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  • 151.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Working memory for sign and speech2008In: Annual Psychiatry Meeting, Odigos/Mogård, Getå, May 12-13, 2008.,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Working Memory for Sign and Speech – Cognitive Representation and Aging2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Andin, Josefine
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Differences in temporal and spatial processing mechanisms in working memory for signed and spoken language2009In: The 11th European congress of Psychology, Oslo, Norway, 7-10 July 2009.,2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Objectives Working memory (WM) capacity is similar for signed (SL) and spoken (SpL) language yet underlying temporal and spatial processing mechanisms may not be identical. To investigate this, two studies with deaf native signers (DS) and hearing non-signers (HN) were conducted. Methods DS and matched HN groups performed WM tasks with varying temporal and spatial demands in study 1 at encoding (temporal, spatial and mixed presentation styles) and in study 2 at retrieval (forward and backward span) and with abstract spatial demands (math span). Results DS performance was inferior with high temporal demands at encoding (temporal style) and retreival (forward span). There was no difference between groups with high spatial order demands at encoding (spatial style) or retrieval (backward span). DS performance was worse when abstract spatial processing was involved (math span). Conclusion WM processing mechanisms for SL and SpL differ for temporal information at encoding and retrieval and for abstract spatial information. 

  • 154.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andin, Josefine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Working memory, deafness and sign language.2009In: Scandinavian journal of psychology, ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 495-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory (WM) for sign language has an architecture similar to that for speech-based languages at both functional and neural levels. However, there are some processing differences between language modalities that are not yet fully explained, although a number of hypotheses have been mooted. This article reviews some of the literature on differences in sensory, perceptual and cognitive processing systems induced by auditory deprivation and sign language use and discusses how these differences may contribute to differences in WM architecture for signed and speech-based languages. In conclusion, it is suggested that left-hemisphere reorganization of the motion-processing system as a result of native sign-language use may interfere with the development of the order processing system in WM.

  • 155.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Andin, Josefine
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hermansson, Anders
    Sweden and Psychiatric Clinic Höglandet Hospital Eksjö/Nässjö, Sweden.
    Nelson, Keith
    Pennsylvania State University, USA.
    Tjus, Tomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Training Literacy Skills through Sign Language2014In: Deafness and Education International, ISSN 1464-3154, E-ISSN 1557-069X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 8-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literacy skills of deaf children generally lag behind those of their hearing peers. The mechanisms of reading in deaf individuals are only just beginning to be unraveled but it seems that native language skills play an important role. In this study 12 deaf pupils (six in grades 1?2 and six in grades 4?6) at a Swedish state primary school for deaf and hard of hearing children were trained on the connection between Swedish Sign Language and written Swedish using a pilot sign language version of the literacy training software program Omega-is. Literacy skills improved substantially across the 20 days of the study. These literacy gains may have rested upon the specific software-based intervention, upon regular classroom activities, or upon a combination of these factors. Omega-is-d, and similar software utilizing sign language as a component, targets an important mechanism supporting reading development in deaf children and could play an important role in bilingual education refinements.

  • 156.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cedefamn, Jonny
    Friman, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Knutsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Söderfeldt, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Are levels of language processing reflected in neural activation? - An fMRI study.2001In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 13, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Davidsson, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ronnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of Age on the Temporal Organization of Working Memory in Deaf Signers2010In: AGING NEUROPSYCHOLOGY AND COGNITION, ISSN 1382-5585, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 360-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deaf native signers have a general working memory (WM) capacity similar to that of hearing non-signers but are less sensitive to the temporal order of stored items at retrieval. General WM capacity declines with age, but little is known of how cognitive aging affects WM function in deaf signers. We investigated WM function in elderly deaf signers (EDS) and an age-matched comparison group of hearing non-signers (EHN) using a paradigm designed to highlight differences in temporal and spatial processing of item and order information. EDS performed worse than EHN on both item and order recognition using a temporal style of presentation. Reanalysis together with earlier data showed that with the temporal style of presentation, order recognition performance for EDS was also lower than for young adult deaf signers. Older participants responded more slowly than younger participants. These findings suggest that apart from age-related slowing irrespective of sensory and language status, there is an age-related difference specific to deaf signers in the ability to retain order information in WM when temporal processing demands are high. This may be due to neural reorganisation arising from sign language use. Concurrent spatial information with the Mixed style of presentation resulted in enhanced order processing for all groups, suggesting that concurrent temporal and spatial cues may enhance learning for both deaf and hearing groups. These findings support and extend the WM model for Ease of Language Understanding.

