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  • 151.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Alternating Polyfluorene/Fullerene Solar Cells - Optical and Electronic Processes for Colllecting the Solar Spectrum2007In: Second International Conference on Electroactive Polymers; Materials and Devices,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Alternative Geometries for Organic Solar Cells - Folded Tandems and Transparent Stacks2008In: Universitet Groningen,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Biomacromolecules and Electronic Polymers at the Crossroads2006In: Swedish French Symposium on Bionanotechnology,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 154.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Conjugated Polyelectrolytes as Optical Probes of Biomolecules and Biosystems2007In: Optical Probes 2007, invited lecture,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 155.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Conjugated Polyelectrolytes as Tools for Decorating Biomolecules in vitro, in Tissue and in vivo2007In: MRS Spring Meeting 2007,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 156.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Conjugated Polymers and Polyelectrolytes as Probes of Biomolecules and Biosystems2008In: Gordon Conference,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 157.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Decorated DNA-Templates for Organic Nanoelectronics2006In: Swedish Japanese Symposium on Bionanotechnology,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Device Design and Designer Polymers for Tandem Solar Cells2008In: Materials Research Society, Fall Meeting,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 159.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Electroactive Polymers in Redox Devices- from Printed Electrochemical Hybrid Systems to Soft Matter actuators and Electrical Biointerfaces2006In: International Electrochemical Society,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Invited Plenary Lecture

  • 160.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Electronic Polymers at the Interface to Biosystems2007In: Plenary Lecture at the E-MRS Spring Meeting May 28-1 June,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Electronic Polymers Interfacing Biological Systems2007In: University of California at Los Angeles Dept. Materials Science,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Folded Reflective Multijunction Polymer Solar Cells2008In: Technologies for Printed Electronics,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 163.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    From Low Bandgap to Black: APFO/Fullerene Blends in New Geometries2007In: Complutense Internacional Symposium SIC-07: Materials for Renewable Energies: Orgnic and Hybrid Solar Cells,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 164.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    From Metal to Semiconductor and Back: Thirty Years of Conjugated Polymer Electrochemistry2010In: Iontronics: Ionic Carriers in Organic Electronic Materials and Devices / [ed] Janelle Leger, Magnus Berggren, Sue Carter, Boca Raton: CRC Press; Taylor & Francis Group , 2010, p. 29-41Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of organic electronics promises exciting new technologies based on inexpensive and mechanically flexible electronic devices, and is now seeing the beginning of commercial success. On the sidelines of this increasingly well-established field are several emerging technologies with innovative mechanisms and functions that utilize the mixed ionic/electronic conducting character of conjugated organic materials. Iontronics: Ionic Carriers in Organic Electronic Materials and Devices explores the potential of these materials, which can endow electronic devices with unique functionalities.

    Fundamental science and applications

    With contributions from a community of experts, the book focuses on the use of ionic functions to define the principle of operation in polymer devices. It begins by reviewing the scientific understanding and important scientific discoveries in the electrochemistry of conjugated polymers. It examines the known effects of ion incorporation, including the theory and modulation of electrochemistry in polymer films, and it explores the coupling of electronic and ionic transport in polymer films. The authors also describe applications that use this technology, including polymer electrochromic devices, artificial muscles, light-emitting electrochemical cells, and biosensors, and they discuss the fundamental technological hurdles in these areas.

    The changes in materials properties and device characteristics due to ionic conductivity and electrochemical doping in electrically conductive organic materials, as well as the importance of these processes in a number of different and exciting technologies, point to a large untapped potential in the development of new applications and novel device architecture. This volume captures the state of the science in this burgeoning field.

  • 165.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    From Modelling to Manufacturing-Plastic Photovoltaics should come cheap2008In: AGHSET Meeting-International Energy Association,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hybrid electronics and electrochemistry with conjugated polymers2010In: Chemical Society Reviews, ISSN 0306-0012, E-ISSN 1460-4744, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 2633-2642Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this critical review, we discuss the history and development of polymer devices wherein manipulation of the electronic conductivity by electrochemical redox processes in a conjugated polymer is used to form new functions. The devices employed are an electrochemical transistor, an electrolyte-gated field-effect transistor and light-emitting electrochemical cells, all of which combine doping/undoping of a conjugated polymer with modification of electronic transport (130 references).

