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  • 151.
    Paskova, Tanja
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Tungasmita, Sukkaneste
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Valcheva, E
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Sofia, Fac Phys, Sofia 1164, Bulgaria Aixtron AG, D-52072 Aachen, Germany.
    Svedberg, EB
    Arnaudov, B
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Sofia, Fac Phys, Sofia 1164, Bulgaria Aixtron AG, D-52072 Aachen, Germany.
    Evtimova, S
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Sofia, Fac Phys, Sofia 1164, Bulgaria Aixtron AG, D-52072 Aachen, Germany.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Beccard, R
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Sofia, Fac Phys, Sofia 1164, Bulgaria Aixtron AG, D-52072 Aachen, Germany.
    Heuken, M
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Sofia, Fac Phys, Sofia 1164, Bulgaria Aixtron AG, D-52072 Aachen, Germany.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Hydride vapour phase homoepitaxial growth of GaN on MOCVD-grown 'templates'2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on an improved quality of thick HVPE-GaN grown on MOCVD-GaN 'template' layers compared to the material grown directly on sapphire. The film-substrate interface revealed by cathodoluminescence measurements shows an absence of highly doped columnar structures which are typically present in thick HVPE-GaN films grown directly on sapphire. This improved structure results in a reduction of two orders of magnitude of the free carrier concentration from Hall measurements. It was found that the structure, morphology, electrical and optical properties of homoepitaxial thick GaN layers grown by HVPE were strongly influenced by the properties of the MOCVD-GaN 'template'. Additionally the effect of Si doping of the GaN buffer layers on the HVPE-GaN properties was analysed.

  • 152.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beyer, Franziska
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Acceptor incorporation in SiC epilayers grown at high growth rate with chloride-based CVD2009In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 311, no 13, p. 3364-3370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic p-type doping study has been performed on 4H- and 6H-SiC epilayers grown at high growth rate using chloride-based chemical vapor deposition. The effect of temperature, pressure, growth rate, C/Si-, Cl/Si ratio and dopant flow on the incorporation of the acceptor atoms aluminum and boron has been studied. The C/Si-ratio on the aluminum incorporation has similar behavior to what has been reported for the standard non-chlorinated low-growth rate process, while no clear effect of C/Si-ratio was observed for the boron incorporation. A higher Cl/Si-ratio seems to lead to lower aluminum and boron incorporation either due to more effective silicon supply at high Cl/Si ratio or due to removal of dopant atoms from the surface by chlorine. The doping concentration is stable to the variations in silicon molar fraction, growth pressure and growth temperature for the aluminum doped layers. Also p-type doping with gallium was tested.

  • 153.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beyer, Franziska
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Donor incorporation in SiC epilayers grown at high growth rate with chloride-based CVD2009In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 311, no 5, p. 1321-1327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic n-type doping study has been performed on 4H- and 6H-SiC epilayers grown at high growth rate using chloride-based CVD. The effect of temperature, pressure, growth rate, C/Si-, Cl/Si ratio and dopant flow on the incorporation of the nitrogen and phosphorus donor atoms have been investigated. It is found that the effect of the C/Si-ratio on the incorporation of nitrogen or phosphorus atoms is similar to what has been reported for the standard low growth rate process without addition of chlorine. The Cl/Si-ratio seems to affect the nitrogen incorporation at growth rates higher than 65 μm/h. The doping concentration is stable against variations in growth rate, growth pressure and growth temperature for the nitrogen doped layers.

  • 154.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the effect of water and oxygen in chemical vapor deposition of boron nitride2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 520, no 18, p. 5889-5893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth studies of sp(2)-hybridized boron nitride (BN) phases by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are presented; of particular interest is the presence of oxygen and water during growth. While Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveals the presence of B-N bonds and elemental analysis by elastic recoil detection analysis shows that the films are close to stoichiometric, although containing a few atomic percent oxygen and hydrogen, X-ray diffraction measurements show no indications for nucleation of any crystalline BN phases, despite change in N/B-ratio and/or process temperature. Thermodynamic modeling suggests that this is due to formation of strong B-O bonds already in the gas phase in the presence of water or oxygen during growth. This growth behavior is believed to be caused by an uncontrolled release of water and/or oxygen in the deposition chamber and highlights the sensitivity of the BN CVD process towards oxygen and water.

  • 155.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Growth and Photoluminescence study of Aluminium doped SiC epitaxial layers2007In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 556-557, Trans Tech Publications , 2007, p. 97-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 156.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höglund, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Low Temperature CVD of Thin, Amorphous Boron-Carbon Films for Neutron Detectors2012In: Chemical Vapor Deposition, ISSN 0948-1907, E-ISSN 1521-3862, Vol. 18, no 7-9, p. 221-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin, amorphous boron-carbon films are deposited at low temperature (400600?degrees C) by thermally activated CVD using the organoborane triethylboron (TEB) as a single precursor. Two different carrier gases are tested. At 600?degrees C, using argon as the carrier gas, the deposition rate is close to 1?mu m h-1. The film has a density of 2.14?g?cm-3 with a B/C ratio of 3.7. When hydrogen is used as the carrier gas, the film density is 2.42?g?cm-3, the B/C ratio 4.6, and the deposition rate 0.35?mu m h-1. The hydrogen content in the films is about 34 at.-%, regardless of ambient conditions during deposition, and varies only with the deposition temperature. In addition, both the film composition and the film density are found to vary significantly with the deposition temperature and the atmospheric conditions. Based upon these results, a deposition mechanism for the growth of boron-carbon films from TEB, where the TEB molecule is decomposed to BH3 and hydrocarbons, is suggested.

