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  • 151.
    Lehmann, S.
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Ravn, A.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Carlsson, L.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Antunovic, Petar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery.
    Deneberg, S.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Mollgard, L.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Rangert Derolf, A.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Stockelberg, D.
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Tidefelt, U.
    Orebro University Hospital.
    Wahlin, A.
    Umea University.
    Wennstrom, L.
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Hoglund, M.
    Acad Hospital, Uppsala.
    Juliusson, G.
    Skane University Hospital.
    Continuing high early death rate in acute promyelocytic leukemia: a population-based report from the Swedish Adult Acute Leukemia Registry2011In: Leukemia, ISSN 0887-6924, E-ISSN 1476-5551, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1128-1134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our knowledge about acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients is mainly based on data from clinical trials, whereas population-based information is scarce. We studied APL patients diagnosed between 1997 and 2006 in the population-based Swedish Adult Acute Leukemia Registry. Of a total of 3897 acute leukemia cases, 3205 (82%) had non-APL acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 105 (2.7%) had APL. The incidence of APL was 0.145 per 100 000 inhabitants per year. The median age at the time of diagnosis was 54 years; 62% were female and 38% male. Among younger APL patients, female sex predominated (89% of patients less than 40 years). Of the 105 APL patients, 30 (29%) died within 30 days (that is, early death (ED)) (median 4 days) and 28 (26%) within 14 days from diagnosis. In all, 41% of the EDs were due to hemorrhage; 35% of ED patients never received all-trans-retinoic acid treatment. ED rates increased with age but more clearly with poor performance status. ED was also associated with high white blood cells, lactate dehydro-genase, creatinine, C-reactive protein and low platelet count. Of non-ED patients, 97% achieved complete remission of which 16% subsequently relapsed. In total, 62% are still alive at 6.4 years median follow-up. We conclude that ED rates remain very high in an unselected APL population.

  • 152.
    Lennquist Montan, K.
    et al.
    Centre for Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, Regionens Hus, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Riddez, L.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lennquist, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Olsberg, A. C.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Lindberg, H.
    Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Gryth, D.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ortenwall, P.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Assessment of hospital surge capacity using the MACSIM simulation system: a pilot study2017In: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, ISSN 1863-9933, E-ISSN 1863-9941, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 525-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim The aim of this study was to use a simulation model developed for the scientific evaluation of methodology in disaster medicine to test surge capacity (SC) in a major hospital responding to a simulated major incident with a scenario copied from a real incident. Methods The tested hospital was illustrated on a system of magnetic boards, where available resources, staff, and patients treated in the hospital at the time of the test were illustrated. Casualties were illustrated with simulation cards supplying all data required to determine procedures for diagnosis and treatment, which all were connected to real consumption of time and resources. Results The first capacity-limiting factor was the number of resuscitation teams that could work parallel in the emergency department (ED). This made it necessary to refer severely injured to other hospitals. At this time, surgery (OR) and intensive care (ICU) had considerable remaining capacity. Thus, the reception of casualties could be restarted when the ED had been cleared. The next limiting factor was lack of ventilators in the ICU, which permanently set the limit for SC. At this time, there was still residual OR capacity. With access to more ventilators, the full surgical capacity of the hospital could have been utilized. Conclusions The tested model was evaluated as an accurate tool to determine SC. The results illustrate that SC cannot be determined by testing one single function in the hospital, since all functions interact with each other and different functions can be identified as limiting factors at different times during the response.

  • 153.
    Lennquist, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology, Centre for Teaching and Research in Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Introduction to the third "Focus-on" issue specially devoted to papers within the field of the ESTES section for Disaster and Military Surgery2011In: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, ISSN 1863-9933, E-ISSN 1863-9941, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ultrasound is widely accepted as a valuable diagnostic tool for detecting intra-abdominal and intrathoracic bleeding in trauma patients. Nevertheless, many doctors are reluctant to use it because they do not have sufficient training. This study aimed to define intraabdominal and intrathoracic fluid volumes that can be detected by sonography and their relation to fluid width in pigs to establish a clinically relevant animal model for teaching and training. Methods: Different volumes of normal saline were infused into the abdomen (50-2,000 mL) and chest (25-250 mL) in five anesthetized pigs. The maximum width of fluid as detected by ultrasound was recorded. The right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, pelvis, and right paracolic section of the abdomen and right pleural cavity were studied. An experienced radiologist performed the studies. The effects on respiratory and cardiovascular functions were evaluated. Results: The sonographic findings in the pig were similar to those in humans. Up to 50 mL of intra-abdominal fluid and up to 25 mL of intrathoracic fluid could be detected by ultrasound. There was a significant correlation between the volume infused and the fluid width detected. The respiratory and cardiovascular monitoring of the animals showed that the infused intrathoracic volumes mimicked a survivable hemothorax. Conclusion: The pig may serve as an excellent clinically relevant model with which to teach surgeons detection of different volumes of intra-abdominal and intrathoracic fluids. The value of this model as an educational tool has yet to be tested.

  • 154.
    Lennquist, Sten
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Teaching and Research in Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Management of major accidents and disasters: An important responsibility for the trauma surgeons2007In: Journal of Trauma, ISSN 0022-5282, E-ISSN 1529-8809, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 1321-1329Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 155.
    Lennquist, Sten
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Teaching and Research in Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Hodgetts, T.
    Academic Department of Military Emergency Medicine, Institute of Research and Development, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Evaluation of the response of the Swedish healthcare system to the tsunami disaster in South East Asia2008In: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, ISSN 1863-9933, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 465-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: When the tsunami in South East Asia hit the coast of Thailand on December 26, 2004, approximately 20,000 Swedish tourists were in the disaster zone. Of these, 548 died or were lost and more than 1500 were injured. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of the Swedish health care system to the disaster in terms of assessment and support in the disaster zone, evacuation back to Sweden and continued treatment in Sweden. Methods: The evaluation was carried out based on (1) structured questionnaires to the staff of Thai hospitals, injured Swedish citizens and Swedish voluntary workers in the disaster zone, (2) semi-structured interviews with representatives of involved authorities, regional health care centres in Thailand and Sweden, hospital command centres, individuals treated for injuries and volunteer workers involved with supporting the injured, (3) on-site visits in the disaster zone, (4) analysis of reports following the tsunami. Results: A total of 11,000 injured were treated during the first 3 days following the tsunami at the six major hospitals in the Phang Nga, Phuket and Krabi provinces where the majority of the Swedish citizens were primarily taken care of. Of these 11,000, 3000 required hospital admission against a total bed capacity of 1400. Almost 1500 surgical operations were performed during the first 3 days across 33 operating theatres. Thai health care representatives and staff confirmed the requirement for teams from countries with many tourists in the area for practical and psychological support, interpretation, assessment for evacuation and undertaking early evacuation to home nations to release local health care resources. This need was also supported by the injured. Sweden, having the highest number of injured citizens next to the host country, was very late compared to other countries in sending assessment teams to the area and in supplying the needed support. Conclusions: With increased international travelling, many countries today have large numbers of their citizens in other parts of the world. For Sweden, this has been estimated to be 400,000 at any one time, often in areas known to be risk zones for natural disasters and terrorism. This fact of modern-day life demands welldesigned plans to support both citizens in the area and the local health care in several ways: non-medical support by mediating contact between injured and local medical staff, psychological and practical support, support in evacuating own citizens from the area to release local health care and (under specific conditions) medical support. This planning has to include prepared assessment teams that can be rapidly deployed to the scene and a command structure permitting rapid and accurate decisions on a governmental level. © 2008 Springer.

  • 156.
    Lewander, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gao, Jingfang
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carstensen, John
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Arbman, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    NF-κB p65 phosphorylated at Serine-536 is an independent prognostic factor in Swedish colorectal cancer patientsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: NF-κB transcription factor protein family has diverse cellular and biological functions, and post-translational modification is important to regulate these functions. An important site of phosphorylation of p65 subunit is at Serine-536 (phospho-Ser536-p65), and this phosphorylation is involved in regulation of transcriptional activity, nuclear localization and protein stability. In this study, we investigated a phospho-Ser536-p65 in colorectal cancers and its relationship to clinicopathological factors of the patients.

    Materials and Methods: Expression of phospho-Ser536-p65 was examined by using immunohistochemistry in 203 primary colorectal cancers, 156 normal mucosa specimens and 18 metastases in the lymph nodes.

    Results: The expression of phospho-Ser536-p65 increased from normal mucosa to primary tumour (p<0.0001). Further, the increased expression of phospho-Ser536-p65 in the cytoplasm of the primary tumours correlated with worse survival of the patients independent of gender, age, tumor location, stage and differentiation (p=0.04, hazard ratio 1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.47).

    Conclusion: The NF-κB p65 subunit phosphorylated at Serine-536 is anindependent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer patients.

  • 157.
    Lewander, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gao, Jingfang
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carstensen, John
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Arbman, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery VHN.
    Zhang, Hong
    University of Skövde.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology UHL.
    NF-kappa B p65 phosphorylated at serine-536 is an independent prognostic factor in Swedish colorectal cancer patients2012In: International Journal of Colorectal Disease, ISSN 0179-1958, E-ISSN 1432-1262, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 447-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The NF-kappa B transcription factor protein family has diverse cellular and biological functions, and posttranslational modification is important to regulate these functions. An important site of phosphorylation of NF-kappa B p65 subunit is at serine-536 (phospho-Ser536-p65), and this phosphorylation is involved in regulation of transcriptional activity, nuclear localization, and protein stability. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanIn this study, we investigated expression of phospho-Ser536-p65 in colorectal cancers and its relationships with clinicopathological factors. The expression of phospho-Ser536-p65 was examined by immunohistochemistry in 203 primary colorectal cancers, 156 normal mucosa specimens, and 18 metastases in the lymph nodes. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe expression of phospho-Ser536-p65 increased from normal mucosa to primary tumor (p andlt; 0.0001). Further, the increased expression of phospho-Ser536-p65 in the cytoplasm of the primary tumors correlated with worse survival of the patients independently of gender, age, tumor location, stage, and differentiation (p = 0.04; hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% CI 1.03-3.47). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe NF-kappa B p65 subunit phosphorylated at serine-536 is an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer patients.

  • 158.
    Lewis, K.
    et al.
    Intestinal Disease Research Programme, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Caldwell, J.
    Gastrointestinal Research Group, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Phan, V.
    Gastrointestinal Research Group, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Prescott, D.
    Gastrointestinal Research Group, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Nazli, A.
    Intestinal Disease Research Programme, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Wang, A.
    Gastrointestinal Research Group, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Perdue, M.H.
    Intestinal Disease Research Programme, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Sherman, P.M.
    Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    McKay, D.M.
    Gastrointestinal Research Group, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, Gastrointestinal Research Group, Dept. Physiology and Biophysics, Univ. of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Dr. NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada.
    Decreased epithelial barrier function evoked by exposure to metabolic stress and nonpathogenic E. coli is enhanced by TNF-a2008In: American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, ISSN 0193-1857, E-ISSN 1522-1547, Vol. 294, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A defect in mitochondrial activity contributes to many diseases. We have shown that monolayers of the human colonic T84 epithelial cell line exposed to dinitrophenol (DNP, uncouples oxidative phosphorylation) and nonpathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) (strain HB101) display decreased barrier function. Here the impact of DNP on macrophage activity and the effect of TNF-a, DNP, and E. coli on epithelial permeability were assessed. DNP treatment of the human THP-1 macrophage cell line resulted in reduced ATP synthesis, and, although hyporesponsive to LPS, the metabolically stressed macrophages produced IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-a. Given the role of TNF-a in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the association between increased permeability and IBD, recombinant TNF-a (10 ng/ml) was added to the DNP (0.1 mM) + E. coli (106 colony-forming units), and this resulted in a significantly greater loss of T84 epithelial barrier function than that elicited by DNP + E. coli. This increased epithelial permeability was not due to epithelial death, and the enhanced E. coli translocation was reduced by pharmacological inhibitors of NF-?ß signaling (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, NF-?ß essential modifier-binding peptide, BAY 11-7082, and the proteosome inhibitor, MG132). In contrast, the drop in transepithelial electrical resistance was unaffected by the inhibitors of NF-?ß. Thus, as an integrative model system, our findings support the induction of a positive feedback loop that can severely impair epithelial barrier function and, as such, could contribute to existing inflammation or trigger relapses in IBD. Thus metabolically stressed epithelia display increased permeability in the presence of viable nonpathogenic E. coli that is exaggerated by TNF-a released by activated immune cells, such as macrophages, that retain this ability even if they themselves are experiencing a degree of metabolic stress. Copyright © 2008 the American Physiological Society.

  • 159.
    Lewis, Kimberley
    et al.
    University of Calgary.
    Lutgendorff, Femke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Phan, Van
    University of Calgary.
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Sherman, Philip M.
    University of Toronto.
    McKay, Derek M.
    University of Calgary.
    Enhanced Translocation of Bacteria Across Metabolically Stressed Epithelia is Reduced by Butyrate2010In: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, ISSN 1078-0998, E-ISSN 1536-4844, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 1138-1148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The gut microflora in some patients with Crohns disease can be reduced in numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria and this could result in metabolic stress in the colonocytes. Thus, we hypothesized that the short-chain fatty acid, butyrate, is important in the maintenance and regulation of the barrier function of the colonic epithelium. Methods: Confluent monolayers of the human colon-derived T84 or HT-29 epithelial cell lines were exposed to dinitrophenol (DNP (0.1 mM), uncouples oxidative phosphorylation) + Escherichia coil (strain HB101, 10(6) cfu) +/- butyrate (3-50 mM). Transepithelial resistance (TER), and bacterial internalization and translocation were assessed over a 24-hour period. Epithelial ultrastructure was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Results: Epithelia under metabolic stress display decreased TER and increased numbers of pseudopodia that is consistent with increased internalization and translocation of the E. coli. Butyrate (but not acetate) significantly reduced the bacterial translocation across DNP-treated epithelia but did not ameliorate the drop in TER in the DNP+E. coli exposed monolayers. Inhibition of bacterial transcytosis across metabolically stressed epithelia was associated with reduced I-kappa B phosphorylation and hence NF-kappa B activation. Conclusions: Reduced butyrate-producing bacteria could result in increased epithelial permeability particularly in the context of concomitant exposure to another stimulus that reduces mitochondria function. We speculate that prebiotics, the substrate for butyrate synthesis, is a valuable prophylaxis in the regulation of epithelial permeability and could be of benefit in preventing relapses in IBD.