  • 167.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Low Bandgap Alternating Polyfluorene Copolymers in Plastic Solar Cells2006In: International Conference on Photochemical Conversation and Storage of Solar Energy,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 168.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Organic Photovoltaics - Towards High Performance Low Bandgap Polyfluorene/fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Devices2006In: Technologies for Printed Electronics,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 169.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Organic Photovoltaics - Towards High Performance Low Bandgap Polyfluorene/fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Devices2006In: American Physical Society,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 170.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS Avoiding indium2011Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 171.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Polymera och Organiska Solceller2007In: Energitinget,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 172.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Single Molecule Printing with Biomolecular Nanowires Complexed with Luminescent Conjugated Polyelectrolytes2007In: MRS Spring Meeting 2007,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 173.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Solar Light Collected in Plastic Photovoltaics2008In: ICSM 2008,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Tandem Solar Cells in Alternative Geometries2008In: Excitonic Solar Cells,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 175.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Woven Logic with Electrochemical Transistors2008In: CIMTEC 2008,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Admassie, Shimelis
    University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia .
    25th Anniversary Article: Organic Photovoltaic Modules and Biopolymer Supercapacitors for Supply of Renewable Electricity: A Perspective from Africa2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 830-847Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of materials in civilization is well demonstrated over the centuries and millennia, as materials have come to serve as the classifier of stages of civilization. With the advent of materials science, this relation has become even more pronounced. The pivotal role of advanced materials in industrial economies has not yet been matched by the influence of advanced materials during the transition from agricultural to modern societies. The role of advanced materials in poverty eradication can be very large, in particular if new trajectories of social and economic development become possible. This is the topic of this essay, different in format from the traditional scientific review, as we try to encompass not only two infant technologies of solar energy conversion and storage by means of organic materials, but also the social conditions for introduction of the technologies. The development of organic-based photovoltaic energy conversion has been rapid, and promises to deliver new alternatives to well-established silicon photovoltaics. Our recent development of organic biopolymer composite electrodes opens avenues towards the use of renewable materials in the construction of wooden batteries or supercapacitors for charge storage. Combining these new elements may give different conditions for introduction of energy technology in areas now lacking electrical grids, but having sufficient solar energy inputs. These areas are found close to the equator, and include some of the poorest regions on earth.

  • 177.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjertberg, T.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Wennerström, O.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Dyreklev, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Granström, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thiophene polymers in light emitting diodes: Making multicolour devices1995In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 71, no 1-3, p. 2121-2124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We can control the bandgap of thiophene polymers over 2 eV by choosing the nature, position and regularity of side chain substitutions. Electroluminescence from these polymers cover the full visible spectrum, from the blue into the near infra-red. Blends of these polymer materials allow us to construct voltage controlled variable colour light sources. A newly developed transfer technique allow us to mount thin oriented films of the polymers in polymer LEDs to obtain polarised light sources giving polarisation anisotropys of up to 3. Sub-lambda light sources have been constructed from these polymer materials using nanometer polymer electrodes.

  • 178.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Granlund, T
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Theander, M
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, MR
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Ruseckas, A
    Lunds universitet.
    Sundström, V
    Lunds universitet.
    Optical emission from confined poly(thiophene) chains1998In: Optical materials (Amsterdam), ISSN 0925-3467, E-ISSN 1873-1252, Vol. 9, no 1-4, p. 104-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss the stages of the luminescence processes in substituted and soluble poly(thiophenes), using results from determinations of absolute quantum yields of photoluminescence, fast pump-probe experiments and microcavity devices. Enhancement of the quantum yield of photoluminescence, with poly(thiophenes) in the solid state, call be obtained by dispersing the conjugated chain in a molecularly dispersed polymer blend, or by adding side chains designed for forcing the conjugated main chains apart. At the wavelength of stimulated emission, we observe a narrow bandwidth emission in the high-Q one-dimensional microcavity devices prepared by sandwiching two dielectric mirrors around a thin polymer film, A strong enhancement of the power efficiency is observed at a pump power of 1 mu W/cm(2), but does not conclusively show lasing characteristics. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  • 179.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemomechanical devices from polymer conductors and semiconductors2001In: Encyclopedia of materials: science and technology. Vol. 3 / [ed] K. H. Jürgen Buschow, Robert W. Cahn, Merton C. Flemings, Bernard Ilschner, Edward J. Kramer, Subhash Mahajan, and Patrick Veyssière, Oxford: Elsevier , 2001, 2, p. 2531-2535Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymer (CP) actuators are devices where the volume of a CP material is changed during a change of the state of oxidation or reduction of the polymer. The volume change is extracted as a geo-metrical change in uni- or bimorphs, where the active material may be combined with the passive supporting material. In bimorphs, which have an active layer supported on a passive Ælm, bending of the assembly occurs as the dimensional change is driven by electrochemistry.

