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  • 151.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Fejes, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Kvalitet och generaliserbarhet i kvalitativa studier2015In: Handbok i kvalitativ analys / [ed] Andreas Fejes & Robert Thornberg, Stockholm: Liber, 2015, 2, p. 256-278Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en oumbärlig handbok för dig som ska skriva en akademisk uppsats baserad på kvalitativ datainsamling som exempelvis kvalitativa intervjuer, detaljerade observationer av samtal, textdokument eller fältstudier. Här får du konkreta råd och en gedigen genomgång av grundläggande aspekter av kvalitativ forskning samt redskap för att analysera data. Boken redogör för olika former av kvalitativ analys och går därutöver även igenom forskarens roll, forskningsprocessen, metoder för datainsamling samt vilken metodansats som kan vara lämplig att välja.

    Författarna presenterar ett flertal betydelsefulla och etablerade ansatser inom kvalitativ forskning, där varje ansats beskrivs på ett sådant sätt att läsaren direkt ska kunna finna vägledning i hur han eller hon kan analysera sina data. Kapitlen tydliggör också vilka typer av forskningsfrågor som kan vara av intresse inom ramen för de specifika metoderna eller ansatserna. Därmed ger boken studenterna hjälp att både bättre förstå logiken bakom olika kvalitativa forskningsansatser och finna den eller de metoder som passar för just de frågor som de är intresserade av.Nio olika metodansatser presenteras ingående:grundad teori, hermeneutik, diskursanalys, fenomenologi, fenomenografi, textanalys, konversationsanalys, fältforskning, livsberättelser.

  • 152.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Fejes, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Kvalitet och generaliserbarhet i kvalitativa studier2009In: Handbok i kvalitativ analys / [ed] Andreas Fejes & Robert Thornberg, Stockholm: Liber, 2009, 1, p. 216-235Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en oumbärlig handbok för dig som ska skriva en akademisk uppsats baserad på kvalitativ datainsamling som exempelvis kvalitativa intervjuer, detaljerade observationer av samtal, textdokument eller fältstudier. Här får du konkreta råd och en gedigen genomgång av grundläggande aspekter av kvalitativ forskning samt redskap för att analysera data. Boken redogör för olika former av kvalitativ analys och går därutöver även igenom forskarens roll, forskningsprocessen, metoder för datainsamling samt vilken metodansats som kan vara lämplig att välja.

    Författarna presenterar ett flertal betydelsefulla och etablerade ansatser inom kvalitativ forskning, där varje ansats beskrivs på ett sådant sätt att läsaren direkt ska kunna finna vägledning i hur han eller hon kan analysera sina data. Kapitlen tydliggör också vilka typer av forskningsfrågor som kan vara av intresse inom ramen för de specifika metoderna eller ansatserna. Därmed ger boken studenterna hjälp att både bättre förstå logiken bakom olika kvalitativa forskningsansatser och finna den eller de metoder som passar för just de frågor som de är intresserade av.Nio olika metodansatser presenteras ingående:grundad teori, hermeneutik, diskursanalys, fenomenologi, fenomenografi, textanalys, konversationsanalys, fältforskning, livsberättelser.

  • 153.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Grundad teori2009In: Handbok i kvalitativ analys / [ed] Fejes, Andreas & Thornberg, Robert, Stockholm: Liber, 2009, 1, p. 38-61Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 154.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Grundad teori2015In: Handbok i kvalitativ analys / [ed] Fejes, Andreas & Thornberg, Robert, Stockholm: Liber, 2015, 2, p. 44-70Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 155.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Halldin, Karolina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Bolmsjö, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Petersson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Victimising of school bullying: a grounded theory2013In: Research Papers in Education, ISSN 0267-1522, E-ISSN 1470-1146, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 309-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how individuals;who had been victims of school bullying;perceived their bullying experiences and how these had affected them;and to generate a grounded theory of being a victim of bullying at school. Twenty-one individuals;who all had prior experiences of being bullied in school for more than one year;were interviewed. Qualitative analysis of data was performed by methods from grounded theory. The research identified a basic process of victimising in school bullying;which consisted of four phases: (a) initial attacks;(b) double victimising;(c) bullying exit and (d) after-effects of bullying. Double victimising refers to a process in which there was an interplay between external victimising and internal victimising. Acts of harassment were repeatedly directed at the victims from their social environment at school – a social process that constructed and repeatedly confirmed their victim role in the class or the group. This external victimising affected the victims and initiated an internal victimising;which meant that they internalised the socially constructed victim-image and acted upon this image;which in turn often supported the bullies’ agenda and confirmed the socially constructed victim-image. The findings also indicate the possible positive effect of changing the social environment.

