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  • 151.
    Hsu, Chih-Wei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moskalenko, Evgenii
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundskog, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Fredrik K.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The charged exciton in an InGaN quantum dot on a GaN pyramid2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 103, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emission of a charged exciton in an InGaN quantum dot (QD) on top of a GaN pyramid is identified experimentally. The intensity of the charged exciton exhibits the expected competition with that of the single exciton, as observed in temperature-dependent micro-photoluminescence measurements, performed with different excitation energies. The non-zero charge state of this complex is further supported by time resolved micro-photoluminescence measurements, which excludes neutral alternatives of biexciton. The potential fluctuations in the vicinity of the QD that localizes the charge carriers are proposed to be responsible for the unequal supply of electrons and holes into the QD.

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  • 152.
    Hsu, Hsu-Cheng
    et al.
    National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan .
    Hsu, Geng-Ming
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan .
    Lai, Yu-shiung
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan .
    Chuan Feng, Zhe
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan .
    Tseng, Shuo-Yen
    National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan .
    Lundskog, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Kuei-Hsien
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan Academic Sinica, Taiwan .
    Chen, Li-Chyong
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan .
    Polarized and diameter-dependent Raman scattering from individual aluminum nitride nanowires: The antenna and cavity effects2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 101, no 12, p. 121902-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Raman scattering of individual aluminum nitride (AlN) nanowires is investigated systematically. The axial direction of single nanowire can be rapidly verified by polarized Raman scattering. The angular dependencies of E-2(high) mode show strongly anisotropic behavior in smaller nanowires, which results from optical antenna effect. Raman enhancement (RE) per unit volume of E-2(high) increases with decreasing diameter of nanowires. Compared to the thin film, similar to 200-fold increase of RE is observed in AlN nanowires having diameter less than 50 nm, which is far beyond the quantum confinement regime. Such a large RE can be attributed to the effects of resonant cavity and stimulated Raman scattering.

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  • 153.
    Hsu, Hsu-Cheng
    et al.
    National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan .
    Huang, Hsin-Ying
    National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan .
    Eriksson, Martin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Dai, Tsen-Fang
    National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Surface related and intrinsic exciton recombination dynamics in ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by a sol-gel method2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 013109-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO nanoparticles with controlled sizes produced by a sol-gel method are studied by means of time-integrated as well as time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopy. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra show a blueshift of the excitonic emission with the decreasing particle size, which is attributed to the quantum confinement effect. The temperature dependence of the exciton lifetimes deduced from the TRPL results contains two components: the fast decay is attributed to surface trapping of exciton and the slow decay is mainly representative of the radiative processes involving the bound or free excitons.

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  • 154.
    Huang, Yuqing
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Puttisong, Yuttapoom
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Buyanova, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yang, X. J.
    Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita 14, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0814, Japan.
    Subagyo, A.
    Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita 14, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0814, Japan.
    Sueoka, K.
    Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita 14, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0814, Japan.
    Murayama, A.
    Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita 14, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0814, Japan.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Size dependence of electron spin dephasing in InGaAs quantum dots2015In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 106, no 9, p. 093109-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate ensemble electron spin dephasing in self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) of different lateral sizes by employing optical Hanle measurements. Using low excitation power, we are able to obtain a spin dephasing time T-2* (in the order of ns) of the resident electron after recombination of negative trions in the QDs. We show that T-2* is determined by the hyperfine field arising from the frozen fluctuation of nuclear spins, which scales with the size of QDs following the Merkulov-Efros-Rosen model. This scaling no longer holds in large QDs, most likely due to a breakdown in the lateral electron confinement. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

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  • 155.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khun, K
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The synthesis of CuO nanoleaves, structural characterization, and their glucose sensing application2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes the synthesis of well aligned and highly dense polyethylene glycol template assisted cupric oxide (CuO) nanoleaves on the gold coated glass substrate by hydrothermal growth method. The structural study based investigations of CuO nanoleaves were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The glucose sensor based on the glucose oxidase immobilized CuO nanoleaves electrode detected the wide range of glucose concentrations with good linearity and exhibited high sensitivity of 61.9+/-2.0 mV/decade. The linear detection range was observed from 1.0 x 10(-5) to 2.0 x 10(-2) M with detection limit of 5.0 x 10(-6) M and a fast response time of less than 5 s was also observed. The glucose sensor electrode possesses good anti-interference ability, stability, repeatability, and reproducibility.

  • 156.
    Höglund, Carina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beckers, Manfred
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schell, Norbert
    GKSS Research Center Geesthacht.
    Borany, J.v.
    Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresen-Rossendorf.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Topotaxial growth of Ti2AlN by solid state reaction in AlN/Ti(0001) multilayer thin films2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 90, no 174106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of Ti2AlN by solid state reaction between layers of wurtzite-AlN and α-Ti was characterized by in situ x-ray scattering. The sequential deposition of these layers by dual magnetron sputtering onto Al2O3(0001) at 200 °C yielded smooth, heteroepitaxial (0001) oriented films, with abrupt AlN/Ti interfaces as shown by x-ray reflectivity and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Annealing at 400 °C led to AlN decomposition and diffusion of released Al and N into the Ti layers, with formation of Ti3AlN. Further annealing at 500 °C resulted in a phase transformation into Ti2AlN(0001) after only 5 min.