  • 158.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Foo, Catharina
    Avdelningen för kognition, utveckling och handikapp CDD Linköpings universitet.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology .
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Aided speech recognition in noise, perceived effort and explicit cognitive capacity2008In: International Hearing Aid Research Conference IHCON 2008, Lake Tahoe, California, 13-17 August 2008.,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Speech recognition in noise is an effortful process requiring explicit cognitive processing. It may be influenced by level and type of noise and by the signal processing algorithms employed when hearing is aided. These complex relationships may be understood in terms of the working memory model for Ease of language Understanding (ELU, Rönnberg et al., in press). This model predicts that under challenging listening conditions, explicit cognitive processing demands will be high and that persons with good explicit cognitive capacity will be better listeners. Previous work has suggested that they may also find listening less effortful (Behrens et al., 2004; Larsby et al., 2005; in press). We studied this issue by including subjective effort ratings in a larger study designed to investigate aided speech recognition in noise and cognition. 32 experienced hearing aid users participated. Effort was rated using a visual analogue scale and the speech material was the Hagerman sentences presented in three fixed speech to noise ratios of +10 dB, +4 dB and -2dB. Effort was rated in modulated and unmodulated noise with fast and slow compression release settings, after each of two nine week training sessions with the same settings. Speech recognition performance was tested objectively under the same conditions using an adaptive procedure. Order of testing was balanced. Explicit cognitive capacity was measured using the reading span test. ANOVAs and correlations were computed. Preliminary results showed that decreasing SNR led to greater perceived effort and that the difference in perceived effort between the highest and the lowest SNR was greater in unmodulated noise than in modulated noise. Speech recognition performance in unmodulated noise generally correlated with effort ratings under similar conditions but in modulated noise generally it did not. Effort ratings correlated with reading span performance at the lowest SNR (-2dB) but only in unmodulated noise after the first training session. These preliminary findings show that subjective ratings of the effort involved in aided speech recognition covary with noise level and performance but that these effects are reduced by noise modulation. Further, the perceived effort of aided speech recognition at low SNR may be related to explicit cognitive capacity as measured by the reading span test. However, we only find evidence of this in unmodulated noise after the first training session. These findings extend previous work on perceived effort and cognitive capacity and provide further evidence that type of noise is an important factor in this relationship.

  • 159.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Foo, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cognition and aided speech recognition in noise: specific role for cognitive factors following nine-week experience with adjusted compression settings in hearing aids.2009In: Scandinavian journal of psychology, ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 405-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The working memory model for Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) proposes that language understanding under taxing conditions is related to explicit cognitive capacity. We refer to this as the mismatch hypothesis, since phonological representations based on the processing of speech under established conditions may not be accessed so readily when input conditions change and a match becomes problematic. Then, cognitive capacity requirements may differ from those used for processing speech hitherto. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by investigating the relationship between aided speech recognition in noise and cognitive capacity in experienced hearing aid users when there was either a match or mismatch between processed speech input and established phonological representations. The settings in the existing digital hearing aids of the participants were adjusted to one of two different compression settings which processed the speech signal in qualitatively different ways ("fast" or "slow"). Testing took place after a 9-week period of experience with the new setting. Speech recognition was tested under different noise conditions and with match or mismatch (i.e. alternative compression setting) manipulations of the input signal. Individual cognitive capacity was measured using a reading span test and a letter monitoring test. Reading span, a reliable measure of explicit cognitive capacity, predicted speech recognition performance under mismatch conditions when processed input was incongruent with recently established phonological representations, due to the specific hearing aid setting. Cognitive measures were not main predictors of performance under match conditions. These findings are in line with the ELU model.

  • 160.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Foo, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Phonological mismatch makes aided speech recognition in noise cognitively taxing2007In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 28, p. 879-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The working memory framework for Ease of Language Understanding predicts that speech processing becomes more effortful, thus requiring more explicit cognitive resources, when there is mismatch between speech input and phonological representations in long-term memory. To test this prediction, we changed the compression release settings in the hearing instruments of experienced users and allowed them to train for 9 weeks with the new settings. After training, aided speech recognition in noise was tested with both the trained settings and orthogonal settings. We postulated that training would lead to acclimatization to the trained setting, which in turn would involve establishment of new phonological representations in long-term memory. Further, we postulated that after training, testing with orthogonal settings would give rise to phonological mismatch, associated with more explicit cognitive processing.

    Design: Thirty-two participants (mean = 70.3 years, SD = 7.7) with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (pure-tone average = 46.0 dB HL, SD = 6.5), bilaterally fitted for more than 1 year with digital, two-channel, nonlinear signal processing hearing instruments and chosen from the patient population at the Linkooping University Hospital were randomly assigned to 9 weeks training with new, fast (40 ms) or slow (640 ms), compression release settings in both channels. Aided speech recognition in noise performance was tested according to a design with three within-group factors: test occasion (T1, T2), test setting (fast, slow), and type of noise (unmodulated, modulated) and one between-group factor: experience setting (fast, slow) for two types of speech materials-the highly constrained Hagerman sentences and the less-predictable Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). Complex cognitive capacity was measured using the reading span and letter monitoring tests.

    Prediction: We predicted that speech recognition in noise at T2 with mismatched experience and test settings would be associated with more explicit cognitive processing and thus stronger correlations with complex cognitive measures, as well as poorer performance if complex cognitive capacity was exceeded.

    Results: Under mismatch conditions, stronger correlations were found between performance on speech recognition with the Hagerman sentences and reading span, along with poorer speech recognition for participants with low reading span scores. No consistent mismatch effect was found with HINT.

    Conclusions: The mismatch prediction generated by the working memory framework for Ease of Language Understanding is supported for speech recognition in noise with the highly constrained Hagerman sentences but not the less-predictable HINT.

