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  • 151.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies.
    Stockholms skandinavistsymposium. Två rapporter: "Hur Nordiskt är Baltikum?" och "Svensk kultur sedd utifrån"2007Report (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Yttrandefrihetens dilemma. Recension av John Durham Peters Courting the abyss - free speech and the liberal tradition (2005)2006In: Uppsala Nya Tidning, Vol. 2.7.2006, no KulturArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 153.
    Hult, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustavsson, LennartLinköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Text och bild i läromedel: Sju analyser av svenska som andraspråk1983Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains seven analyses of texts and illustrations in instructional materials used in the teaching of basic skills to adult immigrants. The authors, representing several different research fields, discuss various aspects of three materials, chosen to serve as representative examples , e.g.: What i s the visual code that affects the choice of i llustrations and what implicit ideologies are revealed by these illustrations? What assumptions about the learner's knowledge and lack of knowledge underlie texts and illustrations? What different orders of presentation can be traced in different materials, as regards linguistic phenomena and the various skills to be acqui red?Which linguistic forms and functions are represented in thematerials and/or promoted when they are used?

  • 154.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Baggens, Christina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Joint working relationships: Children, parents and child healthcare nurses at work.2004In: Communication & Medicine, ISSN 1612-1783, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 71-83Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In child healthcare children's development is examined and assessed. The main aim of this article is to explore the different ways in which a child health nurse establishes joint working relationships with children and parents. Few studies in child healthcare include nonverbal interaction. It was found that a child often responds to the actions of the nurse and the parent by physical and bodily actions and by the direction of his/her gaze. The nurse has to be able to shift between several different interactional modes using various nonverbal communicative means. She uses her body to shift positions together with shifts in gaze in order to establish an interactional focus and a relationship with the child. The nurse also uses different artifacts in the room as well as the child's spontaneous activities during the assessment of the child's development. In addition, she uses the parents' relationships with their children in order to gain their support and to encourage their children in performing tasks. An important methodological consequence of this study is that it is necessary to use video-recorded data when interactions of this kind are analyzed.

  • 155.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Bülow, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Tidens väv: om sjukdomsberättelser2004In: TFL : tidskrift för litteraturvetenskap, ISSN 0282-7913, Vol. 33, no 3-4, p. 70-83Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 156.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Lumma, Antje
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Learning to talk and talking about talk: professional identity and communicative technology2007In: Medical Technologies and the Life World: The Social Construction of Normality / [ed] Sonja Olin-Lauritzen & Lars-Christer Hydén, London: Routledge , 2007, p. 18-39Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the use of new health technologies in healthcare and medicine is generally seen as beneficial, there has been little analysis of the impact of such technologies on people's lives and understandings of health and illness. This book explores how new technologies not only provide hope for cure and well-being, but also introduce new ethical dilemmas and raise questions about the "natural" body. Focusing on the ways new health technologies intervene into our lives and affect our ideas about normalcy, the body and identity, New Health Technologies explores: how new health technologies are understood by lay people and patients how the outcomes of these technologies are communicated in various clinical settings how these technologies can alter our notions of health and illness and create "new illness." Written by authors with differing backgrounds in phenomenology, social psychology, social anthropology, communication studies and the nursing sciences, this book is essential reading for students andacademics of medical sociology, health and allied studies, and anyone with an interest in new health technologies.

  • 157.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Peolsson, Michael
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pain Gestures: The Orchestration of Talk and Body Gestures2002In: Health, ISSN 1363-4593, E-ISSN 1461-7196, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 325-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is about the use and function of gestures in pain communication. More specifically how we can communicate an internal bodily experience like pain with the help of gestures. This is of great importance both in everyday situations and in medical consultations of various types. Our focus in this article is on the issues of the gesture as a communicative resource, how verbal and nonverbal communicative resources are related to each other and in what way gestures contribute to the structure of different types of pain. Thirty-seven patients have been interviewed about their pain experiences and the main result is that several communicative modalities are interwoven in the pain accounts. Three different functions of gestures were identified: the pointing, iconic and symbolic functions. The clinical relevance of this approach to gestures in pain communication is to take note of the intricate interplay of different communicative resources used in the pain description, and to emphasize both verbal and nonverbal interaction in the clinical conversation as a resource in the care situation.

  • 158.
    Jarkman, Kristina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ett liv att leva: Om familjer, funktionshinder och vardagens villkor1996Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis deals with everyday life in families where a child is born with an impairment and also, to a certain extent, with the lives of adults suffering from the same disability. The parents' way of managing life with a disabled child is of great importance for the child" s perception of itself, as well as its future development. It is therefore interesting to focus on the whole family when seeking to understand the life situation of those with a disability. The aim of the study is to clarify what happens in a family when a child is born with an impairment.

    A qualitative analysis was carried out, based on interviews with 20 children, teenagers and adults with myelomeningocele, and their parents; and also on separate interviews with 12 siblings of the children with myelomeningocele. The interviews were semistructured and conducted with the aid of guidelines on many areas in life; for example relations to health care and authorities; ideas about the disability and the experience of the biographical disruption brought about by the birth of a disabled child.

    The results of the study is discussed in terms of similarity and dissimilarity; and shows how the families live in a world, or reality, which is similar to the world every person lives in, and at the same time live in another world of dissimilarity because of the disability. The parents, and in some respects the children or teenagers, develop various strategies in order to balance these two worlds and lead a functional everyday life, which is also the case regarding the adults with myelomeningocele. The results of the study also indicate central areas involving problems for these families and the thesis ends with some advice on what can be done to make life easier for children, teenagers and adults with myelomeningocele, as well as their parents.

  • 159.
    Jarlbrink, Johan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Hjältereportern - målet för reporterns resa2006In: RIG: Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0035-5267, E-ISSN 2002-3863, no 2, p. 85-94Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Johannesson, Lena
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Om skolplanschsamlingen och skolmuseet i Gamla Linköping: en antologi i samarbete med Konsthistoriska Klubben, Gamla Linköping och Linköpings universitet1996Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Johannesson, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Qvarsell, BirgittaStockholms universitet.
    Den olydiga boken: om lättläst-bokens kommunikativa rum1995Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Johanson, Marita
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Communicating about health in health care: Perspectives on life style and post-operative complications1994Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study, which is exploratory in nature, has been conducted with the aim of uncovering patients' participation and co-operation in modern health care and analysing what the conditions of this co-operation look like. Another aim has been to enhance knowledge about institutional discourse on a general level as well as about dialogues between patients and physicians concerning life style issues at a more specific level. Byanalysing the contributions of patients and professionals to written and oral communication produced in health care, the intention has been to study differences in how patients and professionals talk about and interpret issues of health in consultations as well as in their evaluation of health care measures. Another problem concerns the attention given tolife style in primary health care dialogues and how such issues are discussed and utilised by the interlocutors; for example, how knowledge of life style generated in the encounter is used as a resource for improving patient health status.

    In the theoretical background, it is argued that institutional encounters can be seen as discursive practices involving people who vary in communicative power and expertise. Furthermore, this kind of complex setting is in many ways a characteristic of modern society. The dominance of professionals, who represent specific knowledge, can be seen as a manifestation of the discourse in health care, and it is to this discursive regimen that patients as well as physicians adhere.

