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  • 151.
    Melling, Daniel
    et al.
    Cranfield University.
    Wilson, Stephen
    Cranfield University.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Influence of Polypyrrole Structure on Electromechanical Perfomance2011In: 6th World Conference on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nanobiology, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Polypyrrole is electromechanically active and actuates due to ion and solvent movements during redox switching, causing both reversible and irreversible swelling. The swelling of polymers is known to be highly dependent on the degree of cross-linking. Despite this, little research has been undertaken to date on the affect that cross-linking has on the actuation of conjugated polymers. It is likely that there exists a level of cross-linking, that results in optimum actuation performance. An understanding of this relationship, would allow actuators to be designed that are capable of greater movement, operating speeds and force generation. We have implemented novel synthetic strategies aimed at altering the degree of cross-linking of electrosynthesised polypyrrole. The actuating performance of these materials has been assessed using new apparatus capable of making non-contact dynamic measurements. After highlighting a number of applications that use the anisotropic strain of PPy(DBS) e.g. the mechanostimulation of cells, we will describe our synthetic strategies, measurement setup and results.

  • 152.
    Melling, Daniel
    et al.
    Cranfield University, England.
    Wilson, Stephen
    University of Dundee, Scotland.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The effect of film thickness on polypyrrole actuation assessed using novel non-contact strain measurements2013In: Smart materials and structures (Print), ISSN 0964-1726, E-ISSN 1361-665X, Vol. 22, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Micro-actuators have been developed that exploit the electrochemically induced volume change of the electro-active polymer polypyrrole. The strain regime is inherently complex at a physical level and whilst volume change can be estimated indirectly using, for instance, bending beam theory, such methods become unreliable for large deflections owing to limitations in the mathematical model. A new non-contact measuring technique based on laser micrometry is presented to characterize the time-dependent expansion of electro-active films such as polypyrrole. Measurements have been made which demonstrate that the observed strain is dependent on film thickness. The new measurement technique is straightforward to perform and it is anticipated that it can be used for future materials development and performance assessment, including long-term stability evaluations and operational failure studies of the films.

  • 153.
    Mishra, Ajay Kumar
    et al.
    UJ Nanomaterials Science Research Group, Department of Chemical Technology, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontien 2028, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Mishra, Shivani B.
    UJ Nanomaterials Science Research Group, Department of Chemical Technology, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontien 2028, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polymers/Composites Based Intelligent Transducers2012In: Intelligent Nanomaterials: processes, properties, and applications / [ed] Ashutosh Tiwari, Ajay Kumar Mishra, Hisatoshi Kobayashi, Anthony P. F. Turner, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2012, p. 571-584Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The last three decades have seen extraordinary advances in the generation of new materials based on both fundamental elements and composites, driven by advances in synthetic chemistry and often drawing inspiration from nature. The concept of an intelligent material envisions additional functionality built into the molecular structure, such that a desirable response occurs under defined conditions.

    Divided into 4 parts: Inorganic Materials; Organic Materials; Composite Materials; and Biomaterials, the 22 chapters cover the latest research and developments in the processing, properties, and applications of intelligent nanomaterials. Included are molecular device materials, biomimetic materials, hybrid-type functionalized polymers-composite materials, information-and energy-transfer materials, as well as environmentally friendly materials.

  • 154.
    Mishra, Prashant
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Institute Adv Mat, Teknikringen 4A,Mjärdevi Science Pk, S-58330 Linkoping, Sweden; University of Free State, South Africa.
    Lakshmi, G. B. V. S.
    Inter University of Accelerator Centre, India.
    Mishra, Sachin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Institute Adv Mat, Teknikringen 4A,Mjärdevi Science Pk, S-58330 Linkoping, Sweden; University of Free State, South Africa.
    Avasthi, D. K.
    Amity University, India.
    Swart, Hendrik C.
    University of Free State, South Africa.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mishra, Yogendra K.
    University of Kiel, Germany.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Institute Adv Mat, Teknikringen 4A,Mjardevi Science Pk, S-58330 Linkoping, Sweden; Vinoba Bhave Research Institute, India.
    Electrocatalytic biofuel cell based on highly efficient metal-polymer nano-architectured bioelectrodes2017In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 39, p. 601-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy based devices are rapidly gaining significant research interest because of growing quest for future alternative energy resources, but most of the existing technologies suffer from poor electron transfer and slow mass transport, which hinder the fabrication of realistic high-power devices. Using a versatile strategy, here we have demonstrated the fabrication of nanoparticle-polymer framework based bioelectrocatalytic interfaces which facilitate a high mass-transport and thus offers the simple construction of advanced enzyme-based biofuel cells. It has been shown that a gold nanoparticle-structured polyaniline network can be effectively used as an electrical cabling interface providing efficient electron transfer for bio-anode and cathode. The resulting bioelectrodes are capable of excellent diffusional mass-transport and thus can easily facilitate the design of new and highly efficient membrane-less advanced bioenergy devices. The biofuel cell delivers a high-power density of about 2.5 times (i.e., 685 mu W cm(-2)) and open circuit voltage of 760 mV compared to conventional conducting polymer-based biofuel cells.

  • 155.
    Mishra, Sachin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.
    Ashaduzzaman, M.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Mishra, Prashant
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.
    Swart, H.C.
    Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Vinoba Bhave Research Institute, Sirsa Road, Saidabad, Allahabad, India.
    Stimuli-enabled zipper-like graphene interface for auto-switchable bioelectronics.2017In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 89, p. 305-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene interfaces with multi-stimuli responsiveness are of particular interest due to their diverse super-thin interfacial behaviour, which could be well suited to operating complex physiological systems in a single miniaturised domain. In general, smart graphene interfaces switch bioelectrodes from the hydrophobic to hydrophilic state, or vice versa, upon triggering. In the present work, a stimuli encoded zipper-like graphene oxide (GrO)/polymer interface was fabricated with in situ poly(N-isopropylacrylamide–co–diethylaminoethylmethylacrylate), i.e., poly(NIPAAm–co–DEAEMA) directed hierarchical self-assembly of GrO and glucose oxidase (GOx). The designed interface exhibited reversible on/off-switching of bio-electrocatalysis on changing the pH between 5 and 8, via phase transition from super hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The study further indicated that the zipper-like interfacial bioelectrochemical properties could be tuned over a modest change of temperature (i.e., 20–40 °C). The resulting auto-switchable interface has implications for the design of novel on/off-switchable biodevices with ‘in-built’ self-control.

  • 156.
    Mishra, Sachin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ashaduzzaman, Md
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Tekidag AB UCS Mjärdevi Science Park, Sweden.
    Stimuli-enabled zipper-like graphene oxide/ polymer interfaces for labile switching of bioelectronics2016In: Biosensors 2016 – The World Congress on Biosensors, Gothenburg, Sweden, 25-27 May 2016, Elsevier, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 157.
    Moazzam, Parisa
    et al.
    University of Isfahan, Iran.
    Razmjou, Amir
    University of Isfahan, Iran.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shokri, Dariush
    Isfahan University of Medical Science, Iran.
    Landarani-Isfahani, Amir
    University of Isfahan, Iran.
    Investigating the BSA protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion of Al-alloy surfaces after creating a hierarchical (micro/nano) superhydrophobic structure2016In: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A, ISSN 1549-3296, E-ISSN 1552-4965, Vol. 104, no 9, p. 2220-2233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation on metals such as aluminum (Al) alloys lead to serious issues in biomedical and industrial fields from both an economical and health perspective. Here, we showed that a careful manipulation of Al surface characteristics via a facile two-steps superhydrophobic modification can provide not only biocompatibility and an ability to control protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion, but also address the issue of apparent long-term toxicity of Al-alloys. To find out the roles of surface characteristics, surface modification and protein adsorption on microbial adhesion and biofilm formation, the surfaces were systematically characterized by SEM, EDX, XPS, AFM, FTIR, water contact angle (WCA) goniometry, surface free energy (SFE) measurement, MTT, Bradford, Lowry and microtiter plate assays and also flow-cytometry and potentiostat analyses. Results showed that WCA and SFE changed from 70 degrees to 163 degrees and 36.3 to 0.13 mNm(-1), respectively. The stable and durable modification led to a substantial reduction in static/dynamic BSA adsorption. The effect of such a treatment on the biofilm formation was analyzed by using three different bacteria of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The microtiter plate assay and flow cytometry analysis showed that the modification not only could substantially reduce the bacterial adhesion but this biofouling resistance is independent of bacterium type. An excellent cell viability after exposure of HeLa cells to waters incubated with the modified samples was observed. Finally, the corrosion rate reduced sharply from 856.6 to 0.119 MPY after superhydrophobic modifications, which is an excellent stable corrosion inhibition property. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2220-2233, 2016.