  • 161.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fransson, Peter
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Department of Radiation Sciences and Integrative Medical Biology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Neural representation of binding lexical signs and words in the episodic buffer of working memory2007In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 45, no 10, p. 2258-2276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The episodic buffer accommodates formation and maintenance of unitary multidimensional representations based on information in different codes from different sources. Formation, based on submorphemic units, engages posterior brain regions, while maintenance engages frontal regions. Using a hybrid fMRI design, that allows separate analysis of transient and sustained components, an n-back task and an experimental group of 13 hearing native signers, with experience of Swedish Sign Language and Swedish since birth, we investigated binding of lexical signs and words in working memory. Results show that the transient component of these functions is supported by a buffer-specific network of posterior regions including the right middle temporal lobe, possibly relating to binding of phonological loop representations with semantic representations in long-term memory, as well as a loop-specific network, in line with predictions of a functional relationship between loop and buffer. The left hippocampus was engaged in transient and sustained components of buffer processing, possibly reflecting the meaningful nature of the stimuli. Only a minor role was found for executive functions in line with other recent work. A novel representation of the sustained component of working memory for audiovisual language in the right inferior temporal lobe may be related to perception of speech-related facial gestures. Previous findings of sign and speech loop representation in working memory were replicated and extended. Together, these findings support the notion of a module that mediates between codes and sources, such as the episodic buffer, and further our understanding of its nature.

  • 162.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Editorial Material: Working Memory in Deaf Children Is Explained by the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model in FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY, vol 7, issue 1047, pp2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, no 1047Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 163.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sign language based literacy training with Omega-is-d2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Signed languages do not have a written form. Thus, deaf children, for whom sign language is the primary mode of communication, learn to read in a second language. Not surprisingly, the reading skills of deaf children generally lag behind those of their hearing peers. The mechanisms underlying reading in deaf individuals are only just beginning to be unraveled but it seems that language skills play an important role. The assumption underlying the present study is that encouraging deaf children to explore the relationship between signed language and written speech-based language can promote reading skill. We are developing and evaluating a sign language version of Omega-is, a computerized literacy training program that trains language abilities. Interventions with Omega-is and its forerunners have shown positive effects on reading abilities in children with sensory and cognitive impairments. In the sign language version, known as Omega-is-d, written sentences created by the user are presented in Swedish Sign Language. In a preliminary study, 12 deaf pupils (six in grade 1-2 and six in grade 4-6) at a Swedish state primary school for deaf and hard of hearing children trained language skills using a pilot version of Omega-is-d in a crossover design. Participants in grade 1-2 improved their word-decoding ability as a result of training. Although reading comprehension was below normal, cognitive skills were age appropriate. Better reading comprehension was associated with better word decoding skills, better syntax skills in written Swedish and Swedish Sign Language and better working memory capacity. These preliminary findings suggest that young deaf children with age appropriate cognitive skills can achieve better reading skills with sign based literacy training.

  • 164.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Karlsson, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundewall-Thoren, Elisabet
    Oticon A/S, Research Centre Eriksholm, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Phonological mismatch and explicit cognitive processing in a sample of 102 hearing-aid users2008In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 47, no 2, p. S91-S98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rudner et al (2008) showed that when compression release settings are manipulated in the hearing instruments of Swedish habitual users, the resulting mismatch between the phonological form of the input speech signal and representations stored in long-term memory leads to greater engagement of explicit cognitive processing under taxing listening conditions. The mismatch effect is manifest in significant correlations between performance on cognitive tests and aided-speech-recognition performance in modulated noise and/or with fast compression release settings. This effect is predicted by the ELU model (Ronnberg et al, 2008). In order to test whether the mismatch effect can be generalized across languages, we examined two sets of aided speech recognition data collected from a Danish population where two cognitive tests, reading span and letter monitoring, had been administered. A reanalysis of all three datasets, including 102 participants, demonstrated the mismatch effect. These findings suggest that the effect of phonological mismatch, as predicted by the ELU model (Ronnberg et al, this issue) and tapped by the reading span test, is a stable phenomenon across these two Scandinavian languages.

  • 165.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Karlsson Foo, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology .
    Notice of retraction: unintentional errors in "Phonological mismatch makes aided speech recognition in noise cognitively taxing." (Ear & Hear.2007;28[6]) in Ear and Hearing(ISSN 0196-0202), vol 29, issue 5, pg 8142008Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 166.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Karlsson Foo, Catharina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Sundewall-Thórén, Elisabeth
    Oticon A/S, Research Centre Eriksholm, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Technical Audiology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Phonological mismatch and explicit cognitive processing in a sample of 100 hearing aid users.2007In: From Signal to Dialogue: Dynamic Aspects of Hearing, Language and Cognition,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 167.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Johan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Levels of processing and language modality specificity in working memory2013In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 656-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neural networks underpinning working memory demonstrate sign language specific components possibly related to differences in temporary storage mechanisms. A processing approach to memory systems suggests that the organisation of memory storage is related to type of memory processing as well. In the present study, we investigated for the first time semantic, phonological and orthographic processing in working memory for sign- and speech-based language. During fMRI we administered a picture-based 2-back working memory task with Semantic, Phonological, Orthographic and Baseline conditions to 11 deaf signers and 20 hearing non-signers. Behavioural data showed poorer and slower performance for both groups in Phonological and Orthographic conditions than in the Semantic condition, in line with depth-of-processing theory. An exclusive masking procedure revealed distinct sign-specific neural networks supporting working memory components at all three levels of processing. The overall pattern of sign-specific activations may reflect a relative intermodality difference in the relationship between phonology and semantics influencing working memory storage and processing.