  • 157.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beyer, Franziska
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Very high growth rate of 4H-SiC epilayers using the chlorinated precursor methyltrichlorosilane (MTS)2007In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 307, no 2, p. 334-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chlorinated precursor methyltrichlorosilane (MTS), CH3SiCl3, has been used to grow epitaxial layers of 4H-SiC in a hot wall chemical vapour deposition (CVD) reactor with growth rates higher than 100 μm/h. The addition of chlorinated species to the gas mixture prevents silicon nucleation in the gas phase, thus allowing higher input flows of the precursors resulting in much higher growth rate than that of standard silicon carbide (SiC) epitaxial growth using only silane, SiH4, and hydrocarbons as precursors. Since MTS contains both silicon and carbon, with the C/Si ratio 1, MTS was used both as single precursor and mixed with silane or ethylene to study the effect of the C/Si and Cl/Si ratios on growth rate, morphology, and doping of the epitaxial layers. When using only MTS as precursor, the growth rate showed a linear dependence on the MTS molar fraction in the reactor. The growth rate dropped for C/Si<1 but was constant for C/Si>1. Further, the growth rate decreased with lower Cl/Si ratio. This study shows that MTS is a promising precursor for homoepitaxial growth of SiC within the concept of chloride-based SiC growth.

  • 158.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Stefano
    Caracal Inc..
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beyer, Franziska
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Very high growth rate of 4H-SiC using MTS as chloride-based precursor2009In: Materials Science Forum, Vol. 600-603, Trans Tech Publications , 2009, Vol. 600-603, p. 115-118Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chlorinated precursor methyltrichlorosilane (MTS), CH 3SiCl3, has been used to grow epitaxial layers of 4H-SiC in a hot wall CVD reactor, with growth rates as high as 170 µm/h at 1600°C. Since MTS contains both silicon and carbon, with the C/Si ratio 1, MTS was used both as single precursor and mixed with silane or ethylene to study the effect of the C/Si and Cl/Si ratios on growth rate and doping of the epitaxial layers. When using only MTS as precursor, the growth rate showed a linear dependence on the MTS molar fraction in the reactor up to about 100 µm/h. The growth rate dropped for C/Si less than 1 but was constant for C/Si greater than 1. Further, the growth rate decreased with lower Cl/Si ratio.

  • 159.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Beyer, Franziska
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Lundskog, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Chloride-based SiC epitaxial growth2009In: Materials Science Forum Vols. 615-617, Trans Tech Publications , 2009, p. 89-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some aspects of the chloride-based CVD growth process have been investigated by using both the approach to add HCl to the standard precursors or/and by using the single molecule precursor methyltrichlorosilane (MTS). The efficiency of the process for different precursors, the growth rate stability and the effect that the Cl/Si-ratio has on the growth have been studied. MTS is showed to be the most efficient precursor; the growth can be hindered by to much chlorine in the gas mixture. The Cl/Si-ratio is also found to be a process parameter that affects the amount of incorporated nitrogen in the epilayers.

  • 160.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlsson, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gällström, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Very high crystalline quality of thick 4H-SiC epilayers grown from methyltrichlorosilane (MTS)2008In: Physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 188-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    200 µm thick 4H-SiC epilayers have been grown by chloride-based chemical-vapor deposition using methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) as single precursor. The very high crystalline quality of the grown epilayer is demonstrated by high resolution X-Ray Diffraction rocking curve with a full-width-half-maximum value of only 9 arcsec. The high quality of the epilayer is further shown by low temperature photoluminescence showing strong free exciton and nitrogen bound exciton lines. The very high crystalline quality achieved for the thick epilayer grown in just two hours at 1600 °C suggests that MTS is a suitable precursor molecule for SiC bulk growth.

  • 161.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Very high epitaxial growth rate of SiC using MTS as chloride-based precursor2007In: Surface and Coatings Technology, Volume 201, Issue 22-23 SPEC. ISS., Elsevier , 2007, p. 8931-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 162.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundskog, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth characteristics of chloride-based SiC epitaxial growth2008In: Physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 278-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study some aspects of the chloride-based CVD growth process have been investigated by using both the approach to add HCl to the standard precursors and by using the single molecule precursor methyltrichlorosilane (MTS). The efficiency of the process for different precursors, the growth rate stability and the effect that the C/Si and Cl/Si ratios have on the growth are studied. It is found that MTS is the most efficient precursor and that the growth becomes carbon limited at C/Si < 1.

  • 163.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nishizawa, Shin-ichi
    National Institute Adv Ind Science and Technology, Tsukuba.
    Koshka, Yaroslav
    Mississippi State University.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chloride-Based CVD Growth of Silicon Carbide for Electronic Applications2012In: Chemical Reviews, ISSN 0009-2665, E-ISSN 1520-6890, Vol. 112, no 4, p. 2434-2453Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 164.
    Peyre, Hervé
    et al.
    Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier, France.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Guelfucci, Jude
    Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier, France.
    Juillaguet, Sandrine
    Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier, France.
    Ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Contreras, S.
    CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier, France.
    Brosselard, Pierre
    Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR-CNRS 5615, UCB-Lyon1, 43 Bd du 11 nov. 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne, France.
    Camassel, Jean
    CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier, France.
    Low Temperature Photoluminescence Investigation of 3-Inch SiC Wafers for Power Device Applications2012In: HeteroSiC & WASMPE 2011, 2012, Vol. 711, p. 164-168Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on the change in aluminium-related photoluminescence lines in 4H-SiC versus doping concentration, we have used a combination of LTPL (Low Temperature PhotoLuminescence) and secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements to set new calibration curves. In this way, one can probe the change in aluminum concentration in the range 1017 to 1019 cm-3. When applied to LTPL maps collected on full 3-inch wafers, we show that such abacuses constitute a powerful tool to control efficiently the doping level of as-grown p+ (emitters) and p++ (contact) layers for power device applications.