  • 180.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Ghosh, S.
    Phase engineering for enhanced electrochromism in conjugated polymers2001In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 46, no 13-14, p. 2031-2034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of nanostructured blends of electrochromic polymers formed by self-assembly is reported. We have prepared blends of a polythiophene derivative, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and polypyrrole, combining optical and electrochemical properties of the two polymers. The route towards these blends is based on self-assembly of the former polymer into a hydrogel, and subsequent electrochemical polymerisation of the latter using the conducting hydrogel matrix as a template. When used as electrodes, these materials show very fast electrochromic response. The route used in the present work is generic and may be extended to other polymers. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 181.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Mats R., Andersson
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    New polymers for plastic solar cells2007In: Proceedings of SPIE, ISSN 0361-0748Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 182.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Nyberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Ghosh, S
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Conjugated polymer gels as 3-D electrodes.2001In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 221, p. 429-IEC-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Roman, L.S.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Johansson, D.M.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Andersson, M.R.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hummelen, J.C.
    Stratingh Institute, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, Netherlands.
    Recent progress in thin film organic photodiodes2001In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 121, no 1-3, p. 1525-1528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review current developments in organic photodiodes, with special reference to multilayer thin film optics, and modeling of organic donor-acceptor photodiodes. We indicate possibilities to enhance light absorption in devices by nanopatterning as well as by blending, and also discuss materials science issues of nanostructure in blends and in vertically stratified multilayer devices. Our current best devices have external efficiencies of 30-50% in between 400-600 nm, and show fill factors of 0.54 illuminated under weak monochromatic light.

  • 184.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Svensson, M.
    Materials and Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Gadisa, Abay
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Wang, Xiangjun
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Andersson, M.R.
    Materials and Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Low bandgap alternating polyfluorene copolymers in plastic photodiodes and solar cells2004In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 31-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a comparative study of plastic photodiodes using four different copolymers of fluorene, with a variation of alkyl side chain length and chemical structure. Photodiode materials are formed by blending the polymers with a fullerene derivative and spincoating the blend solution. A photovoltage of 1 V is obtained in devices, where the anode is a doped polymer and the cathode is LiF/Al. Monochromatic quantum efficiencies are better than 40% over most of the absorption range, and under solar light AM 1.5 simulation, we reach energy efficiencies beyond 2%. The high fill factors obtained in some of the devices indicate that these are of interest for more elaborate optimisation. Reasons for the benign electrical transport are discussed. © Springer-Verlag 2004.

  • 185.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polymer optoelectronics - towards nanometer dimensions2003In: NANOTECHNOLOGY AND NANO-INTERFACE CONTROLLED ELECTRONIC DEVICES, p. 65-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 186.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Alternating Copolymers and Alternative Device Geometries for Organic Photovoltaics2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, p. 138-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of conversion of light to electrical energy with the help of conjugated polymers and molecules is rapidly improving. The optical absorption properties of these materials can be designed, and implemented via molecular engineering. Full coverage of the solar spectrum is thus feasible. Narrow absorption spectra allow construction of tandem solar cells. The poor transport properties of these materials require thin devices, which limits optical absorption. Alternative device geometries for these flexible materials compensate for the optical absorption by light trapping, and allow tandem cells.