  • 160.
    Lidman, Disa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Niklasson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Survival and function in patients with tumours of the head and neck operated on and reconstructed with free flaps2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery, ISSN 2000-656X, E-ISSN 2000-6764, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From 1983 to 2003, 131 patients were operated on in the head and neck region with 139 free flaps. They were operated on using a team approach of ear, nose, and throat surgeons and plastic surgeons, and sometimes maxillofacial surgeons. The tumours were squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) 104 (80%), salivary gland cancer 13 (10%), sarcoma 5 (4%), basal cell carcinoma 4 (3%), and others 4 (3%). The staging of the primary intraoral SCC tumours (n=79) was 42% in stage II, 28% in stage III, and 30% in stage IV. The survival of patients with primary oral SCC was compared with a previously treated previous series that gave an increase in tumour-related five-year survival from 48% to 58%. Most flaps were radial forearm flaps (73%). Fifteen percent were vascularised bone transfers. A questionnaire was sent to patients who had had oral/oropharyngeal tumours to measure function and satisfaction, to which 47/49 responded. The results including ability to chew and swallow, speech was good, with a median score of 0.78 (range 1-0).

  • 161.
    Liedberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Vaxjo County Hospital.
    Holmberg, Erik
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Holmang, Sten
    Department Surg and Perioperat Science, Umeå.
    Ljungberg, Borje
    Akad University Hospital.
    Malmstrom, Per-Uno
    University of Lund Hospital.
    Mansson, Wiking
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Nunez, Leyla
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Wessman, Catrin
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Wijkstrom, Hans
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Long-term follow-up after radical cystectomy with emphasis on complications and reoperations: A Swedish population-based survey2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, E-ISSN 1651-2065, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 14-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To evaluate outcome after radical cystectomy for primary bladder cancer in a large population-based material. Material and methods. Between 1997 and 2002 all patients treated with radical cystectomy within 3 months after diagnosis of primary bladder cancer without distant metastasis were retrieved through the Swedish Bladder Cancer Registry. A follow-up questionnaire was distributed to all units where the primary registration of patients was performed. Follow-up data on recurrence date were retrieved from the patient charts and causes of death were obtained from the Swedish Cause of Death Registry until 2003. Results. During the study period radical cystectomy was performed in 39 units in Sweden, of which only five units were considered high-volume hospitals performing 10 or more procedures annually. Mean blood loss was 2300 ml (median 2000 ml) and the 90-day mortality rate was 5.7%. Blood loss was higher in high-volume units than in hospitals with lower hospital volumes, but the 90-day mortality rates were similar. During a median follow-up of 3.5 years, 24% of the patients were submitted to a reoperation. Reoperation rates were significantly higher in patients who received a continent urinary diversion (29%) compared with an ileal conduit (22%, p andlt; 0.015). Conclusions. Radical cystectomy was associated with a reoperation rate of 24% in Sweden during the study period. The reoperation rates were higher in patients receiving a continent cutaneous diversion or bladder substitution. Blood loss was higher in high-volume units; otherwise, surgical volume did not affect mortality rates, cancer-specific survival or reoperation rates.

  • 162.
    Lilja, I
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Bot, UNIGEN Ctr Mol Biol, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Clin Res Ctr, Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Biomed & Surg, Div Surg, Linkoping, Sweden Kalmar Univ, Dept Nat Sci, Kalmar, Sweden Univ Lund, MAS, Dept Pathol, Malmo, Sweden.
    Gustafson-Svärd, Christina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery.
    Franze'n, L
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Bot, UNIGEN Ctr Mol Biol, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Clin Res Ctr, Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Biomed & Surg, Div Surg, Linkoping, Sweden Kalmar Univ, Dept Nat Sci, Kalmar, Sweden Univ Lund, MAS, Dept Pathol, Malmo, Sweden.
    Sjödahl, Rune
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Andersen, S
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Bot, UNIGEN Ctr Mol Biol, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Clin Res Ctr, Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Biomed & Surg, Div Surg, Linkoping, Sweden Kalmar Univ, Dept Nat Sci, Kalmar, Sweden Univ Lund, MAS, Dept Pathol, Malmo, Sweden.
    Johansen, B
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Bot, UNIGEN Ctr Mol Biol, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Clin Res Ctr, Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Biomed & Surg, Div Surg, Linkoping, Sweden Kalmar Univ, Dept Nat Sci, Kalmar, Sweden Univ Lund, MAS, Dept Pathol, Malmo, Sweden.
    Presence of group IIa secretory phospholipase A(2) in mast cells and macrophages in normal human ileal submucosa and in Crohn's disease2000In: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, ISSN 1434-6621, E-ISSN 1437-4331, Vol. 38, no 12, p. 1231-1236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secretory group IIa phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)-II) is an important regulator of proinflammatory lipid mediator production and may play a role in ileal inflammation in Crohn's disease. The enzyme has previously only been detected in epithelial Paneth cells. However, one characteristic feature of Crohn's disease is the transmural inflammation. Full thickness ileal sections from nine patients with Crohn's disease, and histologically normal sections from patients with colonic cancer (n=7) and chronic severe constipation (n=1) as controls, were used in this study. PLA(2)-II-positive cells were detected by immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization. Metachromatic staining and esterase staining were used to identify mast cells and macrophages, respectively. It was shown that mast cells and macrophages in the ileal submucosa in both patients and controls showed positive PLA(2)-II staining. The number of PLA(2)-II-labeled cells that did not react with metachromasia, e.g. macrophages, was significantly greater in inflamed Crohn's disease compared to controls. This is, to our knowledge, the first study that has described the presence in healthy, while presence and upregulation of PLA(2)-II-positive cells in inflamed human ileal submucosa. Our findings suggest a proinflammatory potential for secretory PLA(2)-II in submucosa, while proinflammatory stimulation of mast cells and macrophages in vitro has shown that the enzyme is responsible for delayed prostaglandin formation.

  • 163.
    Lindahl, Olof Anton
    et al.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Umeå University Hospital and Linköping University, Sweden.
    Zdolsek, Joachim
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ängquist, Karl-Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Human postburn oedema measured with the impression method1993In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 479-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The course of tissue swelling in human non-injured skin after burn injury was investigated with a non-invasive impression method that measures force and tissue fluid translocation during mechanical compression of the skin. Time-dependent changes in the fluid translocation and the interstitial-pressure related to impression force were measured on 11 occasions, during 3 weeks, in seven patients postburn. A mathematical model was fitted to the impression force curves and the parameters of the model depicted the time-dependent compartmental fluid shift in the postburn generalized oedema. Tissue fluid translocation increased significantly (P < 0.05) up to a maximum value after 6 days postburn and declined thereafter. This indicated a continuous increase in the generalized postburn oedema for the first 6 days postburn. Impression force at 3 weeks postburn was significantly lower (P < 0.001) as compared with the half-day postburn value, indicating an increased tissue pressure during the first days postburn. Parameter analysis indicated a flux of water-like fluid from the vasculature to the interstitial space during the first 6 days postburn. The spread of the values registered between different measurement sites was, however, large.

  • 164.
    Lindgren, Rickard
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro.
    Hallböök, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Rutegard, Jorgen
    Umeå University Hospital.
    Sjödahl, Rune
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Matthiessen, Peter
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro.
    Does a Defunctioning Stoma Affect Anorectal Function After Low Rectal Resection? Results of a Randomized Multicenter Trial2011In: DISEASES OF THE COLON and RECTUM, ISSN 0012-3706, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 747-752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Anorectal function is often impaired after low anterior resection of the rectum. Many factors affect the functional outcome and not all are known. OBJECTIVE: This trial aimed to assess whether a temporary defunctioning stoma affected anorectal function after the patients had been stoma-free for a year. DESIGN: Multicenter randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Twenty-one Swedish hospitals performing surgery for rectal cancer participated. PATIENTS: Patients who had undergone low anterior resection for adenocarcinoma of the rectum were eligible. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive a defunctioning stoma or no stoma. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anorectal function was evaluated with a questionnaire after patients had been without a stoma for 12 months. Questions pertained to stool frequency, urgency, fragmentation of bowel movements, evacuation difficulties, incontinence, lifestyle alterations, and whether patients would prefer a permanent stoma. RESULTS: After exclusion of patients in whom stomas became permanent, a total of 181 (90%) of 201 patients answered the questionnaire (90 in the stoma group and 91 in the no-stoma group). The median number of stools was 3 during the day and 0 at night in both groups. Inability to defer defecation for 15 minutes was reported in 35% of patients in the stoma group and 25% in the no stoma group (P = .15). Median scores were the same in each group regarding need for medication, evacuation difficulties, fragmentation of bowel movements, incontinence, and effects on well-being. Two patients (2.2%) in the stoma group and 3 patients (3.3%) in the no-stoma group would have preferred a permanent stoma. LIMITATIONS: Because this study was an analysis of secondary end points of a randomized trial, no prestudy power calculation was performed. CONCLUSIONS: A defunctioning stoma after low anterior resection did not affect anorectal function evaluated after 1 year. Many patients experienced impaired anorectal function, but nearly all preferred having impaired anorectal function to a permanent stoma.

  • 165.
    Lindgren, Rickard
    et al.
    Orebro University Hospital.
    Hallböök, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Rutegard, Jorgen
    Umea University.
    Sjödahl, Rune
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Matthiessen, Peter
    Orebro University Hospital.
    What Is the Risk for a Permanent Stoma After Low Anterior Resection of the Rectum for Cancer? A Six-Year Follow-Up of a Multicenter Trial2011In: DISEASES OF THE COLON and RECTUM, ISSN 0012-3706, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 41-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the risk for permanent stoma after low anterior resection of the rectum for cancer. METHODS: In a nationwide multicenter trial 234 patients undergoing low anterior resection of the rectum were randomly assigned to a group with defunctioning stomas (n = 116) or a group with no defunctioning stomas (n = 118). The median age was 68 years, 45% of the patients were women, 79% had preoperative radiotherapy, and 4% had International Union Against Cancer cancer stage IV. The patients were analyzed with regard to the presence of a permanent stoma, the type of stoma, the time point at which the stoma was constructed or considered as permanent, and the reasons for obtaining a permanent stoma. Median follow-up was 72 months (42-108). One patient with a defunctioning stoma who died within 30 days after the rectal resection was excluded from the analysis. RESULTS: During the study period 19% (45/233) of the patients obtained a permanent stoma: 25 received an end sigmoid stoma and 20 received a loop ileostomy. The end sigmoid stomas were constructed at a median of 22 months (1-71) after the low anterior resection of the rectum, and the loop ileostomies were considered as permanent at a median of 12.5 months (1-47) after the initial rectal resection. The reasons for loop ileostomy were metastatic disease (n = 6), unsatisfactory anorectal function (n = 6), deteriorated general medical condition (n = 3), new noncolorectal cancer (n = 2), patient refusal of further surgery (n = 2), and chronic constipation (n = 1). Reasons for end sigmoid stoma were unsatisfactory anorectal function (n = 22) and urgent surgery owing to anastomotic leakage (n = 3). The risk for permanent stomas in patients with symptomatic anastomotic leakage was 56% (25/45) compared with 11% (20/188) in those without symptomatic anastomotic leakage (P andlt; .001). CONCLUSION: One patient of 5 ended up with a permanent stoma after low anterior resection of the rectum for cancer, and half of the patients with a permanent stoma had previous symptomatic anastomotic leakage.