  • 165. Robert, T.
    et al.
    Marinova, M.
    Juillaguet, S.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polychroniadis, E.K.
    Camassel, J.
    6H-type zigzag faults in low-doped 4H-SiC epitaxial layers.2010In: Mat. Sci. Forum, Vols. 645-648, 2010, p. 347-350Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new type of 6H zigzag faults has been identified from high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurements performed on low-doped 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layer grown on off-axis substrates in a hot-wall CVD reactor. They are made of half unit cells of 6H with corresponding low temperature photoluminescence (LTPL) response ranging from about 3 eV to 2.5 eV at liquid helium temperature.

  • 166.
    Robert, Teddy
    et al.
    Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS.
    Marinova, Maya
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
    Juillaguet, Sandrine
    Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polychroniadis, Efstathios K.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
    Camassel, Jean
    Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS.
    Effect of Inter-Well Coupling between 3C and 6H in-Grown Stacking Faults in 4H-SiC Epitaxial Layers2011In: Materials Science Forum Vols. 679-680 (2011) pp 314-317, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2011, p. 314-317Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both 3C and 6H stacking faults have been observed in a low doped 4H-SiC epitaxial layer grown in a hot-wall CVD reactor on a heavily doped (off-axis) 4H-SiC substrate. They appear differently on the different parts of sample, with energetic dispersion ranging from 3.01 eV to 2.52 eV. Since they behave as natural type-II quantum wells in the 4H-SiC matrix, the thickness dependence of the excitonic recombination is investigated using the standard effective mass approximation. The results are discussed in terms of built-in electric field and inter-well coupling effects.

  • 167. Shishkin, Y.
    et al.
    Rao, S.P.
    Kordina, O.
    Agafonov, I.
    Maltsev, A.A.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Moisson, C.
    Saddow, S.E.
    CVD of 6H-SiC on Non-Basal Quasi Polar Faces2007In: ECSCRM 2006,2006, Materials Science Forum: Trans Tech Publications , 2007, p. 73-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 168.
    Son, Nguyen Tien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Isoya, J.
    University of Tsukuba.
    Umeda, T
    University of Tsukuba.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ohshima, T.
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency .
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    EPR and ENDOR Studies of Shallow Donors in SiC2010In: Applied Magnetic Resonance, ISSN 0937-9347, E-ISSN 1613-7507, Vol. 39, no 1-2, p. 49-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent progress in the investigation of the electronic structure of the shallow nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) donors in 3C–, 4H– and 6H–SiC is reviewed with focus on the applications of magnetic resonance including electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and other pulsed methods such as electron spin echo, pulsed electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), electron spin-echo envelope modulation and two-dimensional EPR. EPR and ENDOR studies of the 29Si and 13C hyperfine interactions of the shallow N donors and their spin localization in the lattice are discussed. The use of high-frequency EPR in combination with other pulsed magnetic resonance techniques for identification of low-temperature P-related centers in P-doped 3C–, 4H– and 6H–SiC and for determination of the valley–orbit splitting of the shallow N and P donors are presented and discussed.

  • 169.
    Sridhara, SG
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Bergman, JP
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Investigation of an ion-implantation induced high temperature persistent intrinsic defect in SiC2001In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 353-356, 2001, Vol. 353-3, p. 377-380Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a study of the D-II defect spectrum in 6H SiC using different photoluminescence techniques. The spectrum is proposed to be the result of bound exciton recombination at isoelectronic centers.

  • 170.
    Storasta, Liutauras
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Bergman, J.R.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Lu, J.
    Materials Research Laboratory, Institute of Materials Science, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Deep levels created by low energy electron Irradiation in 4H-SiC2004In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 96, no 9, p. 4909-4915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With low energy electron irradiation in the 80-250 keV range, we were able to create only those intrinsic defects related to the initial displacements of carbon atoms in the silicon carbide lattice. Radiation induced majority and minority carrier traps were analyzed using capacitance transient techniques. Four electron traps (EH1, Z1/Z2, EH3, and EH7) and one hole trap (HS2) were detected in the measured temperature range. Their concentrations show linear increase with the irradiation dose, indicating that no divacancies or di-interstitials are generated. None of the observed defects was found to be an intrinsic defect-impurity complex. The energy dependence of the defect introduction rates and annealing behavior are presented and possible microscopic models for the defects are discussed. No further defects were detected for electron energies above the previously assigned threshold for the displacement of the silicon atom at 250 keV. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. 10.1063/1.1778819.

  • 171.
    Storasta, Liutauras
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Sridhara, S.G.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Egilsson, T.
    Hallen, A.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Pseudodonor nature of the D1 defect in 4H-SiC2001In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 46-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use the recent findings about the pseudodonor character of the D1 defect to establish an energy-level scheme in the band gap for the defect, predicting the existence of a hole trap at about 0.35 eV above the valence band. Using minority carrier transient spectroscopy, we prove that the D1 defect indeed is correlated to such a hole trap. In addition, we show that the D1 defect is not correlated to the Z1/2 electron trap, in contrast to what was previously reported. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  • 172.
    Storasta, Liutauras
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Investigations of possible nitrogen participation in the Z1/Z2 defect in 4H-SiC2004In: Mater. Sci. Forum, Vol. 457-460, Trans Tech Publications Inc. , 2004, p. 469-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 173.
    Storasta, Liutauras
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Linnarsson, MK
    Bergman, JP
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Correlation between electrical and optical mapping of boron related complexes in 4H-SiC2003In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 433-436, 2003, Vol. 433-4, p. 423-426Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boron related photoluminescence (PL) and capacitance transient spectroscopy (DLTS and MCTS) peaks have been investigated around SIMS craters. Enhancement of boron and hydrogen related PL was observed in the vicinity of the crater, whereas the concentration of electrically active boron as measured by MCTS has decreased considerably. Comparison of the boron MCTS peak behavior after electron and proton irradiation is presented. Possible defect models based on the obtained results are discussed.