  • 168.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Levels of processing in working memory for signed and speech-based language2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Semantic, phonoligical and orthographic processing in working memory for signed and speech-based language2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 170.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Semantic, phonological and orthographic processing in working memory for signed and speech-based language2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory processing and maintenance components are supported by a fronto-parietal network that is largely similar, yet subtly different, for signed and speech-based languages. In the present study, we investigated for the first time modality-specific differences in the neural correlates of three different varieties of working memory processing (semantic, phonological and orthographic) in 11 deaf early users of Swedish Sign Language and 19 hearing native Swedish speakers using a picture-based 2-back fMRI paradigm. Contrasts between each of the processing levels and a 2-back, picture-based but non-linguistic baseline condition activated distinct networks between groups. In particular, the two groups activated only partially overlapping networks in regions previously associated with the three different kinds of processing. This suggests that the mechanisms supporting different varieties of working memory processing differ at least partially between modalities.

  • 171.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Keidser, Gitte
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Australia.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Better visuospatial working memory in adults who report profound deafness compared to those with normal or poor hearing: data from the UK Biobank resource2016In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 620-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental work has shown better visuospatial working memory (VSWM) in profoundly deaf individuals compared to those with normal hearing. Other data, including the UK Biobank resource shows poorer VSWM in individuals with poorer hearing. Using the same database, the authors investigated VSWM in individuals who reported profound deafness. Included in this study were 112 participants who were profoundly deaf, 1310 with poor hearing and 74,635 with normal hearing. All participants performed a card-pair matching task as a test of VSWM. Although variance in VSWM performance was large among profoundly deaf participants, at group level it was superior to that of participants with both normal and poor hearing. VSWM in adults is related to hearing status but the association is not linear. Future study should investigate the mechanism behind enhanced VSWM in profoundly deaf adults.

  • 172.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Cognitive aspects of auditory plasticity across the lifespan2013In: ISAAR 2013, 2013, p. 201-211Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers evidence of plasticity resulting from congenital and acquired hearing impairment as well as technical and language interventions. Speech communication is hindered by hearing loss. Individuals with normal hearing in childhood may experience hearing loss as they grow older and use technical and cognitive resources to maintain speech communication. The short- and medium-term effects of hearing aid interventions seem to be mediated by individual cognitive abilities and may be specific to listening conditions including speech content, type of background noise and type of hearing aid signal processing. Furthermore, some aspects of cognitive function may decline with age and there is evidence that age-related hearing impairment is associated with poorer long-term memory. It is not yet clear whether improving audition through hearing aid intervention can prevent cognitive decline. Profound deafness from an early age implicates a set of critical choices relating to possible restoration of the auditory signal through the use of prostheses including cochlear implants and hearing aids as well as to mode of communication, sign or speech. These choices have an influence on the organization of the developing brain. In particular, while the cortex may display sensory reorganization in response

  • 173.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Cognitive aspects of cortical plasticity in connection with auditory deprivation2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers evidence of plasticity resulting from congenital and acquired hearing impairment as well as technical and language interventions. Speech communication is hindered by hearing loss. Individuals with normal hearing in childhood may experience hearing loss as they grow older and use technical and cognitive resources to maintain speech communication.The short- and medium-term effects of hearing aid interventions seem to be mediated by individual cognitive abilities and may be specific to listening conditions including speech content, type of background noise and type of hearing aid signal processing. Furthermore, some aspects of cognitive function may decline with age and there is evidence that age-related hearing impairment is associated with poorer long-term memory. It is not yet clear whether improving audition through hearing aid intervention can prevent cognitive decline. Profound deafness from an early age implicates a set of critical choices relating to possible restoration of the auditory signal through the use of prostheses including cochlear implants and hearing aids as well as tomode of communication, sign or speech. These choices have an influence on the organization of the developing brain. In particular, while the cortex may display sensory reorganization in response the linguistic modality of choice, cognitive organization seems to prevail.

  • 174.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Cognitive spare capacity and speech communication: a narrative overview2014In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, Vol. 2014, no 869726Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background noise can make speech communication tiring and cognitively taxing, especially for individuals with hearing impairment. It is now well established that better working memory capacity is associated with better ability to understand speech under adverse conditions as well as better ability to benefit from the advanced signal processing in modern hearing aids. Recent work has shown that although such processing cannot overcome hearing handicap, it can increase cognitive spare capacity, that is, the ability to engage in higher level processing of speech. This paper surveys recent work on cognitive spare capacity and suggests new avenues of investigation.

  • 175.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Denmark.
    Cognitive Spare Capacity as a Window on Hearing Aid Benefit2013In: Seminars in Hearing, ISSN 0734-0451, E-ISSN 1098-8955, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 298-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that successful listening with advanced signal processing in digital hearing aids is associated with individual working memory capacity, which is the cognitive ability to keep information in mind and process it. Different types of cognitive processing may be required in different situations. For example, when listening in noise it may be necessary to inhibit irrelevant information and update misheard information. There is evidence that simply hearing a spoken utterance consumes cognitive resources and may do so to different degrees for different individuals. To determine just how useful different kinds of signal processing are, it is important to determine to what extent they help individual hearing aid users cope with the kind of cognitive demands that may arise in everyday listening situations. This article explores the role of cognition in hearing aid use and describes recent work aimed at determining individual cognitivespare capacity or the ability to process speech heard in noise in ways that may be relevant for communication.