  • 187.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R
    Chalmers.
    Alternating Polyfluorenes Collect Solar Light in Polymer Photovoltaics2009In: ACCOUNTS OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH, ISSN 0001-4842, Vol. 42, no 11, p. 1731-1739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effort to improve the energy conversion efficiency of polymer solar cells has led to the design of novel donor polymers. To improve open circuit photovoltages (OCVs) and the spectral coverage of the solar spectrum, researchers have looked for materials with high HOMO values, an easily modified electronic structure, and sufficient electronic transport within the polymers. One advance in design from our laboratories has been the development of a class of alternating polyfluorene copolymers (APFOs), which can be combined with fullerenes to make bulk heterojunction materials for photovoltaic conversion. This Account describes copolymers of fluorene that we designed to expand the range the optical absorption of solar cells to include wavelengths out to 1000 nm. In most cases, we combine these polymers with acceptors from the fullerene family, typically the phenyl C-61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecule, to generate solar cell materials. The synthesis of alternating copolymers of fluorene with various donor-acceptor-don or elements provides the opportunity to shift both HOMO and LUMO, which we have followed by electrochemical spectroscopy. Moving the LUMO of the APFOs farther from the vacuum level eventually leads to a situation where the driving force for photo-induced charge transfer from polymer donor to fullerene acceptor goes to zero, resulting in inefficient charge generation. Moving the HOMO level closer to the vacuum level reduces the OCV of devices made from bulk heterojunction blends. As we move the bandgap toward lower energies and increase the overlap of optical absorption with the solar spectrum, both these events eventually occur. In devices based on these APFO/fullerene blends, the performance depends on the OCV, the photocurrent under solar illumination, and the fill factor. The fill factor is influenced by electrical transport and charge generation. Optimizing these parameters requires new solutions to the perennial conflict between optically thin devices, where electrical extraction of charge is not a limitation, and the optically thick devices, where extraction of charge is hampered by trapping and recombination. As a result, we have developed methods to trap light in optically thin devices. When the thin film flexible solar cells are folded, multiple reflection between adjacent solar cells leads to a longer path length for the photon through the devices and considerable improvement of the optical dissipation in the active material. These optical tricks also enable an alternative route to tandem devices, where two different bandgap materials are located on adjacent folds. Thus light not absorbed in one cell is reflected onto the next cell to produce an effective optical series arrangement. Using experiments and simulations of the light trapping effects, we demonstrate power conversion efficiency enhancements of up to a factor of 1.8.

  • 188.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Lars Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hellstrom, Stefan
    Chalmers.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers.
    Polymer Photovoltaics with Alternating Copolymer/Fullerene Blends and Novel Device Architectures2010In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 22, no 20, p. E100-E116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis of novel conjugated polymers, designed for the purpose of photovoltaic energy conversion, and their properties in polymer/fullerene materials and photovoltaic devices are reviewed. Two families of main chain polymer donors, based on fluorene or phenylene and donor-acceptor-donor comonomers in alternating copolymers, are used to absorb the high-energy parts of the solar spectrum and to give high photovoltages in combinations with fullerene acceptors in devices. These materials are used in alternative photovoltaic device geometries with enhanced light incoupling to collect larger photocurrents or to enable tandem devices and enhance photovoltage.

  • 189.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Wang, Xiangjun
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Gadisa, Abay
    IPS/ÌFM Linköpings universitet.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Svensson, Mattias
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Perzon, Erik
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Mammo, W
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Andersson, M.R.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Alternating fluorene copolymer/fullerene blend solar cells2005In: Organic Photovoltaics: Mechanisms, Materials and Devices / [ed] Sam-Shajing Sun, Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci, Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press , 2005, 1, p. 387-402Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently developed organic photovoltaics (OPVs) show distinct advantages over their inorganic counterparts due to their lighter weight, flexible shape, versatile materials synthesis and device fabrication schemes, and low cost in large-scale industrial production. Although many books currently exist on general concepts of PV and inorganic PV materials and devices, few are available that offer a comprehensive overview of recently fast developing organic and polymeric PV materials and devices.