  • 166.
    Lorenz, W.
    et al.
    Institute of Theoretical Surgery, University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35033 Marburg, Germany.
    Stinner, B.
    Department of General Surgery, Philipps-University of Marburg, Germany.
    Bauhofer, A.
    Institute of Theoretical Surgery, University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35033 Marburg, Germany.
    Rothmund, M.
    Department of General Surgery, Philipps-University of Marburg, Germany.
    Celik, I.
    Institute of Theoretical Surgery, University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35033 Marburg, Germany.
    Fingerhut, A.
    Surgical Unit, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal, Poissy (Paris), France.
    Koller, M.
    Institute of Theoretical Surgery, University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35033 Marburg, Germany.
    Lorijn, R.H.W.
    AMGEN Europe, Lucerne, Switzerland.
    Nyström, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Sitter, H.
    Institute of Theoretical Surgery, University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35033 Marburg, Germany.
    Schein, M.
    Cornell University, Medical College, NY, United States.
    Solomkin, J.S.
    Department of Surgery, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, United States.
    Troidl, H.
    2nd Department of Surgery, University of Cologne, Germany.
    Wyatt, J.
    School of Public Policy, University College London, United Kingdom.
    Wittmann, D.H.
    Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, United States.
    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in the prevention of postoperative infectious complications and sub-optimal recovery from operation in patients with colorectal cancer and increased preoperative risk (ASA 3 and 4): Part one2001In: Inflammation Research, ISSN 1023-3830, E-ISSN 1420-908X, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 115-122Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    General design: Presentation of a novel study protocol to evalue the effectiveness of an immune modifier (rhG-CSF, filgrastim): prevention of postoperative infectious complications and sub-optimal recovery from operation in patients with colorectal cancer and increased preoperative risk (ASA 3 and 4). The rationale and hypothesis are presented in this part of the protocol of the randomised, placebo controlled, double-blinded, single-centre study performed at an - university hospital (n = 40 patients for each group). Objective: Part one of this protocol describes the concepts of three major sections of the study: - Definition of optimum and sub-optimal recovery after operation. Recovery, as an outcome, is not a simple univariate endpoint, but a complex construction of mechanistic variables (i. e. death, complications and health status assessed by the surgeon), quality of life expressed by the patient, and finally a weighted outcome judgement by both the patient and the surgeon (true endpoint). Its conventional early assessment within 14-28 days is artificial: longer periods (such as 6 months) are needed for the patient to state: "I am now as well as I was before". Identification of suitable target patients: - the use of biological response modifiers (immune modulators) in addition to traditional prophylaxes (i. e. antibiotics, heparin, volume substitutes) may improve postoperative outcome in appropriate selected patients with reduced host defence and increased immunological stress response, but these have to be defined. Patients classified as ASA 3 and 4 (American Society for Anaesthesiologists) and with colorectal cancer will be studied to prove this hypothesis. Choice of biological response modifier: - Filgrastim has been chosen as an example of a biological response modifier because it was effective in a new study type, clinic-modelling randomised trials in rodents, and has shown promise in some clinical trials for indications other than preoperative prophylaxis. It has also enhanced host defence and has been anti-inflammatory in basic research. Conclusion: The following hypothesis will be tested in patients with operations for colorectal cancer and increased preoperative risk (ASA 3 and 4): is the outcome as evaluated by the hermeneutic endpoint (quality of life expressed by the patient) and mechanistic endpoints (mortality rate, complication rate, relative hospital stay, assessed by the doctor) improved in the group receiving filgrastim prophylaxis in comparison with the placebo group? Quality of life will be the first primary endpoint in the hierarchical, statistical testing of confirmatory analysis.

  • 167.
    Ludvigsson, J.F.
    et al.
    Barnkliniken, Universitetssjukhuset, Örebro, Sweden, Enheten för klinisk epidemiologi, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Myrelid, Pär
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Swibreg - Nationellt ibd-register i ny tappning2009In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 106, no 45, p. 3014-3015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 168.
    Lutgendorff, Femke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Akkermans, L. M.
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    The role of microbiota and probiotics in stress-induced gastrointestinal damage2008In: Current molecular medicine, ISSN 1566-5240, E-ISSN 1875-5666, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 282-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress has a major impact on gut physiology and may affect the clinical course of gastro-intestinal diseases. In this review, we focus on the interaction between commensal gut microbiota and intestinal mucosa during stress and discuss the possibilities to counteract the deleterious effects of stress with probiotics. Normally, commensal microbes and their hosts benefit from a symbiotic relationship. Stress does, however, reduce the number of Lactobacilli, while on the contrary, an increased growth, epithelial adherence and mucosal uptake of gram-negative pathogens, e.g. E. coli and Pseudomonas, are seen. Moreover, intestinal bacteria have the ability to sense a stressed host and up-regulate their virulence factors when opportunity knocks. Probiotics are "live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host", and mainly represented by Lactic Acid Bacteria. Probiotics can counteract stress-induced changes in intestinal barrier function, visceral sensitivity and gut motility. These effects are strain specific and mediated by direct bacterial-host cell interaction and/or via soluble factors. Mechanisms of action include competition with pathogens for essential nutrients, induction of epithelial heat-shock proteins, restoring of tight junction protein structure, up-regulation of mucin genes, secretion of defensins, and regulation of the NFκB signalling pathway. In addition, the reduction of intestinal pain perception was shown to be mediated via cannabinoid receptors. Based on the studies reviewed here there is clearly a rationale for probiotic treatment in patients with stress-related intestinal disorders. We are however far from being able to choose the precise combination of strains or bacterial components for each clinical setting. © 2008 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  • 169.
    Lutgendorff, Femke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nijmeijer, Rian M
    Utrecht University Medical Center.
    Sandström, Per A
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Trulsson, Lena M
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Timmerman, Harro M
    Utrecht University Medical Center.
    van Minnen, L Paul
    Utrecht University Medical Center.
    Rijkers, Ger T
    Utrecht University Medical Center.
    Gooszen, Hein G
    Utrecht University Medical Center.
    Akkermans, Louis M A
    Utrecht University Medical Center.
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Probiotics prevent intestinal barrier dysfunction in acute pancreatitis in rats via induction of ileal mucosal glutathione biosynthesis.2009In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 4, no 2, p. e4512-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: During acute pancreatitis (AP), oxidative stress contributes to intestinal barrier failure. We studied actions of multispecies probiotics on barrier dysfunction and oxidative stress in experimental AP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty-three male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: 1) controls, non-operated, 2) sham-operated, 3) AP, 4) AP and probiotics and 5) AP and placebo. AP was induced by intraductal glycodeoxycholate infusion and intravenous cerulein (6 h). Daily probiotics or placebo were administered intragastrically, starting five days prior to AP. After cerulein infusion, ileal mucosa was collected for measurements of E. coli K12 and (51)Cr-EDTA passage in Ussing chambers. Tight junction proteins were investigated by confocal immunofluorescence imaging. Ileal mucosal apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels were determined and glutamate-cysteine-ligase activity and expression were quantified. AP-induced barrier dysfunction was characterized by epithelial cell apoptosis and alterations of tight junction proteins (i.e. disruption of occludin and claudin-1 and up-regulation of claudin-2) and correlated with lipid peroxidation (r>0.8). Probiotic pre-treatment diminished the AP-induced increase in E. coli passage (probiotics 57.4+/-33.5 vs. placebo 223.7+/-93.7 a.u.; P<0.001), (51)Cr-EDTA flux (16.7+/-10.1 vs. 32.1+/-10.0 cm/s10(-6); P<0.005), apoptosis, lipid peroxidation (0.42+/-0.13 vs. 1.62+/-0.53 pmol MDA/mg protein; P<0.001), and prevented tight junction protein disruption. AP-induced decline in glutathione was not only prevented (14.33+/-1.47 vs. 8.82+/-1.30 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001), but probiotics even increased mucosal glutathione compared with sham rats (14.33+/-1.47 vs. 10.70+/-1.74 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001). Glutamate-cysteine-ligase activity, which is rate-limiting in glutathione biosynthesis, was enhanced in probiotic pre-treated animals (probiotics 2.88+/-1.21 vs. placebo 1.94+/-0.55 nmol/min/mg protein; P<0.05) coinciding with an increase in mRNA expression of glutamate-cysteine-ligase catalytic (GCLc) and modifier (GCLm) subunits. CONCLUSIONS: Probiotic pre-treatment diminished AP-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and prevented oxidative stress via mechanisms mainly involving mucosal glutathione biosynthesis.

  • 170.
    Lutgendorff, Femke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Trulsson, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery .
    van Minnen, L. Paul
    Department of Surgery University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Rijkers, Ger T.
    Department of Surgery University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Timmerman, Harro M.
    Department of Surgery University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Franzén, Lennart E.
    3Department of Pathology and Cytology Aleris Medilab, Täby.
    Gooszen, Hein G.
    Department of Surgery University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Akkermans, Louis M. A.
    Department of Surgery University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Probiotics enhance pancreatic glutathione biosynthesis and reduce oxidative stress in experimental acute pancreatitis2008In: American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, ISSN 0193-1857, E-ISSN 1522-1547, Vol. 295, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors determining severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) are poorly understood. Oxidative stress causes acinar cell injury and contributes to the severity, whereas prophylactic probiotics ameliorate experimental pancreatitis. Our objective was to study how probiotics affect oxidative stress, inflammation, and acinar cell injury during the early phase of AP. Fifty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into groups: 1) control, 2) sham procedure, 3) AP with no treatment, 4) AP with probiotics, and 5) AP with placebo. AP was induced under general anesthesia by intraductal glycodeoxycholate infusion (15 mM) and intravenous cerulein (5 μg·kg-1·h-1, for 6 h). Daily probiotics or placebo were administered intragastrically, starting 5 days prior to AP. After cerulein infusion, pancreas samples were collected for analysis including lipid peroxidation, glutathione, glutamate-cysteine-ligase activity, histological grading of pancreatic injury, and NF-κB activation. The severity of pancreatic injury correlated to oxidative damage (r = 0.9) and was ameliorated by probiotics (1.5 vs. placebo 5.5, P = 0.014). AP-induced NF-κB activation was reduced by probiotics (0.20 vs. placebo 0.53 OD 450nm/mg nuclear protein, P < 0.001). Probiotics attenuated AP-induced lipid peroxidation (0.25 vs. placebo 0.51 pmol malondialdehyde/mg protein, P < 0.001). Not only was AP-induced glutathione depletion prevented (8.81 vs. placebo 4.1 μmol/mg protein, P < 0.001), probiotic pretreatment even increased glutathione compared with sham rats (8.81 vs. sham 6.18 μmol/mg protein, P < 0.001). Biosynthesis of glutathione (glutamate-cysteine-ligase activity) was enhanced in probiotic-pretreated animals. Probiotics enhanced the biosynthesis of glutathione, which may have reduced activation of inflammation and acinar cell injury and ameliorated experimental AP, via a reduction in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2008 the American Physiological Society.

  • 171.
    Marsh, Deborah J
    et al.
    Hormones and Cancer Group, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Royal North Shore Hospital, University of Sydney E25, St. Leonards, N.S.W., Australia.
    Gimm, Oliver
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Multiple endocrine neoplasia: types 1 and 2.2011In: Medical Genetics in the Clinical Practice of ORL / [ed] Alford RL, S. Karger, 2011, Vol. 70, p. 84-90Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) and type 2 (MEN 2) are autosomal-dominantly inherited syndromes where highly penetrant germline mutations predispose patients to the development of tumours in hormone-secreting cells. In the case of MEN 1, loss-of-function germline mutations in the tumour suppressor gene MEN1 increase the risk of developing pituitary, parathyroid and pancreatic islet tumours, and less commonly thymic carcinoids, lipomas and benign adrenocortical tumours. In the case of MEN 2, gain-of-function germline mutations clustered in specific codons of the RET proto-oncogene increase the risk of developing medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), phaeochromocytoma and parathyroid tumours. Offering RET testing is best practice for the clinical management of patients at-risk of MEN 2, and MEN 2 has become a classic model for the integration of molecular medicine into patient care. Prophylactic thyroidectomy in an asymptomatic RET mutation carrier to address the risk of developing MTC can prevent or cure this malignancy. No similar preventative strategies can be employed to prevent or cure MEN 1-associated tumours. Genetic testing for MEN 1 is therefore both more complex due to a general lack of mutational hotspots, and the benefit to patients is less straight forward. While a number of genotype-phenotype correlations exist in MEN 2, providing further rationale for performing genetic testing in this condition, these correlations are absent in MEN 1. This review summarises our current knowledge of these two syndromes with emphasis on those aspects with specific relevance to the otorhinolaryngologist.

  • 172.
    Matthiessen, P.
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hallböök, Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Rutegard, J.
    Rutegård, J., Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Simert, G.
    Högland Hospital, Eksjö, Sweden.
    Sjödahl, Rune
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Defunctioning stoma reduces symptomatic anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection of the rectum for cancer: A randomized multicenter trial2008In: Annals of Surgery, ISSN 0003-4932, E-ISSN 1528-1140, Vol. 247, no 4, p. 719-720Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 173.
    Matthiessen, P
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Hansson, L
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Sjödahl, Rune
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Rutegard, J
    Umeå University Hospital.
    Anastomotic-vaginal fistula (AVF) after anterior resection of the rectum for cancer - occurrence and risk factors2010In: COLORECTAL DISEASE, ISSN 1462-8910, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 351-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The aim of the study was to assess recto-vaginal fistula (RVF) after anterior resection of the rectum for cancer with regard to occurrence and risk factors. Method All female patients [median age 69.5 years, Union Internationale centre le Cancer (UICC) cancer stage IV in 10%] who developed a symptomatic RVF (n = 20) after anterior resection of the rectum for cancer from three separate cohorts of patients were identified and compared with those who developed conventional symptomatic leakage (n = 32), and those who did not leak (n = 338). Patient demography and perioperative data were compared between these three groups. Fourteen patient-related and surgery-related variables thought to be possible risk factors for RVF (anastomotic-vaginal fistula) were analysed. Results Symptomatic anastomotic leakage occurred in 52 (13.3%) of 390 patients. Twenty (5.1%) had an anastomotic-vaginal fistula (AVF) and 32 (8.2%) conventional leakage (CL). Patients with AVF required unscheduled re-operation and defunctioning stoma as often as those with CL. AVF was diagnosed later and more often after discharge from hospital compared with CL. Patients with AVF had lower anastomoses and decreased BMI compared with those with CL. Risk factors for AVF in multivariate analysis were anastomosis andlt; 5 cm above the anal verge (P = 0.001), preoperative radiotherapy (P = 0.004), and UICC cancer stage IV (P = 0.005). Previous hysterectomy was a risk factor neither for AVF nor for CL. Conclusion Anastomotic-vaginal fistula forms a significant part of all symptomatic leakages after low anterior resection for cancer in women. Although diagnosed later, the need for abdominal re-operation and defunctioning stoma was not different from patients with CL. Risk factors for AVF included low anastomosis, preoperative radiotherapy and UICC cancer stage IV.