    The thesis is based on three projects which have generated four substudies included in this thesis. Three of the studies focus on patient-professional communication about life style issues, where the empirical data consist of 42 authentic consultations with physicians at two primary health care centres. The consultations as well as the subsequentinterviews with patients and physicians, respectively were audiorecorded. The recorded material was transcribed and, furthermore, the notes in the medical records were collected. The fourth study concerns perceptions of complications among patients and health care staff. The data concerning the patients' view have been collected using a threemonth follow-up questionnaire. Data concerning complications have been registered byprofessionals during hospitalisation.

    Throughout the four studies, the differences between patients' and professionals' perspectives are clearly visible, findings which corroborate the existence in institutionalised medical practice of distinct differences between the 'voice of medicine' and a the 'voice of the life-world'. As regards patients' participation and co-operation in health care, dialogues on life style show. that the patients and the physicians shared the discourse space equally, although, in the literature about doctor-patient communication, physicians have generally been shown to be quite dominant during consultations. The results from the different substudies show, however, that communication about life style is used for many purposes. Despite the frequent talk of life style issues, the physicians seem not to use the educational potential at hand in order to improve the patient's knowledge about possible relationships between different life style issues and the patient's health condition. This issue, amorig others, is discussed in the light of modern society as a society of 'choices' and 'risks'. Hence, the distribution· of knowledge becomes especially important in a risk society where health and medical knowledge has become the main instrument for determining risks.

  • 163.
    Johanson, Marita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies.
    Sätterlund-Larsson, Ullabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies.
    Säljö, Roger
    Svärdsudd, Kurt
    Lifestyle discussion in the provision of health care. An empirical study of patient-physician interaction1998In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 103-112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Waern, Yvonne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies.
    How Professionals make Expert Decisions2004In: How Professionals make Expert Decisions / [ed] Henry Montgomery, Raanan Lipshitz, Berndt Brehmer, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004, p. -423Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume is the fruit of the 5th conference on Naturalistic Decision Making which focused on the importance of studying people who have some degree of expertise in the domain in which they make decisions. The substantive concerns pertain to how individuals and groups make decisions in professional and organizational settings, and to develop suitable methods for studying these questions rigorously. This volume appeals to practitioners in business and government, as well as academics and students who are interested in naturalistic decision making

  • 165.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Waern, Yvonne
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The communicative aspects of distributed dynamic decision making in the ROLF-environment2000In: In the 5th Conference on Natural Decision Making, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing development of the ROLF 2010 Joint Mobile Command and Control concept has led to several research questions about the usage of new technology in distributed decision making (see for example Artman & Persson, forthcoming). The ROLF-environment provides the decisionmakers with public as well as private representations (e.g. computer screens) and a wide range of communication tools. The focus of this article is the way in which the participants in such decision making should use the main public screen, the Visioscope™. The "more is more"-thought implies that the commander should benefit from getting as much information as possible. This means, for instance that direct updating without intervention of the commanders should give them a better view of the situation than if they were forced to update the Visioscope™ themselves. This latter approach would enforce a processing of the sequential and spatial organisation of the objects with which they are working. A series of tests are therefore being performed at the National Defence College in order to study the effects of the two conditions.

  • 166.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Waern, Yvonne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Research on Decision Making and New Technology - Methodological Issues2004In: How Professionals Make Expert Decisions / [ed] Henry Montgomery, Raanan Lipshitz, Berndt Brehmer, Mahaw, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates , 2004, p. -423Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume is the fruit of the 5th conference on Naturalistic Decision Making which focused on the importance of studying people who have some degree of expertise in the domain in which they make decisions. The substantive concerns pertain to how individuals and groups make decisions in professional and organizational settings, and to develop suitable methods for studying these questions rigorously. This volume appeals to practitioners in business and government, as well as academics and students who are interested in naturalistic decision making.

  • 167.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Du sköna nya tid?: Debatten om informationssamhället i Riksdag och Storting under 1990-talet2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 1990-talet var “informationssamhället” ett begrepp som flitigt användes av politiker i hela västvärlden. De nordiska länderna var inga undantag. I denna avhandling undersöks och jämförs den svenska och norska politiska debatten om “informationssamhället” under 1990-talet. Debatten präglas av uppfattningen att ny IKT (informations- och kommunikationsteknik) är drivande i ett historiskt epokskifte som implicerar industrisamhällets slut och “informationssamhällets” början. Denna uppfattning analyseras ingående med diskursteoretiska verktyg. Debatten förstås som en diskursiv kamp mellan olika kollektiva aktörer (de politiska partierna i riksdagen resp. Stortinget), en kamp som inte bara handlar om framtiden utan också om samtid och historia. De tongivande inslagen av teknik och utvecklingsdeterminism analyseras och problematiseras både som en politisk strategi och som en arketypiskt modern förståelseform. Ett socialdemokratiskt dilemma infinner sig – hur skall socialdemokratiskt styre legitimeras i en tid där utvecklingen sprungit ifrån industrimodernitetens socialdemokratiska industristat? En tyngspunktsskillnad beträffande betoningen av “hårda” och “mjuka” frågor påvisas i jämförelsen mellan svensk och norsk debatt. Denna skillnad sätts i ett historisk sammanhang som understryker grannländernas delvis olikartade moderniseringsprocesser.

  • 168.
    Johansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies.
    Eldelin, Emma
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies.
    Seifarth, Sofia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies.
    Kunskap som ett brev på (e-)posten: Kunskapssamhället och utbildning på distans - idag och under 1950-talet2003In: På väg mot en kommunikativ demokrati?: Sexton humanister om makten, medierna och medborgarkompetensen / [ed] Martin Kylhammar och Jean-François Battail, Stockholm: Carlssons , 2003, p. 235-264Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    ntologi. Sexton humanister om makten, medierna och medborgarkompetenser Medverkar gör bl a Lars-Eric Liedman, Viveca Adelswärd, Lars Ingelstam, Anders Björnsson och Peter Luthersson.

  • 169.
    Jonsson, Maria
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Flodvågskatastrofen i svensk nyhetspress: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av katastrofrapporteringens fem första dagar i Aftonbladet, Dagens Nyheter och Östgöta Correspondenten2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A catastrophe is always a unique situation and the consequenses are depending on its extensiveness. When the catastrophe is a fact, information and communication will be an essential part in the meaning of helping suffering and worried people to mentally recover. The immediate lack of information in such a situation makes media a crucial part in handling individual crisis via medias opportunities to communicate with authorities and the public.

    The enormous tsunami with its tragic consequences in south east Asia 2004 was followed by a comprehensive mediareporting in the swedish press. In this study I will describe the reports as they were printed in Aftonbladet, Dagens Nyheter and Östgöta Correspondenten during the first five days after the dramatic event. In total I have studied and analyzed 394 articles from three different genres; the editorial page, the news and the page with printed letters to editor. Through qualitative methods and especially using text analysis I have studied different themes, those who operate and the sources. Furthermore I make a comparative analyze between the newspapers, where I study similarities and differences. The same comparison is made between the three different genres. The result is then discussed together with mediatheories about the value of news, the logic of media and pressethical rules.

    The newsarticles are dominated by seven themes and all newspapers focused on the individual situation. The operators are divided into categories and the reason how to get into one or another category is depending on what kind of role the operator has in the studied article. The most common role is people who tells about their experience from the catastrophe. Furthermore is anonymous sources together with references to other media very common in all three newspapers. My result shows that the newspapers reports are relatively alike. The small differences I have found have their explanation in each newspapers identity.