  • 176.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Cognitive Spare Capacity as a Window on Hearing Aid Benefit2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 177.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Behrens, T
    Sundewall Thorén, E
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Selt-rated effort, cognition and aided speech recognition in noise.2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Behrens, Thomas
    Oticon AS, Denmark .
    Thorén, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Working Memory Capacity May Influence Perceived Effort during Aided Speech Recognition in Noise2012In: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF AUDIOLOGY, ISSN 1050-0545, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 577-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recently there has been interest in using subjective ratings as a measure of perceived effort during speech recognition in noise. Perceived effort may be an indicator of cognitive load. Thus, subjective effort ratings during speech recognition in noise may covary both with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and individual cognitive capacity. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanPurpose: The present study investigated the relation between subjective ratings of the effort involved in listening to speech in noise, speech recognition performance, and individual working memory (WM) capacity in hearing impaired hearing aid users. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResearch Design: In two experiments, participants with hearing loss rated perceived effort during aided speech perception in noise. Noise type and SNR were manipulated in both experiments, and in the second experiment hearing aid compression release settings were also manipulated. Speech recognition performance was measured along with WM capacity. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanStudy Sample: There were 46 participants in all with bilateral mild to moderate sloping hearing loss. In Experiment 1 there were 16 native Danish speakers (eight women and eight men) with a mean age of 63.5 yr (SD = 12.1) and average pure tone (PT) threshold of 47. 6 dB (SD = 9.8). In Experiment 2 there were 30 native Swedish speakers (19 women and 11 men) with a mean age of 70 yr (SD = 7.8) and average PT threshold of 45.8 dB (SD = 6.6). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanData Collection and Analysis: A visual analog scale (VAS) was used for effort rating in both experiments. In Experiment 1, effort was rated at individually adapted SNRs while in Experiment 2 it was rated at fixed SNRs. Speech recognition in noise performance was measured using adaptive procedures in both experiments with Dantale II sentences in Experiment 1 and Hagerman sentences in Experiment 2. WM capacity was measured using a letter-monitoring task in Experiment 1 and the reading span task in Experiment 2. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: In both experiments, there was a strong and significant relation between rated effort and SNR that was independent of individual WM capacity, whereas the relation between rated effort and noise type seemed to be influenced by individual WM capacity. Experiment 2 showed that hearing aid compression setting influenced rated effort. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: Subjective ratings of the effort involved in speech recognition in noise reflect SNRs, and individual cognitive capacity seems to influence relative rating of noise type.

  • 179.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Behrens, Timothy W
    n/a.
    Sundewall Thorén, Elisabeth
    n/a.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Good cognitive resources make listening under challenging conditions seem less effortful.2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lyberg-Ahlander, Viveka
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Brännstrom, Jonas
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Nirme, Jens
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Pichora-Fuller, M. K.
    Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Sahlen, Birgitta
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Listening Comprehension and Listening Effort in the Primary School Classroom2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the primary school classroom, children are exposed to multiple factors that combine to create adverse conditions for listening to and understanding what the teacher is saying. Despite the ubiquity of these conditions, there is little knowledge concerning the way in which various factors combine to influence listening comprehension and the effortfulness of listening. The aim of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of background noise, voice quality, and visual cues on childrens listening comprehension and effort. To achieve this aim, we performed a set of four well-controlled, yet ecologically valid, experiments with 245 eight-year-old participants. Classroom listening conditions were simulated using a digitally animated talker with a dysphonic (hoarse) voice and background babble noise composed of several children talking. Results show that even low levels of babble noise interfere with listening comprehension, and there was some evidence that this effect was reduced by seeing the talkers face. Dysphonia did not significantly reduce listening comprehension scores, but it was considered unpleasant and made listening seem difficult, probably by reducing motivation to listen. We found some evidence that listening comprehension performance under adverse conditions is positively associated with individual differences in executive function. Overall, these results suggest that multiple factors combine to influence listening comprehension and effort for child listeners in the primary school classroom. The constellation of these room, talker, modality, and listener factors should be taken into account in the planning and design of educational and learning activities.

  • 181.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Mishra, Sachin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Working memory capacity and executive ability can compensate for lower cognitive spare capacity in older adults with hearing loss compared to young adults with normal hearing2013In: Again and speech communication 5th International and Interdisciplinary Research Conference  Indiana University, Bloomington  October 6-9, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 182.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Cognitive spare capacity: what is it and why does it matter?2014In: ENT & Audiology News, ISSN 2042-2156, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 85-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 183.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Stenfeldt, S
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Good working memory capacity facilitates long-term memory encoding of speech in stationary noise2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background noise makes listening more cognitively demanding, especially for persons with hearingimpairment, and this seems to aect memory encoding. It is not clear whether this decrement can berestored by providing visual cues. In the present study, we investigated whether long term memoryencoding of speech, in quiet and in background noise adjusted to retain intelligibility, improves whenthe talkers face is visible, and whether such an enhancement is associated with working memorycapacity. Twenty adults with normal hearing in Experiment 1 and 24 adults with hearing loss inExperiment 2 listened to lists of 13 two-digit numbers, with or without seeing the talkers face, andthen recalled as many numbers as possible in any order. The lists were presented in quiet as wellin a steady-state speech-weighted noise and the International Speech Testing Signal at a signal-tonoiseratio individually adapted to give an intelligibility level of approximately 90%. Amplicationcompensated for loss of audibility. Working memory capacity was measured using the reading spantest. Seeing the talkers face did enhance free recall performance. However, whereas the eect size foradults with normal hearing was large, for adults with hearing impairment it was small. Further, therewas no evidence that visual cues specically compensated for performance decrements due to noiseor serial position and there was no evidence of an association between working memory capacity andperformance with visual cues. However, good working memory capacity did improve performance forearly list items, reecting facilitation of long-term memory encoding, for both groups when stimuliwere presented in steady-state noise. For participants with hearing impairment, good working memorycapacity was associated with good performance on late list items in quiet, reecting facilitationof working memory encoding. This pattern of results indicates that steady-state background noisereduces the cognitive capacity available for the long-term memory encoding of speech that is necessaryfor enduring retention of spoken information, irrespective of hearing status, but provides no evidencethat this is specically compensated for by visual cues. It also demonstrates that for individuals withhearing impairment, short term retention of speech heard even under the most favourable conditionsis a function of individual working memory capacity. These ndings support and extend the Ease ofLanguage Understanding Model.