  • 158.
    Mondal, Debasish
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrospun Nanomatrix for Tissue Regeneration2012In: Biomedical Materials and Diagnostic Devices / [ed] Ashutosh Tiwari, Murugan Ramalingam, Hisashi Kobayashi, Anthony P. F. Turner, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2012, p. 577-596Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The functional materials with the most promising outlook have the ability to precisely adjust the biological phenomenon in a controlled mode. Engineering of advanced bio- materials has found striking applications in used for biomedical and diagnostic device applications, such as cell separation, stem-cell, drug delivery, hyperthermia, automated DNA extraction, gene targeting, resonance imaging, biosensors, tissue engineering and organ regeneration

  • 159.
    Mondal, Debasish
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nanofibers Based Biomedical Devices2012In: Intelligent Nanomaterials: processes, properties, and applications / [ed] Ashutosh Tiwari, Ajay Kumar Mishra, Hisatoshi Kobayashi, Anthony P. F. Turner, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2012, p. 679-714Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The last three decades have seen extraordinary advances in the generation of new materials based on both fundamental elements and composites, driven by advances in synthetic chemistry and often drawing inspiration from nature. The concept of an intelligent material envisions additional functionality built into the molecular structure, such that a desirable response occurs under defined conditions.

    Divided into 4 parts: Inorganic Materials; Organic Materials; Composite Materials; and Biomaterials, the 22 chapters cover the latest research and developments in the processing, properties, and applications of intelligent nanomaterials. Included are molecular device materials, biomimetic materials, hybrid-type functionalized polymers-composite materials, information-and energy-transfer materials, as well as environmentally friendly materials.

  • 160.
    Nadhom, Hama
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Protein Microparticles for Printable Bioelectronics2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In biosensors, printing involves the transfer of materials, proteins or cells to a substrate. It offers many capabilities thatcan be utilized in many applications, including rapid deposition and patterning of proteins or other biomolecules.However, issues such as stability when using biomaterials are very common. Using proteins, enzymes, as biomaterialink require immobilizations and modifications due to changing in the structural conformation of the enzymes, whichleads to changes in the properties of the enzyme such as enzymatic activity, during the printing procedures andrequirements such as solvent solutions. In this project, an innovative approach for the fabrication of proteinmicroparticles based on cross-linking interchange reaction is presented to increase the stability in different solvents.The idea is to decrease the contact area between the enzymes and the surrounding environment and also preventconformation changes by using protein microparticles as an immobilization technique for the enzymes. The theory isbased on using a cross-linking reagent trigging the formation of intermolecular bonds between adjacent proteinmolecules leading to assembly of protein molecules within a CaCO3 template into a microparticle structure. TheCaCO3 template is removed by changing the solution pH to 5.0, leaving behind pure highly homogenous proteinmicroparticles with a size of 2.4 ± 0.2 μm, according to SEM images, regardless of the incubation solvents. Theenzyme model used is Horse Radish Peroxidase (HRP) with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and Glutaraldehyde (GL)as a cross-linking reagent. Furthermore, a comparison between the enzymatic activity of the free HRP and the BSAHRPprotein microparticles in buffer and different solvents are obtained using Michaelis-Menten Kinetics bymeasuring the absorption of the blue product produced by the enzyme-substrate interaction using a multichannelspectrophotometer with a wavelength of 355 nm. 3,3’,5,5’-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) was used as substrate. As aresult, the free HRP show an enzymatic activity variation up to ± 50 % after the incubation in the different solventswhile the protein microparticles show much less variation which indicate a stability improvement. Moreover, printingthe microparticles require high microparticle concentration due to contact area decreasing. However, usingmicroparticles as a bioink material prevent leakage/diffusion problem that occurs when using free protein instead.

  • 161.
    Nakagomi, Shinji
    et al.
    School of Science and Engineering, Ishinomaki Senshu University, Ishinomaki, Japan.
    Tobias, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Univ, S SENCE, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden; Linkoping Univ, Appl Phys Lab, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden; Ishinomaki Senshu Univ, Sch Sci and Engn, Ishinomaki 98680, Japan; .
    Baranzahi, Amir
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of carbon monoxide, water and oxygen on high temperature catalytic metal-oxide-silicon carbide structures1997In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 183-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High temperature sensors, Schottky diodes and capacitors, based on catalytic metal-oxide-silicon carbide devices are investigated. Reducing gases like hydrogen and other hydrogen containing gases, decrease the barrier height and the flat band voltage, respectively, which is used as the sensor signal. The sensitivity of the devices at 600 degrees C to mixtures of carbon monoxide and oxygen with and without water vapour is studied in this paper. A large binary response of the sensors to carbon monoxide similar to the sensor response to hydrogen gas is observed. Close to the stoichiometric ratio of carbon monoxide and oxygen, the signal changes from a high to a low value corresponding to an excess of carbon monoxide and an excess of oxygen, respectively. When hydrogen is added to a mixture of carbon monoxide and oxygen, the signal changes from a high to a low value at a higher oxygen concentration. Since the response of these devices to hydrogen and hydrogen containing gases is supposed to emanate from hydrogen atoms, the mechanism of the response to carbon monoxide is discussed. The signal to carbon monoxide as well as to hydrogen decreases in the presence of water vapour and the reason for this is discussed.

  • 162.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Theuer, Lorenz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Acreo Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Dyreklev, Peter
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Norberg, Petronella
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Arven, Patrik
    Elect Engn J2 Holding AB, Sweden.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wikner, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Combining electrochemical bio-sensing, hybrid printed electronics and wireless communication for enabling real-time and remote monitoring of lactate2016In: Biosensors 2016 – The World Congress on Biosensors, Gothenburg, Sweden, 25-27 May 2016, Elsevier, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 163.
    Nordin, Anis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Revuri, Vishnu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bhowmick, Neil
    Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, USA.
    Voiculescu, Ioana
    City College of New York, USA.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Label-free Detection of Prostate Cancer Biomarker2014In: 24th Anniversary World Congress on Biosensors – Biosensors 2014 / [ed] Anthony Turner, Elsevier, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate cancer is common and a frequent cause of cancer death, especially for American men. Most prostate cancers progress very slowly and while on the average about 30% of American males develop prostate cancer, only 3% die from the disease.  The disparity in the statistics indicates that a more effective screening method is required to differentiate the aggressive form of prostate cancer that causes mortality in patients. In this work, a label-free, novel microelectromechanical (MEMS) biosensor for detection of cysteine, a prostate cancer biomarker is presented. This biosensor merges two biosensing techniques, namely resonant frequency measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on a single biosensor. The sensor is based on the innovative placement of the working microelectrodes for EIS technique as the top electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) resonator. The QCM acoustic wave sensor consists of a thin AT-cut quartz substrate with two gold electrodes on both sides. The top metal electrode used for generating the acoustic wave is also used for EIS measurements of the biosensor, as illustrated in Fig. 1. The surfaces of the gold electrodes are modified using molecularly-imprinted polymers. Electrochemical methods were used to monitor the self-assembly of cysteine on the gold surface. The thiol-gold self-assembled layer causes impedance and mass change, which was characterised by EIS and acoustic-wave methods, respectively. Preliminary tests were performed on this sensor using cysteine in both phosphate buffer saline and human serum.