  • 157.
    Höglund, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Asplund, C.
    Acreo AB, Electrum 236, S-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Wang, Q.
    Acreo AB, Electrum 236, S-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Almqvist, S.
    Acreo AB, Electrum 236, S-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Malm, H.
    Acreo AB, Electrum 236, S-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Petrini, E.
    Acreo AB, Electrum 236, S-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Pettersson, H.
    Center for Applied Mathematics and Physics, Halmstad University, Box 823, S-30118 Halmstad, Sweden and Solid State Physics and the Nanometer Consortium, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, J. Y.
    Acreo AB, Electrum 236, S-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Origin of photocurrent in lateral quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 88, no 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interband and intersubband transitions of lateral InAs/In0.15Ga0.85As dots-in-a-well quantum dot infrared photodetectors were studied in order to determine the origin of the photocurrent. The main intersubband transition contributing to the photocurrent (PC) was associated with the quantum dot ground state to the quantum well excited state transition. By a comparison between intersubband PC measurements and the energy level scheme of the structure, as deduced from Fourier transform photoluminescence (FTPL) and FTPL excitation spectroscopies, the main transition contributing to the PC was identified.

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  • 158.
    Höglund, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Pettersson, H.
    Center for Applied Mathematics and Physics, Halmstad University, P.O. Box 823, S-30118 Halmstad, Sweden and Solid State Physics and the Nanometer Structure Consortium, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Asplund, C.
    IRnova, Kista, Sweden.
    Wang, Q.
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Almqvist, S.
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Smuk, S.
    IRnova, Kista, Sweden.
    Petrini, E.
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Andersson, J. Y.
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Bias and temperature dependence of the escape processes in quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 93, no 10, p. 103501-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors (DWELL IPs) has been studied by means of interband and intersubband photocurrent measurements as well as dark current measurements. Using interband photocurrent measurements, substantial escape of electrons from lower lying states in the DWELL structure at large biases was revealed. Furthermore, a significant variation in the escape probability from energy states in the DWELL structure with applied bias was observed. These facts can explain the strong temperature and bias dependence of both photocurrent and dark currents in DWELL IPs.

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  • 159.
    Höglund, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettersson, H.
    Center for Applied Mathematics and Physics, Halmstad University, P.O. Box 823, S-30118 Halmstad, Sweden/Sweden Solid State Physics and the Nanometer Consortium, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Asplund, C.
    IRnova, Kista, Sweden.
    Wang, Q.
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Malm, H.
    IRnova, Kista, Sweden.
    Almqvist, S.
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Petrini, E.
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Andersson, J. Y.
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Bias mediated tuning of the detection wavelength in asymmetrical quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 93, no 20, p. 203512-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bias-mediated tuning of the detection wavelength within the infrared wavelength region is demonstrated for quantum dots-in-a-well and dots-on-a-well infrared photodetectors. By positioning the InAs quantum dot layer asymmetrically in an 8 nm wide In0.15Ga0.85As/GaAs quantum well, a shift in the peak detection wavelength from 8.4 to 10.3  µm was observed when reversing the polarity of the applied bias. For a dots-on-a-well structure, the peak detection wavelength was tuned from 5.4 to 8  µm with small changes in the applied bias. These tuning properties could be essential for applications such as modulators and dual-color infrared detection.

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  • 160.
    Höglund, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Q.
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Almqvist, S.
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Petrini, E.
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Andersson, J. Y.
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettersson, H.
    Center for Applied Mathematics and Physics, Halmstad University, Box 823, S-30118 Halmstad, Sweden/Solid State Physics and the Nanometer Consortium, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Asplund, C.
    IRnova, Kista, Sweden.
    Malm, H.
    IRnova, Kista, Sweden.
    Optical pumping as artificial doping in quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors2009In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 94, no 5, p. 053503-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resonant optical pumping across the band gap was used as artificial doping in InAs/In0.15Ga0.85As/GaAs quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors. By selectively increasing the electron population in the different quantum dot energy levels, the low temperature photocurrent peaks observed at 120 and 148 meV, could be identified as intersubband transitions emanating from the quantum dot ground state and the quantum dot excited state, respectively. With efficient filling of the quantum dot energy levels through simultaneous optical pumping into the ground states and the excited states of the quantum dots, the response was increased by a factor of 10.

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  • 161.
    Israr, M.Q.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sadaf, J.R.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Salman, S.
    Lund University.
    Danielsson, B.
    Lund University.
    Chemically fashioned ZnO nanowalls and their potential application for potentiometric cholesterol biosensor2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 98, no 25, p. 253705-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemically fashioned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowalls on aluminum wire have been characterized and utilized to fabricate a potentiometric cholesterol biosensor by an electrostatic conjugation with cholesterol oxidase. The sensitivity, specificity, reusability, and stability of the conjugated surface of ZnO nanowalls with thickness of similar to 80 nm have been investigated over a wide logarithmic concentrations of cholesterol electrolyte solution ranging from 1x10(-6)-1x10(-3) M. The presented biosensor illustrates good linear sensitivity slope curve (similar to 53 mV/decade) corresponding to cholesterol concentrations along with rapid output response time of similar to 5 s.

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  • 162.
    Iwata, H P
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Determination of the in-plane anisotropy of the electron effective mass tensor in 6H-SiC2003In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 82, no 4, p. 598-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental evidence for the strong in-plane anisotropy of the electron effective mass tensor in 6H-SiC is reported. Furthermore, two components of the mass tensor in 6H-SiC, m(M-Gamma)* and m(M-K)*, have been resolved by making a theoretical bridge between Hall effect measurements and cyclotron resonance experiments, based on the Boltzmann transport equation. The method to resolve the in-plane effective mass components is also applied for 4H-SiC, which have already been resolved by cyclotron resonance. The values determined by our method are fully consistent with available experiments and calculations.