    Organic Photovoltaics: Mechanisms, Materials, and Devicesfills this gap. The book provides an international perspective on the latest research in this rapidly expanding field with contributions from top experts around the world.  It presents a unified approach comprising three sections: General Overviews; Mechanisms and Modeling; and Materials and Devices. Discussions include sunlight capture, exciton diffusion and dissociation, interface properties, charge recombination and migration, and a variety of currently developing OPV materials/devices. The book also includes two forewords: one by Nobel Laureate Dr. Alan J. Heeger, and the other by Drs. Aloysius Hepp and Sheila Bailey of NASA Glenn Research Center.

    Organic Photovoltaics equips students, researchers, and engineers with knowledge of the mechanisms, materials, devices, and applications of OPVs necessary to develop cheaper, lighter, and cleaner renewable energy throughout the coming decades.

  • 190.
    J Lindgren, Lars
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Barrau, Sophie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hellstrom, Stefan
    Chalmers.
    Mammo, Wendimagegn
    Chalmers.
    Perzon, Erik
    Chalmers.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R
    Chalmers.
    Synthesis, Characterization, and Devices of a Series of Alternating Copolymers for Solar Cells2009In: CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, ISSN 0897-4756, Vol. 21, no 15, p. 3491-3502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we report the synthesis, characterization. and photovoltaic properties of a series of six Conjugated polymers based on donor-acceptor-donor (DAD) structure. The polymers are obtained via Suzuki polymerization of different alkoxy-substituted DAD monomers together with a substituted fluorene or phenylene monomer. Application of polymers as light-harvesting and electron-donating materials in solar cells, in conjunction with both [60]PCBM and [70]PCBM as acceptors, show power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 2.9%, values obtained without extensive optimization work. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy and field-effect transistor (FET) mobility measurements of acceptor-polymer mixtures show that differences in substitution on the polymers affect morphology, mobility, and device performance. Within the series of polymers, all showing similar optical absorption and redox behavior, substituents play an important role in phase separation on a micrometer scale, which in turn has a large impact on device performance. The phase-separation behavior is clearly seen in [70]PCBM devices where the best-performing devices are obtained using the polymers with short alkoxy groups or no substituents together with a high speed of spin coating during device preparation.

  • 191.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Immerstrand, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biomedical applications of polypyrrole microactuators: from single-cell clinic to microrobots2000In: 1st Annual International, Conference On Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology. 2000, IEEE , 2000, p. 58-61Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microtools that will be useful for the positioning and investigation microstructures must operate relevant environments, such as cell culture media or blood plasma. They must also be comparatively strong, and preferably allow a muscle like mode of movement. This is given by a novel family of actuators based on conjugated polymers (like polypyrrole, PPy). By miniaturising these structures using standard photolithographic techniques, the authors can reduce the size down to 10-micrometer dimensions and build mechanically active microdevices. These can be moved and positioned by applying a potential to dope or undope the PPy. These novel structures are now being developed as a unique microactuator technology, suitable for operation in applications coupled to cell biology and biomedicine

  • 192.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemomechanical Devices from Conjugated Polymers2016In: Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering / [ed] Saleem Hashmi, Oxford: Elsevier, 2016, p. 1-5Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymer actuators are devices where the volume of a conjugated (or conducting) polymer material is changed during a change of the state of oxidation or reduction of the polymer. This volume change can be utilized to construct actuators, for instance as a single layer or fiber resulting in a linear actuator or assembled into a multilayer structure where the active material is combined with a passive supporting material forming bending actuator.

  • 193.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Microrobots for Micrometer-Size Objects in Aqueous Media: Potential Tools for Single-Cell Manipulation2000In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 288, no 5475, p. 2335-2338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polymers are excellent materials for actuators that are operated in aqueous media. Microactuators based on polypyrrole-goldbilayers enable large movement of structures attached to theseactuators and are of particular interest for the manipulationof biological objects, such as single cells. A fabrication methodfor creating individually addressable and controllable polypyrrole-goldmicroactuators was developed. With these individually controlledmicroactuators, a micrometer-size manipulator, or microroboticarm, was fabricated. This microrobotic arm can pick up, lift,move, and place micrometer-size objects within an area of about250 micrometers by 100 micrometers, making the microrobot an excellenttool for single-cell manipulation.