  • 184.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Age-related individual differences in working memory capacity and executive ability influence cognitive spare capacity2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Seeing the talker’s face improves free recall of speech for young adults with normal hearing but not older adults with hearing loss2016In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 59, p. 590-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Seeing the talker's face improves speech understanding in noise, possibly releasing resources for cognitive processing. We investigated whether it improves free recall of spoken two-digit numbers.

    Method Twenty younger adults with normal hearing and 24 older adults with hearing loss listened to and subsequently recalled lists of 13 two-digit numbers, with alternating male and female talkers. Lists were presented in quiet as well as in stationary and speech-like noise at a signal-to-noise ratio giving approximately 90% intelligibility. Amplification compensated for loss of audibility.

    Results Seeing the talker's face improved free recall performance for the younger but not the older group. Poorer performance in background noise was contingent on individual differences in working memory capacity. The effect of seeing the talker's face did not differ in quiet and noise.

    Conclusions We have argued that the absence of an effect of seeing the talker's face for older adults with hearing loss may be due to modulation of audiovisual integration mechanisms caused by an interaction between task demands and participant characteristics. In particular, we suggest that executive task demands and interindividual executive skills may play a key role in determining the benefit of seeing the talker's face during a speech-based cognitive task

  • 186.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Ng, EH
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cognitive spare capacity as a measure of listening effort2011In: Journal of Hearing Science, ISSN 2083-389X, Vol. 1, no 2, p. EA47-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a recent interest in listening effort as a factor to be taken into account in the audiological clinic. However, the term “listening effort” is poorly determined and needs to be defined before it can be used as a clinical or research tool. One way of understanding listening effort is in terms of the cognitive resources expended during listening. Cognitive capacity is finite and thus if cognitive capacity is used up during the act of listening to speech there will be fewer cognitive resources left to process the content of the message conveyed. We have introduced the term Cognitive Spare Capacity (CSC) to refer to residual cognitive capacity once successful listening has taken place. This extended abstract described the work we have carried out to date on measures of CSC for research and clinical use. In the course of this work we have developed tests to assess the role of memory load, executive function and audiovisual integration in CSC under challenging conditions. When these tests are fully developed, our aim is that they should allow objective individual assessment of listening effort in cognitive terms. Results to date indicate that under challenging conditions, CSC is an arena for executive processing of temporarily stored information; it is related to individual working memory capacity and can be enhanced by hearing aid signal processing.

  • 187.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ng, Hoi Ning, Elaine
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cognitive spare capacity as a measure of listening effort2011In: Journal of Hearing Science, ISSN 2083-389X, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 47-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a recent interest in listening effort as a factor to be taken into account in the audiological clinic. However, the term “listening effort” is poorly determined and needs to be defined before it can be used as a clinical or research tool. One way of understanding listening effort is in terms of the cognitive resources expended during listening. Cognitive capacity is finite and thus if cognitive capacity is used up during the act of listening to speech there will be fewer cognitive resources left to process the content of the message conveyed. We have introduced the term Cognitive Spare Capacity (CSC) to refer to residual cognitive capacity once successful listening has taken place. This extended abstract described the work we have carried out to date on measures of CSC for research and clinical use. In the course of this work we have developed tests to assess the role of memory load, executive function and audiovisual integration in CSC under challenging conditions. When these tests are fully developed, our aim is that they should allow objective individual assessment of listening effort in cognitive terms. Results to date indicate that under challenging conditions, CSC is an arena for executive processing of temporarily stored information; it is related to individual working memory capacity and can be enhanced by hearing aid signal processing.