  • 163.
    Izadifard, Morteza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Buyanova, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hong, Y.G.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, La Jolla, California.
    Tu, C.W.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, La Jolla, California.
    Radiative recombination of GaInNP alloys lattice matched to GaAs2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 011919-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cw- and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy is employed to evaluate dominant mechanisms for light emission in GayIn1−yNxP1−x alloys grown by gas source molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates. Different from other direct band gap dilute nitrides, the low temperature PL emission was shown to be largely attributed to radiative transitions involving spatially separated localized electron-hole pairs. The observed charge separation is tentatively attributed to the long range CuPt ordering promoted by the presence of nitrogen.

  • 164.
    Izadifard, Morteza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vorona, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Buyanova, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utsumi, A.
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan .
    Furukawa, Y.
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan .
    Moon, S.
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan .
    Wakahara, A.
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan .
    Yonezu, H.
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan .
    Evaluation of optical quality and defect properties of GaNxP1−x alloys lattice matched to Si2004In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 85, p. 6347-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By using a variety of optical characterization techniques, including cathodoluminescence, temperature-dependent cw- and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL), and PL excitation spectroscopies, high optical quality of the GaN0.018P0.982 epilayers lattice matched to Si substrates is demonstrated and is shown to be comparable to that of the “state-of-the-art” GaNP alloys grown on GaP substrates. The growth of GaNP on Si is, however, found to facilitate the formation of several point defects, including complexes involving Ga interstitial atoms (Gai).

  • 165.
    Izadifard, Morteza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mtchedlidze, T.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vorona, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Buyanova, Irina A.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hong, Y.G.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, CA.
    Tu, C.W.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, CA.
    Band alignment in GaInNP/GaAs heterostructures grown by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy2005In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 86, no 26, p. 261904-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation, and optically detected cyclotron resonance measurements are employed to determine band alignment in GaInNP/GaAs heterostructures grown by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy. The type II band alignment at the Ga0.46In0.54NxP1−x/GaAs interface is concluded for the alloys with x ≥ 0.5% based on (i) highly efficient PL upconversion observed in the N containing samples and (ii) appearance of a near-infrared PL emission attributed to the spatially indirect type II transitions. Compositional dependence of the conduction band offset at the Ga1−yInyNxP1−x/GaAs interface is also estimated.

  • 166.
    Jacobs, SEJ
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, England.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Eindhoven University of Technology, England.
    Koenraad, PM
    Eindhoven University of Technology, England.
    Hopkinson, M
    Eindhoven University of Technology, England.
    Salemink, HWM
    Eindhoven University of Technology, England.
    Wolter, JH
    Eindhoven University of Technology, England.
    Spatially resolved scanning tunneling luminescence on self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots2003In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 290-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scanning-tunneling microscope induced luminescence at low temperature has been used to study the carrier injection into single self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots. Electrons are injected from the tip into the dots, which are located in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n junction, and contain excess holes under typical operational conditions. Only a fraction (similar to4%) of the dots is found to be optically active under local electrical excitation. Spatial dependent measurements indicate a highly nonhomogeneous electron diffusion towards the dots. By analyzing the spatial dependence of individual peaks in the measured spectra, the contributions of individual dots to the total, multidot spectrum can be disentangled. (C) 2003 American Institute of Physics.

  • 167.
    Jacobson, H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallin, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tuomi, T.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindefelt, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Doping-induced strain in N-doped 4H-SiC crystals2003In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 82, no 21, p. 3689-3691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress in epitaxial layers due to crystal lattice mismatch directly influences the growth, structure, and basic electrophysical parameters of epitaxial films and also to a large extent the degradation processes in semiconductor devices. In this letter, we present a theoretical model for calculating the induced lattice compression due to N doping and the critical thickness concerning formation of misfit dislocations in homoepitaxial 4H–SiC layers with different N-doping levels. For example: The model predicts that substrates with a N concentration of 3×1019 cm-3 induce misfit dislocations when the epilayer thickness reaches ∼10 μm. Also, the N-doping concentration in the 1×1018–1×1019 cm-3 range yields a strain that not will cause misfit dislocactions at the substrate and epilayer interface until an epilayer thickness of 200–300 μm is reached. Supporting evidence of the induced lattice compression due to N doping have been done by synchrotron white-beam x-ray topography on samples with different N-doping levels and are compared with the predicted results from the model

  • 168.
    Jemsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Machhadani, Houssaine
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Fredrik K
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsu, Chih-Wei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Linearly polarized single photon antibunching from a site-controlled InGaN quantum dot2014In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 105, no 8, p. 081901-1-081901-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the observation of linearly polarized single photon antibunching in the excitonic emission from a site-controlled InGaN quantum dot. The measured second order coherence function exhibits a significant dip at zero time difference, corresponding to g(m)(2) (0) = 0: 90 under continuous laser excitation. This relatively high value of g(m)(2) (0) is well understood by a model as the combination of short exciton life time (320 ps), limited experimental timing resolution and the presence of an uncorrelated broadband background emission from the sample. Our result provides the first rigorous evidence of InGaN quantum dot formation on hexagonal GaN pyramids, and it highlights a great potential in these dots as fast polarized single photon emitters if the background emission can be eliminated.