  • 174.
    Sudow, M.
    et al.
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nemati, H.M.
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Thorsell, M.
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, U.
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Andersson, K.
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fager, C.
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, P.-A.
    Nilsson, P.-Å., Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Jos, R.
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden, NXP Semiconductors BV, 5656 Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Rorsman, N.
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    SiC varactors for dynamic load modulation of high power amplifiers2008In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 29, no 7, p. 728-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SiC Schottky diode varactors with a high breakdown voltage, a high tuning ratio, and a low series resistance have been designed and fabricated. These characteristics are particularly necessary for the dynamic load modulation of high power amplifiers (PAs), which is an attractive alternative to other efficiency enhancement techniques. For a SiC Schottky diode varactor with a 50-µm radius fabricated by using a graded doping profile, a breakdown voltage of 40 V, a tuning range of 5.6, and a series resistance of 0.9 O were achieved. The results show the great potential of this type of varactors for the use in the dynamic load modulation of high power amplifiers. © 2008 IEEE.

  • 175.
    Syrkin, A
    et al.
    Technol & Devices Int Inc, Gaithersburg, MD 20877 USA N Carolina State Univ, Raleigh, NC 27695 USA Linkoping Univ, IFM, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Dmitriev, V
    Technol & Devices Int Inc, Gaithersburg, MD 20877 USA N Carolina State Univ, Raleigh, NC 27695 USA Linkoping Univ, IFM, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Power Schottky and p-n diodes on SiC epi-wafers with reduced micropipe density2002In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 389-393, 2002, Vol. 389-3, p. 1173-1176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we report on 2 mm diameter diodes fabricated with high device yield on 2 inch 4H-SiC wafers with reduced micropipe density (RMD). Micropipe density in 4H-SiC wafers was reduced using micropipe-filling technique. Low doped n-type layers were grown on RMD substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Schottky diodes were formed by Ni evaporation on CVD grown layers. Pn diodes were formed by sublimation growth of p(+)-layer on CVD grown layer. Mesa edge termination and no edge termination were used for pn diodes and Schottky diodes respectively. Both types of diodes demonstrated a maximum breakdown voltage of about 1000 V.

  • 176.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kakanakova-Georgieva, Anelia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Linnarsson, M
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optical properties of aluminium and nitrogen in compensated 4H-SiC epitaxial layers2001In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 640, 2001, p. H7.10.1-H7.10.6Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 177.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Jacobsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Linnarsson, MK
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Okmet AB, SE-17824 Ekero, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, Dept Solid State Elect, SE-16440 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    High growth rate epitaxy of thick 4H-SiC layers2000In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 338-342, Scientific.Net , 2000, Vol. 338-3, p. 165-168Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sublimation epitaxy for fabrication of thick 4H-SiC layers has been studied with respect to surface morphology, structural quality, and purity. The surface morphology of thick (50-100 mum) epilayers is smooth, even though the growth rate was 100 mum/h. These surfaces are obtained within a parameter window for morphological stability. The structural perfection is confirmed by high-resolution X-Ray diffraction measurements and the epilayer quality is improved compared with the substrate. The limitation in purity is dependent mainly on the purity of the SiC source material. The growth system purity, mainly graphite and Ta parts of the growth crucible, is also of major importance. Results from intentional doping for high-resistive, semi-insulating and p-type material are presented.

  • 178.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tuominen, M
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kakanakova-Georgieva, Anelia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Macmillan, M F
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wahab, Qamar Ul
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth of 6H and 4H-SiC by sublimation epitaxy1999In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 197, no 1-2, p. 155-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      The epitaxial sublimation growth process of SiC has been investigated. Layers with specular surfaces and growth rates up to 2 mm/h have been obtained. No step bunching is observed by optical microscopy even on very thick layers which indicates a stable step growth mechanism. Under certain growth conditions the morphology degrades. The morphological stability is investigated and discussed in relation to the growth kinetics. Impurities in the epitaxial layers are investigated by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and low-temperature photoluminescence. The carrier concentration is measured by capacitance–voltage measurements. The structural quality of the grown material is improved compared to the substrate as shown by X-ray diffraction measurements.

     