    The reports tend to express feelings of intensity and clearness. They are also personal. Futhermore, the result shows that the newspapers are acting as intermediaries of information more than as critics. The occurence of anonymous sources together with different speculations in common makes the journalists focus more on fast reporting than on correct reports.

  • 170.
    Joona, Jukka
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Intranätets betydelse för användarna i ett landsting2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this independent degree project of master thesis is to find what the user opinions of the intranet in a county council is. The paper seeks how the question about how the culture in the organisation was affected by the use of the intranet. An important part is to explore the expectations and acceptance of the intranet and get a picture of which functions and services support day-to-day work with good quality. One goal is to find out how the intranet users feel that the communication, information and usability can be developed.

    The focus group interview is a qualitative method that has been applied for gathering data from the respondents, who participate in the investigation from the county council. The used method is unstructured focus groups containing the three dominating categories of staff in the county council. Totally five focus groups have been interviewed.

    In the result and the following analysis of data from the focus group interviews have a few main categories been chosen for the survey. One of the categories is the information- and communication flows in the intranet, which include how it works today and could be improved. Other parts in the analysis are usability, organisation culture and the potential for the intranet as a tool for the organisation.

    A number of conclusions are drawn from the survey and the analysis. One conclusion is that the intranet is a well-accepted channel for information, but underestimated as a communication channel. Another conclusion is that the respondents considered that an intranet has to be fun, exciting, and contain interesting material; which will lead to that the intranet will be used more. The content has to be updated and suited for the needs of the organisation.

  • 171.
    Jönsson, Linda
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    On being heard in court trials and police interrogations: A study of discourse in two institutional contexts1988Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present studies describe various aspects of the dialogues in two institutional situations, namely criminal court trials and preliminary police interrogations. Both situations are social encounters where professional representatives of an official institution meet and communicate with laymen, suspects and defendants, who are the subject of the institutions' functions. The professionals' knowledge of the institutional 'frames' and of the specific demands of the situations is only to a limited degree shared by the suspects and defendants. This makes for various problems in the communication between the parties of the dialogues. The professionals necessarily play a dominant role in the encounter and the suspects' and defendants' opportunities to make themselves heardare thereby limited. This problem, and the ways the actors cope with it, is the main topic of the research reported in the three separate parts of this work.

    The empirical data comprise tape-recordings of 40 criminal court trials, concerning minor thefts and fraud, and 30 police interrogations of suspects in the same types of cases. Supplementary data are interviews with the suspects and defendants. The taperecordings of the court trials and the police interrogations, as weil as the interviews, have been transcribed in extenso.

    The first empirical part is a mainly quantitative study. The court trial is analysed as a middle ground where the professionals and the defendants accommodate to each others' verbal styles. The professionals are found to change to a less complex style when speaking to the defendants (in the examination-phase of the trial) campared to the way they express themselves when addressing the court. Professionals are even found toaccommodate to the linguistic styles of individual defendants. The defendants, on the other hand, adjust their vocabulary by exhibiting less of colloquial jargon in court than in the more informal post-interviews.  

    The seeond empirical part focuses on how the discourse space is shared between the professionals and the defendants during the court trial. The quantitative part of the study measures the actors' contributions to the dialogues in terms of different types of initiatives and responses. Also the effects of various questioning strategies are investigated. The defendants are not very active during the trials and one finding is thatthe distribution of dominance is related to the severity of the offence.

    The third separate study concems various aspects of the police interrogations. These dialogues are quite firmly administered by the policemen, even if they leave more room for the suspects' initiatives than do the court trials. The dialogues are very much influenced by the policemen's task to write a report. The problem of transforminginformation from a spoken to a written version is an important topic of the study. Even if the reports could be regarded as the suspects' stories, the information is found to emanate from the policemen to a considetable degree. This is presented as a general problem ofinterpreting and passing on information in bureaueratic routines.

  • 172.
    Jönsson, Linda
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Polisförhöret som kommunikationssituation1988Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom ramen för projektet "Framgång och motgång i dialoger" (jfr Aronsson & Linell, 1985) har studier gjorts av kommunikationen mellan professionella och lekmän i bl a rättegångar, närmare bestämt handläggningen av vissa typer av brottmål. Första ledet i undersökningen har behandlat huvudförhandlingar vid domstol (tingsrätt) (se Aronsson m fl, 1987, Adelswärd m fl, 1987 och Adelswärd m fl, 1988) 1. Den föreliggande studien behandlar ett annat led i samma ärendegång, nämligen polisens förhör med den misstänkte som en del av förundersökningen inför ett eventuellt åtal.

    Arbetets syfte har varit att studera och beskriva kommunikationssituationer från kommunikationsteoretiska, samtalsanalytiska och sociolingvistiska utgångspunkter. Några primärt juridiska, kriminologiska eller rättssociologiska perspektiv har inte anlagts (även om arbetet kan ha relevans för rättssociologin, och vice versa).

    De olika delprojektens övergripande syfte har varit att studera dialoger med utgångspunkt i situationer där den ena parten i samtalet har en dominerande roll i kraft av högre utbildning och/eller större erfarenhet av situationen, dvs situationer där representanter för t ex en myndighet för en dialog med en lekman eller en representant"för allmänheten. Både rättegångsförhandlingama och polisförhören tillhör den nämnda typen av situationer och de har många gemensamma drag. De är båda led i brottmålsprocessen och styrs av de allmänna processprinciperna (jfr tex .Klette, 1976: 31-38). Dialogerna utgörs i båda fallen av en form av samtal där representanter för de rättskipande myndigheterna, genom att höra en enskild människa, försöker utreda och eventuellt fastställa dennes skuld i anslutning till ett begånget brott. Trots dessa principiella likheter fmns det naturligtvis stora skillnader mellan de båda situationerna och vissa jämförelser kan hjälpa till att belysa vad som är specifika förutsättningar för kommunikationen inom respektive situation.

    För en mera utförlig och systematisk genomgång av de teoretiska utgångspunkterna och en översikt över tidigare forskning inom området hänvisas till Jönsson (1988). Nedan följer en kortfattad redovisning av de huvudperspektiv utifrån vilka arbetet har bedrivits.

  • 173.
    Jönsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Adelswärd, VivecaLinköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Cederberg, AnnLinköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Pettersson, Per A.Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Kelly, CarolineLinköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svenskans beskrivning 24: Förhandlingar vid Tjugofjärde sammankomsten för svenskans beskrivning, Linköping, 22–23 oktober 19992001Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Karlsson, Jonny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Predikans samtal: En studie av lyssnarens roll i predikan hos Gustaf Wingren utifrån Michail Bachtins teori om dialogicitet2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The claim of this dissertation is that the Christian sermon, even though monological in form, may best be described as dialogue, as conversation. Using the theory of the Russian philosopher, literary scholar and language theoretician Michail Bachtin (1895-1975) concerning the nature of language as dialogue, eight sermons delivered by the professor ofsystematic theology in Lund; Gustaf Wingren (1910), have been analyzed. The focus of these analyses is on the external, authoritative address in the sermons - and above all - on the role of the listeners for the formulation of the sermons. This means that both the text and the listeners are taken seriously and are seen as part of the composition of the sermons.