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  • 169.
    Joelsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hugosson, Håkan
    Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Molina-Aldareguia, Jon M.
    CEIT (Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Técnicas de Gipuzkoa), San Sebastian, Spain .
    Phase stability tuning in the NbxZr1−xN thin-film system for large stacking fault density and enhanced mechanical strength2005In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 86, no 13, p. 131922-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase stability of hexagonal WC-structure and cubic NaCl-structure 4d transition metal nitrides was calculated using first-principles density functional theory. It is predicted that there is a multiphase or polytypic region for the 4d transition metal nitrides with a valence electron concentration around 9.5 to 9.7 per formula unit. For verification, epitaxial NbxZr1−xN (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) was grown by reactive magnetron sputter deposition on MgO(001) substrates and analyzed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction. The defects observed in the films were threading dislocations due to nucleation and growth on the lattice-mismatched substrate and planar defects (stacking faults) parallel to the substrate surface. The highest defect density was found at the x = 0.5 composition. The nanoindentation hardness of the films varied between 21 GPa for the binary nitrides, and 26 GPa for Nb0.5Zr0.5N. Unlike the cubic binary nitrides, no slip on the preferred 〈10〉{110} slip system was observed. The increase in hardness is attributed to the increase in defect density at x = 0.5, as the defects act as obstacles for dislocation glide during deformation. The findings present routes for the design of wear-resistant nitride coatings by phase stability tuning.

  • 170.
    Joelsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hörling, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Single-crystal Ti2AlN thin films2005In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 86, no 11, p. 111913-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have produced pure thin-film single-crystal Ti2AlN(0001), a member of the Mn+1AXn class of materials. The method used was UHV dc reactive magnetron sputtering from a 2Ti:Al compound target in a mixed Ar–N2 discharge onto (111) oriented MgO substrates. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to establish the hexagonal crystal structure with c and a lattice parameters of 13.6 and 3.07 Å, respectively. The hardness H, and elastic modulus E, as determined by nanoindentation measurements, were found to be 16.1±1 GPa and 270±20 GPa, respectively. A room-temperature resistivity for the films of 39 μΩ cm was obtained.

  • 171. Johansson, MP
    et al.
    Suenaga, K
    Hellgren, N
    Colliex, C
    Sundgren, JE
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Template-synthesized BN : C nanoboxes2000In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 76, no 7, p. 825-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Box-shaped nanostructures of B-C-N compounds were synthesized by reactive sputtering of boron carbide in mixed argon and nitrogen discharges. Transmission electron microscopy showed that these nanoboxes were grown on self-patterned NaCl substrate with projected areas ranging from similar to 1x10(2) to similar to 5x10(4) nm(2), sizes 50-100 nm, and number density similar to 100 mu m(-2). Electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed a phase separation of BN and C:N layers. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics. [S0003-6951(00)00507-6].

  • 172.
    Jouanny, I
    et al.
    University of Calif Los Angeles, CA USA .
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ngo, C
    University of Calif Los Angeles, CA USA .
    Mayrhofer, P H.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O A .
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kodambaka, S
    University of Calif Los Angeles, CA USA .
    In situ transmission electron microscopy studies of the kinetics of Pt-Mo alloy diffusion in ZrB2 thin films2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 103, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using in situ high-temperature (1073–1173 K) transmission electron microscopy, we investigated the thermal stability of Pt and Mo in contact with polycrystalline ZrB2 thin films deposited on Al 2O3(0001). During annealing, we observed the diffusion of cubic-structured Pt1− x Mo x (with x = 0.2 ± 0.1) along the length of the ZrB2 layer. From the time-dependent increase in diffusion lengths, we determined that the Pt1− x Mo x does not react with ZrB2, but diffuses along the surface with a constant temperature-dependent velocity. We identify the rate-limiting step controlling the observed phenomenon as the flux of Mo atoms with an associated activation barrier of 3.8 ± 0.5 eV.

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  • 173.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic-grade GaN(0001)/Al2O3(0001) grown by reactive DC-magnetron sputter epitaxy using a liquid Ga target2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 98, no 14, p. 141915-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic-grade GaN (0001) epilayers have been grown directly on Al2O3 (0001) substrates by reactive DC-magnetron sputter epitaxy (MSE) from a liquid Ga sputtering target in an Ar/N2 atmosphere. The as-grown GaN epitaxial film exhibit low threading dislocation density on the order of ≤ 1010 cm-2 obtained by transmission electron microscopy and modified Williamson-Hall plot. X-ray rocking curve shows narrow fullwidth at half maximum (FWHM) of 1054 arcsec of the 0002 reflection. A sharp 4 K photoluminescence peak at 3.474 eV with a FWHM of 6.3 meV is attributed to intrinsic GaN band edge emission. The high structural and optical qualities indicate that MSEgrown GaN epilayers can be used for fabricating high-performance devices without the need of any buffer layer.

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  • 174.
    Kakanakova-Georgieva, Anelia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trinh, Xuan Thang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The complex impact of silicon and oxygen on the n-type conductivity of high-Al-content AlGaN2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 13, p. 132113-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Issues of major relevance to the n-type conductivity of Al0.77Ga0.23N associated with Si and O incorporation, their shallow donor or deep donor level behavior, and carrier compensation are elucidated by allying (i) study of Si and O incorporation kinetics at high process temperature and low growth rate, and (ii) electron paramagnetic resonance measurements. The Al0.77Ga0.23N composition correlates to that Al content for which a drastic reduction of the conductivity of AlxGa1−xN is commonly reported. We note the incorporation of carbon, the role of which for the transport properties of AlxGa1−xN has not been widely discussed.