  • 179.
    Thierry-Jebali, N.
    et al.
    Université de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire AMPÈRE, CNRS, Villeurbanne, France.
    Lazar, M.
    Université de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire AMPÈRE, CNRS, Villeurbanne, France.
    Vo-Ha, A.
    Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, LMI, CNRS, Villeurbanne, France.
    Carole, D.
    Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, LMI, CNRS, Villeurbanne, France.
    Souliere, V.
    Soulière, V., Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, LMI, CNRS, UMR 5615, 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Planson, D.
    Université de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire AMPÈRE, CNRS, Villeurbanne, France.
    Ferro, G.
    Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, LMI, CNRS, Villeurbanne, France.
    Konczewicz, L.
    Université de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 2, L2C, CNRS, Montpellier, France.
    Contreras, S.
    Université de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 2, L2C, CNRS, Montpellier, France.
    Brylinski, C.
    Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, LMI, CNRS, Villeurbanne, France.
    Brosselard, P.
    Université de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire AMPÈRE, CNRS, Villeurbanne, France.
    Applications of vapor-liquid-solid selective epitaxy of highly p-type doped 4H-SiC: PiN diodes with peripheral protection and improvement of specific contact resistance of ohmic contacts2014In: SILICON CARBIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS 2013, PTS 1 AND 2, Trans Tech Publications , 2014, Vol. 778-780, p. 639-644Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work deals with two applications of the Selective Epitaxial Growth of highly p-type doped buried 4H-SiC in Vapor-Liquid-Solid configuration (SEG-VLS). The first application is the improvement of the Specific Contact Resistance (SCR) of contacts made on such p-type material. As a result of the extremely high doping level, SCR values as low as 1.3x10-6 Ω.cm2 have been demonstrated. Additionally, the high Al concentration of the SEG-VLS 4H-SiC material induces a lowering of the Al acceptor ionization energy down to 40 meV. The second application is the fabrication of PiN diodes with SEG-VLS emitter and guard-rings peripheral protection. Influence of some process parameters and crystal orientation on the forward and reverse characteristics of the PiN diodes is discussed. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  • 180.
    Thierry-Jebali, N
    et al.
    University of Lyon, France .
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lazar, M
    University of Lyon, France .
    Planson, D
    University of Lyon, France .
    Bano, E
    Grenoble INP, France .
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brosselard, P
    University of Lyon, France .
    Observation of the generation of stacking faults and active degradation measurements on off-axis and on-axis 4H-SiC PiN diodes2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 101, no 22, p. 222111-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PiN diodes have been fabricated on nominally on-axis Si-face 4H-SiC material and their electrical characteristics are compared to PiN diodes processed with exactly the same device process recipe on 8 degrees-off 4H-SiC material. Some diodes had an optical window on the top metal contact to observe the possible stacking faults generation and motion with photo emission microscopy. The diodes were electrically characterized in forward voltage to test their stability. Electrical characterizations demonstrate that there is no noticeable degradation for the diodes processed on on-axis 4H-SiC substrate and with optical characterization the formation of stacking faults was not observed.

  • 181.
    Thierry-Jebali, N.
    et al.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Vo-Ha, A.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Carole, D.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Lazar, M.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Ferro, G.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Planson, D.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brosselard, P.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Very low specific contact resistance measurements made on a highly p-type doped 4H-SiC layer selectively grown by vapor-liquid-solid transport2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 21, p. 212108-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports on the performances of ohmic contacts fabricated on highly p-type doped 4H-SiC epitaxial layer selectively grown by vapor-liquid-solid transport. Due to the very high doping level obtained, the contacts have an ohmic behavior even without any annealing process. Upon variation of annealing temperatures, it was shown that both 500 and 800 °C annealing temperature lead to a minimum value of the Specific Contact Resistance (SCR) down to 1.3×10−6 Ω⋅cm2. However, a large variation of the minimum SCR values has been observed (up to 4×10−4 Ω⋅cm2). Possible sources of this fluctuation have been also discussed in this paper.

  • 182.
    Thierry-Jebali, Nicolas
    et al.
    Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne Cedex, France.
    Lazar, Mihai
    Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne Cedex, France.
    Vo-Ha, Arthur
    Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne Cedex, France.
    Carole, Davy
    Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne Cedex, France.
    Souliere, Veronique
    Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne Cedex, France.
    Laariedh, Farah
    Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne Cedex, France.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzen, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Planson, Dominique
    Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne Cedex, France.
    Ferro, Gabriel
    Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne Cedex, France.
    Brylinski, Christian
    Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne Cedex, France.
    Brosselard, Pierre
    Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne Cedex, France.
    Electrical Characterization of PiN Diodes with p(+) layer Selectively Grown by VLS Transport2013In: Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2012 / [ed] Alexander A. Lebedev, Sergey Yu. Davydov, Pavel A. Ivanov and Mikhail E. Levinshtein, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2013, Vol. 740-742, p. 911-914Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with electrical characterization of PiN diodes fabricated on an 8 degrees off-axis 4H-SiC with a p(++) epitaxial area grown by Vapour-Liquid-Solid (VLS) transport. It provides for the first time evidence that a high quality p-n junction can be achieved by using this technique followed by a High Temperature Annealing (HTA) process.

  • 183. Thuaire, A.
    et al.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Mermoux, M.
    Bano, E.
    Investigation of the Electronic Structure of the UD-4 Defect in 4H-SiC by Optical Techniques2006In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 527-529, 2006, Vol. 527-529, p. 461-464Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 184.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, J. Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén , Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    In-situ surface preparation of nominally on-axis 4H-SiC substrates2008In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 310, no 20, p. 4430-4437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of the in-situ surface preparation has been performed for both Si- and C-face 4H-SiC nominally on-axis samples. The surface was studied after etching under C-rich, Si-rich and under pure hydrogen ambient conditions at the same temperature, pressure and time interval using a hot-wall chemical vapor deposition reactor. The surfaces of all the samples were analyzed using optical microscopy with Normarski diffractional interference contrast and atomic force microscopy with tapping mode before and after in-situ etching. Polishing related damages were found to be removed under all etching conditions, also the surface step structure was uncovered and a few defect-selective etch pits were observed. For the Si-face sample, the best surface morphology was obtained after Si-rich etching conditions with more uniform and small macro-step height which resulted in the lowest surface roughness. For the C-face sample the surface morphology was comparable under all etching conditions and not much difference was found except for the etching rate. Si droplets were not observed under any etching conditions.

