets combine, the entrainment rate is lower, but rather constant. While S/d0S/d0 is generally an important design parameter, there is no direct correlation between S/d0S/d0 and entrainment rate of the combined jet.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Multiple jet array, Confluent jets, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Response Surface Methodology, Box-Behnken, Confluent Core Zone (CCZ)
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117078 (URN)10.1016/j.euromechflu.2015.03.012 (DOI)000358968500012 ()
    Available from: 2015-04-15 Created: 2015-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    6. On the influence of array size and jet spacing on jet interactions and confluence in round jet arrays
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the influence of array size and jet spacing on jet interactions and confluence in round jet arrays
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Fluids Engineering - Trancactions of The ASME, ISSN 0098-2202, E-ISSN 1528-901X, Vol. 138, no 8, article id 081206Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Arrays of unconfined confluent round jets exist in a number of engineering applications, including ventilation supply devices, sewage disposal systems, combustion burners, chemical mixing, and chimney stacks. Interacting confluent round jets are also interesting from a purely scientific point of view, as jet interactions and confluence bring additional complexity to the flow field. Yet little scientific attention has been paid to unconfined confluent round jets and detailed scientific investigations are scarce.

    The present work uses computational models to study the effects of confluence and jet-to-jet interactions in four different confluent jet arrangements, reporting on the influence of jet array size and dimensionless jet spacing, 𝑆⁄𝑑0. The results show that both jet spacing and jet array size largely influence the jet-to-jet interactions and flow field development in confluent jet arrays. The jet interactions in the investigated setups result in regions of negative static pressure between jets, jet deformation, high spanwise velocity and jet displacement. Generally smaller jet spacing and larger array size results in stronger influence of jet interactions.

    After the jets have combined the confluent jets form a zone with constant maximum streamwise velocity and decay of turbulence intensity, called a Confluent Core Zone (CCZ). During the CCZ the combined jet will have asymmetric spreading rates leading to axisswitching. The entrainment rate of the CCZ is constant, but the volumetric flow of the combined jet is substantially affected by the degree of entrainment before the jets have combined.

    Keywords
    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Confluent jets, Confluent Core Zone (CCZ), Jet interactions, Axis-switching.
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117079 (URN)10.1115/1.4033024 (DOI)000379589700012 ()
    Note

    Vid tiden för disputation förelåg publikationen som manuskript

    Funding agencies:The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support received from the Swedish Research Council (Grant No. 2008-31145-61023-37) and Linkoping University (Sweden). The National Supercomputer Centre (NSC) is acknowledged for providing computational resources. The authors thank Dr. Mark Tummers, Delft University of Technology, and Ph.D. student Shahriar Ghahremanian, Linkoping University, for the fruitful cooperation when conducting the experimental work used for validation.

    Available from: 2015-04-15 Created: 2015-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
  • 188.
    Svensson, Klas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A computational parametric study on the development of confluent round jet arrays2015In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 53, p. 129-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and response surface methodology is employed in a parametrical investigation of an in-line array of confluent round jets. Confluent round jet arrays are common within several fields of engineering, as detailed knowledge of the flow field development of confluent round jets is of great importance to design engineers working with, for example, chemical mixing, multiple jet burners, waste water disposal systems or ventilation supply devices. In this paper, five independent factors affecting flow field development are investigated with a multi-variable approach using a Box–Behnken design method.

    The results include decay of maximum velocity, turbulence intensity, location of merging and combined points and development of volumetric flow rate. Dimensionless nozzle spacing, S/d0S/d0, is an important design parameter and has a large impact on several properties, such as merging and combined points, decay of maximum velocity, and development of turbulence intensity. Other factors, such as the number of jets per row and inlet velocity, are also of importance. The analysis of decay in maximum velocity led to the definition of a new zone of development, referred to as the Confluent Core Zone (CCZ), as its behaviour is reminiscent of the potential core of a single jet. The CCZ has uniform velocity, lacks considerable decay in streamwise velocity and has a rather low turbulence intensity. The CCZ has a characteristic footprint in confluent round jet arrays, and its properties are investigated in detail.

    The development of volumetric flow can be divided into two regions. The initial region, close to the nozzles, features a high entrainment but decreasing entrainment rate. As the jets combine, the entrainment rate is lower, but rather constant. While S/d0S/d0 is generally an important design parameter, there is no direct correlation between S/d0S/d0 and entrainment rate of the combined jet.