  • 188.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ng, Hoi Ning, Elaine
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Understanding auditory effort by measuring cognitive spare capacity2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Orfanidou, E
    Cardin, V
    Capek, C M
    Woll, B
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Effects of deafness and sign language experience on cognitive aging2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Orfanidou, Eleni
    University College London.
    Capek, Cheryl
    University of Manchester.
    Cardin, Velia
    University College London.
    Woll, Bencie
    University College London.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Access to linguistic structure enhances visuospatial working memory capacity2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) have been widely studied but little is known about linguistic versus non-linguistic WM in the visuospatial domain. Sign languages (SL) are visuospatial languages that have a neurocognitive representation in deaf people similar to that of speech-based languages in hearing people. Thus SL can be used to study linguistic WM in the visuospatial domain. In the present study, SL stimuli were used as linguistic stimuli for signers and non-linguistic stimuli for non-signers to investigate how access to semantic and phonological representations of SL influences visuospatial WM. Materials were videos of a deaf signer modeling three types of sign-based stimuli and matched non-linguistic stimuli. 25 deaf native signers (DS) took part along with 25 hearing non-signers (HN) who could not access any linguistic content of the material. Sign-based stimuli were familiar signs (semantic and phonological content), unfamiliar signs (phonological but! no semantic content) and non-signs (illegal combinations of phonological components with no semantic content). All participants performed 2-back WM tasks, targeting either the identity (visual aspect) or location (spatial aspect) of the stimuli, with all four materials. In the identity task DS performed better than HN with sign-based materials but did not gain extra benefit from semantic or phonological content. In the location task DS benefited from semantic but not phonological content. These results show that signers can use linguistic knowledge in visuospatial WM tasks. Specifically, access to phonological components (sign-based material) supports identity processing and semantic content (familiar signs) supports location processing in visuospatial WM.

  • 191.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Orfanidou, Eleni
    University of Crete, Department of Psychology.
    Capek, Sheryl M.
    University of Manchester.
    Andin, Josefine
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kästner, Lena
    Ruhr-University, Bochum.
    Cardin, Velia
    University College London, Department of Cognitive, Perceptual and Brain Sciences.
    Fransson, Peter
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johnsrude, Ingrid
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Woll, Benice
    University College London, Cognitive, Perceptual and Brain Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sign Language phonology and its role in neurocognition2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 192.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Orfanidou, Eleni
    University of Crete, Department of Psychology.
    Capek, Sheryl M.
    University of Manchester.
    Cardin, Velia
    University College London, Department of Cognitive, Perceptual and Brain Sciences.
    Woll, Bencie
    University College London, Cognitive, Perceptual and Brain Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Access to longuistic structure enhances visuospatial working memory capacity2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Orfanidou, Eleni
    Deafness, Cognition and Language Research Centre, University College London, London, UK/ Department of Psychology, University of Crete, Rethymno, Greece.
    Cardin, Velia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Deafness, Cognition and Language Research Centre, University College London, London, UK.
    Capek, Cheryl M.
    School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Woll, Bencie
    Deafness, Cognition and Language Research Centre, University College London, London, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Preexisting semantic representation improves working memory performance in the visuospatial domain2016In: Memory & Cognition, ISSN 0090-502X, E-ISSN 1532-5946, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 608-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory (WM) for spoken language improves when the to-be-remembered items correspond to preexisting representations in long-term memory. We investigated whether this effect generalizes to the visuospatial domain by administering a visual n-back WM task to deaf signers and hearing signers, as well as to hearing nonsigners. Four different kinds of stimuli were presented: British Sign Language (BSL; familiar to the signers), Swedish Sign Language (SSL; unfamiliar), nonsigns, and nonlinguistic manual actions. The hearing signers performed better with BSL than with SSL, demonstrating a facilitatory effect of preexisting semantic representation. The deaf signers also performed better with BSL than with SSL, but only when WM load was high. No effect of preexisting phonological representation was detected. The deaf signers performed better than the hearing nonsigners with all sign-based materials, but this effect did not generalize to nonlinguistic manual actions. We argue that deaf signers, who are highly reliant on visual information for communication, develop expertise in processing sign-based items, even when those items do not have preexisting semantic or phonological representations. Preexisting semantic representation, however, enhances the quality of the gesture-based representations temporarily maintained in WM by this group, thereby releasing WM resources to deal with increased load. Hearing signers, on the other hand, may make strategic use of their speech-based representations for mnemonic purposes. The overall pattern of results is in line with flexible-resource models of WM.

  • 194.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Orfanidou, Eleni
    Department of Psychology, University of Crete, Greece.
    Cardin, Velia
    Deafness, Cognition and Language Research Centre, University College London, UK.
    Capek, Cheryl M
    School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, UK.
    Woll, Bencie
    Deafness, Cognition and Language Research Centre, University College London, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reading ability in adult deaf native signers is positively associated with their ability to judge the grammatically of their native sign language2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For deaf native sign language users, learning to read means acquiring a second language. With limited access to the phonology of spoken language, it is difficult to establish the connection to orthography, which is a key to reading for hearing individuals. For hearing individuals, reading ability is often associated with working memory capacity (WMC) and phonological processing abilities (PPA). However, this association is not as clear-cut for deaf individuals, whose reading ability is usually poorer and who may have a different route to reading. In the present study we compared English reading skill (Vernon-Warden Reading Comprehension Test Revised, 1996) in adult deaf native users of British Sign Language (BSL, n=24) with hearing, non-signing native English speakers (n=24) matched for age and non-verbal intelligence. We also explored the association between reading level, PPA and WMC in both groups and between reading level and performance on the BSL Grammaticality Judgement Task (BSLGJT; Cormier et al., 2012) in deaf signers. Consistent with previous findings, the average reading level was lower for deaf signers than for hearing non-signers (mean reading age: 16 years vs. adult, respectively) and, for hearing non-signers, reading level was positively associated with WMC and PPA. In contrast, for deaf signers, we found no association between reading skill and WMC, English PPA or BSL PPA; instead, reading level was positively associated with BSLGJT performance. These novel findings suggest that, in deaf native signers, higher level sign language skills, such as grammatical knowledge, may provide a route to reading.