  • 164.
    Nworah, Nnamdi Felix
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fabrication and Characterization of Individually Addressable Polypyrrole Trilayer Microactuators2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers are organic polymers that can conduct electricity. They undergo a volume change upon redox reaction and can be used as an active material in some micro- actuator system. Micro-actuators are useful in biomedical and electronic application. We have fabricated a patterned Polypyrrole (PPy) trilayer microactuator device that has individually addressable microactuators (a micro walker) which can operate in air. Furthermore, the PPy trilayer microactuator device is fabricated using standard microfabrication method called photolithography to pattern PPy on PVDF membrane material. An etching process was used to achieve the patterning process. We presented the result of characterization of speed as a function of voltage and thickness of PPy film. Secondly, distance as a function of applied voltage and thirdly, the work density as a function of applied voltage. The procedures for fabrication of PPy microactuator device, using clean room facility is detailed in this thesis.

  • 165.
    Olugbenga Osikoya, Adeneyi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Vaal University of Technology, South Africa.
    Parlak, Onur
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bhatia, Ravisha
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Murugan, N. Arul
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dikio, E. Dixon
    Vaal University of Technology, South Africa.
    Moloto, H.
    Vaal University of Technology, South Africa.
    Uzun, Lokman
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Tekidag AB, Sweden.
    Studies on electrobiocatalytic behaviour of acetylene sourced CVD-synthesised graphene bioelectrodes2016In: Biosensors 2016 – The World Congress on Biosensors, Gothenburg, Sweden, 25-27 May 2016, Elsevier, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Orban, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Viter, R
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bechelany, M
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mak, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Surface nanoengineered contact lens as a wearable point-of-care diagnostics platform2014In: 24th Anniversary World Congress on Biosensors – Biosensors 2014, Elsevier, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection of biomarkers is essential for disease prevention, diagnosis, and prognosis of early stage treatment. Ocular fluid is an extracellular fluid excreted from the tear gland. Several important markers from ocular fluid have been identified having significant clinical diagnostic value for various diseases. The contact lens is disposable, relatively cheap and serves as a platform to obtain direct intimate contact with ocular fluid and is therefore an attractive and a promising platform for point-of-care diagnostic tests. Here, we present an innovative concept of a wearable contact lens biosensor with nanoengineered biorecognition architecture based on a Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique on the contact lens surface. This technique enables us to deposit multiple layers of biomolecules to create biorecognition layer under a mild aqueous physiological temperature and pH conditions. The fabrication of the biorecognition layer is simply through physical adsorption and has no restrictions with respect to the substrate size and topology (i.e. contact lens). The thickness of the resulting biorecognition layer is only hundreds of nanometers, and hence has minimal influence on the overall thickness of the contact lens, thus preserving the optical properties of the contact lens for vision correction. We have demonstrated that eye inflammation biomarkers such as interleukin (IL) can be captured in vitro with the contact lens, thus facilitating colorimetric affinity bioassays to measure the amount of interleukin. An in vitro ocular model composed of hydrogel-based artificial cornea and microfluidics was developed to study the performance of the contact lens biosensing platform. The contact  platform was able to detect IL-1α down to the physiological concentration, which is in the range of pg mL-1. There is a recent trend away from handheld devices towards wearable systems, illustrated by popular technology such as “Google glasses” and the “i-Watch”. We believe that the concept of wearable diagnostics holds significant promise as the next generation point-of-care diagnostic platform and that this contact lens-based approach is a convenient platform for a number of important applications.

  • 167.
    Orban, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mak, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wearable contact lens biosensors with nanoengineered biorecognition layer2013In: BioSensing Technologies, 2013 / [ed] Richard Luxton, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 168.
    Osikoya, Adeniyi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Vanderbijlpark, South Africa.
    Parlak, Onur
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Murugan, N .Arul
    Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dikio, Ezekiel Dixon
    Vanderbijlpark, South Africa.
    Moloto, Harry
    Vanderbijlpark, South Africa.
    Uzun, Lokman
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. UCS, Tekidag AB, Linkoping,, Sweden; Vinoba Bhave Research Institute, Sirsa Road, Saidabad, Allahabad 221508, India.
    Acetylene-sourced CVD-synthesised catalytically active graphene for electrochemical biosensing.2017In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 89, p. 496-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have demonstrated the use of a graphene sheet as a fundamental building block to obtain a highly ordered graphene-enzyme electrode for electrochemical biosensing. Firstly, thin graphene sheets were deposited on 1.00 mm thick copper sheet at 850 oC, via chemical vapour deposition (CVD), using acetylene (C2H2) as carbon source in an argon (Ar) and nitrogen (N2) atmosphere. An anionic surfactant was used to introduce electrostatic charges and increase wettability and hydrophilicity on the basal plane of the otherwise hydrophobic graphene, thereby facilitating the assembly of biomolecules on the graphene surface. The bioelectrocatalytic activity of the system was investigated by the assembly of glucose oxidase (GOx) on the surface of the graphene sheet by intermolecular attractive forces. The electrochemical sensing activity of the graphene-based system was explored as a model for bioelectrocatalysis. The bioelectrode exhibited a linear response to glucose concentration from 0.2 to 9.8 mM, with sensitivity of 0.087 µA/µM/cm2 and a detection limit of 0.12 µM (S/N=3). This work sets the stage for the use of acetylene-sourced graphene sheets as fundamental building blocks in the fabrication of electrochemical biosensors and other biocatalytic devices.

  • 169.
    Osikoya, Adeniyi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Editorial Material: Recent advances in 2D bioelectronics in BIOSENSORS and BIOELECTRONICS, vol 89, issue , pp2017In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 89Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 170.
    Ozgur, Edogan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hacettepe University, Turkey.
    Patra, Hirak Kumar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Uzun, Lokman
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hacettepe University, Turkey.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Smart polymerisable terbium (III) complex-based fluorescent MIP nanoparticles2016In: Biosensors 2016 – The World Congress on Biosensors, Gothenburg, Sweden, 25-27 May 2016, Elsevier, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 171.
    Pal Basak, Sreela
    et al.
    University of Calcutta, India .
    Kanjilal, Baishali
    University of Calcutta, India .
    Sarkar, Priyabrata
    University of Calcutta, India .
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Application of electrical impedance spectroscopy and amperometry in polyaniline modified ammonia gas sensor2013In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 175, p. 127-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate and fast detection of ammonia gas is a highly desirable requisite in environmental gas analysis, the automotive industry, the chemical industry and for medical applications. In this study a cost effective and portable electrochemical ammonia (NH3) gas sensor is reported. The sensor was based on polyaniline (PANI) nanofibres employing the techniques of electrical impedance spectroscopy with frequency response analysis and amperometry. PANI is well known for its interaction with ammonia gas. This conducting polymer (PAN!) of the semi-flexible rod polymer family, is unique due to its easy synthesis method, environmental stability, and simple doping/dedoping chemistry. PANI was synthesized and characterized by SEM, FTIR, XRD and AFM studies. The experimental data were used to explain, characterize and standardize the changes, upon exposure to ammonia gas, in the resistive and capacitative components set up in the PANI electrochemical cell. This nondestructive chemical-gas sensor was characterized by high sensitivity, a wide range of measured concentrations (0-20 ppm) in case of EIS and (2.5-20 ppm) in case of amperometry, reliability and reproducibility of the sensing data.