  • 174.
    Matthiessen, P.
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, S-701 85 Örebro, Sweden.
    Henriksson, M.
    Department of Radiology, Örebro University Hospital, S-701 85 Örebro, Sweden.
    Hallböök, Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Grunditz, E.
    Department of Radiology, Vrinnevi Hospital, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Norén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Radiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medical Imaging, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Arbman, G.
    Department of Surgery, Vrinnevi Hospital, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Increase of serum C-reactive protein is an early indicator of subsequent symptomatic anastomotic leakage after anterior resection2008In: Colorectal Disease, ISSN 1462-8910, E-ISSN 1463-1318, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 75-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This prospective study investigated the factors which might indicate anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection.

    Method: Thirty-three patients who underwent anterior resection for rectal carcinoma (n = 32) and severe dysplasia (n = 1), were monitored daily by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) estimations until discharge from hospital. Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed on postoperative days 2 and 7 and the amount of presacral fluid collection was assessed. All patients had a pelvic drain and the volume of drainage was measured daily.

    Results: The level of the anastomosis was at a median 5 cm (3-12 cm) above the anal verge. There was no 30-day mortality. Nine (27.2%) of the 33 patients developed a symptomatic anastomotic leakage which was diagnosed at a median of 8 days (range 4-14) postoperatively. The serum CRP was increased in patients who leaked from postoperative day 2 onwards (P = 0.004 on day 2, P < 0.001 on day 3-8). The WBC was decreased in preoperatively irradiated patients on days 1-5 (P = 0.021), with no difference seen between patients with or without leakage. Patients with leakage had a larger presacral fluid collection on CT on day 7 (median 76 ml vs 52 ml, P = 0.016) and a larger increase in the fluid collection between the first and the second CT examinations (28 ml vs 3 ml, P = 0.046).

    Conclusion: An early rise in serum CRP was a strong indicator of leakage. Monitoring of CRP for possible early detection of symptomatic anastomotic leakage is recommended.

  • 175.
    Matthiessen, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rectal cancer surgery: Defunctioning stoma, anastomotic leakage and postoperative monitoring2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of the mesorectal spread in rectal cancer has lead to wide acceptance of total mesorectal excision (TME) as the surgical technique of choice for carcinoma in the lower and mid rectum. While oncological results and survival have improved with TME-surgery, morbidity and mortality remain important issues. The most feared complication is symptomatic anastomotic leakage. The aim of this thesis was to focus on the role of the defunctioning stoma, risk factors, and postoperative monitoring in regard to anastomotic leakage in sphincter saving resection of the rectum.

    Intraoperative adverse events were analysed in a retrospective population based case-control study in which all patients who underwent elective anterior resection in Sweden between 1987 and 1995, and who died within 30 days or during the initial hospital stay (n=140), were compared with patients chosen at random (n=423) who underwent the same operation during the same period, but survived the operation. Intraoperative adverse events were more frequent in those who died, and reconstruction of an anastomosis judged unsatisfactory by the surgeon improved the outcome.

    In a population based retrospective case-control study, risk factors for symptomatic anastomotic leakage were investigated in randomly chosen sample of patients who underwent anterior resection in Sweden between 1987 and 1995 (n=432). Twelve per cent of the patients developed symptomatic leakage, and 25% of the patients with leakage ended up with a permanent stoma. In multivariate regression analysis, low anastomosis, preoperative radiotherapy, male gender and intraoperative adverse events were independent riskfactors for anastomotic leakage.

    In a randomised multicentre trial patients operated with sphincter saving TME¨surgery for rectal cancer were randomised to a defunctioning stoma (n=116) or not (n=118). The overall rate symptomatic leakage was 19%. Patienst without a defunctioning stoma leaked in 28% and patients with a defunctioing stoma in 10%, a statistically significant difference (p<0.001) not previously demonstrated in any randomised trial of adequate size.

    Postoperative monitoring with computed tomography scan (CT-scan) on postoperative day 2 and 7, and C-reactive protein (CRP) daily in 33 patients operated on with anterior resection of the rectum, demonstrated larger pelvic fluid collections in patients with leakage before the leakage was clinically diagnosed. CRP was increased from postoperative day 2 and onwards in patients in whom clinical leakage was diagnosed on median postoperative day 8.

    In 23 patients who underwent anterior resection of the rectum, intraperitoneal metabolism was investigated using microdialysis technique measuring the carbohydrate metabolites lactate, pyruvate and glucose. Intraperitoneal cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α were collected through a pelvic drain and analysed. In patients who developed leakage, the latate/pyruvate ratio was increased near the anastomosis on postoperative day 5 and 6, as well as IL-6 and IL-10 which were increased postoperatively day 1 and 2, while TNF-α was higher on day 1.

    List of papers
    1. Intraoperative adverse events and outcome after anterior resection of the rectum
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intraoperative adverse events and outcome after anterior resection of the rectum
    2004 (English)In: British Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0007-1323, E-ISSN 1365-2168, Vol. 91, no 12, p. 1608-1612Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this population-based study was to analyse the relationship between intraoperative adverse events and outcome after anterior resection.

    Methods: All 140 patients who underwent elective anterior resection in Sweden between 1987 and 1995, and who died within 30 days, were compared with a group of 423 randomly selected patients who underwent the same procedure during the same interval but survived the operation. Intraoperative adverse events and intraoperative measures taken were analysed in relation to outcome of surgery.

    Results: Of those who died, 45.7 per cent had intraoperative adverse events compared with 30.3 per cent in the cohort group. Major bleeding, gross spillage of faeces, and two or more intraoperative adverse events were more common among those who died. When the anastomosis was considered unsatisfactory, it was more frequently reconstructed (restapled or completely resutured), with or without a temporary stoma, in those who survived. The use of a temporary stoma was comparable in the two groups when adverse events were present.

    Conclusion: Intraoperative adverse events were important contributors to morbidity and mortality. Complete reconstruction of an unsatisfactory anastomosis, with or without addition of a temporary stoma, was more frequently performed in the survivors, and may have diminished the risk of postoperative death.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-28272 (URN)10.1002/bjs.4530 (DOI)13379 (Local ID)13379 (Archive number)13379 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Risk factors for anastomotic leakage after anterior resection of the rectum
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk factors for anastomotic leakage after anterior resection of the rectum
    Show others...
    2004 (English)In: Colorectal Disease, ISSN 1462-8910, E-ISSN 1463-1318, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 462-469Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Surgical technique and peri-operative management of rectal carcinoma have developed substantially in the last decades. Despite this, morbidity and mortality after anterior resection of the rectum are still important problems. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for anastomotic leakage in anterior resection and to assess the role of a temporary stoma and the need for urgent re-operations in relation to anastomotic leakage.

    Patients and methods. In a nine-year period, from 1987 to 1995, a total of 6833 patients underwent elective anterior resection of the rectum in Sweden. A random sample of 432 of these patients was analysed (sample size 6.3%). The associations between death and 10 patient-and surgery-related variables were studied by univariate and multivariate analysis. Data were obtained by review of the hospital files from all patients.

    Results. The incidence of symptomatic clinically evident anastomotic leakage was 12% (53/432). The 30-day mortality was 2.1% (140/6833). The rate of mortality associated with leakage was 7.5%. A temporary stoma was initially fashioned in 17% (72/432) of the patients, and 15% (11/72) with a temporary stoma had a clinical leakage, compared with 12% (42/360) without a temporary stoma, not significant. Multivariate analysis showed that low anastomosis (≤ 6 cm), pre-operative radiation, presence of intra-opcrative adverse events and male gender were independent risk factors for leakage. The risk for permanent stoma after leakage was 25%. Females with stoma leaked in 3% compared to men with stoma who leaked in 29%. The median hospital stay for patients Arithout leakage was 10 days (range 5-61 days) and for patients with leakage 22 days (3-110 days).

    Conclusion. In this population based study, 12% of the patients had symptomatic anastomotic leakage after anterior resection of the rectum. Postoperative 30-day mortality was 2.1%. Low anastomosis, pre-operative radiation, presence of intra-operative adverse events and male gender were independent risk factors for symptomatic anastomotic leakage in the multivariate analysis. There was no difference in the use of temporary stoma in patients with or without anastomotic leakage.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-28273 (URN)10.1111/j.1463-1318.2004.00657.x (DOI)13380 (Local ID)13380 (Archive number)13380 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Defunctioning stoma reduces symptomatic anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection of the rectum for cancer: A randomized multicenter trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defunctioning stoma reduces symptomatic anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection of the rectum for cancer: A randomized multicenter trial
    Show others...
    2007 (English)In: Annals of Surgery, ISSN 0003-4932, E-ISSN 1528-1140, Vol. 246, no 2, p. 207-214Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized multicenter trial was to assess the rate of symptomatic anastomotic leakage in patients operated on with low anterior resection for rectal cancer and who were intraoperatively randomized to a defunctioning stoma or not.

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The introduction of total mesorectal excision surgery as the surgical technique of choice for carcinoma in the lower and mid rectum has led to decreased local recurrence and improved oncological results. Despite these advances, perioperative morbidity remains a major issue, and the most feared complication is symptomatic anastomotic leakage. The role of the defunctioning stoma in regard to anastomotic leakage is controversial and has not been assessed in any randomized trial of sufficient size.

    METHODS: From December 1999 to June 2005, a total of 234 patients were randomized to a defunctioning loop stoma or no loop stoma. Loop ileostomy or loop transverse colostomy was at the choice of the surgeon. Inclusion criteria for randomization were expected survival >6 months, informed consent, anastomosis ≤7 cm above the anal verge, negative air leakage test, intact anastomotic rings, and absence of major intraoperative adverse events.

    RESULTS: The overall rate of symptomatic leakage was 19.2% (45 of 234). Patients randomized to a defunctioning stoma (n = 116) had leakage in 10.3% (12 of 116) and those without stoma (n = 118) in 28.0% (33 of 118) (odds ratio = 3.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.6-6.9, P < 0.001). The need for urgent abdominal reoperation was 8.6% (10 of 116) in those randomized to stoma and 25.4% (30 of 118) in those without (P < 0.001). After a follow-up of median 42 months (range, 6-72 months), 13.8% (16 of 116) of the initially defunctioned patients still had a stoma of any kind, compared with 16.9% (20 of 118) those not defunctioned (not significant). The 30-day mortality after anterior resection was 0.4% (1 of 234) and after elective reversal a defunctioning stoma 0.9% (1 of 111). Median age was 68 years (range, 32-86 years), 45.3% (106 of 234) were females, 79.1% (185 of 234) had preoperative radiotherapy, the level of anastomosis was median 5 cm, and intraoperative blood loss 550 mL, without differences between the groups.

    CONCLUSION: Defunctioning loop stoma decreased the rate of symptomatic anastomotic leakage and is therefore recommended in low anterior resection for rectal cancer.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-39703 (URN)10.1097/SLA.0b013e3180603024 (DOI)50858 (Local ID)50858 (Archive number)50858 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Increase of serum C-reactive protein is an early indicator of subsequent symptomatic anastomotic leakage after anterior resection
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increase of serum C-reactive protein is an early indicator of subsequent symptomatic anastomotic leakage after anterior resection
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Colorectal Disease, ISSN 1462-8910, E-ISSN 1463-1318, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 75-80Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This prospective study investigated the factors which might indicate anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection.

    Method: Thirty-three patients who underwent anterior resection for rectal carcinoma (n = 32) and severe dysplasia (n = 1), were monitored daily by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) estimations until discharge from hospital. Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed on postoperative days 2 and 7 and the amount of presacral fluid collection was assessed. All patients had a pelvic drain and the volume of drainage was measured daily.

    Results: The level of the anastomosis was at a median 5 cm (3-12 cm) above the anal verge. There was no 30-day mortality. Nine (27.2%) of the 33 patients developed a symptomatic anastomotic leakage which was diagnosed at a median of 8 days (range 4-14) postoperatively. The serum CRP was increased in patients who leaked from postoperative day 2 onwards (P = 0.004 on day 2, P < 0.001 on day 3-8). The WBC was decreased in preoperatively irradiated patients on days 1-5 (P = 0.021), with no difference seen between patients with or without leakage. Patients with leakage had a larger presacral fluid collection on CT on day 7 (median 76 ml vs 52 ml, P = 0.016) and a larger increase in the fluid collection between the first and the second CT examinations (28 ml vs 3 ml, P = 0.046).

    Conclusion: An early rise in serum CRP was a strong indicator of leakage. Monitoring of CRP for possible early detection of symptomatic anastomotic leakage is recommended.

    Keywords
    Anastomotic leakage, C-reactive protein, CT-scan, Pelvic fluid collection, Rectal cancer, White blood cell count
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-47310 (URN)10.1111/j.1463-1318.2007.01300.x (DOI)
    Note
    On the day of the defence day the title of this article was: "Assessment of pelvic fluid collection and C-reactive protein after anterior resection of the rectum for cancer".Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Is early detection of anastomotic leakage possible by intraperitoneal microdialysis and intraperitoneal cytokines after anterior resection of the rectum for cancer?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is early detection of anastomotic leakage possible by intraperitoneal microdialysis and intraperitoneal cytokines after anterior resection of the rectum for cancer?
    Show others...
    2007 (English)In: Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, ISSN 0012-3706, E-ISSN 1530-0358, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 1918-27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This prospective study assessed methods of detecting intraperitoneal ischemia and inflammatory response in patients with and without postoperative complications after anterior resection of the rectum.