  • 185.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, J. Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On-axis homoepitaxial growth on Si-face 4H–SiC substrates2008In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 310, no 20, p. 4424-4429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Homoepitaxial growth has been performed on Si-face nominally on-axis 4H–SiC substrates using horizontal Hot-wall chemical vapor deposition system. Special attention was paid to the surface preparation before starting the growth. In-situ surface preparation, starting growth parameters and growth temperature are found to play a vital role to maintain the polytype stability in the epilayer. High quality epilayers with 100% 4H–SiC were obtained on full 2″ substrates. Different optical and structural techniques were used to characterize the material and to understand the growth mechanisms. It was found that the replication of the basal plane dislocation from the substrate into the epilayer can be completely eliminated. The on-axis grown epitaxial layers were of high quality and did not show surface morphological defects, typically seen in off-axis grown layers, but had a high surface roughness.

  • 186.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Brosselard, P.
    Godignon, P.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    On-axis Homoepitaxy on Full 2- 4H-SiC Wafer for High Power Applications2009In: Materials Science Forum Vols. 615-617, Trans Tech Publications , 2009, p. 133-136Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Homoepitaxial growth has been performed on Si-face nominally on-axis 4H-SiC substrates. Special attention was paid to the surface preparation before starting the growth. Si-face polished surfaces were studied after etching under C-rich, Si-rich and under pure hydrogen ambient conditions. In-situ surface preparation, starting growth parameters and growth temperature are found to play a vital role to maintain the polytype stability in the epilayer. High quality epilayers with 100% 4H-SiC were obtained on full 2” wafer. Complete PiN structure was grown and more than 70% of the diodes showed a stable behavior and the forward voltage drift was less than 0.1 V. Also, a comparison of the electroluminescence images of diodes before and after heavy injection of 125 A/cm2 for 30 min did not show any sign of stacking fault formation in the device active region.

  • 187.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    High Growth Rate with Reduced Surface Roughness during On-Axis Homoepitaxial Growth of 4H-SiC2011In: Materials Science Forum (Volumes 679 - 680), p115-118, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2011, p. 115-118Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of different C/Si ratio on the surface morphology has been studied to optimize the on-axis homoepitaxial growth conditions on 4H-SiC substrates to improve the surface roughness of epilayers. The overall surface roughness is found to decrease with decreasing C/Si ratio. An order of magnitude lower surface roughness has been observed using C/Si ratio = 0.8 without disturbing the polytype stability in the epilayer. A high growth rate of 10 µm/h was achieved without introducing 3C inclusions. The epilayers grown at higher growth rate with C/Si ratio = 1 also had improvements in the surface roughness. 100% 4H polytype was maintained in the epilayers grown with C/Si ratio in the range of 1.2 to 0.8 and with high growth rate of 10 µm/h.

  • 188.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Norstel AB, Ramshällsvägen 15, S-60116 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    McNally, P. J.
    cNanomaterials Processing Laboratory, Research Institute for Networks & Communications Engineering (RINCE), School of Electronic Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    4H-SiC Epitaxial Layers Grown on on-axis Si-face Substrate2007In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 556-557, Trans Tech Publications , 2007, Vol. 556-557, p. 53-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the growth of 4H-SiC epitaxial layer on Si-face polished nominally on-axis 2” full wafer, using Hot-Wall CVD epitaxy. The polytype stability has been maintained over the larger part of the wafer, but 3C inclusions have not been possible to avoid. Special attention has given to the mechanism of generation and propagation of 3C polytype in 4H-SiC epilayer. Different optical and structural techniques were used to characterize the material and to understand the growth mechanisms. It was found that all 3C inclusions were generated at the interface between the substrate and the epitaxial layer, and no 3C inclusions were initiated at later stages of the growth.

  • 189.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    McNally, P.J.
    Dublin City University.
    Anderson, S.
    n/a.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth and properties of SiC on-axis homoepitaxial layers2010In: ICSCRM 2009, Trans Tech Publications , 2010, Vol. 645-648, p. 83-88Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Homoepitaxial growth has been performed on 3 Si-face on-axis 4H-SiC substrates using standard gas system in a horizontal Hot-wall chemical vapor deposition system. Substrate surface damages are found to act as preferential nucleation sites for 3C inclusions also, the surface morphology after in-situ etching is found to largely influence the polytype stability in the epilayer. Different in-situ etching conditions were studied where Si-rich conditions are found to be better. Growth parameters and starting growth conditions are refined to obtain stable polytype in the epilayer. High quality homoepitaxial layers with 100% 4H-SiC are obtained on 3 substrates. Different optical and structural techniques are used to characterize the layers and to understand the growth mechanisms. The layers are found to be of high quality and no epitaxial defects typically found on off-axis epitaxial layers are observed. A high surface roughness is observed in these layers, however higher growth rate significantly lowers the surface roughness without affecting the polytype stability in the epilayer.

  • 190.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optical and Structural Properties of In-grown Stacking Faults in 4H-SiC Epilayers2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different and novel in-grown triangular stacking faults have been observed and characterized in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown on 4 degrees off-cut substrates. The faults were formed at the beginning of the growth and extended continuously in size during the growth. Their structural and optical properties were however different as seen from both synchrotron white beam topography and low temperature photoluminescence. The luminescence spectra were similar but appeared in different energy regions 2.85 - 2.95 eV and 2.48 - 2.64 eV, respectively. BPDs present in the epilayer are found to be transformed into SFs under laser excitation during high resolution optically detected lifetime mapping. The faults are found to expand from the epilayer surface towards the epi-substrate interface. The optical spectrum from this fault is identical to the emission from the single layered Shockley stacking faults with excitonic bandgap of 3.034 eV previously only observed and formed in the bipolar diodes during forward voltage operation.