  • 156.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hellberg, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Asperger syndrome, stigmatizing processes, and bullying in school2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bystander behavior in bullying situations: basic moral sensitivity, moral disengagement and defender self-efficacy2013In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 475-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how basic moral sensitivity in bullying, moral disengagement in bullying and defender self-efficacy were related to different bystander behaviors in bullying. Therefore, we examined pathways that linked students' basic moral sensitivity, moral disengagement, and defender self-efficacy to different bystander behaviors in bullying situations. Three hundred and forty-seven teenagers completed a bullying survey. Findings indicated that compared with boys, girls expressed higher basic moral sensitivity in bullying, lower defender self-efficacy and moral disengagement in bullying. Results from the SEM showed that basic moral sensitivity in bullying was negatively related to pro-bully behavior and positively related to outsider and defender behavior, mediated by moral disengagement in bullying, which in turn was positively related to pro-bully behavior and negatively related to outsider and defender behavior. What differed in the relations between outsider and defender behaviors was the degree of defender self-efficacy.

  • 158.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Lunds universitet.
    Callous-unemotional traits, harm-effect moral reasoning, and bullying among Swedish children2017In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 559-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been associated with bul- lying among children and adolescents, relatively little is known about whether each of the three sub-constructs of CU traits—callous, uncaring, and unemotional—are associated with bullying when they are considered concurrently in the analysis.

    Objective: This study was the first to examine in a single model whether callous, uncaring, and unemotional traits are directly related to the perpetration of bullying and to harm-effect moral reasoning in bullying among children as well as whether these three CU traits are indirectly related to bullying mediated by harm-effect moral reasoning.

    Methods: Self-reported data on CU traits, harm-effect moral reasoning in bullying situa- tions, and bullying perpetration were collected from 381 children from 13 schools in Sweden. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses.

    Results: When all three sub-constructs of CU traits were included in a single model, greater callousness and uncaring were directly associated with greater bullying. In contrast, greater harm-effect moral reasoning was associated with less bullying. Moreover, greater callousness and unemotional were indirectly associated with greater bullying through the reduced use of harm-effect moral reasoning.

    Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that all three CU traits are important to address, although their associations with bullying took some different paths, and that callousness appears to be the most important CU trait in relation to bullying. 

  • 159.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Jungert, TomasLunds universitet.
    Independent in the heard: Inclusion and exclusion as social processes. Proceedings from the 9th GRASP conference, Linköping University, May 20142014Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GRASP (Group and Social Psychology) is an interdisciplinary conference, which aims to provide a community around social psychological issues for researchers, practitioners, and graduate students from the Nordic countries within the fields of psychology, sociology, education, behavioural sciences and social work to share, exchange, learn, and develop preliminary results, new concepts, ideas, principles, and methodologies, as well as bridging the gaps between paradigms, encouraging interdisciplinary collaborations, and advancing our understanding of groups and social psychology.

    GRASP 2014 was the ninth Nordic conference was held in Linköping and hosted by the Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning at Linköping University. The theme of the conference this year was on inclusion and exclusion as social processes. Twenty-two papers were accepted and presented at the conference. Keynote speech was given by Dr Siân Jones from Oxford Brookes University and Dr Ken Mavor from University of St Andrews. In line with the main theme of the conference, Siân Jones talked about “Bullying and belonging: Experimental data, real-world data, tears, and tantrums”. Ken Mavor talked about “Encapsulating the things that matter: Exploring identities for learning, social action and wellbeing”.

    The topics of the individual papers at GRASP 2014 were: (a) the role of categorization in personal change through participation in collective action, (b) students’ perspectives on bullying incidents, (c) mindfulness in values education in schools, (d) team-training and the executive team’s organizational influence, (e) using discursive psychology to show how students do ‘being collaborative’ in group work, (f) operational leadership and knowledge-transfer in high risk operations, (g) communication of risk in oil and gas megaprojects, (h) verbal expressions of “compassion” in an academic context, (i) a descriptive study of work groups in the Swedish and U.S. economy, (j) challenges and panaceas, as experienced by physicians, when introducing a patient centred and team based round, (k) leadership and communication in cross-cultural teams in a study of Korean/Scandinavian collaboration, (l) conscientiousness and agreeableness among prisoners, (m) ‘dark values’ – the dark triad hiding in Schwartz’ value orientation, (n) gender and legitimacy in student project groups, (o) between Skylla and Karybdis within academia – peer leadership or management, (p) illusion of invulnerability, need for cognition and resisting persuasion, (q) the significance of management climate on the quality of elderly care, (r) benevolence towards men and women, and traditional views of upbringing – a backlash to gender equality, (s) the role of equality in the decision making process in small groups, (t) bullying and defender behaviour amongst school children – the importance of moral emotions and moral disengagement, and (u) development of learning models through social experiments considering widening recruitment of university students.