  • 172.
    Palagi, Stefano
    et al.
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy .
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mazzolai, Barbara
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy .
    Beccai, Lucia
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy .
    Propulsion of swimming microrobots inspired by metachronal waves in ciliates: from biology to material specifications2013In: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, ISSN 1748-3182, E-ISSN 1748-3190, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 046004-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quest for swimming microrobots originates from possible applications in medicine, especially involving navigation in bodily fluids. Swimming microorganisms have become a source of inspiration because their propulsion mechanisms are effective in the low-Reynolds number regime. In this study, we address a propulsion mechanism inspired by metachronal waves, i.e. the spontaneous coordination of cilia leading to the fast swimming of ciliates. We analyse the biological mechanism (referring to its particular embodiment in Paramecium caudatum), and we investigate the contribution of its main features to the swimming performance, through a three-dimensional finite-elements model, in order to develop a simplified, yet effective artificial design. We propose a bioinspired propulsion mechanism for a swimming microrobot based on a continuous cylindrical electroactive surface exhibiting perpendicular wave deformations travelling longitudinally along its main axis. The simplified propulsion mechanism is conceived specifically for microrobots that embed a micro-actuation system capable of executing the bioinspired propulsion (self-propelled microrobots). Among the available electroactive polymers, we select polypyrrole as the possible actuation material and we assess it for this particular embodiment. The results are used to appoint target performance specifications for the development of improved or new electroactive materials to attain metachronal-waves-like propulsion.

  • 173.
    Parlak, Onur
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Interfacing nanomaterials for bioelectronic applications2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of nanomaterials between biological and electronic world has revolutionized the way of understanding how to generate functional bioelectronic device and open a new horizon for the future of bioelectronics. The use of nanomaterials as a versatile interface in the area of bioelectronics offers many practical solutions and recently outshines as an alternative method to overcome technical challenges to control and regulate the mean of communication between biological and electronics systems. Therefore, the interfacing nanomaterials yields broad platform of functional units for the integration as bioelectronic interfaces and starts to have a great importance to many fields within the life science.

    In parallel with the advancements for the successful combination of biological and electronic worlds using nanotechnology in a conventional way, a new branch of switchable bioelectronics based on signal-responsive materials and related interfaces have been emerged. The switchable bioelectronics consists of functional interfaces equipped with molecular cue that able to mimic and adapt their natural environment and change physical and chemical properties on demand. These switchable interfaces are essential to develop a range of technologies to understand function and properties of biological systems such as bio-catalysis, control of ion transfer and molecular recognition used in bioelectronics systems.

    This thesis focuses on both the integration of functional nanomaterials to improve electrical interfacing between biological system and electronics and also the generation of a dynamic interface having ability to respond real-life physical and chemical changes. The developing of such a dynamic interface allows one to understand how do living system probe and respond their changing environment and also help control and modulate bio-molecular interactions in a confined space using external physical and chemical stimuli. First, the integration of various nanomaterials is described to understand the effect of different surface modifications and morphologies using different materials on the basis of enzyme-based electrochemical sensing of biological analytes. Then, various switchable interfaces including temperature, light and pH, consist of graphene-enzyme and responsive polymer, are developed to control and regulate enzymebased biomolecular reactions. Finally, physically controlled programmable bio-interface which is described by “AND” and “OR” Boolean logic operations using two different stimuli on one electrode, is introduced. Together, the findings presented in this thesis lay the groundwork for the establishment switchable and programmable bioelectronics. The both approaches are promising candidates to provide key building blocks for future practical systems, as well as model systems for fundamental research.

    List of papers
    1. Template-Directed Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Graphene Based Hybrid Structure for Electrochemical Biosensing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Template-Directed Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Graphene Based Hybrid Structure for Electrochemical Biosensing
    2013 (English)In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 49, p. 53-62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A template-directed self-assembly approach, using functionalised graphene as a fundamental building block to obtain a hierarchically ordered graphene-enzyme-nanoparticle bioelectrode for electrochemical biosensing, is reported. An anionic surfactant was used to prepare a responsive, functional interface and direct the assembly on the surface of the graphene template. The surfactant molecules altered the electrostatic charges of graphene, thereby providing a convenient template-directed assembly approach to a free-standing planar sheet of sp(2) carbons. Cholesterol oxidase and cholesterol esterase were assembled on the surface of graphene by intermolecular attractive forces while gold nanoparticles are incorporated into the hetero-assembly to enhance the electro-bio-catalytic activity. Hydrogen peroxide and cholesterol were used as two representative analytes to demonstrate the electrochemical sensing performance of the graphene-based hybrid structure. The bioelectrode exhibited a linear response to H2O2 from 0.01 to 14 mM, with a detection limit of 25 nM (S/N=3). The amperometric response with cholesterol had a linear range from 0.05 to 0.35 mM, sensitivity of 3.14 mu A/mu M/cm(2) and a detection limit of 0.05 mu M. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K-m(app)) was calculated to be 1.22 mM. This promising approach provides a novel methodology for template-directed bio-self-assembly over planar sp(2) carbons of a graphene sheet and furnishes the basis for fabrication of ultra-sensitive and efficient electrochemical biosensors.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    National Category
    Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91866 (URN)10.1016/j.bios.2013.04.004 (DOI)000323396700009 ()
    Projects
    Hierarchicalself-assembly, Templatedirected hybridnanomaterial, Graphene Nano-biointerface, Biosensor
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, VR- 2011-6058357EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, PIIF-GA-2009-254955
    Available from: 2013-05-03 Created: 2013-05-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    2. Two-dimensional gold-tungsten disulphide bio-interface for high-throughput electrocatalytic nano-bioreactors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Two-dimensional gold-tungsten disulphide bio-interface for high-throughput electrocatalytic nano-bioreactors
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 1, no 6, p. 1400136-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A high-throughput electrocatalytic nano-bioreactor on tungsten disulphide nanosheets is demonstrated for the first time. The fundamental goal of this research is to develop a higher surface area, resulting in a greater enzyme loading and thereby increasing bio-catalytic activity within a nano-confined volume. As a result, the nanobio-system is capable of highly specific recognition of target bioanalytes, therefore, showing significant potentials in a range of bioreactor applications.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2014
    Keywords
    Nanobioreactor, electrocatalysis, bioelectronics, self-assembly, WS2 nanosheet
    National Category
    Nano Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-107975 (URN)10.1002/admi.201400136 (DOI)000348284500012 ()
    Projects
    Swedish Research Council, VRFP7, European Commission
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, VR-2011-6058357EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, PIIF-GA-2009-254955
    Available from: 2014-06-24 Created: 2014-06-24 Last updated: 2015-09-01Bibliographically approved
    3. Probing electrocatalytic properties of aerographite for the design of flexible bio-electrode
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probing electrocatalytic properties of aerographite for the design of flexible bio-electrode
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    Aerographite, electrocatalytic bio-electrode, bioelectrocatalysis, density functional theory
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120980 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-09-01 Created: 2015-09-01 Last updated: 2015-09-01Bibliographically approved
    4. Switchable bioelectronics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Switchable bioelectronics
    2016 (English)In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 76, p. 251-265Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We review the rapidly emerging field of switchable interfaces and its implications for bioelectronics. We seek to piece together early breakthroughs and key developments, and highlight and discuss the future of switchable bioelectronics by focusing on bio-electrochemical processes based on mimicking and controlling biological environments with external stimuli. All these studies strive to answer a fundamental question: “how do living systems probe and respond to their surroundings? And, following on from that: “how one can transform these concepts to serve the practical world of bioelectronics?” The central obstacle to this vision is the absence of versatile interfaces that are able to control and regulate the means of communication between biological and electronic systems. Here, we review the overall progress made to date in building such interfaces at the level of individual biomolecules and focus on the latest efforts to generate device platforms that integrate bio-interfaces with electronics.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Switchable bioelectronics, Stimuli-responsive bio-interface, Controllable catalysis
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120983 (URN)10.1016/j.bios.2015.06.023 (DOI)000364895000020 ()26139319 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-09-01 Created: 2015-09-01 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    5. On/off-switchable zipper-like bioelectronics on a graphene interface.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On/off-switchable zipper-like bioelectronics on a graphene interface.
    2014 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 482-486Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    An on/off-switchable graphene based zipper-like interface is architectured for efficient bioelectrocatalysis. The graphene interface transduces a temperature input signal into structural changes of the membrane, resulting in the amplification of electrochemical signals and their transformation into the gated transport of molecules through the membrane.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2014
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102942 (URN)10.1002/adma.201303075 (DOI)000334289300015 ()
    Projects
    VR
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2014-01-08 Created: 2014-01-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    6. pH-induced on/off-switchable graphene bioelectronics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>pH-induced on/off-switchable graphene bioelectronics
    2015 (English)In: Journal of materials chemistry. B, ISSN 2050-750X, E-ISSN 2050-7518, Vol. 3, no 37, p. 7434-7439Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Switchable interfaces can deliver functionally reversible reactivity with their corresponding analytes, which thus allows one to positively respond the activity of biological elements, including enzymes and other biomolecules, through an encoded stimulus. We have realised this by the design of stimuli-responsive graphene interfaces for pH-encoded operation of bioelectronics. In this study, we have demonstrated stimuli-responsive graphene interfaces for pH-encoded operation of bioelectronics. The resulting switchable interfaces are capable of highly specific, on-demand operation of biosensors, which has significant potential in a wide range of analytical applications.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2015
    Keywords
    Switchable bioelectronics, smart interfaces, graphene oxide, glucose oxidase
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120986 (URN)10.1039/c5tb01355k (DOI)000361554100014 ()
    Note