  • 189.
    Svensson, Klas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the influence of array size and jet spacing on jet interactions and confluence in round jet arrays2016In: Journal of Fluids Engineering - Trancactions of The ASME, ISSN 0098-2202, E-ISSN 1528-901X, Vol. 138, no 8, article id 081206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arrays of unconfined confluent round jets exist in a number of engineering applications, including ventilation supply devices, sewage disposal systems, combustion burners, chemical mixing, and chimney stacks. Interacting confluent round jets are also interesting from a purely scientific point of view, as jet interactions and confluence bring additional complexity to the flow field. Yet little scientific attention has been paid to unconfined confluent round jets and detailed scientific investigations are scarce.

    The present work uses computational models to study the effects of confluence and jet-to-jet interactions in four different confluent jet arrangements, reporting on the influence of jet array size and dimensionless jet spacing, 𝑆⁄𝑑0. The results show that both jet spacing and jet array size largely influence the jet-to-jet interactions and flow field development in confluent jet arrays. The jet interactions in the investigated setups result in regions of negative static pressure between jets, jet deformation, high spanwise velocity and jet displacement. Generally smaller jet spacing and larger array size results in stronger influence of jet interactions.

    After the jets have combined the confluent jets form a zone with constant maximum streamwise velocity and decay of turbulence intensity, called a Confluent Core Zone (CCZ). During the CCZ the combined jet will have asymmetric spreading rates leading to axisswitching. The entrainment rate of the CCZ is constant, but the volumetric flow of the combined jet is substantially affected by the degree of entrainment before the jets have combined.

  • 190.
    Svetlana, Paramonova
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Patrik, Thollander
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy efficiency potentials for different motor system levels – an empirical study of PFE implemented energy efficiency measures2014In: Motor Summit 2014: 5th International Motor Summit for Energy Efficiency powered by S.A.F.E. / [ed] Rita Werle, 2014, p. 16-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved industrial energy efficiency (IEE) is a cornerstone in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of Energy-Efficiency Measures (EEMs) is the primary means of improving IEE. However, EEMs are not always stand-alone measures. Rather, they are intertwined in the production and other sub-systems calling for a systems approach to be applied. In industry, nearly 70 percent of the power use emanates from motor systems. Electric motor systems can be categorized into three system levels: motor, core motor system, and total motor system, where the large energy-efficiency potential is to be found in the upper system levels. However, previous research has been scarce in showing on which system levels the highest potential for improved IEE is found. Based on a dataset of electric motor system measures from the Swedish energy policy program for improving energy efficiency in energy-intensive companies (PFE) consisting of about 1250 EEMs saving 900 GWh/year, the aim of this study is to analyze, using an extended version of the system level categorization, on which system levels the implemented measures are to be found.

  • 191.
    Söderström, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Haraldsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Samarbete för energieffektivitet2017In: Aluminium Scandinavia, ISSN 0282-2628, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 26-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 192.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maria, Johansson
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy management in industry - success factors and way forward2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From an environmental point of view, reduced use of energy remains a cornerstone in global greenhouse gas mitigation. From a company point of view, greenhouse gas mitigation as such, may not yet, without full internalization of external costs, be the top priority among business leaders. Rather, it is the magnitude of production costs and the size of market revenue that articulates success or failure for business leaders. However, even for companies with low energy costs, reduced energy use or improved energy efficiency, can have a vast impact on profitability, as the reduced energy costs directly leads to increased profits. Naturally, this holds even more so for energy-intensive companies with high shares of energy costs and those companies have also often worked more extensively with improved energy efficiency. In this paper, a review of more than 10 years of empirical research in the field of industrial energy management is presented, followed by a short overview of important energy management tools. Results show that even for energy-intensive companies, energy management for most companies still has a large potential, calling for business leaders to take action, and for future policies to be designed to close this energy management gap.

  • 193.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Improving Energy Efficiency in Industrial Energy Systems: An Interdisciplinary Perspective on Barriers, Energy Audits, Energy Management, Policies, and Programs2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue.

    Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discusses how “cross-pollinating” perspectives and theories from the social and engineering sciences can enhance our understanding of barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programmes as they pertain to improved energy efficiency in industry.