    These proceedings bring you seven of the 22 papers from the conference.

  • 160.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Jungert, TomasDepartment of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Independent in the heard: Inclusion and exclusion as social processes. Proceedings from the 9th GRASP conference, Linköping University, May 2014: Independent in the heard: Inclusion and exclusion as social processes. The 9th GRASP conference, Linköping University, May 20142014Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GRASP (Group and Social Psychology) is an interdisciplinary conference, which aims to provide a community around social psychological issues for researchers, practitioners, and graduate students from the Nordic countries within the fields of psychology, sociology, education, behavioural sciences and social work to share, exchange, learn, and develop preliminary results, new concepts, ideas, principles, and methodologies, as well as bridging the gaps between paradigms, encouraging interdisciplinary collaborations, and advancing our understanding of groups and social psychology.

    GRASP 2014 was the ninth Nordic conference was held in Linköping and hosted by the Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning at Linköping University. The theme of the conference this year was on inclusion and exclusion as social processes. Twenty-two papers were accepted and presented at the conference. Keynote speech was given by Dr Siân Jones from Oxford Brookes University and Dr Ken Mavor from University of St Andrews. In line with the main theme of the conference, Siân Jones talked about “Bullying and belonging: Experimental data, real-world data, tears, and tantrums”. Ken Mavor talked about “Encapsulating the things that matter: Exploring identities for learning, social action and wellbeing”.

    The topics of the individual papers at GRASP 2014 were: (a) the role of categorization in personal change through participation in collective action, (b) students’ perspectives on bullying incidents, (c) mindfulness in values education in schools, (d) team-training and the executive team’s organizational influence, (e) using discursive psychology to show how students do ‘being collaborative’ in group work, (f) operational leadership and knowledge-transfer in high risk operations, (g) communication of risk in oil and gas megaprojects, (h) verbal expressions of “compassion” in an academic context, (i) a descriptive study of work groups in the Swedish and U.S. economy, (j) challenges and panaceas, as experienced by physicians, when introducing a patient centred and team based round, (k) leadership and communication in cross-cultural teams in a study of Korean/Scandinavian collaboration, (l) conscientiousness and agreeableness among prisoners, (m) ‘dark values’ – the dark triad hiding in Schwartz’ value orientation, (n) gender and legitimacy in student project groups, (o) between Skylla and Karybdis within academia – peer leadership or management, (p) illusion of invulnerability, need for cognition and resisting persuasion, (q) the significance of management climate on the quality of elderly care, (r) benevolence towards men and women, and traditional views of upbringing – a backlash to gender equality, (s) the role of equality in the decision making process in small groups, (t) bullying and defender behaviour amongst school children – the importance of moral emotions and moral disengagement, and (u) development of learning models through social experiments considering widening recruitment of university students.

    These proceedings bring you seven of the 22 papers from the conference.

  • 161.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Lunds universitet.
    Moral disengagement in bullying2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    School bullying and the mechanisms of moral disengagement2014In: Aggressive Behavior, ISSN 0096-140X, E-ISSN 1098-2337, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 99-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine to what degree different mechanisms of moral disengagement were related to age, gender, bullying, and defending among school children. Three hundred and seventy-two Swedish children ranging in age from 10 to 14 years completed a questionnaire. Findings revealed that boys expressed significantly higher levels of moral justification, euphemistic labeling, diffusion of responsibility, distorting consequences, and victim attribution, as compared with girls. Whereas boys bullied others significantly more often than girls, age was unrelated to bullying. Moral justification and victim attribution were the only dimensions of moral disengagement that significantly related to bullying. Furthermore, younger children and girls were more likely to defend victims. Diffusion of responsibility and victim attribution were significantly and negatively related to defending, while the other dimensions of moral disengagement were unrelated to defending.

  • 163.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Knutsen, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Teenagers Explanations of Bullying2011In: CHILD and YOUTH CARE FORUM, ISSN 1053-1890, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 177-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore how teenagers explain why bullying takes place at school, and whether there were any differences in explaining bullying due to gender and prior bullying experiences. One hundred and seventy-six Swedish students in Grade 9 responded to a questionnaire. Mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative methods) were used to analyze data. The grounded theory analysis generated five main categories and 26 sub categories regarding accounts of bullying causes. Results indicated that youth tended to explain bullying in terms of individualistic reasons (bully attributing and victim attributing) than in terms of peer group, school setting, or human nature/society reasons. Girls were more likely to attribute bullying causes to the bully and much less to the victim, compared to boys. Moreover, youth classified as bullies were more likely to attribute the reason for bullying to the victim and much less to the bully, compared to victims, bystanders, and victims/bullies.