    METHODS: In 23 patients operated on with anterior resection of the rectum for rectal carcinoma, intraperitoneal lactate, pyruvate, and glucose levels were monitored postoperatively for six days by using microdialysis with catheters applied in two locations: intraperitoneally near the anastomosis, and in the central abdominal cavity. A reference catheter was placed subcutaneously in the pectoral region. Cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, were measured in intraperitoneal fluid by means of a pelvic drain for two postoperative days.

    RESULTS: The intraperitoneal lactate/pyruvate ratio near the anastomosis was higher on postoperative Day 5 (P = 0.029) and Day 6 (P = 0.009) in patients with clinical anastomotic leakage (n = 7) compared with patients without leakage (n = 16). The intraperitoneal levels of IL-6 (P = 0.002; P = 0.012, respectively) and IL-10 (P = 0.002; P = 0.041, respectively) were higher on postoperative Days 1 and 2 in the leakage group, and TNF-alpha was higher in the leakage group on Day 1 (P = 0.011). In-hospital clinical anastomotic leakage was diagnosed on median Day 6, and leakage after hospital discharge on median Day 20.

    CONCLUSIONS: The intraperitoneal lactate/pyruvate ratio and cytokines, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha, were increased in patients who developed symptomatic anastomotic leakage before clinical symptoms were evident.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-52066 (URN)10.1007/s10350-007-9023-4 (DOI)17763907 (PubMedID)
    Note
    On the day of the defence data the status of this article was: Submitted.Available from: 2009-12-02 Created: 2009-12-02 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
  • 176.
    Matthiessen, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro.
    Lindgren, R.
    Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro.
    Hallböök, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Rutegård, J.
    Department of Surgery and Perioperative Science, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sjödahl, Rune
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Symptomatic anastomotic leakage diagnosed after hospital discharge following low anterior resection for rectal cancer2010In: Colorectal Disease, ISSN 1462-8910, E-ISSN 1463-1318, Vol. 12, no 7, p. E82-E87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate patients with symptomatic anastomotic leakage diagnosed after hospital discharge. Method Patients (n = 234) undergoing low anterior resection of the rectum for cancer who were included in a prospective multicentre trial (NCT 00636948) and who developed symptomatic anastomotic leakage diagnosed after hospital discharge (late leakage, LL; n = 18) were identified. Patient characteristics, operative details, recovery on postoperative day 5, length of hospital stay, and how the leakage was diagnosed were recorded. A comparison with those who did not develop symptomatic leakage (no leakage, NL; n = 189) was made. The minimum follow up was 24 months. Results In the LL patients the median age was 69 years, 61% were female patients, and 6% had stage IV cancer disease. On postoperative day 5, the LL group had a postoperative course similar to the NL group regarding temperature, oral intake and bowel function. The proportion of patients on antibiotic treatment on postoperative day 5, regardless of indication, was 28% in the LL compared with 4% in the NL group (P < 0.001). The median initial hospital stay was 10 days for both groups. When readmission for any reason was added, the hospital stay rose to a median of 21.5 and 13 days in the LL and the NL groups respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion Symptomatic anastomotic leakage diagnosed after hospital discharge following low anterior resection of the rectum for cancer is not uncommon and has an immediate clinical postoperative course which may appear uneventful.

  • 177.
    Mattsson, Jan
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Bergkvist, Leif
    Department of Surgery and Centrum for Clinical Research, University of Uppsala, Central Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
    Abdiu, Avni
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Aili Iow, J. F.
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Naredi, Peter
    Department of Surgery, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ullberg, Karin
    Department of Oncology, Central Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Garpered, Ulf
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hakansson, Annika
    Department of Oncology, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ingvar, Christian
    Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Sentinel node biopsy in malignant melanoma: Swedish experiences 1997–20052008In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 47, no 8, p. 1519-1525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sentinel node biopsy (SNB) procedure is a multidisciplinary technique, invented to gain prognostic information in different malignant tumors. The aim of the present study was to study the cohort of patients with malignant melanoma, operated with SNB, from the introduction of the technique in Sweden, concerning the prognostic information retrieved and the outcome of the procedures. In Sweden all patients with malignant melanoma are registered at regional Oncological Centers. From these databases ten centers were identified, treating malignant melanoma and performing sentinel node biopsy. Consecutive data concerning tumor characteristics, outcome of the procedure and disease related events during the follow-up time were collected from these ten centers. All cases from the very first in each centre were included. The SNB procedure was performed in 422 patients with a sentinel node (SN) detection rate of 97%, the mean Breslow thickness of the primary tumors was 3.2 mm (median 2.4 mm) and the proportion of ulcerated melanomas 38%. Metastasis in the SN was found in 19% of the patients but there was a wide range in the proportion of SN metastases between the different centers (5–52%). After a follow-up of median 12 months of 361 patients, SN negative patients had better disease-free survival than SN positive (p<0.0001). A false negative rate of 14% was found during the follow-up time. In this study the surgical technique seemed acceptable, but the non-centralized pathology work-up sub-optimal. However, SNB was still found to be a significant prognostic indicator, concerning disease free survival.

  • 178.
    Mjönes, Anna-Britta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Borch, Kurt
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Tibbling, Lita
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery Östergötland. Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Hoarseness and misdirected swallowing in patients with hiatal hernia2007In: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, ISSN 0937-4477, E-ISSN 1434-4726, Vol. 264, no 12, p. 1437-1439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether misdirected swallowing is an extra-laryngeal cause of hoarseness and investigate whether the prevalence of misdirected swallowing and hoarseness in patients with hiatal hernias differ from those with and without pathological gastroesophageal reflux (GER). One hundred and ninety eight patients with hiatal hernias diagnosed via esophageal manometry and pH-reflux test and 262 subjects in the general population who did not have a hiatal hernia at endoscopy, filled in a questionnaire about symptoms on hoarseness, misdirected swallowing, and heartburn. Hoarseness (35%), misdirected swallowing to the larynx (MSL; 35%), misdirected swallowing to the nose (MSN; 22%) and heartburn (85%) were significantly more common in patients with hiatal hernia than in controls (13, 5, 1, and 6%, respectively, P<0.001). MSL and MSN in the patient group were significantly interrelated (P<0.0001). Hoarseness and MSL were not significantly associated (P<0.076). Hoarseness and MSL were as common in the hernia group with normal GER, as in the group with pathological GER. There is a predisposition for hoarseness and MSL in patients with hiatal hernias, but the cause-and-effect relationship is unclear. Hoarseness does not seem to be caused by pathological GER.

  • 179.
    Monstein, Hans-Jurg
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Karlsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ryberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Borch, Kurt
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Application of PCR amplicon sequencing using a single primer pair in PCR amplification to assess variations in Helicobacter pylori CagA EPIYA tyrosine phosphorylation motifs2010In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 3, no 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The presence of various EPIYA tyrosine phosphorylation motifs in the CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori has been suggested to contribute to pathogenesis in adults. In this study, a unique PCR assay and sequencing strategy was developed to establish the number and variation of cagA EPIYA motifs.

    Findings

    MDA-DNA derived from gastric biopsy specimens from eleven subjects with gastritis was used with M13- and T7- sequence-tagged primers for amplification of the cagA EPIYA motif region. Automated capillary electrophoresis using a high resolution kit and amplicon sequencing confirmed variations in the cagA EPIYA motif region. In nine cases, sequencing revealed the presence of AB, ABC, or ABCC (Western type) cagA EPIYA motif, respectively. In two cases, double cagA EPIYA motifs were detected (ABC/ABCC or ABC/AB), indicating the presence of two H. pylori strains in the same biopsy.

    Conclusion

    Automated capillary electrophoresis and amplicon sequencing using a single, M13- and T7-sequence-tagged primer pair in PCR amplification enabled a rapid molecular typing of cagA EPIYA motifs. Moreover, the techniques described allowed for a rapid detection of mixed H. pylori strains present in the same biopsy specimen.

  • 180.
    Morren, Geert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ryn, A.-K.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hallböök, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjödahl, Rune
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kaufman, H. S.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Clinical measurement of pelvic floor movement: Evaluation of a new device2004In: Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, ISSN 0012-3706, E-ISSN 1530-0358, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 787-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:: A new device that measures pelvic floor movement clinically was evaluated.

    METHODS:: The device consists of a rectal balloon with a magnet at its exterior end. The magnet moves in an electromagnetic field synchronous with the pelvic floor movements. This movement is measured and displayed on a computer screen in front of the seated patient. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers (15 females) were examined. On a separate day, 17 of them were tested a second time by the same investigator and a third time by a different investigator.

    RESULTS:: One volunteer developed a vasovagal reaction. The median (range) pelvic floor lift and descent was 2 (range, 0.6-4.5) cm and 1.8 (range, 0.5-5.6) cm respectively. Day-to-day and interobserver reproducibility was good. Coughing and blowing a party balloon caused pelvic floor descent in the majority of participants. Twenty of 28 volunteers were able to expel the rectal balloon.

    CONCLUSIONS:: The device measures cranial and caudal movements of the pelvic floor with minimal discomfort and good reproducibility. The device may have a large potential as biofeedback device in pelvic floor training.

  • 181. Morren, GL
    et al.
    Walter, Susanna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Hallböök, Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Bodemar, Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Medical treatment of patients with faecal incontinence but without diarrhoea.2000In: Gastroenterology, ISSN 0016-5085, E-ISSN 1528-0012, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 5468-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 182.
    Munch, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Ost, A
    Medilab, Taby, Sweden .
    Carlsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ström, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Low levels of bile acids increase bacterial uptake in colonic biopsies from patients with collagenous colitis in remission2011In: ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY and THERAPEUTICS, ISSN 0269-2813, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 954-960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pandgt;Background Patients with collagenous colitis have an impaired mucosal barrier. Moreover, collagenous colitis is associated with bile acid malabsorption. Bile acids can increase bacterial mucosal uptake in humans. Mucosal barrier function was investigated by exposing colonic biopsies to chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) or deoxycholic acid (DCA) in Ussing chamber experiments. Aim To find if low levels of bile acids increase bacterial uptake in colonic biopsies from collagenous colitis patients. Methods The study comprised 33 individuals; 25 with collagenous colitis (14 in clinical remission without treatment, 11 with active disease and 10 examined in clinical remission resulting from treatment with 6 mg budesonide); eight healthy individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy served as controls. Endoscopic biopsies from the sigmoid colon were mounted in modified Ussing chambers and assessed for short-circuit current (Isc), potential difference, trans-epithelial resistance and transmucosal passage of Escherichia coli K12 after adding 100 mu mol/L CDCA or DCA. Results When adding 100 mu mol/L CDCA or DCA, bacterial uptake increased fourfold in biopsies of patients in remission; CDCA 6.5 units [2.5-9.8] and DCA 6.2 units [2.1-22] (median [IQR]), compared with uptake in biopsies without added bile acids 1.6 units [1.1-3] (P = 0.004 and P = 0.01 respectively). In active disease and in patients in remission due to budesonide treatment, bile acids did not affect bacterial uptake. Confocal microscopy revealed trans-epithelial passage of E. coli K12 within 30 min. Conclusions Low concentrations of dihydroxy-bile acids exacerbate mucosal barrier dysfunction in colonic biopsies of patients with collagenous colitis in remission. This allows a substantially increased bacterial uptake, which may contribute to recurrence of inflammation.

  • 183.
    Munch, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Ost, Åke
    Medilab, Taby, Sweden.
    Ström, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Increased Transmucosal Uptake of E-coli K12 in Collagenous Colitis Persists After Budesonide Treatment2009In: American Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0002-9270, E-ISSN 1572-0241, Vol. 104, no 3, p. 679-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Collagenous colitis is increasingly recognized as a common diarrheal disorder of inflammatory origin. Intestinal inflammation is generally associated with increased mucosal permeability, but little is known about barrier function in microscopic colitis. Our aim was to investigate the mucosal barrier to nonpathogenic bacteria in collagenous colitis.

    METHODS: The study included 33 individuals, 25 with collagenous colitis (14 in clinical remission, 11 with active disease, and 8 of these again after 6 weeks budesonide treatment) and 8 control patients. Bowel movements were registered for 1 week. Endoscopic biopsies from the sigmoid colon were mounted in modified Ussing chambers and assessed for short-circuit current (I-sc), transepithelial resistance (TER), and transmucosal passage of chemically killed Escherichia coli K12.

    RESULTS: Bacterial uptake was increased in patients in remission, 1.6 U (1.1-3.0) and in those with active disease, 4.6 U (2.5-5.8; median (IQR)), compared to controls, 0.7 U (0.1-1.1; P=0.004 and P=0.001, respectively). Active disease also had significant decrease in transepithelial resistance (TER) after 120 min, -9.7 Omega cm(2) ((-13)-(-4.3)), compared to controls, -5.2 Omega cm(2) ((-7.2)-(-3.1)), P=0.03; or patients in remission, -4.8 Omega cm(2) ((-8.0)-(-1.2)), P=0.04. Budesonide decreased median stool frequency to 1.9 (1.3-2.2) compared to 3.8 (3.7-4.2) before treatment (P=0.01), but bacterial uptake was still increased after budesonide 2.9 U (1.5-3.8), (P=0.006 compared to controls), and there were no significant changes in histology.

    CONCLUSIONS: Collagenous colitis presents with significantly increased uptake and altered mucosal reactivity to nonpathogenic bacteria. Budesonide induces clinical remission and restores mucosal reactivity but does not abolish the increased bacterial uptake. An underlying barrier dysfunction may explain the frequent and rapid relapses in CC.