    The dissertation also investigates the relation between Wingren's practice, e.g. his sermons, and his theory, in which the view of the sermon plays an important role. The dissertation claims that this will shed new light on Wingren's theological thinking. But it also claims that the investigation sharpens the picture of the sermon on a more general levelby illuminating on the one hand what differentiates the sermon from other kinds of speech, e.g. what is typical for the genre, on the other hand what connects the sermon to other kinds of speech and with language on the whole.

  • 175.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Familjen Johansson2001In: Fånga vardagen : ett tvärvetenskapligt perspektiv / [ed] Kajsa Ellegård & Elin Wihlborg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2001, 1, p. 27-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ibland kan den allra enklaste och mest vardagliga sak vara ogenomförbar och ibland kan samma sak gå hur lätt som helst. Vad är det som styr våra handlingsmöjligheter? Hur kan man identifiera mönster och vanor i människors uppenbarligen mycket variationsrika och komplexa vardagsliv?I den här boken hanteras dessa frågor från ett tvärvetenskapligt perspektiv, där en beskrivning av familjen Johanssons vardag används som utgångspunkt för att reflektera över vardagliga situationer som människan ställs inför i sitt hushåll och i samhället. Problematiken betraktas utifrån den enskilda människans plats i tillvaron, där hon ständigt måste göra avvägningar för att passa ihop alla omgivningens möjligheter och krav med det egna hushållets behov och resurser

  • 176.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Funktionshinder, samtal och självbestämmande: En studie av brukarcentrerade möten2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From a citizenship and communicative perspective the aim of the dissertation is to examine and problematize the self-determination of disabled “users” during conversations taking place at “user-centred” team meetings. The meetings are organised by two habilitation centres, one for children and young people and one for adults. One disabled user and/or his/her relatives and professionals representing different institutions participate in the meetings. The study is based on discourse analysis of 18 observed and audiotaped team meetings held by ten different teams. The analyses show that the users exerted a more or less restricted influence on the organisation of the conversations. This varied with the organisation of the conversations and to the extent that the users participated actively by identifying their own problems and future goals. Hence, a certain conflict between an “ideal” type of self-determination and the users’ ability/willingness to live up to the demands that this kind of self-determination makes on them was revealed. This conflict gave rise to situations in which dilemmas between selfdetermination and paternalism appeared. By analysing how these situations were handled it was found that the participants in meetings without participating users accounted for their opinions and decisions concerning the treatment of the users by referring either to interpretations of the user’s preferences, which were based on the user’s behaviour in everyday life, or to their own beliefs of what would benefit the user. In meetings with participating users, the other participants handled the situations by steering the discussions in directions the user may not have chosen him-/herself. These discursive strategies were more or less paternalistic. In the dissertation it is discussed what other possible strategies exist that could increase the users’ self-determination. The result is also related to the “spoken” and social citizenship that the users are considered to exercise, as well as to other possible meanings of social citizenship.

    List of papers
    1. Democracy in talk: Dominance in ”usercentered” team meetings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democracy in talk: Dominance in ”usercentered” team meetings
    2007 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 91-111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to examine the discursive organization of “user-centred” team meetings in the Swedish rehabilitation sector. The “users” are aged between 4 and 30 and have been ascribed different kinds of impairments. The teams consist of one user and/or her/his relatives and different professionals. The analysis is primarily based on transcriptions of 18 audiotaped team meetings held by 10 different teams and focuses on two dimensions of dominance in interaction: the amount of talk and topic control. The findings point to professional dominance, but parents also have a great influence on the topic control. The degree of participation and the control of topics of the users who participate in the meetings vary, but most of the users become involved primarily by responding to the questions and suggestions of professionals and parents. In order to increase the users' control of the interactions the participants need to continuously discuss the organization of the conversations. The findings are related to complicating aspects of the conversations, including institutionalization, representation difficulties, varying communicative abilities, and expectations of expertise and adult liabilities.

    National Category
    Communication Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14368 (URN)10.1080/15017410701264418 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-03-26 Created: 2007-03-26 Last updated: 2014-09-29
    2. Democracy and dilemmas of self-determination
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democracy and dilemmas of self-determination
    2006 (English)In: Disability & Society, ISSN 0968-7599, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 193-207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Results from analyses of interactions in 'user-centred' meetings within the Swedish rehabilitation sector are reported. Transcripts of team meetings are used to discern situations in which dilemmas of self-determination versus paternalism may possibly need to be treated when the 'user' with impairment is to exercise his/her social citizenship. The analyses illustrate how the liberal ideal of self-determination makes certain demands on the 'user'. These demands are categorised as 'physical presence', 'interpretable voice', 'purposeful voice', 'sincere voice' and 'realisable voice'. It is argued that dilemmas of self-determination are impossible to avoid completely. To deal with the complexity of implementing self-determination, it is important to try to adjust the preparations and the organisation of the meetings, increase user control of services provided, combine individualised support with collective and political action, and allow expressions of different models of democracy. The possibility of appreciating interdependence and justifying paternalistic actions also needs to be acknowledged.

    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14369 (URN)10.1080/09687590500498267 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-03-26 Created: 2007-03-26
    3. Handling dilemmas of self-determination in ‘user-centred’ rehabilitation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Handling dilemmas of self-determination in ‘user-centred’ rehabilitation
    2007 (English)In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 245-253Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe discursive strategies used by different professionals and parents to handle dilemmas of self-determination versus paternalism during six 'user-centred' team meetings in the Swedish rehabilitation sector. The dilemmas arise when the users' responses do not fully meet the demands of the liberal ideal of self-determination.

    Method: Three cases are used to illustrate three discursive strategies that have been found by means of discourse analysis of transcriptions of the audio-recorded meetings. Four teams consisting of one user each participate in the study. The users have been ascribed physical and/or cognitive disabilities and their ages vary between 14 and 30.

    Results: The dilemmas were never made explicit. Parents and professionals performed a kind of paternalistic steering termed 'challenging the user's response', 'substituting for the user', or 'dropping the user's response'.

    Conclusions: The least paternalistic steering includes making the dilemma explicit and offering the user the opportunity of sharing the responsibility for the handling of the situation. However, due to the complexity of the interactions no strategy can be found to either completely prevent the occurrence of dilemmatic situations, or definitely maintain the user's self-determination during dilemmatic situations. Paternalism may occasionally be a just way of enhancing future autonomy.

    Keywords
    Person-centred planning, rehabilitation, disability, self-determination, dilemmas, democracy, discourse analysis
    National Category
    Communication Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14370 (URN)10.1080/09638280600756414 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-03-26 Created: 2007-03-26 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    4. Representing the absent user: A dilemma for citizens by proxy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Representing the absent user: A dilemma for citizens by proxy
    2007 (English)In: Mental retardation (Washington, D.C. Print), ISSN 0047-6765Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    Audio recordings of “user-centered” team meetings are used toinvestigate how participants discursively account for decisions and opinionsabout the everyday treatment of five non-participating “users” with severecognitive impairments. The meetings take place in the Swedish rehabilitationsector and the users’ ages vary. Two accounting forms are discerned and relatedto theories of proxy decision-making proposed in medical ethics. “Accountsreflecting user preferences” mirror autonomy values by including references tointerpretations of the user’s preferences. “Accounts reflecting proxy beliefs” lacksimilar references and mirror the values of beneficence and nonmaleficence. It isargued that the participants shall seek to advance the user’s involvementcontinuously and reflect on to what extent his/her expressions of agency shalldetermine the proxy decision-making.