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  • 175.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Moskalenko, Evgenii
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Schoenfeld, W.V.
    Garcia, J.M.
    Petroff, P.M.
    Temperature influence on optical charging of self-assembled InAs/GaAs semiconductor quantum dots2001In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 78, no 19, p. 2952-2954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is demonstrated that the photoluminescence spectra of single self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots are very sensitive to excitation energy and crystal temperature. This is qualitatively explained in terms of the effective diffusivity of photogenerated particles, which affects the capture probability of the quantum dot. As a consequence, this opens the possibility of controlling the average number of excess electrons in the quantum dot by optical means. This technique may be used as a simple tool to create and study charged exciton complexes without any specially fabricated samples. ⌐ 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  • 176.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Troncale, V.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Oberli, D.Y.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Malko, A.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Pelucchi, E.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Rudra, A.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Kapon, E.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Optical polarization anisotropy and hole states in pyramidal quantum dots2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 89, p. 251113-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors present a polarization-resolved photoluminescence study of single semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) interconnected to quantum wires, measured both in a top geometry, and in a less conventional cleaved-edge geometry. Strong polarization anisotropy is revealed for all observed transitions, and it is deduced that closely spaced QD hole states exhibit nearly pure heavy-or light-hole character. These effects are attributed to the large aspect ratio of the dot shape

  • 177.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Weman, Helge
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Leifer, K.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Rudra, A.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Kapon, E.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Lyo, S.K.
    Sandia National Laboratories.
    Strongly reduced exciton transfer between parallel quantum wires2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 90, p. 101108-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exciton transfer between two parallel GaAs V-groove quantum wires or two planar quantum wells separated by AlGaAs barriers ranging from 5.5 nm to 20 nm thickness is studied by photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy. It is found that the transfer is strongly reduced between the widely spaced quantum wires as compared with quantum wells. This observation is supported by model calculations, which yield strong dimensionality dependence of the photon-exchange transfer

  • 178.
    Kawahara, Koutarou
    et al.
    Kyoto University, Japan .
    Thang Trinh, Xuan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Son Tien, Nguyen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Suda, Jun
    Kyoto University, Japan .
    Kimoto, Tsunenobu
    Kyoto University, Japan .
    Investigation on origin of Z(1/2) center in SiC by deep level transient spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Z(1/2) center in n-type 4H-SiC epilayers-a dominant deep level limiting the carrier lifetime-has been investigated. Using capacitance versus voltage (C-V) measurements and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), we show that the Z(1/2) center is responsible for the carrier compensation in n-type 4H-SiC epilayers irradiated by low-energy (250 keV) electrons. The concentration of the Z(1/2) defect obtained by C-V and DLTS correlates well with that of the carbon vacancy (V-C) determined by electron paramagnetic resonance, suggesting that the Z(1/2) deep level originates from V-C.

  • 179.
    Kemerink, M.
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Charrier, D. S. H.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Smits, E. C. P.
    Philips Research Labs, Netherlands; University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Mathijssen, S. G. J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; Philips Research Labs, Netherlands.
    de Leeuw, D. M.
    Philips Research Labs, Netherlands; University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Janssen, R. A. J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    On the width of the recombination zone in ambipolar organic field effect transistors2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 93, no 3, article id 033312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of organic light emitting field effect transistors is strongly influenced by the width of the recombination zone. We present an analytical model for the recombination profile. By assuming Langevin recombination, the recombination zone width W is found to be given by W = root 4.34d delta, with d and delta the gate dielectric and accumulation layer thicknesses, respectively. The model compares favorably to both numerical calculations and measured surface potential profiles of an actual ambipolar device. (C) 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  • 180.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Gerritsen, JW
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Koenraad, PM
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    van Kempen, H
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Wolter, JH
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Spectrally resolved luminescence from an InGaAs quantum well induced by an ambient scanning tunneling microscope1999In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 75, no 23, p. 3656-3658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectrally resolved scanning tunneling microscope-induced luminescence has been obtained under ambient conditions, i.e., at room temperature, in air, by passivating the sample surface with sulfur. This passivation turned out to be essential to suppress the local anodic oxidation induced by the tunneling current. From the dependence of the luminescence signal on tunneling current and voltage, we find that the passivation solution and post-passivation annealing temperature strongly modify the surface density of states (SDOS). More specifically, we found evidence that, after annealing at 400 degrees C, no SDOS is left above the bottom of the conduction band. For annealing at 200 degrees C, the SDOS is found to be extended up to 1.0 +/- 0.2 eV above the bottom of the conduction band. In all cases, the passivated (001) surface appears to be completely pinned. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics. [S0003-6951(99)01949-X].

  • 181.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Kramer, JM
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Gommans, HHP
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Janssen, RAJ
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Temperature-dependent built-in potential in organic semiconductor devices2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 88, no 19, article id 192108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperature dependence of the built-in voltage of organic semiconductor devices is studied. The results are interpreted using a simple analytical model for the band bending at the electrodes. It is based on the notion that, even at zero current, diffusion may cause a significant charge density in the entire device, and hence a temperature dependent band bending. Both magnitude and temperature dependence of the built-in potential of various devices are consistently described by the model, as the effects of a thin LiF layer between cathode and active layer. (c) 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  • 182.
    KEMERINK, MARTIJN
    et al.
    PHILIPS RES LABS, NETHERLANDS.
    MOLENKAMP, LW
    PHILIPS RES LABS, NETHERLANDS.
    STOCHASTIC COULOMB-BLOCKADE IN A DOUBLE-QUANTUM DOT1994In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 1012-1014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The series resistance of two coupled quantum dots in a (Al,Ga)As heterostructure has been studied experimentally. At very low lattice temperatures conductance oscillations of irregular amplitude and spacing are observed. The irregularities decrease on raising the temperature. The observations are interpreted as resulting from the stochastic Coulomb blockade effect.