  • 184.
    Myrelid, Pär
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Oncology Centre.
    Surgery and immuno modulation in Crohn’s disease2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown origin. This study investigates the combined use of surgery and immuno modulation in Crohn’s disease. The outcome of medication and surgery in 371 operations on 237 patients between 1989 and 2006 were evaluated. Moreover the effects of prednisolone, azathioprine and infliximab on the healing of colo-colonic anastomosis in 84 mice with or without colitis were evaluated.

    The use of thiopurines after abdominal surgery in selected cases of severe Crohn’s disease was found to prolong the time to clinical relapse of the disease from 24 to 53 months. Patients on postoperative maintenance therapy with azathioprine had a decreased symptomatic load over time and needed fewer steroid courses.

    The use of thiopurines was found to be a risk factor of anastomotic complications in abdominal surgery for Crohn’s disease together with pre-operative intra-abdominal sepsis and colo-colonic anastomosis. The risk for anastomotic complications increased from 4 % in those without any of these risk factors to 13 % in those with any one and 24 % if two or three risk factors were present.

    In patients with two or more of these, or previously established, risk factors prior to surgery one should consider refraining from anastomosis or doing a proximal diverting stoma. Another possibility is to use a split stoma in which both ends of a future delayed anastomosis are brought out in the same ostomy hole of the abdominal wall. This method was found to significantly decrease the number of risk factors prior to the actual anastomosis as well as decreasing the risk of anastomotic complications, without increasing the number of operations or the time spent in hospital.

    In the animal model all three medications had an ameliorating effect on the colitis compared with placebo. Only prednisolone was found to interfere with the healing of the colo-colonic anastomoses with significantly decreased bursting pressure compared with placebo as well as azathioprine and infliximab.

    The association between azathioprine therapy and anastomotic complications may be due to a subgroup of patients with a more severe form of the disease who have an increased risk of such complications and also are more prone to receive intense pharmacological therapy.

    List of papers
    1. Azathioprine as a postoperative prophylaxis reduces symptoms in aggressive Crohn's disease
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Azathioprine as a postoperative prophylaxis reduces symptoms in aggressive Crohn's disease
    Show others...
    2006 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 41, no 10, p. 1190-1195Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Recurrence of Crohn's disease (CD) after surgery is common. Azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine (Aza/6-MP) is effective in controlling medically induced remission but, so far, has only been sparsely investigated after surgically induced remission. This study comprises a subset of CD patients considered to have an aggressive disease course and chosen for treatment with Aza postoperatively. Material and methods. In 1989-2000, a total of 100 patients with CD were given Aza/6-MP as a postoperative prophylaxis. Fourteen Aza/6-MP-intolerant patients were compared with 28 Aza-tolerant patients, matched for gender, age, and duration of disease. Patients were prospectively registered for symptoms using a modified Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) and perceived health was assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS). The primary outcome variable was the modified CDAI postoperatively integrated over time, other variables were time to first relapse (modified CDAI ≥ 150), time to first repeated surgery, number of courses of steroids, and repeated surgery per year of follow-up. Patients were followed for a median of 84.7months (23.2-140). Results. The modified CDAI integrated over time was 93 for Aza-treated patients compared with 184 for controls (p = 0.01) and time to first relapse was 53 and 24 months, respectively (p < 0.05). Aza-treated patients needed fewer courses of corticosteroids (p = 0.05) compared with controls. Perceived health did not differ between the groups, nor did need of repeated surgery. Time to first repeat operation was 53 and 37 months, respectively. Conclusions. In CD patients considered to have an aggressive disease course, Aza reduced symptoms after surgery and prolonged the time to symptomatic relapse. The findings support a role for Aza as a postoperative maintenance treatment in CD. © 2006 Taylor & Francis.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-35679 (URN)10.1080/00365520600587378 (DOI)28126 (Local ID)28126 (Archive number)28126 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    2. Thiopurine Therapy Is Associated with Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Septic Complications in Abdominal Surgery for Crohns Disease
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thiopurine Therapy Is Associated with Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Septic Complications in Abdominal Surgery for Crohns Disease
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, ISSN 0012-3706, E-ISSN 1530-0358, Vol. 52, no 8, p. 1387-1394Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Thiopurines are important as maintenance therapy in Crohns disease, but there have been concerns whether thiopurines increase the risk for anastomotic complications. The present study was performed to assess whether thiopurines alone, or together with other possible risk factors, are associated with postoperative intra-abdominal septic complications after abdominal surgery for Crohns disease.

    METHODS: Prospectively registered data regarding perioperative factors were collected at a single tertiary referral center from 1989 to 2002. Data from 343 consecutive abdominal operations on patients with Crohns disease were entered into a multivariate analysis to evaluate risk factors for intra-abdominal septic complications. All operations involved either anastomoses, strictureplasties, or both; no operations, however, involved proximal diversion.

    RESULTS: Intra-abdominal septic complications occurred in 26 of 343 operations (8%). Thiopurine therapy was associated with an increased risk of intra-abdominal septic complications (16% with therapy; 6% without therapy; P = 0.044). Together with established risk factors such as pre-operative intra-abdominal sepsis (18% with sepsis; 6% without sepsis; P = 0.024) and colocolonic anastomosis (16% with such anastomosis; 6% with other types of anastomosis; P = 0.031), thiopurine therapy was associated with intra-abdominal septic complications in 24% if any 2 or all 3 risk factors were present compared with 13% if any 1 factor was present, and only 4% in patients if none of these factors were present (P andlt; 0.0001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Thiopurine therapy is associated with postoperative intra-abdominal septic complications. The risk for intra-abdominal septic complications was related to the number of identified risk factors. This increased risk should be taken into consideration when planning surgery for Crohns disease.

    Keywords
    Crohns disease, Immunosuppression, Surgery, Postoperative complications, Anastomosis, surgical
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53691 (URN)10.1007/DCR.0b013e3181a7ba96 (DOI)
    Available from: 2010-02-01 Created: 2010-02-01 Last updated: 2017-12-12
    3. Split Stoma in Resectional Surgery of High Risk Patients with Ileocolonic Crohn’s Disease
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Split Stoma in Resectional Surgery of High Risk Patients with Ileocolonic Crohn’s Disease
    2012 (English)In: Colorectal Disease, ISSN 1462-8910, E-ISSN 1463-1318, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 188-193Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Surgery for Crohn’s disease (CD) is at high risk of anastomotic complications, with severe postoperative morbidity and even mortality. This retrospective study of high risk CD patients compared the outcome of primary anastomosis (PA) with that of split stoma (SS) and delayed anastomosis (DA).

    Methods: We performed 146 operations for ileocolonic CD from 1995-2006. Patient data were obtained from a prospectively registered data base. Patients with ≥2 preoperative risk factors (n=76) constituted high risk patients. Outcomes following PA or SS with DA were assessed.

    Results: The number of risk factors (mean) was 2.4 in the PA group and 3.5 in the SS group at time of resection and 0.2 (p<0.0001) at time of DA after 5.0 (2.3-12.6) months. Anastomotic complications occurred in 19 % (11/57) after PA compared with 0 % (0/19) after DA (p=0.038). The total number of operations and in-hospital time was 1.9 (±1.5) and 20.9 (±35.6) days after PA compared with 2.0 (±0.2) and 17.8 (±10.4) days after DA (p=0.70 and p=0.74).

    Conclusions: SS in high risk ileocolonic resections for CD, reduces the number of risk factors at the time of DA and the risk for anastomotic complications, compared to PA, without adding inhospital time or number of operations.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2012
    Keywords
    Crohn’s Disease; Stoma, Surgical; Surgery; Postoperative Complications; Anastomosis, Surgical
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54812 (URN)10.1111/j.1463-1318.2011.02578.x (DOI)000298944800019 ()
    Available from: 2010-04-14 Created: 2010-04-14 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Effects of Anti-Inflammatory Therapy on Bursting Pressure of colonic Anastomosis in Dextran Sulfate Sodium Induced Colitis in Mice
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Anti-Inflammatory Therapy on Bursting Pressure of colonic Anastomosis in Dextran Sulfate Sodium Induced Colitis in Mice
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of colitis and anti inflammatory therapies, respectively, on the healing of colonic anastomoses in mice.

    Methods: Eighty four female C57BL/6 mice where randomized into eight groups; four groups continued receiving plain tap water and four groups receiving dextran sulfate sodium. Intraperitoneal treatment was given for 14 days with placebo, prednisolone (2 mg/kg bodyweight), azathioprine (5 mg/kg bodyweight) or infliximab (5 mg/kg bodyweight) until surgery with transsection of the colon and an end to end colonic anastomosis was performed. All mice were sacrificed on day 2 and bursting pressure measurements were recorded.

    Results: In the DSS group the mice receiving placebo (n=4) had a more active inflammation with a bowel weight of 12.8 (10.6-15.0) mg/mm, which differed significantly from all the other therapy arms; prednisolone 8.1 (7.5-9.1) mg/mm (p=0.014), azathioprine 8.2 (7.0-8.5) mg/mm (p=0.0046), infliximab 6.7 (6.4-7.9) mg/mm (p=0.0055). Bursting pressure for the placebo group was 90.0 (71.5-102.8) mmHg and did not differ from the azathioprine or infliximab groups, 84.4 (70.5-112.5) and 92.3 (75.8-122.3) mmHg respectively. In contrast bursting pressure for the prednisolone-treated group was decreased compared to placebo, 55.5 (42.8-73.0) mmHg (p=0.0004), as well as compared with azathioprine (p=0.0004) and infliximab (p=0.0015).

    Conclusions: All given therapies had effect on the DSS-induced colitis. A severe decrease in bursting pressure of a colonic anastomosis was seen after preoperative steroids but we found no effect of azathioprine or infliximab. Thus, AZA and IFX may not increase the risk for anastomotic complications per se; the need for these therapies may rather be seen as markers of severe IBD with increased risk of surgical complications.

    Keywords
    Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Surgery; Postoperative Complications; Anastomosis, Surgical; Colitis, DSS
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54815 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-04-14 Created: 2010-04-14 Last updated: 2010-04-14Bibliographically approved
  • 185.
    Myrelid, Pär
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Olaison, Gunnar
    Hvidovre University Hospital.
    Sjödahl, Rune
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Nystrom, Per-Olof
    Karolinska University Hospital .
    Almer, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Thiopurine Therapy Is Associated with Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Septic Complications in Abdominal Surgery for Crohns Disease2009In: Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, ISSN 0012-3706, E-ISSN 1530-0358, Vol. 52, no 8, p. 1387-1394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Thiopurines are important as maintenance therapy in Crohns disease, but there have been concerns whether thiopurines increase the risk for anastomotic complications. The present study was performed to assess whether thiopurines alone, or together with other possible risk factors, are associated with postoperative intra-abdominal septic complications after abdominal surgery for Crohns disease.

    METHODS: Prospectively registered data regarding perioperative factors were collected at a single tertiary referral center from 1989 to 2002. Data from 343 consecutive abdominal operations on patients with Crohns disease were entered into a multivariate analysis to evaluate risk factors for intra-abdominal septic complications. All operations involved either anastomoses, strictureplasties, or both; no operations, however, involved proximal diversion.

    RESULTS: Intra-abdominal septic complications occurred in 26 of 343 operations (8%). Thiopurine therapy was associated with an increased risk of intra-abdominal septic complications (16% with therapy; 6% without therapy; P = 0.044). Together with established risk factors such as pre-operative intra-abdominal sepsis (18% with sepsis; 6% without sepsis; P = 0.024) and colocolonic anastomosis (16% with such anastomosis; 6% with other types of anastomosis; P = 0.031), thiopurine therapy was associated with intra-abdominal septic complications in 24% if any 2 or all 3 risk factors were present compared with 13% if any 1 factor was present, and only 4% in patients if none of these factors were present (P andlt; 0.0001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Thiopurine therapy is associated with postoperative intra-abdominal septic complications. The risk for intra-abdominal septic complications was related to the number of identified risk factors. This increased risk should be taken into consideration when planning surgery for Crohns disease.

  • 186.
    Myrelid, Pär
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Oncology Centre.
    Salim, Sa’ad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Melgar, Silvia
    Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork City, Ireland.
    Pruteanu, Mihaela
    Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork City, Ireland.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Oncology Centre.
    Söderholm, Johan D.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Oncology Centre.
    Effects of Anti-Inflammatory Therapy on Bursting Pressure of colonic Anastomosis in Dextran Sulfate Sodium Induced Colitis in MiceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of colitis and anti inflammatory therapies, respectively, on the healing of colonic anastomoses in mice.

    Methods: Eighty four female C57BL/6 mice where randomized into eight groups; four groups continued receiving plain tap water and four groups receiving dextran sulfate sodium. Intraperitoneal treatment was given for 14 days with placebo, prednisolone (2 mg/kg bodyweight), azathioprine (5 mg/kg bodyweight) or infliximab (5 mg/kg bodyweight) until surgery with transsection of the colon and an end to end colonic anastomosis was performed. All mice were sacrificed on day 2 and bursting pressure measurements were recorded.

    Results: In the DSS group the mice receiving placebo (n=4) had a more active inflammation with a bowel weight of 12.8 (10.6-15.0) mg/mm, which differed significantly from all the other therapy arms; prednisolone 8.1 (7.5-9.1) mg/mm (p=0.014), azathioprine 8.2 (7.0-8.5) mg/mm (p=0.0046), infliximab 6.7 (6.4-7.9) mg/mm (p=0.0055). Bursting pressure for the placebo group was 90.0 (71.5-102.8) mmHg and did not differ from the azathioprine or infliximab groups, 84.4 (70.5-112.5) and 92.3 (75.8-122.3) mmHg respectively. In contrast bursting pressure for the prednisolone-treated group was decreased compared to placebo, 55.5 (42.8-73.0) mmHg (p=0.0004), as well as compared with azathioprine (p=0.0004) and infliximab (p=0.0015).