  • 164.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Landgren, Lena
    Linköping University.
    Wiman, Erika
    Linköping University.
    It Depends': A qualitative study on how adolescent students explain bystander intervention and non-intervention in bullying situations2018In: School Psychology International, ISSN 0143-0343, E-ISSN 1461-7374, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 400-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study was to examine how junior high school students interpret, motivate, and explain various bystander behaviors in bullying situations. The participants were 17 junior high school students recruited from four schools in Sweden. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed with grounded theory methods. The analysis generated a conceptual model of bystander interpreting-considering process in school bullying. A core category named it depends' was developed to explain how the participants in the study motivated their own and their peers' actions as bystanders in various bullying situations. Whether they intervened or not depended on how they interpreted the situation in terms of: (a) seriousness of the situation, including trivialization; (b) social relationships with the involved; (c) locus of responsibility, including displacement of responsibility, and victim blame; (d) social status; (e) perception of risk; and (f) defender self-efficacy. The implications of these results for bullying prevention and intervention efforts are discussed.

  • 165.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Oğuz, Ebru
    Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Department of Educational Science, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Moral and citizenship educational goals in values education: A cross-cultural study of Swedish and Turkish student teachers' preferences2016In: Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, ISSN 0742-051X, E-ISSN 1879-2480, Vol. 55, p. 110-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine Swedish and Turkish student teachers' moral educational and citizenship educational goal preferences in values education. The participants were 198 Swedish and 190 Turkish student teachers. While Turkish student teachers seemed to be more morally committed and eclectic than Swedish student teachers, hypothesized gender differences could only be found in the Swedish sample. Whereas there was no difference in their commitment towards critical-progressive goals, Turkish student teachers expressed a stronger commitment to traditional-conservative goals than Swedish student teachers.

  • 166.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Oğuz, Ebru
    Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi.
    Swedish and Turkish student teachers' moral developmental and societal socialisation preferences in values education: A cross-cultural study2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 167.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Oğuz, Ebru
    Mimar Sinan Fine Art University.
    Teachers' views on values education: A qualitative study in Sweden and Turkey2013In: International Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0883-0355, E-ISSN 1873-538X, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study was to examine Swedish and Turkish teachers’ perspectives on values education. Qualitative interviews with 52 teachers were conducted and analyzed. Values education was mostly about compliance with societal values and norms. The learning goals or values in values education were mainly on how to treat others and on self-responsibility. Teachers did not take a critical approach. A main method of values education reported by the teachers was to be a good role model in everyday interactions with students. Values education was largely described as an everyday practice embedded in the stream of social interactions. Furthermore, an everyday language was used when the teachers described values and values education. There was a lack of professional knowledge in this domain.

  • 168.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Perhamus, Lisa
    Grand Valley State University, USA.
    Charmaz, Kathy
    Sonoma State University, USA.
    Grounded theory2015In: Handbook of research methods in early childhood education - Volume 1: Research methodologies / [ed] Olivia N. Saracho, Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 2015, p. 405-439Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 169.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    University of Padova.
    Gianluca, Gini
    University of Padova.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Lunds universitet.
    Unique and Interactive Effects of Moral Emotions and Moral Disengagement on Bullying and Defending among School Children2015In: The Elementary school journal, ISSN 0013-5984, E-ISSN 1554-8279, Vol. 116, no 2, p. 322-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first aim of the present study was to examine in a single model how moral disengagement and moral emotions were related to bullying and defending behavior among schoolchildren. The second aim was to test whether the two moral dimensions interacted with each other to explain behavior in bullying situations. Data were collected from 561 Swedish students. Moral disengagement was positively associated with bullying and negatively associated with defending, whereas moral emotions score was negatively associated with bullying and positively associated with defending. Moreover, students who scored high in moral emotions did not tend to bully other students, irrespective of their levels of moral disengagement, whereas when the moral emotions score was low bullying behavior increased with increasing levels of moral disengagement. In contrast, moral disengagement was negatively related to defending behavior at low levels of moral emotions, but not when moral emotions were high.

  • 170.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Gini, Gianluca
    University pf Padova, Italy.
    Hong, Jun Sung
    Wayne State University, Detroit, USA; Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Bullying and repeated conventional transgressions in Swedish schools: How do gender and bullying roles affect students’ conceptions?2017In: Psychology in the schools (Print), ISSN 0033-3085, E-ISSN 1520-6807, Vol. 54, no 9, p. 1189-1201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bullying is a moral transgression. Recognizing the importance of approaching bullying from a moral perspective, the present study examines whether children's judgments and reasoning to justify their judgments differ between bullying and repeated conventional transgressions. Our study also explores differences by gender and differences among bullies, victims, and uninvolved students. Participants included 381 students from 13 elementary schools in Sweden. Findings indicate that children judge bullying as more wrong than repeated conventional transgressions; use moral reasons more frequently in their justifications about bullying than about repeated conventional transgressions; and use conventional reasons more frequently to justify their judgments on repeated conventional transgressions as compared with bullying. Female students and nonbullies judged bullying and repeated conventional transgressions as more wrong and used moral reasons more frequently in their justifications of judgments of bullying than did male students and bullies. Male students reported bullying more than did female students. Implications for practice are also discussed.