    Keywords
    Disability, proxy decision-making, democracy, person-centered planning, discourse analysis
    National Category
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-52955 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-01-14 Created: 2010-01-14 Last updated: 2017-12-12
  • 177.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Handling dilemmas of self-determination in ‘user-centred’ rehabilitation2007In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 245-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe discursive strategies used by different professionals and parents to handle dilemmas of self-determination versus paternalism during six 'user-centred' team meetings in the Swedish rehabilitation sector. The dilemmas arise when the users' responses do not fully meet the demands of the liberal ideal of self-determination.

    Method: Three cases are used to illustrate three discursive strategies that have been found by means of discourse analysis of transcriptions of the audio-recorded meetings. Four teams consisting of one user each participate in the study. The users have been ascribed physical and/or cognitive disabilities and their ages vary between 14 and 30.

    Results: The dilemmas were never made explicit. Parents and professionals performed a kind of paternalistic steering termed 'challenging the user's response', 'substituting for the user', or 'dropping the user's response'.

    Conclusions: The least paternalistic steering includes making the dilemma explicit and offering the user the opportunity of sharing the responsibility for the handling of the situation. However, due to the complexity of the interactions no strategy can be found to either completely prevent the occurrence of dilemmatic situations, or definitely maintain the user's self-determination during dilemmatic situations. Paternalism may occasionally be a just way of enhancing future autonomy.

  • 178.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Representing the absent user: A dilemma for citizens by proxy2007In: Mental retardation (Washington, D.C. Print), ISSN 0047-6765Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Audio recordings of “user-centered” team meetings are used toinvestigate how participants discursively account for decisions and opinionsabout the everyday treatment of five non-participating “users” with severecognitive impairments. The meetings take place in the Swedish rehabilitationsector and the users’ ages vary. Two accounting forms are discerned and relatedto theories of proxy decision-making proposed in medical ethics. “Accountsreflecting user preferences” mirror autonomy values by including references tointerpretations of the user’s preferences. “Accounts reflecting proxy beliefs” lacksimilar references and mirror the values of beneficence and nonmaleficence. It isargued that the participants shall seek to advance the user’s involvementcontinuously and reflect on to what extent his/her expressions of agency shalldetermine the proxy decision-making.

  • 179.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Democracy in talk: Dominance in ”usercentered” team meetings2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 91-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to examine the discursive organization of “user-centred” team meetings in the Swedish rehabilitation sector. The “users” are aged between 4 and 30 and have been ascribed different kinds of impairments. The teams consist of one user and/or her/his relatives and different professionals. The analysis is primarily based on transcriptions of 18 audiotaped team meetings held by 10 different teams and focuses on two dimensions of dominance in interaction: the amount of talk and topic control. The findings point to professional dominance, but parents also have a great influence on the topic control. The degree of participation and the control of topics of the users who participate in the meetings vary, but most of the users become involved primarily by responding to the questions and suggestions of professionals and parents. In order to increase the users' control of the interactions the participants need to continuously discuss the organization of the conversations. The findings are related to complicating aspects of the conversations, including institutionalization, representation difficulties, varying communicative abilities, and expectations of expertise and adult liabilities.

  • 180.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Democracy and dilemmas of self-determination2006In: Disability & Society, ISSN 0968-7599, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 193-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from analyses of interactions in 'user-centred' meetings within the Swedish rehabilitation sector are reported. Transcripts of team meetings are used to discern situations in which dilemmas of self-determination versus paternalism may possibly need to be treated when the 'user' with impairment is to exercise his/her social citizenship. The analyses illustrate how the liberal ideal of self-determination makes certain demands on the 'user'. These demands are categorised as 'physical presence', 'interpretable voice', 'purposeful voice', 'sincere voice' and 'realisable voice'. It is argued that dilemmas of self-determination are impossible to avoid completely. To deal with the complexity of implementing self-determination, it is important to try to adjust the preparations and the organisation of the meetings, increase user control of services provided, combine individualised support with collective and political action, and allow expressions of different models of democracy. The possibility of appreciating interdependence and justifying paternalistic actions also needs to be acknowledged.

  • 181.
    Klintbjer, Piroska
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsonne, Åsa
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ågren, Greta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    On the development of the child's ability to identify affective state from the prosodic features of adult speech1984Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to judge emotional states (anger, surprise, sadness and happiness) from the non- verbal components of speech was studied in 169 children aged from 4 to 10 years (20- 43 children per group, one group for each year of age except 9) in Uppsala, Sweden . 19 adults were used as a control group. The stimulus material consisted of speech samples, in which a male and a female actor had been instructed to portray the indicated emotional states.

    In general, the ability to make correct judgements increased with increased age. This was especially the case with the recognition of "surprise", "sadness" and "happiness", for which emotions increasing improvements were seen up to t he age of 8, where the ability was close to that of the adult controls. The ability to recognise an angry voice appeared to be well developed already at the age of 4.

    The most difficult item was the male voice portraying "happiness", where the children did not show and increase in their scores until the age of 8. Girls were found to have a more developed ability to identify the expressed emotions in all age groups.

    In most cases where erroneous judgements were made, the male voice was judged to be angry and the female to be sad, irrespective of intended emotion and of the sex of the child.

  • 182.
    Korolija, Natascha
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att tala om ett liv av vikt: Samtalsförmåga hos kvinnor med ätstörningar1999Report (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Korolija, Natascha
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Episodes in talk: Constructing coherence in multiparty conversation1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes to an understanding of how coherence can be assigned or constructed by participants in authentic multiparty conversational interaction. Coherence is analysed as a type of organisation relevant for the making of meaning in situated interaction, but also in retrospect from a third party's (or analyst's) perspective; it is both constructed and reconstructed. Important questions are: what makes multiparty talk hold together, what do a number of participants in conversation (have to) do in order to sustain coherence, and in what senses can multiparty conversations be argued to be coherent?

    A notion of episode is (re)introduced as a unit of natural social interaction, manifest at a structurally intermediate, or a global, level of conversation. The use of episode implies that coherence, a pragmatic phenomenon, steadily encompasses text, i.e. talk, context(s) and actions, and sense-making practices invoking contexts during the progression of interaction. This reflects the reciprocal relations between language, social interaction, and cognition. Also, a coding method of coherence has been developed, Topical Episode Analysis (abbreviated as TEA). The thesis explores the concept of episode and its place among units of interaction, and describes the episode structure and coherence-making in some specific activity types.

    The empirical material used, 24 multiparty conversations making up a total of 1500 episodes, consists of dinner conversations among peers, multi-generational family gatherings (involving aphasics), radio talk shows, and conversations recorded at a centre aimed for elderly people (with symptoms of dementia). In all conversations, conversing is a main activity.

    Both qualitative and quantitative analyses have been carried out. Results include the following points: (i) coherence in multiparty conversation can be regarded as a co-construction; (ii) coherence is accomplished through the invoking of contexts (context, situation, and background knowledge), implying that coherence is an attribute of activities in context and not only 'text'; (iii) coherence-making is the unmarked case in authentic conversation and incoherence or non-coherence appear to be theoretical constructs; (iv) coherence patterns are activity specific; (v) coherence is multilayered, consisting of one local and several global levels; (vi) coherence is constructed through a division of communicative labour, suggesting that also people with communicative impairments contribute to coherence-making.