  • 183.
    Kerdsongpanya, Sit
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Van Nong, Ngo
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Pryds, Nini
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Zukauskaite, Agne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wingqvist, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anomalously high thermoelectric power factor in epitaxial ScN thin films2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 99, no 23, p. 232113-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermoelectric properties of ScN thin films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering on Al2O3(0001) wafers are reported. X-ray diffraction and elastic recoil detection analyses show that the composition of the films is close to stoichiometry with trace amounts (similar to 1 at. % in total) of C, O, and F. We found that the ScN thin-film exhibits a rather low electrical resistivity of similar to 2.94 mu Omega m, while its Seebeck coefficient is approximately similar to-86 mu V/K at 800 K, yielding a power factor of similar to 2.5 x 10(-3) W/mK(2). This value is anomalously high for common transition-metal nitrides.

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  • 184.
    Khan, Azam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wissting, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Piezoelectric nanogenerator based on zinc oxide nanorods grown on textile cotton fabric2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 101, no 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation explores piezoelectricity generation from ZnO nanorods, which were grown on silver coated textile cotton fabrics using the low temperature aqueous chemical growth method. The morphology and crystal structure studies were carried out by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopic and high resolution transmission electron microscopic techniques, respectively. ZnO nanorods were highly dense, well aligned, uniform in spatial distribution and exhibited good crystal quality. The generation of piezoelectricity from fabricated ZnO nanorods grown on textile cotton fabrics was measured using contact mode atomic force microscopy. The average output voltage generated from ZnO nanorods was measured to be around 9.5 mV. This investigation is an important achievement regarding the piezoelectricity generation on textile cotton fabric substrate. The fabrication of this device provides an alternative approach for a flexible substrate to develop devices for energy harvesting and optoelectronic technology on textiles.

  • 185.
    Khromov, Sergey
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Avrutin, V.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Physics Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284, USA.
    Li, Xing
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Physics Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284, USA.
    Morkoç, H.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Physics Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284, USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optical and structural studies of homoepitaxially grown m-plane GaN2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 100, no 17, p. 172108-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on cathodoluminescence (CL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of m-plane Mg-doped GaN layers grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The layers contain basal plane and prismatic stacking faults (SFs) with a density of ~106 cm-1. Broad emission peaks commonly ascribed to SF were found to be insignificant in these samples. However, a set of quite strong and sharp lines were detected in the same spectral region 3.36-3.42 eV. The observed peaks are tentatively explained as excitons bound to some point defects by analogy with p-type GaAs, since donor-acceptor pair (DAP) recombination was ruled out by the CL mapping experiments.

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  • 186.
    Khromov, Sergey
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Avrutin, V.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Physics Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Virginia, USA.
    Morkoc, H.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Physics Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Virginia, USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Correlation between Si doping and stacking fault related luminescence in homoepitaxial m-plane GaN2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 103, p. 192101-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Si-doped GaN layers grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on m-plane GaN substrates were investigated by low-temperature cathodoluminescence (CL). We have observed stacking fault (SF) related emission in the range of 3.29–3.42 eV for samples with moderate doping, while for the layers with high concentration of dopants, no CL lines related to SFs have been noted. Perturbation of the SF potential profile by neighboring impurity atoms can explain localization of excitons at SFs, while this effect would vanish at high doping levels due to screening.

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  • 187.
    Khromov, Sergey
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, X.
    Peking University, Peoples R China.
    Yoshikawa, A.
    Chiba University, Japan.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Correlation between switching to n-type conductivity and structural defects in highly Mg-doped InN2015In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 106, no 23, article id 232102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of Mg doping on the microstructure of InN epitaxial films in relation to their free-charge carrier properties has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and aberration corrected scanning TEM. We observe a direct correlation between Mg concentration and the formation of stacking faults. The threading dislocation density is found to be independent of Mg concentration. The critical Mg concentration for the on-set of stacking faults formation is determined and found to correlate with the switch from p- to n-type conductivity in InN. Potential mechanisms involving stacking faults and point defect complexes are invoked in order to explain the observed conductivity reversal. Finally, the stacking faults are structurally determined and their role in the reduction of the free electron mobility in highly doped InN: Mg is discussed. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

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  • 188.
    Knight, Sean
    et al.
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Mock, Alyssa
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Korlacki, Rafal
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan.
    Kumagai, Yoshinao
    Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan; Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan.
    Goto, Ken
    Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan; Tamura Corp, Japan.
    Higashiwaki, Masataka
    National Institute Informat and Commun Technology, Japan.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; Leibniz Institute Polymer Research Dresden, Germany.
    Electron effective mass in Sn-doped monoclinic single crystal beta-gallium oxide determined by mid-infrared optical Hall effect2018In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 112, no 1, article id 012103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The isotropic average conduction band minimum electron effective mass in Sn-doped monoclinic single crystal beta-Ga2O3 is experimentally determined by the mid-infrared optical Hall effect to be (0.2846 +/- 0.013)m(0) combining investigations on (010) and ((2) over bar 01) surface cuts. This result falls within the broad range of values predicted by theoretical calculations for undoped beta-Ga2O3. The result is also comparable to recent density functional calculations using the Gaussian-attenuation-Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof hybrid density functional, which predict an average effective mass of 0.267m(0). Within our uncertainty limits, we detect no anisotropy for the electron effective mass, which is consistent with most previous theoretical calculations. We discuss upper limits for possible anisotropy of the electron effective mass parameter from our experimental uncertainty limits, and we compare our findings with recent theoretical results. Published by AIP Publishing.