  • 194.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perpendicular Actuation with Individually Controlled Polymer Microactuators2001In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 76-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Actuator systems based on conducting polymers, such as polypyrole, with which three-dimensional movement can be controlled, are described. The Figure shows a combination of two such microactuators which are used to “kick” a glass bead across the surface of a silicon wafer. The microfabrication methods used to produce the systems are described and the potential uses, for example microrobotic arms, discussed.

  • 195.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smela, Elisabeth
    Risø National Lab, Roskilde.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On-chip microelectrodes for electrochemistry with moveable PPy bilayer actuators as working electrodes1999In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 56, no 1-2, p. 73-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present electrochemical microactuators which have all the electrodes necessary for the actuation—the working, counter, and reference electrodes—on-chip. This is a first step towards an all-polymer system, i.e., a system that does not require a liquid electrolyte. The microactuators' performance was as good as when standard, off-chip counter and reference electrodes were used. Specifically, the speed of actuation was the same. In addition, we obtained a good cyclic voltammogram, although the oxidation and reduction peaks were shifted and some noise was present. Apart from application in an all-polymer system, we will also use these microactuators for studies on the effect of mechanical stimulation of living cells.

  • 196.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smela, Elisabeth
    Condensed Matter Department, Risö National Lab.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polypyrrole micro actuators1999In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 102, no 1-3, p. 1309-1310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The doping and undoping of conjugated polymers is accompanied by a volume change. This volume change can be used to make micro-actuators. We have built polypyrrole (PPy) gold bilayer structures. The volume change of PPy induces a bending of the bilayer. We have made micro-actuators based on this principle, which have been examined with video-microscopy. Some applications for these microactuators are proposed, including opening and closing boxes for cell biology and nanoliter chemistry and micro-robotics.

  • 197.
    Jager, Edwin W.H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Immerstrand, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holmgren Peterson, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The cell clinic: closable microvials for single cell studies2002In: Biomedical microdevices (Print), ISSN 1387-2176, E-ISSN 1572-8781, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 177-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the development of a cell clinic. This is a micromachined cavity, or microvial, that can be closed with a lid. The lid is activated by two polypyrrole/Au microactuators. Inside the microvials two Au electrodes have been placed in order to perform impedance studies on single or a small number of cells. We report on impedance measurements on Xenopus leavis melanophores. We could measure a change in the impedance upon cell spreading and identify intracellular events such as the aggregation of pigment granules. The electrical data is correlated to optical microscopy.

  • 198.
    Jager, EWH
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smela, E
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Maryland, Dept Mech Engn, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Microfabricating conjugated polymer actuators2000In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 290, no 5496, p. 1540-1545Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymer actuators can be operated in aqueous media, which makes them attractive for laboratories-on-a-chip and applications under physiological conditions. One of the most stable conjugated polymers under these conditions is polypyrrole, which can be patterned by means of standard photolithography. Polypyrrole-gold bilayer actuators that bend out of the plane of the wafer have been microfabricated in our laboratory. These can be used to move and position other microcomponents. Here we review the current status of these microactuators, outlining the methods used to fabricate them. We describe the devices that have been demonstrated as well as some potential future applications.

  • 199.
    Jespersen, Kim G
    et al.
    Chemical Physics Kemicentrum.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gadisa, Abay
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Sundström, Villy
    Chemical Physics Kemicentrum.
    Yartsev, Arkady
    Chemical Physics Kemicentrum.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Charge formation and transport in bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on alternating polyfluorene copolymers blended with fullerenes2006In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 7, p. 235-242Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 200.
    Johansson, D.M.
    et al.
    Department of Organic Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Granlund, T.
    Theander, M.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Andersson, M.R.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Synthesis and characterisation of polyfluorenes with light-emitting segments2001In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 121, no 1-3, p. 1761-1762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the synthesis and characterisation of two copolymers. They consists of poly(9-hexyl-9-(2'-ethylhexyl)fluorene) (HEH-PF) with a small amount of another polymer with a narrow band-gap. The synthetic route was designed to allow the incorporation of only one low band-gap segment per polymer chain. Photoluminescence measurements showed that energy transfer from the PF-segments to the low band-gap segments, did occur. In the solid state, all emissions were detected from the low band-gap segments with photoluminescence quantum yields up to 68%. One copolymer showed a low threshold for lasing (2 µJ/cm2) in a microcavity device.

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