  • 191.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Epitaxial growth of thin 4H-SiC layers with uniform doping depth profile2006In: Thin Solid Films, Vol. 515, 2006, Vol. 515, no 2 SPEC. ISS., p. 460-463Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the growth of thin, n-type, 4H-SiC epilayers on (0001) 4H-SiC substrates with uniform doping depth profile. The initial etching of the material before growth is studied to avoid affecting the starting material in the case of regrowth. Variation of the growth rate and its effect on nitrogen incorporation during the first few minutes of the growth have been studied using delta doped demarcation layers. Different growth conditions at the beginning of the growth have been tested in order to grow abrupt layers with a flat doping profile with a variation < ± 1%. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 192.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brosselard, P.
    Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, CNM-CSIC, Campus Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Godignon, P.
    Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, CNM-CSIC, Campus Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Bergman, J. Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Non Degrading PiN Diodes Grown On On-axis 4H-SiC SubstratesManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bipolar PiN diodes have been fabricated using epitaxial layers grown on nominally onaxis Si-face 4H-SiC substrates. Top metal contacts were processed with windows to observe the electroluminescence and any formation of stacking faults during forward current injection. The diodes were tested for voltage stability using a forward current density of 120 A/cm2 for 30 min. More than 70 % of the diodes showed a stable behavior and change in the forward voltage was less than 0.1 V. No movement of basal plane dislocations or the formation of stacking faults was observed using electroluminescence. Most of the remaining diodes failed completely due to contact breakdown.

  • 193.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, J. Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    In-grown stacking faults in 4H-SiC epilayer grown on off-cut substrates2009In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 105, no 12, p. 123513-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Different and novel in-grown stacking faults have been observed and characterized in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown on 4 or 8o off-cut substrates. Two different kinds of triangular stacking faults were observed in the epilayers grown on 4o off-cut substrates. The faults were formed during epitaxial growth close to the epi-substrate interface and increased continuously in size during growth. Their structural and optical properties were however different as seen from both synchrotron white beam topography and low temperature photoluminescence. The luminescence spectra were similar but appeared in different energy regions 2.85 – 2.95 eV and 2.48 – 2.64 eV, respectively which have not been observed for previously reported stacking faults. A third stacking fault was observed in 8o off-cut as-grown epilayers, sometime with higher density. A combination of back polishing, etching in molten KOH and optical microscopy revealed the geometrical structure of the stacking fault inside the epilayer. Also this fault started close to the epi-substrate interface, expanded rapidly but changed geometry after some time and reduced in size during further growth. The optical spectrum from this fault is identical to the emission from the stacking faults previously only observed and formed in the bipolar diodes during forward voltage operation.

  • 194.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    McNally, P. J.
    Nanomaterials Processing Lab., RINCE, School of Electronic Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland.
    Bergman, J. Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Characterization of the Carrot Defect in 4H-SiC Epitaxial Layers2010In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 313, p. 1828-1837Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterization of the epitaxial defect known as the carrot was performed in thick 4HSiC epilayers. A large number of the carrot defects have been studied using different experimental techniques such as optical microscopy, KOH etching, cathodoluminescence and synchrotron white beam x-ray topography. This has revealed that the carrot defects appear in many different shapes and structures in the layers. Our results support the previous assignment of the defect as related to a prismatic stacking fault. However, we have observed the carrot defects with and without a visible threading dislocation related etch pit in the head region, after KOH etching. The carrot defects have found to be originated both at epi-substrate interface and during the epitaxial growth. Also, different sources of the carrot defect have been observed which resulted in different structure of the defect inside the epilayer.

  • 195.
    Unéus, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Nakagomi, S
    SSENCE, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Div Appl Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden Ishinomaki Senshu Univ, Sch Engn, Ishinomaki 9868580, Japan.
    Linnarsson, M
    SSENCE, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Div Appl Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden Ishinomaki Senshu Univ, Sch Engn, Ishinomaki 9868580, Japan.
    Jensen, Mona
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Svensson, BG
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Ekedahl, Lars-Gunnar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Lunstrom, I
    SSENCE, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Div Appl Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden Ishinomaki Senshu Univ, Sch Engn, Ishinomaki 9868580, Japan.
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    The effect of hydrogen diffusion in p- and n-type SiC Schottky diodes at high temperatures2002In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 389-393, 2002, Vol. 389-3, p. 1419-1422Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present here the effect of a hydrogen anneal at 600degreesC for Schottky sensor devices based on n- and p-type 4H SiC. The devices have gate contacts of Ta/Pt, or TaSix/Pt. The catalytic metal gate dissociates hydrogen and thus promotes diffusion of hydrogen atoms into the SiC, where the atoms will trap or react with different impurities, defects or surface states. This will change parameters such as the carrier concentrations, the defect density of the material or the surface resistivity at the SiC/SiO2 interface. The current-voltage and the capacitance-voltage characteristics were measured before and after annealing in hydrogen and oxygen containing atmosphere, and the results show a reversible effect in the I-V characteristics.

  • 196.
    van Rooyen, I J
    et al.
    Idaho National Laboratory.
    Engelbrecht, J A A
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Neethling, J H
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University.
    van Rooyen, P M
    Philip M van Rooyen Network Consultants.
    The effect of grain size and phosphorous-doping of polycrystalline 3C-SiC on infrared reflectance spectra2012In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 422, no 1-3, p. 103-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of P-doping and grain size of polycrystalline 3C-SiC on the infrared reflectance spectra is reported. The relationship between grain size and full width at half maximum (FWHM) suggest that the behavior of the 3C-SiC with the highest phosphorous doping level (of 1.2 x 10(19) at. cm(-3)) is different from those with lower doping levels (andlt;6.6 x 10(18) at. cm(-3)). It is also further demonstrated that the plasma resonance frequency (omega(p)) is not influenced by the grain size.