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  • 189.
    Knutsson, Axel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, M.P.
    Seco Tools AB, SE-73782 Fagersta, Sweden.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thermal decomposition products in arc evaporated TiAlN/TiN multilayers2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 93, no 14, p. 143110-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cubic metastable Ti0.34Al0.66 N/TiN multilayers were grown by reactive arc evaporation using Ti33-Al67 and Ti cathodes in a N2 atmosphere. X-ray diffractometry and high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that metastable c-Ti 0.34Al0.66N partly decomposes after annealing at 900 °C into c-TiN rich and c-AlN rich phases with retained lattice coherency. Elemental mapping by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed a homogenous distribution of Ti and Al in the as-deposited 25 nm Ti0.34Al 0.66N layers. The annealed Ti0.34Al0.66N layers exhibited coherent 5 nm domains with high Al content surrounded by a high Ti content matrix. This nanostructure formation is discussed in terms of spinodal decomposition. © 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  • 190.
    Kodambaka, S
    et al.
    University of Calif Los Angeles, CA USA.
    Ngo, C
    University of Calif Los Angeles, CA USA.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mayrhofer, P H.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kinetics of Ga droplet decay on thin carbon films2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we investigated the kinetics of liquid Ga droplet decay on thin amorphous carbon films during annealing at 773 K. The transmission electron microscopy images reveal that liquid Ga forms spherical droplets and undergo coarsening/decay with increasing time. We find that the droplet volumes change non-linearly with time and the volume decay rates depend on their local environment. By comparing the late-stage decay behavior of the droplets with the classical mean-field theory model for Ostwald ripening, we determine that the decay of Ga droplets occurs in the surface diffusion limited regime.

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  • 191.
    Kroger, R.
    et al.
    Kröger, R., Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Paskova, T.
    Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Figge, S.
    Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Hommel, D.
    Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Rosenauer, A.
    Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Interfacial structure of a -plane GaN grown on r -plane sapphire2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 90, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interface between a -plane GaN, grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and hydride vapor phase epitaxy, and r -plane sapphire was investigated by transmission electron microscopy in [1-100] and [0001] zone axis orientations. The interfacial structure was well defined allowing a direct observation of the misfit dislocations in both orientations. An analysis of these dislocations revealed for the respective Burgers vectors a 13 <2-1-10> component in the {0002} planes and a 12 <0001> component in the {1-100} planes. In addition, the relative atomic column configurations in the GaN and sapphire were determined based on Bloch-wave simulations in comparison with the experimental images. © 2007 American Institute of Physics.

  • 192.
    La, Rui
    et al.
    Graduate Program of Material Science and Engineering, University of California.
    Liu, Ren
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California.
    Yao, Weichuan
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California.
    Chen, Renjie
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California.
    Jansson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pan, Janet L.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California.
    Buyanova, Irina A.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xiang, Jie
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California.
    Dayeh, Shadi A.
    Department of NanoEngineering, University of California;Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California.
    Tu, Charles W.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California.
    Self-catalyzed core-shell GaAs/GaNAs nanowires grown on patterned Si (111) by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy2017In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 111, article id 072106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report structural studies on the epitaxial growth of GaAs/GaNAs core-shell nanowires (NWs) on patterned Si (111) substrates by self-catalyzed selective area growth using Gas-Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Epitaxial growth conditions were obtained using a combination of dry and time-sensitive wet etching of the SiO2 growth mask and native SiO2 layer, respectively. We found that higher growth temperatures resulted in a higher yield for the epitaxial growth of patterned self-catalyzed GaAs NWs on Si with an optimal temperature of 690 °C. The GaNAs shell growth at 500 °C was found to be conformal and maintained an epitaxial and dislocation-free interface with both the Si substrate and the GaAs nanowire. The micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) measurement at 6 K revealed two bands peaking at 1.45 and 1.17 eV, which could be emission from the GaAs core and GaNAs shell. Transmission electron microscopy showed the zincblende crystal structure of GaAs and GaAs/GaNAs core-shell NWs with minimal twinning near the base of the GaAs nanowires and at the tips of the GaAs/GaNAs core/shell nanowires. This study illustrates the feasibility of the epitaxial growth of patterned GaAs with dilute nitride shells on Si substrates, which would have potential for Si-friendly intermediate band solar cells and telecom emitters.

  • 193.
    Larsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moskalenko, Evgenii
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Manipulating the Spin Polarization of Excitons in a Single Quantum Dot by Optical Means2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 98, no 7, p. 071906-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular polarization studies of photoluminescence from the neutral (X0) and the positively charged (X+) exciton are reported for individual InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). High polarization degrees, 60 % for X0 and 73 % for X+, were recorded without any external magnetic field applied. These studies show that that the QD polarization and population dynamics are controllable either by varying the photo-excitation intensity, or by using a second IR laser excitation.

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  • 194.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spatially direct and indirect transitions observed for Si/Ge quantum dots2003In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 82, no 26, p. 4785-4787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical properties of Ge quantum dots embedded in Si were investigated by means of photoluminescence, with temperature and excitation power density as variable parameters. Two different types of recombination processes related to the Ge quantum dots were observed. A transfer from the spatially indirect to the spatially direct recombination in the type-II band lineup was observed with increasing temperature. A blueshift of the spatially indirect Ge quantum-dot-emission energy with increasing excitation power is ascribed to band bending at the type-II Si/Ge interface for high carrier densities. Comparative studies were performed on uncapped Ge dot structures.