    Apart from classical technical approaches from engineering sciences, Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems couples a sociotechnical perspective to increased energy efficiency in industry, showing that industrial energy efficiency can be expected to be shaped by social and commercial processes and built on knowledge, routines, institutions, and methods established in networks. The book can be read by researchers and policy-makers, as well as scholars and practicians in the field.

  • 194.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palm, Jenny
    IIIEE, International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy Efficiency as a Wicked Problem2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Together with increased shares of renewable energy supply, improved energy efficiency is the foremost means of mitigating climate change. However, the energy efficiency potential is far from being realized, which is commonly explained by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. Initially mentioned by Churchman, the term “wicked problems” became established in the 1970s, meaning a kind of problem that has a resistance to resolution because of incomplete, contradictory, or changing requirements. In the academic literature, wicked problems have later served as a critical model in the understanding of various challenges related to society, such as for example climate change mitigation. This aim of this paper is to analyze how the perspective of wicked problems can contribute to an enhanced understanding of improved energy efficiency. The paper draws examples from the manufacturing sector. Results indicate that standalone technology improvements as well as energy management and energy policy programs giving emphasis to standalone technology improvements may not represent a stronger form of a wicked problem as such. Rather, it seems to be the actual decision-making process involving values among the decision makers as well as the level of needed knowledge involved in decision-making that give rise to the “wickedness”. The analysis shows that wicked problems arise in socio-technical settings involving several components such as technology, systems, institutions, and people, which make post-normal science a needed approach.

  • 195.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zubizarreta Jiménez, Rogelio
    Morales, Inés
    Kimura, Osamu
    Cornelis, Erwin
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The design and structure of effective energy end-use policies and programs towards industrial SMEs2014In: eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of climate change due to, in particular anthropogenic emissions of CO2 is driving decision-makers to make decisions towards more efficient use of energy. Improved industrial energy efficiency is stated to have a key role in the transition into more carbon-neutral energy systems. In most countries, industrial SMEs represent more than 95 % of the number of companies. Thus, the sector is apart from using energy, a major driver in the Economy in regard to innovations, and GDP growth, investments and export etc. The aim of this paper is to present results of an international study within International Energy Agency Industrial Energy Technologies and Systems) concerning the design and structure of effective energy end-use policies towards industrial SMEs in the countries Belgium, Japan, Spain and Sweden. The major method used was workshops, and literature studies, mainly country-specific reports and documents, mostly written in that countries native language.Results from this paper states that for medium-sized and energy-intensive industrial SMEs it is emphasized that Energy Conservation Law/Long-Term Agreements (LTA)/Voluntary Agreement (VA) are strong energy end-use policies followed by energy audit programs, preferably but not necessarily located regionally or locally. Energy networks, preferably locally or regionally anchored, are also policies suggested to be considered for medium-sized and energy-intensive industrial SMEs followed by investment subsidies mainly for investments in production-related technologies, benchmarking, and finally sector guidelines.For small-sized and non-energy-intensive industrial SMEs it is emphasized that energy audit program, preferably locally or regionally anchored, followed by energy networks, preferably locally or regionally anchored, are strong energy end-use policies followed investment subsidies, benchmarking, and finally sector guidelines.