  • 171.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    University of Padova.
    Gini, Gianluca
    University of Padova.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Lunds universitet.
    Bullying and defending behavior among school children: The importance of moral emotions and moral disengagement2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 172.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Gini, Gianluca
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mobbning och att försvara utsatta för mobbning: Betydelsen av elevers moraliska emotioner och moraliska disengagemang2014In: Independent in the heard: Inclusion and exclusion as social processes. Proceedings from the 9th GRASP conference, Linköping University, May 2014 / [ed] Robert Thornberg and Tomas Jungert, Linköping: Linköping University Press , 2014, p. 109-123Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning har visat att moraliskt disengagemang och moraliska emotioner sammanhänger med både mobbning och att försvara personer som är utsatta för mobbning. Vad vi dock inte vet är om var och en av dessa två faktorer fortfarande bidrar till att förklara variationen av dessa beteenden när båda inkluderas i samma modell. Syftet med studien var därför att undersöka hur moraliskt disengagemang och moraliska emotioner är associerade med mobbning och försvararbeteende bland skolbarn i en och samma modell. Vi ville även undersöka om det förelåg en interaktionseffekt mellan dessa två moraliska faktorer och som ytterligare bidrar till att förklara variationen i mobbning och försvararbeteende. 561 elever i årskurs 5 och 6 från 28 grundskolor besvarade anonymt och under skoltid en enkät. Resultatet visade att medan moraliskt disengagemang var positivt associerat med mobbning och negativt associerat med försvararbeteende, så var moraliska emotioner nega- tivt associerade med mobbning och positivt associerade med försvararbeteende. Vidare visade resultatet att elever som uppvisade hög nivå av moraliska emotioner var mindre benägna att mobba oavsett deras nivå av moraliskt disengagemang. I kontrast till detta var moraliskt disengagemang negativt associerat med försvarbeteende vid låga nivåer av moraliska emotioner men inte när nivån av moraliska emotioner var högt. 

  • 173.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    University of Padova.
    Gini, Gianluca
    University of Padova.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Lunds universitet.
    Moral disengagement, moral emotions and their associations with bullying and defending behavior among early adolescents2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Rosenqvist, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Johansson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Older Teenagers’ Explanations of Bullying2012In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 327-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In accordance with the social information processing model, how adolescents attribute cause to a particular social situation (e.g., bullying) they witness or participate in, influences their online social information processing, and hence, how they will act in the situation.

    Objective

    The aim of the present study was to explore how older teenagers explain why bullying takes place at school, and whether there were any differences in explaining bullying due to gender.

    Methods

    Two hundred and fifteen Swedish students in upper secondary school responded to a questionnaire. Mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative methods) were used to analyze data.

    Results

    The qualitative analysis resulted in three main categories and nine subcategories regarding accounts of bullying causes. According to the findings, the youth explained bullying much more often with individualistic explanations (bully attributing and victim attributing) than non-individualistic explanations (social context attributing). Furthermore, girls tended to provide a greater number of bullying explanations and were more likely to attribute bullying causes to the bully and the victim, as compared to boys.

    Conclusions

    The findings provide insights into older teenagers’ understanding of why bullying occurs in school. The study also identified some gender differences but also some mixed findings regarding gender differences in comparison with previous research with younger participants. The authors concluded that more research has to be done to investigate age and gender differences.

  • 175.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tenenbaum, Laura
    Georgia State University, USA.
    Varjas, Kristen
    Georgia State University, USA.
    Meyers, Joel
    Georgia State University, USA.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vanegas, Gina
    Georgia State University, USA.
    Bystander motivation in bullying incidents: To intervene or not to intervene?2012In: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1936-900X, E-ISSN 1936-9018, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 247-252Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    This research sought to extend knowledge about bystanders in bullying situations with a focus on the motivations that lead them to different responses. The 2 primary goals of this study were to investigate the reasons for children's decisions to help or not to help a victim when witnessing bullying, and to generate a grounded theory (or conceptual framework) of bystander motivation in bullying situations.