  • 195.
    Lartsev, Arseniy
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Yager, Tom
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    SP Technical Research Institute Sweden, Sweden.
    Tzalenchuk, Alexander
    National Phys Lab, England; University of London, England.
    Janssen, T. J. B. M.
    National Phys Lab, England.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lara-Avila, Samuel
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Kubatkin, Sergey
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Tuning carrier density across Dirac point in epitaxial graphene on SiC by corona discharge2014In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 105, no 6, p. 063106-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate reversible carrier density control across the Dirac point (Delta n similar to 10(13) cm(-2)) in epitaxial graphene on SiC (SiC/G) via high electrostatic potential gating with ions produced by corona discharge. The method is attractive for applications where graphene with a fixed carrier density is needed, such as quantum metrology, and more generally as a simple method of gating 2DEGs formed at semiconductor interfaces and in topological insulators.

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  • 196.
    Le, Son Phuong
    et al.
    Center for Nano Materials and Technology, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292, Japan.
    Toshimasa, Ui
    Center for Nano Materials and Technology, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292, Japan.
    Toshi-kazu, Suzuki
    Center for Nano Materials and Technology, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292, Japan.
    Low-frequency noise in InAs films bonded on low-k flexible substrates.2015In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 107, no 19, p. 4p. 192103-1-192103-4, article id 192103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have systematically investigated low-frequency noise (LFN) in InAs films with several thicknesses (≃10-100 nm) bonded on low-k flexible substrates (InAs/FS), comparing with that in InAs films epitaxially grown on GaAs(001) substrates (InAs/GaAs). We obtain current LFN spectra exhibiting approximate 1/f characteristics and consequent effective Hooge parameters α depending on the thickness, where we find that α in the InAs/FS is larger than that in the InAs/GaAs. The behavior of α can be attributed to the fluctuation of the electron mobility dominated by surface/interface charge scattering and by thickness fluctuation scattering. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • 197.
    Lebedev, A.A.
    et al.
    A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnichaskaja 26, 194021, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.
    Strokan, N.B.
    A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnichaskaja 26, 194021, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.
    Ivanov, A.M.
    A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnichaskaja 26, 194021, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.
    Davydov, D.V.
    A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnichaskaja 26, 194021, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.
    Savkina, N.S.
    A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnichaskaja 26, 194021, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.
    Bogdanova, E.V.
    A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnichaskaja 26, 194021, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.
    Kuznetsov, A.N.
    A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnichaskaja 26, 194021, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.
    Yakimova, R.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Amplification of the signal in triode structures of ion detectors based on 6H-SIC epitaxial films2001In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 79, no 26, p. 4447-4449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of about 50 times the inneramplification of signals in SiC-based detectors of short-range ions is shown. The detector has an n-p-n+-like structure, where the p-type base was grown epitaxially on a 6H n+-SiC substrate. To complete the structure a Schottky barrier was made on top. Detector parameters were investigated in a "floating base" regime. Alpha particles from 244Cm were used and the augmentation of signal (E) with increasing applied voltage (U) was investigated. A superlinear increase of E was observed with a significant (tens of times) amplification of the introduced by the alpha particle nonequilibrium charge. It was also found that the nonuniformity of the diffusion-drift carrier transport parameters in the films does not exceed 10%. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  • 198.
    Lee, Sun-Kyun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Shula L
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hongxing, D
    Fudan University.
    Sun, L
    Fudan University.
    Chen, Z
    Fudan University.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Buyanova, Irina A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Long lifetime of free excitons in ZnO tetrapod structures2010In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 96, no 8, p. 083104-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) is employed to characterize optical quality of ZnO tetrapods. PL decay of free excitons (FE) is concluded to contain two components with time constants of 1 and 14 ns at room temperature. The fast PL decay is attributed to nonradiative recombination whereas the slow decay is suggested to mainly represent FE radiative lifetime, based on correlation between thermally induced increases in the PL linewidth and FE lifetimes. The results underline superior optical quality of the tetrapods as the decay time of the slow PL component is comparable to the longest lifetimes reported to date for ZnO.

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  • 199.
    Li, P. L.
    et al.
    Nanjing University, MA 02467 USA.
    Yao, X. Y.
    Nanjing University, MA 02467 USA.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhao, C.
    Nanjing University, MA 02467 USA.
    Yin, K. B.
    Nanjing University, MA 02467 USA.
    Weng, Y. Y.
    Nanjing University, MA 02467 USA.
    Liu, J.-M.
    Nanjing University, MA 02467 USA.
    Ren, Z. F.
    Nanjing University, MA 02467 USA.
    Preparation of aligned Ca3Co2O6 nanorods and their steplike magnetization2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 042505-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Well-aligned Ca3Co2O6 nanorods (similar to 300 nm in length and similar to 40 nm in diameter) on Si substrates are prepared by pulsed laser deposition. The steplike magnetization feature as identified in bulk Ca3Co2O6 can be retained in the nanorods in spite of the enhanced distortion of the magnetically ordered spin chains due to the finite size effect. The out-of-plane magnetization value is slightly larger than the in-plane value, which shows the small magnetic anisotropy. An additional distinct transition at 54 K associated with the spin frustration is revealed, different from the bulk samples. (C) 2007 American Institute of Physics.

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