    List of papers
    1. Episodes: coding and analyzing coherence in multiparty conversation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Episodes: coding and analyzing coherence in multiparty conversation
    1996 (English)In: Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0022-2267, E-ISSN 1469-7742, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 799-831Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Episodes in Conversatum are topically and interactionally defined. They are boundaried sequences at a structually intermediate level, that is, above the level of utterance/turn but below that of the whofe encounter and its major phases. We argue that episodes and topics are equally basic tp conversations.

    The initiation of a newepisode involes, per definition, the introtiuction of something new. On the oter hand, episode initiation.! are systematically dependent on lextual and contextual resorces that speakers take as given, when  - in the interaction - they guide their interlocutors into doing or talking about sornething new. This poper presents the fundamentals of a modef ofepisode structure and its relations to contextual resources. It also outlines a method, topical episode analysis, for coding and analyzing coherence in terms of episode structure in (especially mu!tiparty) conversation.

    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12872 (URN)10.1515/ling.1996.34.4.799 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-01-07 Created: 2008-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. On the division of communicative labour within episodes in aphasic discourse
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the division of communicative labour within episodes in aphasic discourse
    1995 (English)In: International Journal of Psycholinguistics, ISSN 0165-4055, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 143-165Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12873 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-01-07 Created: 2008-01-07 Last updated: 2010-11-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Recycling Cotext: The Impact of Prior Conversation on the Emergence of Episodes in a Multiparty Radio Talk Show
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recycling Cotext: The Impact of Prior Conversation on the Emergence of Episodes in a Multiparty Radio Talk Show
    1998 (English)In: Discourse processes, ISSN 0163-853X, E-ISSN 1532-6950, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 99-125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores cotext as a topical resource through analysis of a multiparty radio talk show. This article aims at an examination of the cotextual dimensions from which interlocutors proceed when they initiate new conversational episodes. The notion of recontextualization is defined. Recontextualizations build on 4 types of cotextual links involving (a) expressions, forms, and discursive acts, (b) meaning and reference of word tokens, (c) propositions, and (d) leitmotifs. The study shows that cotext is not simply the totality of preceding utterances in a conversation, and it is not a static local microcontext. Rather, relevant cotexts are constructed as actors create or identify cotextual links. These links indicate what actors recycle and also what they keep active in their streams of consciousness. Recycling cotext is an efficient strategy for generating new episodes, thus making conversation progress. It is a strategy central for coherence within the frames of the particular genres or activity types, such as radio talk shows, and also of importance for coherence construction in more ordinary genres.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 1998
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12874 (URN)10.1080/01638539809545022 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-01-07 Created: 2008-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-14
    4. Coherence-inducing strategies in conversations amongst the aged
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coherence-inducing strategies in conversations amongst the aged
    2000 (English)In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 425-462Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the accomplishment of coherence in multiparty conversations amongst the aged. Coherence is defined as a multilayered organisation which is relevant for the joint making of meaning in interaction (Korolija, 1998a: 112), and observable at the structurally intermediate level of episodes. Every episode reflects how participants locally and globally structure their situated interactions. Analyses of coherence are carried out at episode boundaries, across, and within episodes.

    The conversations, involving four participants aged 80+ and one staff member, are recorded at a Senior Citizen Centre (SCC) in Sweden. The aim of the SCC is to provide care and social support for the aged. The focus in the study is restricted to coherence-inducing devices which are typical for the SCC conversations in comparison with devices identified in multiparty conversations belonging to other activity types (see Korolija, 1998b; Korolija and Linell, 1996; Linell and Korolija, 1995).

    Quantitative and qualitative analyses of episodes indicate that coherence in the SCC conversations is constructed mainly through repetitive or recurrent discourse strategies such as the re-use of topicality and routinized responses. The strategies cement the interactions in a way which may occasionally impede topical progression. At the same time, the repeatedly constructed coherence patterns in the SCC conversations contribute to coherence in the present lives and worlds of the aged. More thorough connections between age and coherence-making remain to be investigated.

    Keywords
    Multiparty conversation, Coherence, Activity type, Episode, Social interaction, Senior citizens, Communicative impairments
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12875 (URN)10.1016/S0378-2166(99)00058-2 (DOI)
    Note
    On the day of the defence date the title of this article was "Talk for talk's sake: On routine construction of coherence in multiparty phatic conversation".Available from: 2008-01-07 Created: 2008-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
  • 184.
    Korolija, Natascha
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lathund för uppsatsförfattare och opponenter på högskole- och universitetsnivå2002Report (Other academic)
  • 185.
    Korolija, Natascha
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Problematic responses and professional strategies in medical interviews involving patients diagnosed as bulimics2003Report (Other academic)
  • 186.
    Korolija, Natascha
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Två, tre eller flera parter: Om flerpartssamtalet i diskurs- och konversationsanalys1995Report (Other academic)
  • 187.
    Kroon, Åsa
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Debattens dynamik: Hur budskap och betydelser förvandlas i mediedebatter2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is focused upon how intense media discussions develop over time as different actors become involved and express themselves in different genres and in different media.

    The data is divided into four case studies consisting of a total of 579 text items from Swedish newspapers, radio and television.

    The analyses demonstrate that some recurrent communicativemovements (dynamics) occur in the media discussions. These are divided into three subgroups: (1) changes of perspective and topic relocations, (2) expansion of meanings and messages, and (3) progressive intensifications.

    The dynamic movements are seen as consequences of different routinized ways of solving various communicative problems in the media. These routinized ways can be wtderstood as building on discursive devices that are brought into action by the participants who operate within the journalistic practice. This study identifies three subgroups of devices: (1) progressive narrowing, (2) selective compilation, and (3) reconstruction of arguments.

    It is also argued that an intense discussion around a certain topic in the media gives rise to certain recurrent meta-discourses. Three metadiscursive themes appear to be shared between the analyzed debates: (1) the mismanagement and abuse of politics, (2) the objectivity and impeccability of journalists, and (3) the loss of the alleged Swedish "Paradise".

  • 188.
    Kroon, Åsa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Dialogisk analys2000In: Metoder i kommunikationsvetenskap / [ed] Mats Ekström, Larsåke Larsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2000, 2, p. 166-193Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap bygger på både samhällsvetenskap och humaniora och använder sig därmed av en rad metoder i forskning och uppsatsarbeten. Denna bok syftar till att möta behovet av en ämnesspecifik metodlära. I boken presenteras både kvantitativa metoder - surveyundersökning och innehållsanalys - och kvalitativa metoder, som etnografisk observation, intervjuer (personliga intervjuer och gruppintervjuer) och textanalytisk metod. Inom medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap förekommer också en uppsättning olika teorier och metoder för att analysera språk och medier. I boken presenteras därför ett antal av dessa metoder, med teoretisk bakgrund såväl som konkreta exempel. De analysmetoder som ingår i volymen är bildanalys, retorikanalys, filmanalys, receptionsanalys samt tre former av diskursanalys; kritisk diskursanalys, dialogisk analys och analys av samtal. Sammantaget ger boken en stabil grund för såväl avancerade forskare som studenter inom det breda forskningsfält som ämnet innefattar. Andra upplagan

  • 189.
    Kroon, Åsa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Konsten att konstruera en röst. En dialogisk näranalys av 12 artiklar på DN Debatt2000Report (Other academic)
  • 190.
    Kullberg, Christian
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Socialt arbete som kommunikativ praktik: Samtal med och om klienter1994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social work is a communicative enterprise. Thus, social welfare officers talk with clients, analyse their needs in dialogues, transform client accounts into institutional language, keep records and fill in forms, contact authorities and perform a number of similar activities by means of language. In a theoretical perspective, social welfare officers operate as some kind of street-level bureaucrats who act as intermediaries between a social institution and people in need of assistance.