  • 196.
    Torstensson, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Nordborg, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Möjligheter till ökad driftsäkerhet och kostnadseffektivitet i fjärrvärmenät: En simulerings- och optimeringsstudie på Kalmar Energi2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since district heating is the most common way of space heatingin Sweden, continual improvements of theefficiency of production and distribution of district heating is crucial. The purposeof this report is therefore to, using Kalmar Energi as an example, study how the production and distribution of district heating is affected by introducing a bypass pipeat a critical point in the network, and to investigate howcost efficiency might be achieved. To fulfill this task, the network simulation software NetSim and the cost optimizing software MODEST was used. Most ofthe heat in the district heating network in Kalmar comesfrom the bio-fueled combined heat and power plant Moskogen and the top load production plantDraken covers the top load when the heat from Moskogen is not enoughto fulfill the heating demand. However, the studied scenario does not represent normal operationbut a temporary solution for when Draken and its circulation pumps for some reason cannot be used.In that scenario, all heat in the city mustbe delivered using the bypass pipeor usingthe two smaller reserve production plantsLindsdal and Dvärgen. The simulations performed in NetSim consist of three primary cases; one reference modelwhich represents the currentsituation, one model with only Moskogenand the bypass and one model with Moskogen, bypass, Lindsdal and Dvärgen. To study the possibility for improvements of the network further simulations were performed with measures like new circulation pumps, upgradeto bigger pipes and addition of new pipes. The optimization in MODEST also consist of three cases; normaloperation, operation using the bypassand possible benefits ofusing RME instead of oil in reserve plants. The simulations in NetSimshows that the bypass pipe enables fulfillment of the heating demand of Kalmar without the use ofDraken or otherreserveproduction plantsdown to an outside temperature around 1°C.If the reserve units in the periphery parts of the city are used, the bypass of Draken enables fulfillmentof the heating demand until an outside temperature of approximately -3°C. The limiting factorsare mainlycirculationpump capacity and the differential pressure. If a higher supply temperature than normal is usedor newcirculationpumps and bigger pipes are introduced, a working network can be achieved for loweroutsidetemperatures. However, a highersupply temperature means higherheatlosses and no additional electricity production and a new pumping station just to handle a worst-case scenario is most likely not economically feasible. New pipes connecting areas with high and low differential pressures was also found to improve the system, but might not be profitable in the short term. If the city is expected to expand in the certain areas that the new pipesweretested, the new pipes might become amore feasiblemeasurein the future.The optimizing in MODEST shows that from a cost minimizing perspective, it is optimal to use the biomass-fueled combined heat and power plant Moskogenas much as possibleand to cover the remaining heat demand using wood powderboilersand if necessary, oilboilers.It is also evident thatregardless ofthe bypass beingused or not, it is always more profitable to lower the electricity production of Moskogen in favor of heat production during periods when the electricity price is low or whentheuse of oilboilerswould otherwise be needed.This measure also lowers the amount ofcarbon dioxideemissionsfor the systemwith up to 250 tons/yearsince oil use can be exchanged for biomass use.An alternative way of eliminating carbon dioxide emissionsis to replace the oilfuelwith a renewable fuel like RME. However, this would be associated with higher costs for Kalmar Energi, since RME is currently more expensive per MWh than the oil that is currentlyused.

  • 197.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Increased diffusion of renewable energy technologies – barriers and driving forces2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 198.
    Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blomqvist, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    La Fleur, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Tommy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hållbar Region Etapp 1: Energibolag och fastighetsbolag i samverkan2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Projekt Hållbar region har som syfte att visa hur energibolag och fastighetsbolag tillsammans kan driva utvecklingen till en hållbar och resurseffektiv region med minskad primärenergianvändning och minskad klimatpåverkan för fastighetsägare och energibolag. Projektet drivs av Linköpings universitet i nära samarbete med projektets partner och består av forskning av det sammansatta energisystemet av energibolag och större fastighetsbolag. Utifrån olika framtida scenarioalternativ studeras olika åtgärders effekt på pimärenergi och klimatpåverkan för det totala regionala energisystemet.

    Partner

    Under etapp 1 av projektet har, utöver Linköpings universitet, två energibolag samt fem större fastighetsägare varit aktiva inom projektet. Dessa är:

    • Akademiska Hus 
    • E.ON Sverige AB
    • Fastighets AB L E Lundbergs
    • Lejonfastigheter AB
    • AB Stångåstaden
    • Tekniska verken i Linköping AB
    • ÖrebroBostäder AB

    Genomförande

    Projektet har genomförts med gemensamma workshops samt med systemoptimering av det sammankopplade fjärrvärmesystemet av både tillförsel och efterfrågan. Modelleringar har utförs i programmen OPERA, IDA ICE och MODEST. Workshoparna har fungerat som kreativa övningar där utmaningar och behov identifieras och där sedan tidiga projektresultat har spridits och diskuterats. I workshoparna har det underlag som legat till grund för projektets frågeställningar itereras och förfinas kontinuerligt. Beräkningar har sedan utförts genom systemoptimeringar av frågeställningar baserat på det underlag som framkommit vid workshoparna. I samtliga workshopar har representanter från partner inom projektet deltagit.