    Methods

    Thirty students ranging in age from 9 to 15 years (M = 11.9; SD = 1.7) from an elementary and middle school in the southeastern United States participated in this study. Open- ended, semi-structured interviews were used, and sessions ranged from 30 to 45 minutes. We conducted qualitative methodology and analyses to gain an in-depth understanding of children's perspectives and concerns when witnessing bullying.

    Results

    A key finding was a conceptual framework of bystander motivation to intervene in bullying situations suggesting that deciding whether to help or not help the victim in a bullying situation depends on how bystanders define and evaluate the situation, the social context, and their own agency. Qualitative analysis revealed 5 themes related to bystander motives and included: interpretation of harm in the bullying situation, emotional reactions, social evaluating, moral evaluating, and intervention self-efficacy.

    Conclusion

    Given the themes that emerged surrounding bystanders' motives to intervene or abstain from intervening, respondents reported 3 key elements that need to be confirmed in future research and that may have implications for future work on bullying prevention. These included: first, the potential importance of clear communication to children that adults expect bystanders to intervene when witnessing bullying; second, the potential of direct education about how bystanders can intervene to increase children's self-efficacy as defenders of those who are victims of bullying; and third, the assumption that it may be effective to encourage children's belief that bullying is morally wrong.

  • 176.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Thelin, KatinaKarlstad universitet.
    Med ansiktet vänt mot Europa: perspektiv på skolutveckling2011Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Med ansiktet vänt mot Europa – Perspektiv på skolutveckling vänder sig företrädesvis till skolledare och lärare som på ett mer övergripande plan vill fördjupa sig i olika aspekter av skolutveckling. Boken spänner över ett brett kunskapsfält och diskuterar bland annat:

    • skolor som lokala organisationer,l olika utvecklingsstrategier när det gäller skolutveckling,
    • vad som är utmärkande för effektiva skolor,
    • skolor som lärande organisationer,
    • inspektion som stöd för skolutveckling,
    • olika system för kvalitetsutveckling och resultatuppföljning.

    Blicken riktas både utåt mot olika erfarenheter och exempel i Europa och inåt mot den aktuella situationen i Sverige när det gäller skolutveckling.

  • 177.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Varjas, Kristen
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, US.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Meyers, Joel
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, US.
    Investigating bystander motivations and behavior in bullying situations2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Varjas, Kristen
    Georgia State University.
    Meyers, Joel
    Georgia State University.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Lunds universitet.
    Students' perceptions of bystander behavior2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bullying and its association with altruism toward victims, blaming the victims, and classroom prevalence of bystander behaviors: a multilevel analysis2018In: Social Psychology of Education, ISSN 1381-2890, E-ISSN 1573-1928, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1133-1151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With reference to social-ecological, self-determination, attributional, and social cognitive theories, the current study examined whether gender, age, altruistic motivation to defend victims, and tendency to blame the victims, at the individual level, and the prevalence of reinforcing and defending, at the classroom level, were associated with bullying. A sample of 901 Swedish students (9-13years old, M=11.00, SD=.83) from 43 classrooms filled out a questionnaire. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that the perpetration of bullying was positively associated with the prevalence of reinforcing at the classroom level and blaming the victims at the individual level, whereas it was negatively associated with altruistic motivation to defend victims of bullying at the individual level. Furthermore, students with high altruistic motivation to defend victims of bullying were less inclined to bully, independent of the classroom level of reinforcing. The current study suggests that bullying prevention and intervention programs should: explicitly target bystander behaviors, in particular to reduce the prevalence of reinforcing bullying; include efforts to strengthen altruistic self-concept and motivation to defend victims; and prevent, challenge, and counteract tendencies among students to blame the victim.

  • 180.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning.
    School bullying and victimization and their associations with classroom prevalence of bystander responses, individual tendency of blaming the victim, and gender: A multi-level analysis2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 181.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The role of class climate and class moral disengagement in peer victimization among pre-adolescents2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 182.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hong, Jun Sung
    Wayne State University, USA; Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea.
    Espelage, Dorothy
    University of Florida, USA.
    Classroom relationship qualities and social-cognitive correlates of defending and passive bystanding in school bullying in Sweden: A multilevel analysis2017In: Journal of School Psychology, ISSN 0022-4405, E-ISSN 1873-3506, Vol. 63, p. 49-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the social-ecological and social cognitive theories as integrated guiding frameworks, the present study examined whether moral disengagement and defender self-efficacy at the individual level, and moral disengagement, quality of teacher–student relationships and quality of student–student relationships at the classroom level were associated with passive bystanding and defending in bullying situations. Participants were 900 Swedish students from 43 classrooms, ranging in age from 9 to 13 years. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that passive reactions by bystanders were associated with greater moral disengagement and less defender self-efficacy. Defending, in turn, was associated with less moral disengagement and greater defender self-efficacy and classroom student–student relationship quality. Furthermore, students who scored high in moral disengagement were even less prone to defend victims when the classroom student–student relationship quality was low, but more prone to act as defenders when the classroom student–student relationship quality was high. In addition, the negative association between defender self-efficacy and passive bystanding was stronger both in classrooms with higher student–student relationship quality and in those with lower class moral disengagement. Implications for prevention are discussed.