    Conclusions: All given therapies had effect on the DSS-induced colitis. A severe decrease in bursting pressure of a colonic anastomosis was seen after preoperative steroids but we found no effect of azathioprine or infliximab. Thus, AZA and IFX may not increase the risk for anastomotic complications per se; the need for these therapies may rather be seen as markers of severe IBD with increased risk of surgical complications.

  • 187.
    Myrelid, Pär
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Oncology Centre.
    Söderholm, Johan D.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Oncology Centre.
    Sjödahl, Rune
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Oncology Centre.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Oncology Centre.
    Split Stoma in Resectional Surgery of High Risk Patients with Ileocolonic Crohn’s Disease2012In: Colorectal Disease, ISSN 1462-8910, E-ISSN 1463-1318, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 188-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Surgery for Crohn’s disease (CD) is at high risk of anastomotic complications, with severe postoperative morbidity and even mortality. This retrospective study of high risk CD patients compared the outcome of primary anastomosis (PA) with that of split stoma (SS) and delayed anastomosis (DA).

    Methods: We performed 146 operations for ileocolonic CD from 1995-2006. Patient data were obtained from a prospectively registered data base. Patients with ≥2 preoperative risk factors (n=76) constituted high risk patients. Outcomes following PA or SS with DA were assessed.

    Results: The number of risk factors (mean) was 2.4 in the PA group and 3.5 in the SS group at time of resection and 0.2 (p<0.0001) at time of DA after 5.0 (2.3-12.6) months. Anastomotic complications occurred in 19 % (11/57) after PA compared with 0 % (0/19) after DA (p=0.038). The total number of operations and in-hospital time was 1.9 (±1.5) and 20.9 (±35.6) days after PA compared with 2.0 (±0.2) and 17.8 (±10.4) days after DA (p=0.70 and p=0.74).

    Conclusions: SS in high risk ileocolonic resections for CD, reduces the number of risk factors at the time of DA and the risk for anastomotic complications, compared to PA, without adding inhospital time or number of operations.

  • 188.
    Münch, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology.
    Ström, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Dihydroxy bile acids increase mucosal permeability and bacterial uptake in human colon biopsies2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 42, no 10, p. 1167-1174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Bile acids in mM concentrations are known to increase chloride secretion and alter mucosal permeability in animal colon. Increased mucosal permeability is believed to play an important role in the development of intestinal inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of μM concentrations of dihydroxy bile acids on permeability and bacterial uptake in the normal human colon. Material and methods. Endoscopic biopsies from the sigmoid colon of 18 subjects with normal colonic histology were mounted in modified Ussing chambers. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) were added to the mucosal compartment. Short-circuit current (Isc) and transepithelial resistance (TER) were studied for 120 min. Cr-EDTA and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were used to assess paracellular and transcellular permeability, respectively. The transmucosal passage of chemically killed Escherichia coli was quantified and investigated using confocal microscopy. Results. A significant decrease in TER was seen after 60 min of exposure to 1000 μmol/l CDCA and DCA. The combination of E. coli and 100 μmol/l CDCA gave a decrease in TER compared to controls (p=0.06). DCA showed a dose-related increase in Cr-EDTA permeability, which was most pronounced at 1000 μmol/l (p=0.02). Increased E. coli uptake was induced by 500 μmol/l (p=0.01) and 1000 μmol/l CDCA (p=0.04). Bacterial uptake was increased at 100 μmol/l by exposure to DCA (p=0.03). Confocal microscopy revealed the presence of E. coli bacteria in the lamina propria after 15 min of exposure to 1000 μmol/l CDCA and DCA. Conclusions. Our study suggests that dihydroxy bile acids in μM concentrations alter barrier function in normal human colon biopsies, causing increased antigen and bacterial uptake, thereby bile acids may contribute to the development of intestinal inflammation. © 2007 Taylor & Francis.

  • 189.
    Münch, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderholm, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology.
    Carlsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öst, Åke
    Medilab, Täby, Sweden.
    Ström, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland.
    Physiological levels of bile acids increase bacterial uptake in colonic biopsies of collagenous colitis patients in remissionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Patients with collagenous colitis (CC) have an impaired mucosal barrier. Moreover CC is associated with bile acid malabsorption. Bile acids may increase bacterial mucosal uptake in humans. To elucidate the possible role of bile acids in CC pathophysiology, the mucosal barrier function was investigated by exposing colonic biopsies to physiological concentrations of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) or deoxycholic acid (DCA) in Ussing chamber experiments.

    Patients/Interventions: The study included 33 individuals; 25 with collagenous colitis (14 in clinical remission without treatment, 11 with active disease, and 8 of these again after 6 weeks budesonide treatment); 8 healthy individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy served as controls. Endoscopic biopsies from the sigmoid colon were mounted in modified Ussing chambers and assessed for short circuit current (Isc), transepithelial resistance (TER), and transmucosal passage of chemically killed E. coli K12 after addition of 100 μmol/l CDCA or DCA. The biopsies were further investigated with confocal microscopy to asses bacterial transepithelial passage routes.

    Results: By adding 100μmol/l CDCA or DCA the bacterial uptake was increased by 4-fold in biopsies of patients in remission; CDCA 6.5 units [2.5-9.8] and DCA 6.2 units [2.1-22] (median [IQR]), compared with uptake in biopsies without added bile acids 1.6 units [1.1-3]; (p=0.004 and p=0.01, respectively). In active disease and in patients in remission on budesonide, bile acids had no effect on bacterial uptake. Isc and TER were unaffected by the bile acids at 100μmol/l in all groups. Confocal microscopy demonstrated transepithelial passage of E.coli K12 via the paracellular route.

    Conclusions: Physiological concentrations of dihydroxy-bile acids augment mucosal barrier dysfunction in colonic biopsies of patients with CC in remission. This leads to a substantially increased bacterial uptake that may contribute to relapse of inflammation. Budesonide seems to counteract the bile acid-induced mucosal impairment.

  • 190.
    Nilsson, Gert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anderson, Chris
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Henricson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Leahy, M.
    Department of Physics University of Limeric, Ireland.
    O´Doherty, J.
    Department of Physics University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Assessment of tissue viability by polarization spectroscopy2008In: Opto-Electronics Review, ISSN 1230-3402, E-ISSN 1896-3757, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 309-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new and versatile method for tissue viability imaging based on polarization spectroscopy of blood in superficial tissue structures such as the skin is presented in this paper. Linearly polarized light in the visible wavelength region is partly reflected directly by the skin surface and partly diffusely backscattered from the dermal tissue matrix. Most of the directly reflected light preserves its polarization state while the light returning from the deeper tissue layers is depolarized. By the use of a polarization filter positioned in front of a sensitive CCD-array, the light directly reflected from the tissue surface is blocked, while the depolarized light returning from the deeper tissue layers reaches the detector array. By separating the colour planes of the detected image, spectroscopic information about the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) in the microvascular network of the tissue under investigation can be derived. A theory that utilizes the differences in light absorption of RBCs and bloodless tissue in the red and green wavelength region forms the basis of an algorithm for displaying a colour coded map of the RBC distribution in a tissue. Using a fluid model, a linear relationship (cc. = 0.99) between RBC concentration and the output signal was demonstrated within the physiological range 0–4%. In-vivo evaluation using transepidermal application of acetylcholine by the way of iontophoresis displayed the heterogeneity pattern of the vasodilatation produced by the vasoactive agent. Applications of this novel technology are likely to be found in drug and skin care product development as well as in the assessment of skin irritation and tissue repair processes and even ultimately in a clinic case situation.

  • 191.
    Nilsson, Helene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rüter, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Management of resources at major incidents and disasters in relation to patient outcome: A pilot study of an educational model2008In: European journal of emergency medicine, ISSN 0969-9546, E-ISSN 1473-5695, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 162-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Organizations involved in disaster response often have a defined operative level of management (command and control) that can take the overall decisions regarding the mobilization and distribution of resources and distribution of casualties. This level of management can be referred to as strategic management. The aim of this pilot study was to show the possibility, in simulation exercises, to relate decisions made regarding resources to patient outcome. METHODS: The simulation system used measures to determine if lifesaving interventions are performed in time or not in relation to patient outcome. Evaluation was made with sets of performance indicators as templates and all management groups were evaluated not only as to how the decisions were made (management skills), but also how staff work was performed (staff procedure skills). RESULTS: Owing to inadequate response and insufficient distribution of patients to hospitals, 11 'patients' died in the simulated incident, a fire at a football stand with subsequent collapse. The strategic level of management received 16 points out of a possible 22 according to a predesigned template of performance indicators. CONCLUSION: The pilot study demonstrated the possibility to, in simulation exercises, relate decisions made regarding resources to patient outcome. This training technique could possibly lead to increased knowledge in what decisions are crucial to make in an early phase to minimize mortality and morbidity. © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  • 192.
    Nilsson, Heléne
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Demand for Rapid and Accurate Regional Medical Response at Major Incidents2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultimate goal in major incidents is to optimize care for the greatest number of patients. This means matching patients with facilities that have the appropriate resources available in sufficient quantities to provide the necessary care. A major incident is a situation where the available resources are inadequate in relation to the urgent need. As health care resources have become increasingly constrained, it is imperative that all resources be optimized from a regional and sometimes a national perspective.

    In Sweden, the number of major incidents per year is still unknown. In order to implement effective quality control of response to major incidents, specific standards for regional medical response need to be set and agreed on from a national perspective. This will probably also enhance follow-up and comparison of major incidents in the future.

    The overall aim of this thesis is to improve understanding of the demand for rapid and accurate regional medical response at major incidents. The objectives were to systematically analyse specific decisions within regional medical response and to identify factors that can influence patient outcome in major incidents.

    This research is based on four studies in which a set of 11 measurable performance indicators for initial regional medical command and control have been used as an evaluation instrument together with a simulation system where the assessment of each patient could be evaluated. The collection of data was made during several disaster management programs but also in real major incidents that occurred in two county councils in Sweden. In one of the studies, the national disaster medical response plan for burns was evaluated.

    This research shows that measurable performance indicators for regional medical response allow standardized evaluation such that it is possible to find crucial decisions that can be related to patient outcome. The indicators can be applied to major incidents that directly or indirectly involve casualties provided there is sufficient documentation available and thereby could constitute a measurable part of regional and national follow-up of major incidents. Reproducible simulations of mass casualty events that combine process and outcome indicators can create important results on medical surge capability and may serve to support disaster planning.

    The research also identified that there is a risk for delay in distribution of severely injured when many county councils needs to be involved due to different regional response times to major incidents. Furthermore, the coordination between health care and other authorities concerning ambulance helicopter transport in mass casualty events needs to be further addressed. It is concluded that there is a demand for rapid and accurate response to major incidents that is similar in all county councils. Like all other fields of medicine, these processes need to be quality assured.

    List of papers
    1. Management of resources at major incidents and disasters in relation to patient outcome: A pilot study of an educational model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Management of resources at major incidents and disasters in relation to patient outcome: A pilot study of an educational model
    2008 (English)In: European journal of emergency medicine, ISSN 0969-9546, E-ISSN 1473-5695, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 162-165Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Organizations involved in disaster response often have a defined operative level of management (command and control) that can take the overall decisions regarding the mobilization and distribution of resources and distribution of casualties. This level of management can be referred to as strategic management. The aim of this pilot study was to show the possibility, in simulation exercises, to relate decisions made regarding resources to patient outcome. METHODS: The simulation system used measures to determine if lifesaving interventions are performed in time or not in relation to patient outcome. Evaluation was made with sets of performance indicators as templates and all management groups were evaluated not only as to how the decisions were made (management skills), but also how staff work was performed (staff procedure skills). RESULTS: Owing to inadequate response and insufficient distribution of patients to hospitals, 11 'patients' died in the simulated incident, a fire at a football stand with subsequent collapse. The strategic level of management received 16 points out of a possible 22 according to a predesigned template of performance indicators. CONCLUSION: The pilot study demonstrated the possibility to, in simulation exercises, relate decisions made regarding resources to patient outcome. This training technique could possibly lead to increased knowledge in what decisions are crucial to make in an early phase to minimize mortality and morbidity. © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

    Keywords
    Bioterrorism Decision Making Disaster Planning/*methods Health Care Rationing Humans *Models, Educational Natural Disasters Pilot Projects *Quality Assurance, Health Care Sweden Triage
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-43451 (URN)10.1097/MEJ.0b013e3282f4d14b (DOI)73886 (Local ID)73886 (Archive number)73886 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Quality control in disaster medicine training: Initial regional medical command and control as an example
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality control in disaster medicine training: Initial regional medical command and control as an example
    2010 (English)In: American journal of disaster medicine, ISSN 1932-149X, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 35-40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to show the possibility to identify what decisions in the initial regional medical command and control (IRMCC) that have to be improved. DESIGN: This was a prospective, observational study conducted during nine similar educational programs for regional and hospital medical command and control in major incidents and disasters. Eighteen management groups were evaluated during 18 standardized simulation exercises. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: More detailed and quantitative evaluation methods for systematic evaluation within disaster medicine have been asked for. The hypothesis was that measurable performance indicators can create comparable results and identify weak and strong areas of performance in disaster management education and training. Methods: Evaluation of each exercise was made with a set of 11 measurable performance indicators for IRMCC. The results of each indicator were scored 0, 1, or 2 according to the performance of each management group. RESULTS: The average of the total score for IRMCC was 14.05 of 22. The two best scored performance indicators, No 1 "declaring major incident" and No 2 "deciding on level of preparedness for staff" differed significantly from the two lowest scoring performance indicators, No 7 "first information to media" and No 8 "formulate general guidelines for response." CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that decisions such as "formulating guidelines for response and "first information to media" were areas in initial medical command and control that need to be improved. This method can serve as a quality control tool in disaster management education programs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Weston, MA, USA: Weston Medical Publishing, LLC, 2010
    Keywords
    performance indicators, disaster management, education, quality measurement
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-57033 (URN)20349701 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2010-06-14 Created: 2010-06-09 Last updated: 2014-10-07
    3. Performance indicators for initial regional medical response to major incidents: a possible quality control tool
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance indicators for initial regional medical response to major incidents: a possible quality control tool
    2012 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 20, no 81Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Timely decisions concerning mobilization and allocation of resources and distribution of casualties are crucial in medical management of major incidents. The aim of this study was to evaluate documented initial regional medical responses to major incidents by applying a set of 11 measurable performance indicators for regional medical command and control and test the feasibility of the indicators.