    Funding: Swedish Research Council [VR-2011-6058357]

    Available from: 2015-09-01 Created: 2015-09-01 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    7. Light-triggered on/off-switchable graphene-based bioelectronics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Light-triggered on/off-switchable graphene-based bioelectronics
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    Self-controlled bio-devices, stimuli-encoded bioelectronics, smart graphene, light-switchable bioelectrocatalysis
    National Category
    Physical Chemistry Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120987 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-09-01 Created: 2015-09-01 Last updated: 2017-01-11Bibliographically approved
    8. Programmable bioelectronics in a stimuli-encoded 3D graphene
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Programmable bioelectronics in a stimuli-encoded 3D graphene
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    Programmable bioelectronics; stimuli-encoded graphene; switchable electrode; smart logic gates
    National Category
    Physical Chemistry Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120989 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-09-01 Created: 2015-09-01 Last updated: 2015-09-01Bibliographically approved
  • 174.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ashaduzzaman, Md.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Kollipara, Suresh B.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. UCS, Tekidag AB, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Switchable Bioelectrocatalysis Controlled by Dual Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Interface2015In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 7, no 43, p. 23837-23847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The engineering of bionanointerfaces using stimuli-responsive polymers offers a new dimension in the design of novel bioelectronic interfaces. The integration of electrode surfaces with stimuli-responsive molecular cues provides a direct control and ability to switch and tune physical and chemical properties of bioelectronic interfaces in various biodevices. Here, we report a dual-responsive biointerface employing a positively responding dual-switchable polymer, poly(NIPAAm-co-DEAEMA)-b-HEAAm, to control and regulate enzyme-based bioelectrocatalysis. The design interface exhibits reversible activation deactivation of bioelectrocatalytic reactions in response to change in temperature and in pH, which allows manipulation of biomolecular interactions to produce on/off switchable conditions. Using electrochemical measurements, we demonstrate that interfacial bioelectrochemical properties can be tuned over a modest range of temperature (i.e., 20-60 degrees C) and pH (i.e., pH 4-8) of the medium. The resulting dual-switchable interface may have important implications not only for the design of responsive biocatalysis and on-demand operation of biosensors, but also as an aid to elucidating electron-transport pathways and mechanisms in living organisms by mimicking the dynamic properties of complex biological environments and processes.

  • 175.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beyazit, Selim
    CNRS Enzyme and Cell Engineering Laboratory, Université de Technologie de Compiègn Rue Roger Couttolenc, Compiègne, Cedex, France.
    Jafari, Mohammed J.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette
    CNRS Enzyme and Cell Engineering Laboratory, Université de Technologie de Compiègn Rue Roger Couttolenc, Compiègne, Cedex, France.
    Haupt, Karsten
    CNRS Enzyme and Cell Engineering Laboratory, Université de Technologie de Compiègn Rue Roger Couttolenc, Compiègne, Cedex, France.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Tekidag AB, UCS, Linköping, Sweden.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Light-triggered switchable graphene-polymer hybrid bioelectronics2016In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 1500353-1-1500353-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A light-switchable graphene interface to control and regulate electrobiocatalysis in a nanoconfined space is reported for the first time. The development of switchable and/or tunable interfaces on 2D nanosurfaces endowed with desirable functionalities, and incorporation of these interfaces into remote controlled biodevices, is a rapidly emerging area in bioelectronics.

  • 176.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beyazit, Selim
    Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, CNRS Laboratory for Enzyme and Cell Engineering, France.
    Jafari, Mohammed J.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette
    Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, CNRS Laboratory for Enzyme and Cell Engineering, France.
    Haupt, Karsten
    Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, CNRS Laboratory for Enzyme and Cell Engineering, France.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Tekidag AB, UCS, Mjärdevi Science Park, Linköping Sweden.
    Turner, Anthony P. F
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Light-triggered on/off-switchable graphene-based bioelectronicsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 177.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beyazit, Selim
    Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, CNRS Laboratory for Enzyme and Cell Engineering, France.
    Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette
    Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, CNRS Laboratory for Enzyme and Cell Engineering, France.
    Haupt, Karsten
    Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, CNRS Laboratory for Enzyme and Cell Engineering, France.
    Turner, Anthony P. F
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Tekidag AB, UCS, Mjärdevi Science Park, Linköping Sweden.
    Programmable bioelectronics in a stimuli-encoded 3D grapheneManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 178.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beyazit, Selim
    Compiègne Cedex, France.
    Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette
    Compiègne Cedex, France.
    Haupt, Karsten
    Compiègne Cedex, France.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Vinoba Bhave Research Institute, Sirsa Road, Saidabad, India .
    Programmable bioelectronics in a stimuli-encoded 3D graphene interfaces2016In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 8, p. 9976-9981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to program and mimic the dynamic microenvironment of living organisms is a crucial step towards the engineering of advanced bioelectronics. Here, we report for the first time a design for programmable bioelectronics, with ‘built-in’ switchable and tunable bio-catalytic performance that responds simultaneously to appropriate stimuli. The designed bio-electrodes comprise light and temperature responsive compartments, which allow the building of Boolean logic gates (i.e. “OR” and “AND”) based on enzymatic communications to deliver logic operations.

  • 179.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Incel, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Uzun, Lokman
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Biochemistry Division, Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Structuring Au nanoparticles on two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets for electrochemical glucose biosensors.2017In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 545-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-dimensional (2D) bioelectronics is an emerging field of research which fuses the advantages of 2D nanomaterials with those of nanobiotechnology. Due to the various physical and chemical properties present in layered counterparts of 2D materials, including high charge density, large surface area, remarkable electron mobility, ready electron transport, sizeable band gaps and ease of hybridisation, they are set to become a versatile tool to fabricate sensitive and selective novel biodevices, which might offer an unique advantages to tackle key energy, medical and environmental issues. Current 2D bioelectronics research is focused on the design of simple-to-use and cheaper biodevices, while improving their selectivity, sensitivity and stability. However, current designs generally suffer from a lack of efficiency, relatively low sensitivity, slow electron transfer kinetics, high background charging current and low current density arising from poor mass transport. Here, we report a nanoparticle-structured MoS2 nanosheet as an ideal semiconductor interface, which is able to form a homogenous layer on the electrode surface for the assembly of gold nanoparticles. This not only enhances electrocatalytic reactions, but also provides excellent electrochemical properties such as high faradic-to-capacitive current ratios, high current density and electron mobility, and faster mass transport, due to the dominance of radial diffusion. The MoS2/Au NPs/GOx bioelectrode exhibits a linear response to glucose from 0.25 to 13.2 mM, with a detection limit of 0.042 µM (S/N=3) and sensitivity of 13.80 µA/µM/cm2.