  • 183.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning.
    Hong, Jun Sung
    Wayne State University.
    Espelage, Dorothy
    University of Florida.
    Individual and class socio-moral influences on how to act as a bystander in school bullying situations2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 184.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hymel, Shelley
    Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    Individual and Classroom Social-Cognitive Processes in Bullying: A Short-Term Longitudinal Multilevel Study2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine whether individual and classroom collective social-cognitive processes (moral disengagement and self-efficacy) were associated with bullying perpetration among schoolchildren. An additional aim was to examine whether changes in these processes from grade 4 (Time 1) to grade 5 (Time 2) were associated with a change in bullying perpetration. Self-reported survey data were collected from 1,250 Swedish students from 98 classrooms. Results of multilevel analysis indicated that individual and classroom collective moral disengagement (CMD) were positively associated with bullying, and defender self-efficacy (DSE) was negatively associated with bullying. The effect of changes in individual moral disengagement on changes in bullying was positive, and the effects of changes in DSE and classroom collective efficacy on changes in bullying were negative. Thus, the findings demonstrate the changeability of moral disengagement, DSE and collective efficacy over time, and how these changes are linked to changes in bullying perpetration.

  • 185.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Authoritative classroom climate and its relations to bullying victimization and bystander behaviors2018In: School Psychology International, ISSN 0143-0343, E-ISSN 1461-7374, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 663-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Authoritative school climates have been associated with less school bullying and other antisocial behaviors. However, studies focusing on the classroom level, as well as on bystander behaviors, are lacking. The aim of the current study was to examine whether authoritative classroom climates were associated with bullying victimization and various bystander behaviors (reinforcer, outsider, and defender behaviors) in school bullying. We included gender as a covariate at the individual and classroom levels. Participants were 1540 5th-grade students (824 girls) from 104 classrooms in Sweden who completed a questionnaire. The findings revealed that girls and students in classes with greater authoritative classroom climates were more inclined to defend. Boys reinforced more as did students in classes with more boys and more authoritative classroom climates. Boys showed more outsider behaviors as did students in classes with less authoritative classroom climates. Students in classrooms with less authoritative climates were victimized to a higher degree. Thus, the current findings suggest that a warm, caring, supportive, controlled, demanding, and cohesive classroom climate should be considered a vital protective factor against bullying victimization and negative bystander responses, and a facilitator of defending and supporting victims.

  • 186.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    University of Padova.
    Peer victimisation and its relation to class relational climate and class moral disengagement2017In: Educational Psychology, ISSN 0144-3410, E-ISSN 1469-5820, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 524-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether class climate and class moral disengagement each contribute to explain different levels of victimisation among classes. Eight-hundred-and-ninety-nine children from 43 Swedish elementary school classes participated in the current study. Class moral disengagement, class relational climate and peer victimisation were assessed by a self-report questionnaire. In order to account for the clustered nature of the data with students nested within school classes, a multilevel regression model was analysed. Consistent with our hypotheses, and after controlling for age, gender and ethnic background at the individual level and class size and the proportion of boys at the class level, both class relational climate and class moral disengagement uniquely contributed to explaining the between-class variance in victimisation. Thus, the findings suggested that victimisation is less likely to occur in classes characterised by a positive, warm, fair and supportive relational pattern between children and between teachers and children, and by lower levels of class moral disengagement.

  • 187.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    University of Padova.
    The social climate and moral disengagement in school classes and their associations with peer victimization2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 188.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    Department of Development and Social Psychology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Gianluca, Gini
    Department of Development and Social Psychology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Victim prevalence in bullying and its association with teacher–student and student–student relationships and class moral disengagement: A class-level path analysis2018In: Research Papers in Education, ISSN 0267-1522, E-ISSN 1470-1146, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 320-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to test whether teacher–student relationship (TSR) quality and student–student relationship (SSR) quality at class level and class moral disengagement (CMD), considered together in a single model, were related to class prevalence of victims (CPV) of bullying. A sample of 899 Swedish children was recruited from 43 elementary school classes. The participants filled out a questionnaire. Because the focus of the present study was on class behaviours, all analyses were conducted on aggregated class-level data. A path analysis revealed that the prevalence of victims was likely to be lower in classes with more positive teacher–student and SSRs and lower levels of CMD. TSR quality was not directly linked to CPV, but indirectly through its direct association with SSR quality. SSR quality was negatively associated with CMD and both were directly related to CPV. Results suggest that caring, supportive and warm SSRs in the class should be considered as a crucial protective factor against bullying victimisation. Further, the findings suggest that CMD has to be addressed in bullying prevention.