    Methods

    Retrospective data were collected from documentation from regional medical command and control at major incidents that occurred in two Swedish County Councils. Each incident was assigned to one of nine different categories and 11 measurable performance indicators for initial regional medical command and control were systematically applied. Two-way analysis of variance with one observation per cell was used for statistical analysis and the post hoc Tukey test was used for pairwise comparisons.

    Results

    The set of indicators for regional medical command and control could be applied in 102 of the130 major incidents (78%), but 36 incidents had to be excluded due to incomplete documentation. The indicators were not applicable as a set for 28 incidents (21.5%) due to different characteristics and time frames. Based on the indicators studied in 66 major incidents, the results demonstrate that the regional medical management performed according to the standard in the early phases (1–10 min after alert), but there were weaknesses in the secondary phase (10–30 min after alert). The significantly lowest scores were found for Indicator 8 (formulate general guidelines for response) and Indicator 10 (decide whether or not resources in own organization are adequate).

    Conclusions

    Measurable performance indicators for regional medical command and control can be applied to incidents that directly or indirectly involve casualties provided there is sufficient documentation available. Measurable performance indicators can enhance follow- up and be used as a structured quality control tool as well as constitute measurable parts of a nationally based follow-up system for major incidents. Additional indicators need to be developed for hospital-related incidents such as interference with hospital infrastructure.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BioMed Central, 2012
    Keywords
    Emergency response, Disaster management, Casualty incident, Quality measurement, Resource management
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89534 (URN)10.1186/1757-7241-20-81 (DOI)000313973900001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare||

    Available from: 2013-02-28 Created: 2013-02-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    4. Simulation-assisted burn disaster planning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation-assisted burn disaster planning
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 1122-1130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the Swedish medical systems response to a mass casualty burn incident in a rural area with a focus on national coordination of burn care. Data were collected from two simulations of a mass casualty incident with burns in a rural area in the mid portion of Sweden close to the Norwegian border, based on a large inventory of emergency resources available in this area as well as regional hospitals, university hospitals and burn centres in Sweden and abroad. The simulation system Emergo Train System (R) (ETS) was used and risk for preventable death and complications were used as outcome measures: simulation I, 18.5% (n = 13) preventable deaths and 15.5% (n = 11) preventable complications; simulation II, 11.4% (n = 8) preventable deaths and 11.4% (n = 8) preventable complications. The last T1 patient was evacuated after 7 h in simulation I, compared with 5 h in simulation II. Better national coordination of burn care and more timely distribution based on the experience from the first simulation, and possibly a learning effect, led to a better patient outcome in simulation II. The experience using a system that combines both process and outcome indicators can create important results that may support disaster planning.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keywords
    Burns; Rural areas; Surge capacity; Mass casualty incidents; Preparedness
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86596 (URN)10.1016/j.burns.2013.01.018 (DOI)000324349700014 ()
    Available from: 2012-12-19 Created: 2012-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
  • 193.
    Nilsson, Heléne
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jonson, Carl-Oscar
    Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vikström, Tore
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Eva
    Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Thorfinn, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Huss, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Kildal, Morten
    Department of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Simulation-assisted burn disaster planning2013In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 1122-1130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the Swedish medical systems response to a mass casualty burn incident in a rural area with a focus on national coordination of burn care. Data were collected from two simulations of a mass casualty incident with burns in a rural area in the mid portion of Sweden close to the Norwegian border, based on a large inventory of emergency resources available in this area as well as regional hospitals, university hospitals and burn centres in Sweden and abroad. The simulation system Emergo Train System (R) (ETS) was used and risk for preventable death and complications were used as outcome measures: simulation I, 18.5% (n = 13) preventable deaths and 15.5% (n = 11) preventable complications; simulation II, 11.4% (n = 8) preventable deaths and 11.4% (n = 8) preventable complications. The last T1 patient was evacuated after 7 h in simulation I, compared with 5 h in simulation II. Better national coordination of burn care and more timely distribution based on the experience from the first simulation, and possibly a learning effect, led to a better patient outcome in simulation II. The experience using a system that combines both process and outcome indicators can create important results that may support disaster planning.

  • 194.
    Nilsson, Heléne
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology, Centre for Teaching and Research in Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rüter, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology, Centre for Teaching and Research in Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Attitudes on the use of priority tags2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 15, p. 71-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prioritising of victims as well as the use of priority tags in different colours is an important part of all training in patient management at disasters and major incidents. The actual use of priority tags in incidents and disasters has so far not been systematically studied. The aim of this study was to demonstrate attitudes among researchers as well as prehospital personnel on the actual use of priority tags. In 38 KAMEDO reports issued by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare describing major incidents and disasters from 1977-2004, we found no documentation on the use of priority tags. In a questionnaire to personnel within the prehospital medical system 133 (68%) replied that they only have used priority tags in training. 20 (10%) had used priority tags in a real accident/incident and 43 (21%) answered that they have never used priority tags. Reports from incidents should include the issues on the use of priority tags and clearly defi ned criteria on prioritising and labelling of patients at an incident/disaster, as well as in daily work, should be defi ned.

  • 195.
    Nilsson, Heléne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vikström, Tore
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rüter, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Quality control in disaster medicine training: Initial regional medical command and control as an example2010In: American journal of disaster medicine, ISSN 1932-149X, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 35-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to show the possibility to identify what decisions in the initial regional medical command and control (IRMCC) that have to be improved. DESIGN: This was a prospective, observational study conducted during nine similar educational programs for regional and hospital medical command and control in major incidents and disasters. Eighteen management groups were evaluated during 18 standardized simulation exercises. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: More detailed and quantitative evaluation methods for systematic evaluation within disaster medicine have been asked for. The hypothesis was that measurable performance indicators can create comparable results and identify weak and strong areas of performance in disaster management education and training. Methods: Evaluation of each exercise was made with a set of 11 measurable performance indicators for IRMCC. The results of each indicator were scored 0, 1, or 2 according to the performance of each management group. RESULTS: The average of the total score for IRMCC was 14.05 of 22. The two best scored performance indicators, No 1 "declaring major incident" and No 2 "deciding on level of preparedness for staff" differed significantly from the two lowest scoring performance indicators, No 7 "first information to media" and No 8 "formulate general guidelines for response." CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that decisions such as "formulating guidelines for response and "first information to media" were areas in initial medical command and control that need to be improved. This method can serve as a quality control tool in disaster management education programs.

  • 196.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre.
    Juhlin, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Krook, H.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Sjödahl, Rune
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Rutberg, H.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Patient Security.
    Strukturerad journalgranskning kan öka patientsäkerheten2009In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 106, no 35, p. 2125-2128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 197.
    Nilsson-Ehle, Herman
    et al.
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Birgegard, Gunnar
    University Uppsala Hospital.
    Samuelsson, Jan
    Stockholm S Hospital.
    Antunovic, Petar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery.
    Astermark, Jan
    University Hospital MAS.
    Garelius, Hege
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Engstrom, Lena M
    Umea University Hospital.
    Kjeldsen, Lars
    Rigshospital.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Lund University Hospital.
    Olsson, Anna
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Skov-Holm, Mette
    Aarhus University Hospital.
    Wallvik, Jonas
    Sundsvall Hospital.
    Gulbrandsen, Nina
    Ullevaal University Hospital.
    Hellstrom-Lindberg, Eva
    Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge.
    Quality of life, physical function and MRI T2*in elderly low-risk MDS patients treated to a haemoglobin level of andgt;= 120 g/L with darbepoetin alfa +/- filgrastim or erythrocyte transfusions2011In: European Journal of Haematology, ISSN 0902-4441, E-ISSN 1600-0609, Vol. 87, no 3, p. 244-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Anaemia in low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is associated with reduced quality of life (QoL). Response to treatment with erythropoietin +/- granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is associated with improved QoL, but whether transfusion therapy with higher haemoglobin (Hb) target levels has similar effects is unknown. The objective for this prospective phase II Nordic multicentre trial was to assess QoL, response rate and physical function in elderly anaemic MDS patients treated to a target Hb level of andgt; 120 g /L. Methods: Thirty-six elderly patients with low-and intermediate-1 risk MDS received darbepoetin (DA) 300 mu g/wk, with the addition of G-CSF if no response. If the Hb target was reached at 16 wk, treatment was maintained until week 26. Remaining patients were transfused to reach the target level for at least 8 wk. Results: Twenty-seven patients completed the study. Response rate to DA +/- G-CSF was 67% in evaluable patients and 56% according to intention to treat. Eighteen patients reached the target Hb level according to protocol. QoL scores for fatigue, dyspnoea, constipation, and physical, role and social functioning improved significantly during study, with similar results for transfused and untransfused patients. Maintaining Hb andgt; 120 g /L did not confer a higher transfusion rate, once the target was reached. In two of fourteen patients, magnetic resonance imaging T2* indicated cardiac iron overload, however, without association with ferritin levels. Conclusions: In elderly anaemic MDS patients, an increment in haemoglobin is associated with improved QoL, whether induced by growth factor treatment or transfusion therapy.

  • 198.
    Nyström, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Kald, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Laparoscopic sigmoid resection for diverticular disease1999In: Zentralblatt für Chirurgie, ISSN 0044-409X, E-ISSN 1438-9592, Vol. 124, no 12, p. 1147-1151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is still difficult to determine the exact indication for a laparoscopic sigmoid resection for diverticular disease. Frequently, the severity of diverticulitis is not sufficiently defined. For this reason a modification of the Hinchey classification is proposed to which a stage II b for fistula formation and a differentiation between acute and chronic disease have been added. Another problem is the lack of criteria which define a "laparoscopic" resection. A sigmoid resection should be called "laparoscopic" if the mobilization of the sigmoid colon, the transsection of the mesenteric vein and artery and the mesentery itself and the distal transsection of the bowel are done laparoscopically. The resection of the bowel and the introduction of the anvil of the stapler device can be done extraabdominally, however, the anastomosis again should be performed laparoscopi- cally. A so defined sigmoid rejection can be done in the chronic stage I. In the chronic stage II a there will be significant problems due to adhesion formation, and in the acute stages II a and II b as well as in the chronic stage II b a laparoscopic resection should not be attempted.

  • 199.
    ODoherty, Jim
    et al.
    St Thomas Hospital, England .
    Henricson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falk, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Anderson, Chris
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    Correcting for possible tissue distortion between provocation and assessment in skin testing: The divergent beam UVB photo-test2013In: Skin research and technology, ISSN 0909-752X, E-ISSN 1600-0846, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 368-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundIn tissue viability imaging (TiVi), an assessment method for skin erythema, correct orientation of skin position from provocation to assessment optimizes data interpretation. Image processing algorithms could compensate for the effects of skin translation, torsion and rotation realigning assessment images to the position of the skin at provocation. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethodsA reference image of a divergent, UVB phototest was acquired, as well as test images at varying levels of translation, rotation and torsion. Using 12 skin markers, an algorithm was applied to restore the distorted test images to the reference image. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResultsThe algorithm corrected torsion and rotation up to approximately 35 degrees. The radius of the erythemal reaction and average value of the input image closely matched that of the reference images true value. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusionThe image de-warping procedure improves the robustness of the response image evaluation in a clinical research setting and opens the possibility of the correction of possibly flawed images performed away from the laboratory setting by the subject/patient themselves. This opportunity may increase the use of photo-testing and, by extension, other late response skin testing where the necessity of a return assessment visit is a disincentive to performance of the test.

  • 200.
    Ohannessian, Peter
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Berggren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Abdiu, Avni
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    The cleft lip evaluation profile (CLEP): A new approach for postoperative nasolabial assessment in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate2011In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY AND HAND SURGERY, ISSN 0284-4311, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 8-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the postoperative results after primary or secondary operation on unilateral cleft lip and nose, various methods have been published, in which qualitative methods are often based on the opinions of an expert panel and the quantitative methods are based on measurements of different landmarks of the lip and nose. Common problems with the present methods are the associated costs, based on the need for advanced techniques and expertise. Our cleft team now present a simplified, inexpensive, and reproducible protocol to evaluate the cosmetic and functional outcome after operations on the cleft lip and nose, together with the patients. Our protocol has been developed as a guideline to evaluate and score six variables of the lip and seven variables of the nose, including scars, projections of the lips and nose, volumes of the lip, and the alae and septum. The protocol contains series of three photographs of each of the variables that present a good postoperative result, an acceptable result, and finally a result with a clearly visible disfigurement. We also tested the reproducibility and validity of the protocol. Plastic surgeons with no knowledge of the index were approached twice and asked to assess a version with photographs in random order. The evaluation protocol is a simple and cost-effective tool for evaluation of the lip or nose, or both, among patients with repaired unilateral complete cleft lip.

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