  • 180.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mishra, Yogendra K.
    Functional Nanomaterials, Institute for Materials Science, Christian-Albrechts Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Grigoriev, Anton
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mecklenburg, Matthias
    Institute of Polymers and Composites, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany.
    Schulte, Karl
    Institute of Polymers and Composites, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Adelung, Rainer
    Functional Nanomaterials, Institute for Materials Science, Christian-Albrechts Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Turner, Anthony P. F.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Tekidag AB, UCS, Mjärdevi Science Park, Linköping Sweden.
    Probing electrocatalytic properties of aerographite for the design of flexible bio-electrodeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 181.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, USA.
    Mishra, Yogendra Kumar
    Functional Nanomaterials, Institute for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany.
    Grigoriev, Anton
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mecklenburg, Matthias
    Institute of Polymers and Composites, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany.
    Luo, Wei
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Keene, Scott
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, USA.
    Salleo, Alberto
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, USA.
    Schulte, Karl
    Institute of Polymers and Composites, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Adelung, Rainer
    Functional Nanomaterials, Institute for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Institute of Advanced Materials, IAAM, Mjärdevi Science Park, UCS, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hierarchical Aerographite Nano-Microtubular Tetrapodal Networks based Electrodes as Lightweight Supercapacitor.2017In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 34, p. 570-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A great deal of interest has been paid to the application of carbon-based nano- and microstructured materials as electrodes due to their relatively low-cost production, abundance, large surface area, high chemical stability, wide operating temperature range, and ease of processing including many more excellent features. The nanostructured carbon materials usually offer various micro-textures due to their varying degrees of graphitisation, a rich variety in terms of dimensionality as well as morphologies, extremely large surface accessibility and high electrical conductivity, etc. The possibilities of activating them by chemical and physical methods allow these materials to be produced with further higher surface area and controlled distribution of pores from nanoscale upto macroscopic dimensions, which actually play the most crucial role towards construction of the efficient electrode/electrolyte interfaces for capacitive processes in energy storage applications. Development of new carbon materials with extremely high surface areas could exhibit significant potential in this context and motivated by this in present work, we report for the first time the utilization of ultralight and extremely porous nano-microtubular Aerographite  tetrapodal network as a functional interface to probe the electrochemical properties for capacitive energy storage. A simple and robust electrode fabrication strategy based on surface functionalized Aerographite with optimum porosity leads to significantly high specific capacitance (640 F/g) with high energy (14.2 Wh/kg) and power densities (9.67x103 W/kg) which has been discussed in detail.

  • 182.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Seshadri, Preeethi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Structuring of nanoelectrode array of Au nanoparticle on two-dimensional WS2 interface for electrochemical biosensing2014In: 24th Anniversary World Congress on Biosensors – Biosensors 2014, Elsevier, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The reduction in size of an electrode improves the mass transport of molecules to the electrode surface because of the contribution of radial diffusion. Thus, nanoelectrodes are particularly well suited for electroanalytical applications [1]. However, the construction of nanoelectrodes generally involve specialised equipment that is relatively complex to fabricate and not suitable for mass production. However nanostructuring of macroelectrode surface by metallic nanoparticles have been recently used in a variety of biosensing applications due to their enhanced surface area, precise biomolecule-electrode connections. For electrochemical sensing, conductive nanostructures immobilised on electrodes enhance electrocatalytic behaviour due the quantum confinement and exhibit unique features including favourable Faradic-to-capacitive current ratios, higher current densities and faster mass transport by convergent diffusion than their larger micro/macro electrode counterparts. In order to increase biosensor current output to measurable levels, large arrays of nanostructures have been immobilised on electrode surface [2]. The nanoelectrode arrays biosensors have been fabricated by various nanostructures such as nanowires, nanotubes and nanoparticles, have demonstrated promising results, displaying high sensitivity and fast response time.

           In this study, we present a new nanostructured biosensor to address many limitations that nanoelectrode array biosensors currently face. Here, we used WS2-Au nanoparticle self-assembled structures as an interface element for electrochemical sensing of H2O2. The combination of zero-dimension nanoparticles on a two-dimensional support that is arrayed in the third dimension creates a biosensor platform with exceptional characteristics. The versatility of the biosensor platform was demonstrated by altering biosensor performance with a sensitivity (11.64 µA/µM/cm2), detection limit (0.085 µM), and linear sensing range (0.05-12.0 mM). This promising approach provides a novel methodology for structuring of Au nanoarray on two-dimensional surface and furnishes the basis for fabrication of flexible ultra-sensitive and efficient electrochemical biosensors.

     

  • 183.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Seshadri, Prethi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Turner, Anthony P.F.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Two-dimensional gold-tungsten disulphide bio-interface for high-throughput electrocatalytic nano-bioreactors2014In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 1, no 6, p. 1400136-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-throughput electrocatalytic nano-bioreactor on tungsten disulphide nanosheets is demonstrated for the first time. The fundamental goal of this research is to develop a higher surface area, resulting in a greater enzyme loading and thereby increasing bio-catalytic activity within a nano-confined volume. As a result, the nanobio-system is capable of highly specific recognition of target bioanalytes, therefore, showing significant potentials in a range of bioreactor applications.

  • 184.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electro-catalytic nanoparticle-polymer fibre networks for efficient bioenergy devices.2015In: 1st International Conference on Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technologies, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Switchable Bioelectronics on a Graphene Interface2015In: 2nd International Biosensor Congress, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 186.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Switchable bioelectronics on graphene interface.2015In: Biosensing and Nanomedicine-VIII at SPIE Optics and Photonics, San Diego, CA, 9-13 August 2015., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart and flexible bioelectronics on graphene have emerged as a new frontier in the field of biosensors and bioelectronics. Graphene has begun to be seen as an ideal signal transducer and a promising alternative for the production of low-cost bioelectronic devices.1-2 However, biological systems used in these devices suffer from a lack of control and regulation. There is an obvious need to develop “switchable” and “smart” interfaces for both fundamental and applied studies. Here, we report the fabrication of a stimuli-responsive graphene interface, which is used to regulate biomolecular reactions.

    The present study aims to address the design and development of a novel auto-switchable graphene bio-interface that is capable of positively responding, by creating smart nanoarchitectures. The smart bio-interface consists of a two-dimensional graphene donor and a polymeric receptor, which are rationally assembled together based in a stoichiometric donor-receptor interaction. By changing the external conditions such as temperature, light and pH of the medium, we acheived control of the biochemical interactions. In the negative mode, access of an associated enzyme to its substrate is largely restricted, resulting in a decrease in the diffusion of reactants and the consequent activity of the system. In contrast, the biosubstrate could freely access the enzyme facilitating bioelectrocatalysis in a positive response. More importantly, this provides the first example of responsive bioelectronics being achieved on a two-dimensional graphene interface by controlling the various external stimuli in an on/off-switchable model.

    Using electrochemical techniques, we demonstrated that interfacial bio-electrochemical properties can be tuned by modest changes in conditions. Such an ability to independently regulate the behaviour of the interface has important implications for the design of novel bioreactors, biofuel cells and biosensors with inbuilt self-control features.

    Reference:

    [1] O. Parlak, A. P. F. Turner, A. Tiwari, Advanced Materials, 3 (2014), 482.

    [2] O. Parlak, A. Tiwari, A. P. F. Turner, A. Tiwari, Biosensors and Bioelectronics 49         (2013), 53.

  • 187.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiwari, Atul
    Hawaii Corrosion Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 96822 Hawaii, USA.
    Turner, Anthony P. F.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Template-Directed Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Graphene Based Hybrid Structure for Electrochemical Biosensing2013In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 49, p. 53-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A template-directed self-assembly approach, using functionalised graphene as a fundamental building block to obtain a hierarchically ordered graphene-enzyme-nanoparticle bioelectrode for electrochemical biosensing, is reported. An anionic surfactant was used to prepare a responsive, functional interface and direct the assembly on the surface of the graphene template. The surfactant molecules altered the electrostatic charges of graphene, thereby providing a convenient template-directed assembly approach to a free-standing planar sheet of sp(2) carbons. Cholesterol oxidase and cholesterol esterase were assembled on the surface of graphene by intermolecular attractive forces while gold nanoparticles are incorporated into the hetero-assembly to enhance the electro-bio-catalytic activity. Hydrogen peroxide and cholesterol were used as two representative analytes to demonstrate the electrochemical sensing performance of the graphene-based hybrid structure. The bioelectrode exhibited a linear response to H2O2 from 0.01 to 14 mM, with a detection limit of 25 nM (S/N=3). The amperometric response with cholesterol had a linear range from 0.05 to 0.35 mM, sensitivity of 3.14 mu A/mu M/cm(2) and a detection limit of 0.05 mu M. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K-m(app)) was calculated to be 1.22 mM. This promising approach provides a novel methodology for template-directed bio-self-assembly over planar sp(2) carbons of a graphene sheet and furnishes the basis for fabrication of ultra-sensitive and efficient electrochemical biosensors.