  • 189.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    University of Padova.
    Gini, Gianluca
    University of Padova.
    Between-class variation in the prevalence of bullying victimization: What's the role of class moral disengagement and quality of teacher–student and student–student relationships2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    University of Padua, Padova, Italy.
    Hong, Jun Sung
    Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA; Sungkyunkwan University, Jongno-gu, Seoul, South Korea.
    Moral Disengagement and School Bullying Perpetration in Middle Childhood: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study in Sweden2019In: Journal of School Violence, ISSN 1538-8220, E-ISSN 1538-8239, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 585-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study was to longitudinally investigate the bi-directional relationship between moral disengagement and bullying perpetration in a sample of 1,354 students from 108 elementary classes in 69 public schools. Students participated in the study both at Time 1 (fourth grade) and around one year later at Time 2 (fifth grade). Structural equation model analyses showed that bullying perpetration at Time 1 predicted moral disengagement at Time 2, when controlling for moral disengagement stability over time. In addition, we found that moral disengagement at Time 1 also predicted bullying perpetration at Time 2, when controlling for bullying perpetration at Time 1. These findings suggest that teachers, school staff, and professionals should consider interventions that address moral disengagement when working with children involved in bullying.

  • 191.
    Varjas, Kristen
    et al.
    Georgia State University.
    Meyers, Joel
    Georgia State University.
    Smith, Jennifer
    Georgia State University.
    Rosenbaum, Laura
    Georgia State University.
    Forsberg, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Lunds universitet.
    Motivations of bystander behavior: A cross-cultural comparison2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Varjas, Kristen
    et al.
    Georgia State University.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Lunds universitet.
    Meyers, Joel
    Georgia State University.
    Bystander actions and perceived effectiveness to bullying incidents2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 193.
    Weurlander, Maria
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Lonn, Annalena
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Seeberger, Astrid
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Hult, Hakan
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wernerson, Annika
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Emotional challenges of medical students generate feelings of uncertainty2019In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 53, no 10, p. 1037-1048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Health care students face many situations during their education that might be emotionally challenging. Students are confronted with illness, suffering, death, patient treatment dilemmas, and witnessing unprofessional behaviour on the part of health care professionals. Few studies have focused on what these experiences lead to in relation to the process of becoming a professional. The purpose of the study was to explore medical students main concerns relating to emotionally challenging situations during their medical education. Methods A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to explore and analyse medical students experiences. Data were gathered by means of focus group interviews, including two interviews in the middle and two interviews at the end of the students undergraduate programme. A total of 14 medical students participated. Results Students main concerns relating to emotionally challenging situations were feelings of uncertainty. These feelings of uncertainty concerned: (i) insufficient knowledge and skills; (ii) the struggle to manage emotions in patient encounters; (iii) perceived negative culture and values amongst health care professionals and in the health care system, and (iv) lacking a self-evident position on the health care team. The first two aspects relate to uncertainties concerning their own capabilities and the other two aspects relate to uncertainties regarding the detached medical culture and the unclear expectations of them as students in the health care team. Conclusions In the process of becoming a physician, students develop their professional identity in constant negotiation with their own perceptions, values and norms and what they experience in the local clinical context in which they participate during workplace education. The two dimensions that students have to resolve during this process concern the questions: Do I have what it takes? Do I want to belong to this medical culture? Until these struggles are resolved, students are likely to experience worry about their future professional role.

  • 194.
    Weurlander, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Lönn, Annalena
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hult, Håkan
    Karolinska institutet.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wernerson, Annika
    Karolinska institutet.
    Medical students’ feelings of inadequacy during clinical practice2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 195.
    Wänström, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Gini, Gianluca
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Walid Alsaadi, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Perceived collective efficacy to stop aggression at school: A validation of an Italian and a Swedish version of a scale for adolescents2019In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 349-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collective efficacy to stop peer aggression in the school context refers to adolescents beliefs about the capability of students and teachers in their school to work together to counteract aggressive behaviours among peers. This study presents the Italian and Swedish versions of a recently developed scale to measure the construct. Factorial structure and measurement invariance of the scale were assessed in two samples of adolescents aged 10-15 years. The findings support both a two-dimensional and a three-dimensional scale across gender and countries, demonstrating the importance of making distinctions between different forms of aggression when measuring collective efficacy to stop aggression. A one-dimensional scale was only supported in the Swedish sample. The results support the use of the Collective Efficacy to Stop Aggression scale with both Italian and Swedish adolescents.

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