  • 197.
    van Rooyen, I J
    et al.
    CSIR, South Africa Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa PBMR, South Africa .
    Neethling, J H
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa .
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mokoduwe, S M
    PBMR, South Africa .
    Janse van Vuuren, A
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa .
    Olivier, E
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa .
    Effects of phosphorous-doping and high temperature annealing on CVD grown 3C-SiC2012In: Nuclear Engineering and Design, ISSN 0029-5493, E-ISSN 1872-759X, Vol. 251, no SI, p. 191-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integrity and property behavior of the SiC layer of the Tr-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle (CP) for high temperature reactors (HTR) are very important as the SiC layer is the main barrier for gaseous and metallic fission product release. This study describes the work done on un-irradiated SiC samples prepared with varying phosphorus levels to simulate the presence of phosphorus due to transmutation. Si-30 transmutes to phosphorous (P-31) and other transmutation products during irradiation, which may affect the integrity of the SiC layer. The P-doping levels of the SiC samples used in this study cover the range from 1.1 x 10(15) to 1.2 x 10(19) atom/cm(3) and are therefore relevant to the PBMR operating conditions. Annealing from 1000 degrees C to 2100 degrees C was performed to study the possible changes in nanostructures and various properties due to temperature. Characterization results by X-ray diffraction (XRD), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), are reported in this article. As grain boundary diffusion is identified as a possible mechanism by which Ag-110m, one of the fission activation products, might be released through intact SiC layer, grain size measurements is also included in this study. Temperature is evidently one of the factors/parameters amongst others known to influence the grain size of SiC and therefore it is important to investigate the effect of high temperature annealing on the SiC grain size. The ASTM E112 method as well as electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to determine the grain size of various commercial SiC samples and the SiC layer in experimental PBMR Coated Particles (CPs) after annealing at temperatures ranging from 1600 degrees C to 2100 degrees C. The HRTEM micrograph of the decomposition of SiC at 2100 degrees C are shown and discussed. Nanotubes were not identified during the TEM and HRTEM analysis although graphitic structures were identified. The preliminary conclusion reached is that the P-content at these experimental levels (1.1 x 10(15) to 1.2 x 10(19) atom/cm(3)) does not have a significant influence on the nanostructure of SiC at high temperatures without irradiation. 

  • 198.
    Wahab, Qamar Ul
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Ellison, A
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, IFM, ABB Corp Res, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Sci & Technol Lille, FR-59655 Villeneuve Dascq, France.
    Hallin, Christer
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Di Persio, J
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, IFM, ABB Corp Res, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Sci & Technol Lille, FR-59655 Villeneuve Dascq, France.
    Martinez, R
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, IFM, ABB Corp Res, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Sci & Technol Lille, FR-59655 Villeneuve Dascq, France.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Influence of epitaxial growth and substrate induced defects on the breakdown of high-voltage 4H-SiC Schottky diodes2000In: Materials Science Forum(ISSN 0255-5476), Volume 338-3, Scientific.Net , 2000, Vol. 338-3, p. 1175-1178Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of morphological and structural defects on high-voltage 4H-SiC Schottky diodes was studied. Micropipes were found as severely limiting the breakdown voltage of 4H-SiC power devices, where as carrot-like defects did not influence the value of breakdown voltage. The screw dislocation density as determined by X-ray topography analysis under the active area of the diode was also found to directly affect the breakdown voltage value. Only diodes with low density of screw dislocations and free from micropipes could block 2 kV or higher.

  • 199.
    Wahab, Qamar Ul
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Ellison, A
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden ABB Corp Res, S-72178 Vasteras, Sweden Univ Sci & Tech Lille Flandres Artois, F-59665 Villeneuve Dascq, France.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Hallin, Christer
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Di Persio, J
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden ABB Corp Res, S-72178 Vasteras, Sweden Univ Sci & Tech Lille Flandres Artois, F-59665 Villeneuve Dascq, France.
    Martinez, R
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden ABB Corp Res, S-72178 Vasteras, Sweden Univ Sci & Tech Lille Flandres Artois, F-59665 Villeneuve Dascq, France.
    Influence of epitaxial growth and substrate-induced defects on the breakdown of 4H-SiC Schottky diodes2000In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 76, no 19, p. 2725-2727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Morphological defects and elementary screw dislocations in 4H-SiC were studied by high voltage Ni Schottky diodes. Micropipes were found to severely limit the performance of 4H-SiC power devices, whereas carrot-like defects did not influence the value of breakdown voltage. The screw dislocation density as determined by x-ray topography analysis under the active area of the diode was also found to directly affect the breakdown voltage. Only diodes with low density of screw dislocations and free from micropipes could block 2 kV or higher. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics. [S0003-6951(00)01119-0].

  • 200.
    Wahab, Qamar Ul
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Ellison, A
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Zhang, J
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Duranova, E
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Madsen, LD
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Designing, physical simulation and fabrication of high-voltage (3.85 kV) 4H-SiC Schottky rectifiers processed on hot-wall and chimney CVD films2000In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 338-342, 2000, Vol. 338-3, p. 1171-1174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical simulation, fabrication and characterization of high-voltage Ni/4H-SiC Schottky rectifiers are studied. We demonstrate a blocking voltage of 3.85 kV by utilizing a 43 mum thick low doped 4H-SiC epilayer in vertical hot-wall Chimney CVD reactor. A high breakdown voltage of 3.56 kV was achieved on a layer grown by conventional hot-wall CVD reactor. The reverse leakage current on CVD sample was as low as 5 x 10(-6) A cm(-2) at 3.5 kV just before the breakdown.

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