  • 188.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony P. F.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Tekidag AB, UCS, Mjärdevi Science Park, Linköping Sweden.
    pH-induced on/off-switchable graphene bioelectronics2015In: Journal of materials chemistry. B, ISSN 2050-750X, E-ISSN 2050-7518, Vol. 3, no 37, p. 7434-7439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Switchable interfaces can deliver functionally reversible reactivity with their corresponding analytes, which thus allows one to positively respond the activity of biological elements, including enzymes and other biomolecules, through an encoded stimulus. We have realised this by the design of stimuli-responsive graphene interfaces for pH-encoded operation of bioelectronics. In this study, we have demonstrated stimuli-responsive graphene interfaces for pH-encoded operation of bioelectronics. The resulting switchable interfaces are capable of highly specific, on-demand operation of biosensors, which has significant potential in a wide range of analytical applications.

  • 189.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony P.F.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Switchable bioelectronics2016In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 76, p. 251-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review the rapidly emerging field of switchable interfaces and its implications for bioelectronics. We seek to piece together early breakthroughs and key developments, and highlight and discuss the future of switchable bioelectronics by focusing on bio-electrochemical processes based on mimicking and controlling biological environments with external stimuli. All these studies strive to answer a fundamental question: “how do living systems probe and respond to their surroundings? And, following on from that: “how one can transform these concepts to serve the practical world of bioelectronics?” The central obstacle to this vision is the absence of versatile interfaces that are able to control and regulate the means of communication between biological and electronic systems. Here, we review the overall progress made to date in building such interfaces at the level of individual biomolecules and focus on the latest efforts to generate device platforms that integrate bio-interfaces with electronics.

  • 190.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On/off-switchable zipper-like bioelectronics on a graphene interface.2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 482-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An on/off-switchable graphene based zipper-like interface is architectured for efficient bioelectrocatalysis. The graphene interface transduces a temperature input signal into structural changes of the membrane, resulting in the amplification of electrochemical signals and their transformation into the gated transport of molecules through the membrane.

  • 191.
    Parlak, Onur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Switchable bioelectronics on a graphene interface2014In: 24th Anniversary World Congress on Biosensors – Biosensors 2014, Elsevier, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart and flexible bioelectronics on graphene have emerged as a new frontier in the field of biosensors and bioelectronics [1]. Graphene has begun to be seen as an ideal signal transducer and a promising alternative for the production of low-cost bioelectronic devices. However, biological systems used in these devices suffer from a lack of control and regulation. There is an obvious need to develop “switchable” and “smart” interfaces for both fundamental and applied studies [2]. Here, we report for the first time the fabrication of an on/off-switchable graphene interface, which is used to regulate biomolecular reactions.

        The present study aims to address the design and development of a novel auto-switchable graphene bio-interface that is capable of positively responding, by creating unique “zipper” nanoarchitectures. The zipper consists of a two-dimensional graphene donor and a polymeric receptor, which are rationally assembled together based in a stoichiometric donor-receptor interaction. Preferably, at a relatively low temperature (20 oC) the active donor-receptor interaction (hydrogen bonding) creates a coalescence of the graphene interface, thereby causing considerable shrinkage in the donor-to-receptor interface. Thus access of an associated enzyme to its substrate is largely restricted, resulting in a decrease in the diffusion of reactants and the consequent activity of the system. In contrast, at a comparatively high temperature (40 oC) the donor-receptor interaction was subverted. As a result, the biosubstrate could freely access the enzyme facilitating bioelectrocatalysis. More importantly, this provides the first example of responsive bioelectronics being achieved on a two-dimensional graphene interface by controlling the external temperature as an on/off-switchable model.

         Using electrochemical techniques, we demonstrated that interfacial bio-electrochemical properties can be tuned by modest changes in temperature. Such an ability to independently regulate the behaviour of the interface has important implications for the design of novel bioreactors, biofuel cells and biosensors with inbuilt self-control features.

     

  • 192.
    Patra, Hirak
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics.
    Cell selective response to gold nanoparticles: Cellular specificity of gold nanoparticles2007In: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, ISSN 1549-9634, E-ISSN 1549-9642, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 111-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are considered a potential probe to detect cancer. The present article investigates whether GNPs, even in the absence of any specific functionalization, induce any cell specific response. We report GNP-induced death response in human carcinoma lung cell line A549. In contrast, the two other cell lines tested, BHK21 (baby hamster kidney) and HepG2 (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma), remained unaffected by GNP treatment. The specificity of the induction of the death response in A549 cells implies that GNPs do not universally target all cell types. Flow-cytometric studies indicated that the response was dose dependent and had a threshold effect (in A549). Gradual increase in GNP concentration induces a proportional cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The programmed nature of the death response is implied, because such cleavage follows activation of caspases. Notably, at higher GNP concentration there was an asymmetric accumulation of GNPs in the periphery outside the cell nucleus of the A549 cells. This was confirmed by confocal microscopy, a green scattering (possibly, surface-enhanced Raman effect) appearing on selective z-slices of the image.

  • 193.
    Patra, Hirak
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Imani, Roghayeh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Iglic, Ales
    Biophysics Laboratory, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Novel anti-neoplastic approach for photodynamic theranostics by biocompatible TiO2 popcorn nanostructure for a high-throughput flash ROS generator2014In: 24th Anniversary World Congress on Biosensors – Biosensors 2014, Elsevier, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important secondary messengers in the intracellular signaling system for regulating redox homeostasis in normal cells. Compared to normal cells, cancer cells have increased ROS levels due to a faster metabolic rate. We have used this discriminating overproduction of ROS levels in cancer cells  as a target for a photodynamic anti-neoplastic theranostic approach using mesoporous TiO2 microbeads with a popcorn nanostructure. We have created a novel flash ROS generator  using a two-step procedure consisting of sol-gel and solvothermal processes to obtain mesoporous TiO2 microbeads with high photocatalytic efficiency. A photon-induced comparative study has been carried out for the ROS generation ability using TiO2 nanoparticles and mesoporous TiO2 microbeads.  We have shown that in under otherwise identical conditions the extent of photocatalytical ROS generated by mesoporous TiO2 microbeads is more than twice that produced by TiO2 nanoparticles. In vitro in the absence of irradiation, the mesoporous TiO2 microbeads are exceptionally biocompatible, allowing almost ~100% cellular survival rate even at a dose of 100 µg/mL. In contrast, commercial nanoparticles showed concentration dependent cytotoxicity of nearly 15% within 24h in the absence of any irradiation. Upon photo activation, the mesoporous TiO2 microbead structures delivered their potential anticancer effect by interfering with the mitochondrial activity by producing ROS in the intracellular environment and thus reducing the survival rate of cells by more than 30% in comparison with commercial nanoparticles, where only an increase of 5% in cell death was observed. Thus we have developed a smart on/off switchable photodynamic anti-neoplastic theranostic approach that can be combined with specific cell recognition elements for future cancer management.