    Resultat

    Resultatet från projektet kan sammanfattas i följande punkter:

    • Klimatskalsåtgärder samt introduktion av FTX i de fjärvärmeanslutna fastigheterna i studien (fall 3) leder till halverat fjärrvärmebehov och ökade utsläpp av globala CO2eq med ca 1 300 ton för en bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
    • Klimatskalsåtgärder samt FTX i de värmepumpsanslutna fastigheterna leder till minskat elbehov med 38% och minskade utsläpp av CO2eq med ca 13 000 ton för en sammanlagd bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
    • När FTX introduceras samtidigt som klimatskalsåtgärder genomförs i de fjärrvärmeanslutna fastigheterna i studien minskar effektbehovet med 28%.
    • När FTX introduceras samtidigt som klimatskalsåtgärder genomförs i de värmepumpsanslutna fastigheterna minskar effektbehovet med 37%.
    • Byte av värmekälla från fjärrvärme till värmepump leder till ökade globaka utsläpp av CO2eq med ca 22 000 ton för en bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
    • Byte från fjärrvärme till värmepump i de fastigheter som genomfört både klimatåtgärder samt introducerat FTX ökar de globala utsläppen av CO2eq med ca 8 000 ton för en bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
    • Om 500 000 nya fastigheter, med en sammanlagd bostadsyta på 50 000 000 m2, byggs enligt BBRs krav på nära-nollenergibyggnader innebär uppvärmning med fjärrvärme istället för uppvärmning med värmepump att kraftbalansen förbättras med motsvarande ca 1 900 GWh/år.
    • 1 kWh fjärrvärme har inte samma värde som 1 kWh el. För att ta hänsyn till att el är en mer högvärdig energibärare bör en primärenergifaktor på 2,5 användas för el. När primärenergi inkluderas i jämförelse mellan att värma en fastighet med fjärrvärme eller med värmepump leder alternativet med fjärrvärme till en lägre energianvändning, och följaktligen till lägre globala emissioner av CO2eq.

    Fortsatt arbete - etapp 2

    Projekt Hållbar region fortsätter med en etapp 2 där fokus kommer att ligga på tjänstedrivna affärsmodeller samt studier av hinder och drivkrafter för att genomföra identifierade lönsamma åtgärder för energibolag och fastighetsägare.

  • 199.
    Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Broman, Göran
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development Blekinge Institute of Technology Karlskrona.
    Cesar, Levy Franca
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development Blekinge Institute of Technology Karlskrona.
    District Heating and CHP – a Vital Role for the Development Towards a Sustainable Society?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, district heating (DH) is quite well developed and is already mainly based on non-fossil fuels. Increased use of DH is therefore considered as a way of phasing out fossil energy for heating purposes. Furthermore, increased use of DH provides an increased basis for combined heat and power production (CHP). Considering that coal condensing is the marginal production of electricity in Europe, increased use of biofueled CHP leads to even greater reductions of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, in a sustainable society, where there is no longer a systematic increase of CO2 (and no other sustainability problems), the benefits of DH are less obvious. The aim of this work is to explore the impact of DH and CHP in the development towards such a society. A local energy system is studied for five different time periods from 2010 to 2060 with different marginal technologies for electricity production. Results show that when the local energy utility co-operate with a local industry plant and invests in a new CHP plant for waste incineration the global CO2 emissions for the whole studied time period will be reduced with about 48 000 tonnes, which corresponds to over 100 % of the emissions from today’s system for the same time period. When considering that bio fuel is a scarce resource, and that the amount of CO2 emission linked to waste probably will be lower in sustainable society, the global CO2 emissions will be about 250% lower compared to the system of today. The studied DH related cooperation and introduction of CHP will reduce the system cost for the whole studied energy system with 2 500 MSEK for the studied period. In general, the results indicate that the modeled measures will not have any major advantages over other heating technologies in a sustainable society but that it can play a vital role for the development towards such a society.

  • 200.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Haque Bidisha, Sayema
    Department of Economics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Ozturk, Ilhan
    Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Cag University, Mersin, Turkey.
    Carbon emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth relationship in Sri Lanka2016In: ENERGY SOURCES PART B-ECONOMICS PLANNING AND POLICY, ISSN 1556-7249, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 282-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to investigate the long-run Granger causality relationship between energy consumption, carbon emissions, economic growth, and trade openness in Sri Lanka. Our analysis reveals that, there exists long-run causal relationship between carbon emission and economic growth for Sri Lanka over the period of 1971-2006. In addition, there is unidirectional causality running from economic growth to the carbon emission and energy consumption. The result implies that carbon emission reduction policies will hurt economic growth if no supplementary policies are taken to modify this causal relationship.

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