    The main purpose of the present study is to describe and analyse the way in which social welfare officers assess financial assistance. Two work situations characterising the activities at a social welfare office, so-called client interviews and decision-making meetings, have been studied. The participants in the interviews are both male and female social welfare officers and clients. The majority of the social welfare officers are, however, female.

    The empirical material used in the three substudies in this thesis was collected ar two social welfare offices in two large towns in Central Sweden. The bulk of the empirical material consists of transcribed dialogues and audio tapes. The method used is based on qualitative analyses, although some quantitive assessments have been used when analysing the material.

    The analysis of the client interviews reveals the determining strategic initiative taken by the social welfare officers at different stages, or phases, of the client interviews. The most important part of the work on assessing the need for financial assistance concerns determining whether the client satisfies or does not satisfy the criteria for being considered entitled to financial assistance. The results also show that the social welfare officers place more responsibility on male clients than on female clients with respect to how soon they expect them to be able to contribute to supporting themselves. The way in which the social welfare officers treat their clients, and the 'idealised picture' the clients give of themselves, appear to follow the conceptions that form the basis of the gender system.

    In the decision-making meetings studied, it can be seen that the client category to which the social welfare applicant can be said to belong is important with respect to whether applicants arc described during the meetings as being victims of circumstances outside their control or responsible for their problems. The analysis also shows that the male clients are assigned more responsibility for their problems than are female clients. Finally, it is found that clients who are described as being responsible for their problems are granted financial assistance in substantially fewer cases than clients who arc described as being the victim of circumstances outside their control. The results can be compared with studies in the field or attribution research, which have shed light on how men and women are ascribed responsibility for different types of social problems. A comparison of this type reveals that the responsibility ascribed to men and women varies depending on the types or problems involved.

    The most important conclusion drawn from the study is that the interviews studies contribute to reproducing traditional conceptions of both sexes. This production is grounded in the social welfare officers' individualised treatment of clients and their individualised descriptions and explanations of the clicents problems.

  • 191.
    Laturnus, Frank
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies, Art and Visual Communication .
    Greenhouse studies to investigate possible threats by organic waste product disposal on agricultural fields2003In: Phytoremediation Inventory COST Action 837 View, Czech Republic: UOCHB AVCR , 2003, p. 18-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 192.
    Laturnus, Frank
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies, Art and Visual Communication .
    Natural sources of volatile organohalogens - impact on the biosphere2003Book (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Laturnus, Frank
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies, Art and Visual Communication .
    Gron, Christian
    DHI Water Environm Hlth, DK-2970 Horsholm, Denmark.
    Organic waste products in agriculture - Monitoring the waste constituents phthalate esters in soil-crop system by gas chromatography and ion trap tandem mass spectrometry2007In: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT, ISSN 1648-6897, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 253-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is described for monitoring phthalate esters in organic waste products, agricultural soil and crops. Solvent extraction, Ultra Turrax homogenisation and sonification were used to isolate the compounds from the sample matrices. Solid phase extraction was applied for purification, and gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for identification. With the method, six phthalate esters were determined in different matrices. The detection limits were in the range of 1 to 10 mu g kg(-1) wet weight, except for DEHP, which had a detection limit approaching 100 mu g kg(-1) wet weight. Repeatabilities were from 5 to 20% relative standard deviation. Recoveries were from 6 to 100%, depending on the compound analysed. However, except for the polar phthalates DMP and DEP, the recoveries were above 70%. The method feasibility was demonstrated in an investigation of the occurrence of phthalate esters in barley, rape, carrots, agricultural soil, aerobic and anaerobic sludge, household compost and pig manure.

  • 194.
    Laturnus, Frank
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies, Art and Visual Communication .
    Matucha, M.
    Isotope Laboratory, Institute of Experimental Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Chloride - a precursor in the formation of volatile organochlorines by forest plants?2008In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 99, no 1, p. 119-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two plants, a fern (Athyrium filix-femina) and a moss (Polytrichum commune Hedw.), both commonly occurring in Northern Temperate forests, were exposed in a laboratory study to a solution of 36Cl-chloride. The uptake of 36Cl-chloride by the plants was investigated and the emission of volatile chlorine 36 by the plants was determined. Furthermore, speciation of the emitted volatile organochlorine compounds (VOCls) was investigated. For the fern and the moss a rapid uptake of 36Cl-chloride was observed within a 1-h exposure period. The uptake rates for the fern and the moss, respectively, were 16 µg 36Cl-chloride g-1 fresh weight (FW) h-1 and 3.0 µg 36Cl-chloride g-1 FW h-1, respectively. The study also suggested that after uptake by the plants 36Cl-chloride is incorporated into VOCls, which were emitted by the plants into the atmosphere. Speciation analysis of the VOCls revealed the emission of chloroform, tetrachloromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 195.
    Laturnus, Frank
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies, Art and Visual Communication .
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Wiencke, Christian
    Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Environmental Science.
    Ultraviolet radiation affects emission of ozone-depleting substances by marine macroalgae: Results from a laboratory incubation study2004In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 38, no 24, p. 6605-6609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The depletion of stratospheric ozone due to the effects of ozone-depleting substances, such as volatile organohalogens, emitted into the atmosphere from industrial and natural sources has increased the amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface. Especially in the subpolar and polar regions, where stratospheric ozone destruction is the highest, individual organisms and whole ecosystems can be affected. In a laboratory study, several species of marine macroalgae occurring in the polar and northern temperate regions were exposed to elevated levels of ultraviolet radiation. Most of the macroalgae released significantly more chloroform, bromoform, dibromomethane, and methyl iodide-all volatile organohalogens. Calculating on the basis of the release of total chlorine, bromine, and iodine revealed that, except for two macroalgae emitting chlorine and one alga emitting iodine, exposure to ultraviolet radiation caused macroalgae to emit significantly more total chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Increasing levels of ultraviolet radiation due to possible further destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer as a result of ongoing global atmospheric warming may thus increase the future importance of marine macroalgae as a source for the global occurrence of reactive halogencontaining compounds.