  • 194.
    Patra, Hirak K.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The potential legacy of cancer nanotechnology: celluar selection2014In: Trends in Biotechnology, ISSN 0167-7799, E-ISSN 1879-3096, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 21-31Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overexpression of oncogenes or loss of tumour suppressors can transform a normal cell to a cancerous one, resulting in uncontrolled regulation of intracellular signalling pathways and immunity to stresses, which both pose therapeutic challenges. Conventional approaches to cancer therapy, although they are effective at killing cancer cells, may still fail due to inadequate biodistribution and unwanted side effects. Nanotechnology-based approaches provide a promising alternative, with the possibility of targeting cells at an early stage, during their transformation into cancer cells. This review considers techniques that specifically target those molecular changes, which begin in only a very small percentage of normal cells as they undergo transformation. These techniques are crucial for early-stage diagnosis and therapy.

  • 195.
    Patra, Hirak Kumar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Imani, Roghayeh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ,of Ljubljana, Slovenia; University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Jangamreddy, Jaganmohan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Pazoki, Meysam
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Iglic, Ales
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Tekidag AB, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    On/off-switchable anti-neoplastic nanoarchitecture2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, no 14571, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the world, there are increasing demands for alternate approaches to advanced cancer therapeutics. Numerous potentially chemotherapeutic compounds are developed every year for clinical trial and some of them are considered as potential drug candidates. Nanotechnology-based approaches have accelerated the discovery process, but the key challenge still remains to develop therapeutically viable and physiologically safe materials suitable for cancer therapy. Here, we report a high turnover, on/off-switchable functionally popping reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator using a smart mesoporous titanium dioxide popcorn (TiO2 Pops) nanoarchitecture. The resulting TiO2 Pops, unlike TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), are exceptionally biocompatible with normal cells. Under identical conditions, TiO2 Pops show very high photocatalytic activity compared to TiO2 NPs. Upon on/off-switchable photo activation, the TiO2 Pops can trigger the generation of high-turnover flash ROS and can deliver their potential anticancer effect by enhancing the intracellular ROS level until it crosses the threshold to open the death gate, thus reducing the survival of cancer cells by at least six times in comparison with TiO2 NPs without affecting the normal cells.

  • 196.
    Patra, Hirak Kumar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khaliq, Nisar Ul
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Romu, Thobias
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wiechec, Emilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology.
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Turner, Anthony P. F.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    MRI-Visual Order–Disorder Micellar Nanostructures for Smart Cancer Theranostics2014In: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 526-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of MRI-visual order–disorder structures for cancer nanomedicine explores a pH-triggered mechanism for theragnosis of tumor hallmark functions. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) stabilized with amphiphilic poly(styrene)-b-poly(acrylic acid)-doxorubicin with folic acid (FA) surfacing are employed as a multi-functional approach to specifically target, diagnose, and deliver drugs via a single nanoscopic platform for cancer therapy. The functional aspects of the micellar nanocomposite is investigated in vitro using human breast SkBr3 and colon cancer HCT116 cell lines for the delivery, release, localization, and anticancer activity of the drug. For the first time, concentration-dependent T2-weighted MRI contrast for a monolayer of clustered cancer cells is shown. The pH tunable order–disorder transition of the core–shell structure induces the relative changes in MRI contrast. The outcomes elucidate the potential of this material for smart cancer theranostics by delivering non-invasive real-time diagnosis, targeted therapy, and monitoring the course and response of the action before, during, and after the treatment regimen.

  • 197.
    Patra, Hirak Kumar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics.
    Sharma, Yashpal
    International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan .
    Islam, Mohammad Mirazul
    Swedish Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arul Murugan, N.
    Virtual Laboratory for Molecular Probes, Division of Theoretical Chemistry and Biology, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden .
    Kobayashi, Hisatoshi
    International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan .
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan ; Tekidag AB, UCS, Linköping, Sweden; Vinoba Bhave Research Institute, Saidabad, Allahabad, India .
    Inflammation-sensitive in situ smart scaffolding for regenerative medicine2016In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 8, no 39, p. 17213-17222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To cope with the rapid evolution of the tissue engineering field, it is now essential to incorporate the use of on-site responsive scaffolds. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to find new Intelligent biomaterials that can respond to the physicochemical changes in the microenvironment. In this present report, we have developed biocompatible stimuli responsive polyaniline-multiwalled carbon nanotube/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), (PANI-MWCNT/PNIPAm) composite nanofiber networks and demonstrated the physiological temperature coordinated cell grafting phenomenon on its surface. The composite nanofibers were prepared by a two-step process initiated with an assisted in situ polymerization followed by electro-spinning. To obtain a smooth surface in individual nanofibers with the thinnest diameter, the component ratios and electrospinning conditions were optimized. The temperature-gated rearrangements of the molecular structure are characterized by FTIR spectroscopy with simultaneous macromolecular architecture changes reflected on the surface morphology, average diameter and pore size as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The stimuli responsiveness of the nanofibers has first been optimized with computational modeling of temperature sensitive components (coil-like and globular conformations) to tune the mechanism for temperature dependent interaction during in situ scaffolding with the cell membrane. The nanofiber networks show excellent biocompatibility, tested with fibroblasts and also show excellent sensitivity to inflammation to combat loco-regional acidosis that delay the wound healing process by an in vitro model that has been developed for testing the proposed responsiveness of the composite nanofiber networks. Cellular adhesion and detachment are regulated through physiological temperature and show normal proliferation of the grafted cells on the composite nanofibers. Thus, we report for the first time, the development of physiological temperature gated inflammation-sensitive smart biomaterials for advanced tissue regeneration and regenerative medicine.

  • 198.
    Patra, Hirak Kumar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Valyukh, Sergiy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wiechec, Emilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Switchable label free apta-nanosensor: In situ biopsy?2016In: Biosensors 2016 – The World Congress on Biosensors, Gothenburg, Sweden, 25-27 May 2016, Elsevier, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Patra, Hirak
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smart inflammation sensitive self-reporting theragnosis2014In: FEBS-EMBO 2014 Congress, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We have designed and develop a novel class of nanocomposites for inflammation based hallmark functions using biocompatible metallic nano-objects (SPION, nanorod) assembled with a pH sensitive amphiphilic azide terminated block polymer, polystyrene-b-poly (acrylic acid) and temperature-responsive polymer Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) in a single nanoscopic platform. The nano-architecture is a uniform core-shell micellar assembly of polymer around the biocompatible metallic core. Doxorubicin and methotrexate are loaded within the architecture as the model therapeutic module. The drugs are linked through pH and enzyme sensitive bonds. The complete nano-architecture and linkages are characterized by electron microscopy, NMR and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy. The drug release response has been optimized with different cell line in vitro. The model suggest that change/increase in temperature, reduction of pH and the redox enzymatic activities are increased at the localized inflammatory sites, can be addressed by the developed module and the drug will be released at the inflammation sites only due to their specific linkage to the module. Again we have explored order–disorder micellar structures dependent T1 & T2 MRI properties of the module. This results indicate that the fabricated module can also be useful not only probing the inflammation site non invasively through MRI but also will give us idea on the extent of release of drugs at the inflammation sites. The outcomes of these results elucidate the potential of this fabricated nano-architecture for smart theranostics through physicochemical and microenvironment feature based drug delivery, site-specific therapy, real-time probing and non-invasive monitoring of the drug action course for personalized therapy.

     

  • 200.
    Patra, Santanu
    et al.
    Indian School Mines, India.
    Roy, Ekta
    Indian School Mines, India.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics.
    Madhuri, Rashmi
    Indian School Mines, India.
    Sharma, Prashant K.
    Indian School Mines, India.
    2-Dimensional graphene as a route for emergence of additional dimension nanomaterials2017In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dimension has a different and impactful significance in the field of innovation, research and technologies. Starting from one-dimension, now, we all are moving towards 3-D visuals and try to do the things in this dimension. However, we still have some very innovative and widely applicable nanomaterials, which have tremendous potential in the form of 2-D only i.e. graphene. In this review, we have tried to incorporate the reported pathways used so far for modification of 2-D graphene sheets to make is three-dimensional. The modified graphene been applied in many fields like supercapacitors, sensors, catalysis, energy storage devices and many more. In addition, we have also incorporated the conversion of 2-D graphene to their various other dimensions like zero-, one- or three-dimensional nanostructures. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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