  • 196.
    Laturnus, Frank
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies, Art and Visual Communication .
    von Arnold, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Gron, C.
    Grøn, C., DHI Water and Environment, Agent Allé 5, 2970 Hørsholm, Denmark.
    Organic contaminants from sewage sludge applied to agricultural soils false alarm regarding possible problems for food safety?2007In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 14, no 1 SPEC. ISS., p. 53-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Goal, Scope and Background. Sewage sludge produced in waste-water treatment contains large amounts of organic matter and nutrients and could, therefore, be suitable as fertiliser. However, with the sludge, besides heavy metals and pathogenic bacteria, a variety of organic contaminants can be added to agricultural fields. Whether the organic contaminants from the sludge can have adverse effects on human health and wildlife if these compounds enter the food chain or groundwater still remains a point of controversial discussion. Main Features. This paper presents an overview on the present situation in Europe and a summary of some recent results on the possible uptake of organic contaminants by crops after addition to agricultural fields by sewage sludge. Results. Greenhouse experiments and field trials were performed to study the degradation and uptake of organic micro-contaminants in sludge-amended agricultural soil in crops, such as barley and carrots grown in agricultural soil amended with anaerobically-treated sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, but studies hitherto have revealed no immediate risks. Common sludge contaminants such as linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS), nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), bis(diethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), showed neither accumulation in soil nor uptake in plants. Discussion. It is assumed that the annual amount of sewage sludge produced in Europe will increase in the future, mainly due to larger amounts of high quality drinking water needed by an increasing population and due to increasing demands for cleaner sewage water. Application of sewage sludge to agricultural soils is sustainable and economical due to nutrient cycling and disposal of sewage sludge. However, this solution also involves risks with tespect to the occurrence of organic contaminants and other potentially harmful contents such as pathogens and heavy metals present in the sludge. There have been concerns that organic contaminants may accumulate in the soil, be taken up by plants and thereby transferred to humans via the food chain. Results obtained so far revealed, however, no immediate risk of accumulation of common organic sludge contaminants in soil or uptake in plants when applying sewage sludge to agricultural soil. With very high dosages of sewage sludge, there may be a risk for accumulation of very apolar contaminants, such as DEHP, to the soil. Conclusions. Any conclusions on the safe use of sewage sludge in agriculture have to be drawn carefully, as the studies performed until now have been limited. Further studies are required, and before final statements can be drawn, it is imminent to study a larger variety of common crops and the effect sewage sludge application may have on a possible accumulation of organic contaminants in the crops. Furthermore, a larger variety of organic contaminants need to be studied and special focus should be given to contaminants newly introduced into the environment. Besides investigating possible plant uptake of organic contaminants, the fate of these compounds in soil after sludge application need to be monitored too. Here, special attention has to be given to studies on degradation and the formation of degradation products, to weathering and to leaching effects on groundwater, to the application of different crops on the same field (crop rotation), to the use of full-width tillage and strip tillage, and to long term application of sewage sludge on the soil. Recommendations and Perspectives. There are environmental, political as well as economical incentives to increase the agricultural application of sludge. However, such usage should be performed with care as there are also ways in which sludge fertilisation could harm the environment and human health. Recently, a new European COST Action (859) has been established covering the field of food safety and improved food quality. Part of the Action is dealing with the application of sewage sludge in agriculture. Before any political and economical measures can be taken, the pros and cons have to be sufficiently investigated on a scientific level first. © 2007 ecomed publishers (Verlagsgruppe Hüthig Jehle Rehm GmbH).

  • 197.
    Levin, Lena
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Massmedial gestaltning och vardagsförståelse: Versioner av en arbetsplatsomvandling2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last years, we have witnessed many restructurings of workplaces. This thesis focuses on one particular event, the reduction and reorganization of the garrison of Eksjö in Sweden where hundreds of personnel were involved These changes were covered by the mass media and naturally talked about in semi-public and private places.

    Language is viewed here as a social practice, in which people tell versions of the event in order to do things. The argument is that the understanding of the full complexity of news events requires an approachbased on more than one communicative arena and including versions both of news media and of those who are actually involved in the news events. Accordingly the study is based on analyses of media texts, i.e. local news, and talk in focus groups combined with ethnographic fieldwork as major methods.

    The data were analysed with an emphasis on recurrent themes and discursive actors. The purpose was to discover what versions of the event were formulated in the media coverage, and to investigate how these versions correspond with those told by people more directly involved in the event. The results show differences and similarities between various versions of what was occurring. Specific themes and actors occurred in both newspaper articles and focus-group talk. One such theme was phasing out and development. Other themes revolved around anxiety, uncertainty, and the local struggle against the reduction.

    The media presented a dramatic beginning, followed by a struggle for the future that ended in some sort of closing stages, pointing at improvement and recovery. The mediated discourses strived for unmasking the truth, tried to point out how things really were and to tell what was going to happen next. The focus groups, on the other hand presented somewhat different versions of the event. More of a rapid, unfinished, aimless change, taking place along circular courses. According to some of the focus-group actors, the reorganization had made things at the workplace more complicated. Stories, metaphors and the use of hypothetical actors pointed to oppositions and ambiguities in the conceptualization of the process.

    In parts of the media discourse, actors were pictured as v.rinners and losers. Some actors (beside journalists themselves) were dominating the news; they were often cited or referred to (i.e., politicians, highrankingofficers, certain experts). Others (i.e., ordinary personnel) were often talked about as victims and seldom spoke independently or seemed to act from a position of influence. One conclusion is that agency and responsibility were, in this way, unevenly distributed in the media discourse. Here it is discussed in terms of dilemmas for journalists/journalism, the media and democracy.

  • 198.
    Levin, Lena E
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Forskares syn på samtal med allmänheten - en fokusgruppsstudie2003Report (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Levin, Lena E
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Forskares syn på samtal med allmänheten - en fokusgruppsstudie2004Report (Other academic)
  • 200.
    Lind, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Seipel, PeterStockholms universitet.Beckman, SvanteLinköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Qvarsell, BirgittaStockholms universitetU.Dahlbom, BoUmeå Universitet.
    Rabalder i människans provins: Fem forskare om dataåldern1987Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I 1984 års forskningspolitiska proposition framhålls behovet av kunskap om sambandet mellan individen, samhället och datatekniken. Där sägs bl a följande:

    "När det gäller att öka kunskapen om sambanden mellan individen, samhället och datatekniken är det enligt min mening angeläget att den kunskap som finns uppbyggd inom skilda discipliner, främst inom det samhällsvetenskapliga och humanistiska området kring individen och samhället, kan utnyttjas som underlag fö r beslut rörande användningen av den nya tekniken som samhället nu står inför. En samverkan mellan forskare från skilda discipliner är här nödvändig." (s 16, bil S)

    För att stimulera sådan samverkan anslogs särskilda medel. En del av dessa ställdes till förfogande för "utarbetande av en kunskaps- och problemöversikt rörande datoriseringens och informationsteknologins samhällskonsekvenser." Denna uppgift har anförtrotts en nationellt rekryterad ledningsgrupp.

    Gruppen har valt att betona ett grundläggande humanistiskt förhållningssätt. Gruppen vill också söka stimulera forskning och kunskapsuppbyggnad av långsiktig och perspektivgrundande karaktär, med andra ord sådan som bäst utförs inom olika institutioner vid universitet och högskolor.

    Dock är det angeläget att understryka att det givna uppdraget, även med de nämnda begränsningarna, är mycket omfattande. Ledningsgruppen har därför valt att initiera studier inom vissa till synes centrala och tidigare ej alltför ofta uppmärksammade områden. Som ett led i arbetet har gruppen valt att ge ut den här föreliggande antologin. Den innehåller ett antal uppsatser författade av några forskare, vilka gruppen engagerat för arbetet i fråga. Härtill kommer också en selektiv bibliografi, som en särskilt engagerad bibliotekarie utarbetat i samråd med författarna. Författarna svarar själva för innehållet i sina uppsatser, men det förtjänar att påpekas att de utarbetats i intern kontakt och diskussion.

    Det är ledningsgruppens förhoppning att antologin både skall fungera som informationskälla och bidra till fo rtsatt debatt och forskning om de viktiga mänskliga och samhälleliga möjligheter och problem som är förenade med den nya informationsteknologin.

    Peter Seipel, ordförande   Ingemar Lind

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