  • 195.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Orfanidou, Eleni
    University of Crete, Department of Psychology.
    Cardin, Velia
    University College London, Department of Cognitive, Perceptual and Brain Sciences.
    Woll, Bernice
    University College London, Cognitive, Perceptual and Brain Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Relative effects of aging on cognition for communication in deaf signing and hearing non-signing adults2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 196.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Orfanidou, Eleni
    Department of Psychology, University of Crete, Greece.
    Kästner, Lena
    Deafness Cognition and Language Research Centre, University College London, UK.
    Cardin, Velia
    Deafness, Cognition and Language Research Centre, University College London, UK.
    Woll, Bencie
    Deafness, Cognition and Language Research Centre, University College London, UK.
    Capek, Cheryl M
    School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Neural substrates of sign language processing differ partially between Swedish and British signers2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The lexicons of British Sign Language (BSL) and Swedish Sign Language (SSL) only partially overlap. This offers the opportunity of studying the neurocognitive systems that support the processing of familiar and non-familiar lexical signs as well as non-signs under controlled conditions. In particular, effects relating either to a particular sign language or to the users of a particular sign language can be identified. Fifteen deaf native users of BSL and fifteen deaf native users of SSL took part in an fMRI study. All were right-handed and neurologically healthy. The two groups were matched on age, gender, level of education and non-verbal intelligence. In the scanner participants were presented with video recorded sign-based material that consisted of 1) BSL: signs lexicalized in BSL but not SSL, 2) SSL: signs lexicalized in SSL but not BSL, 3) Cognates: signs lexicalized in both BSL and SSL,  4) Non-signs made up of handshapes, movements, locations and orientations put together in a phonotactically illegal manner.  The recordings were modeled by a deaf native signer of a third sign language (German Sign Language) to avoid bias to BSL or SSL. All stimuli were matched for complexity. Stimulus types 1, 2 and 3 were matched for familiarity and age of acquisition. Stimulus types 1 and 2 were matched for iconicity. Participants performed two tasks in the scanner. Both tasks involved monitoring stimuli for specific phonological components according to a cue presented before each block of 12 stimuli. One task involved monitoring for handshape and the other task involved monitoring for location. Whole brain analysis of the fMRI data revealed more activation for non-signs than unfamiliar signs (SSL for British signers and BSL for Swedish signers) in superior posterior parietal regions bilaterally across tasks. No differences in activation could be attributed to semantic content (familiar versus unfamiliar signs) or iconicity (cognates versus familiar signs). Interestingly, there was more activation in British compared to Swedish signers across conditions in a region anterior to the left cytoarchitectonic definition of area V5/MT+ (Malikovic et al., 2007) and right middle occipital gyrus. There were no interactions between group and either task or type of material. This pattern of results shows that the neural substrates of sign language processing partially differ between Swedish and British signers. This difference cannot be attributed to differences in processing the phonological parameters of handshape and location or to differences in processing semantics and iconicity. One possible explanation is a difference in reliance on non-manual components of sign language in British and Swedish signers.

  • 197.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg , Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The role of the episodic buffer in working memory for language processing2008In: COGNITIVE PROCESSING, ISSN 1612-4782 , Vol. 9, no 1, p. 19-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A body of work has accumulated to show that the cognitive process of binding information from different mnemonic and sensory sources as well as in different linguistic modalities can be fractionated from general executive functions in working memory both functionally and neurally. This process has been defined in terms of the episodic buffer (Baddeley in Trends Cogn Sci 4(11):417-423, 2000). This paper considers behavioural, neuropsychological and neuroimaging data that elucidate the role of the episodic buffer in language processing. We argue that the episodic buffer seems to be truly multimodal in function and that while formation of unitary multidimensional representations in the episodic buffer seems to engage posterior neural networks, maintenance of such representations is supported by frontal networks. Although, the episodic buffer is not necessarily supported by executive processes and seems to be supported by different neural networks, it may operate in tandem with the central executive during effortful language processing. There is also evidence to suggest engagement of the phonological loop during buffer processing. The hippocampus seems to play a role in formation but not maintenance of representations in the episodic buffer of working memory.

  • 198.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    A functional ontology for sign and speech2006In: Seminars at Deaf Centre for Learning and Cognition DCAL,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    A functional ontology for working memory for sign and speech2006In: International Conference on Spatial Cognition ICSC,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 200.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Explicit processing demands reveal language modality specific organization of working memory2008In: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, ISSN 1081-4159, E-ISSN 1465-7325, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 466-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The working memory model for Ease of Language Understanding(ELU) predicts that processing differences between languagemodalities emerge when cognitive demands are explicit. Thisprediction was tested in three working memory experiments withparticipants who were Deaf Signers (DS), Hearing Signers (HS),or Hearing Nonsigners (HN). Easily nameable pictures were usedas stimuli to avoid confounds relating to sensory modality.Performance was largely similar for DS, HS, and HN, suggestingthat previously identified intermodal differences may be dueto differences in retention of sensory information. When explicitprocessing demands were high, differences emerged between DSand HN, suggesting that although working memory storage in bothgroups is sensitive to temporal organization, retrieval is notsensitive to temporal organization in DS. A general effect ofsemantic similarity was also found. These findings are discussedin relation to the ELU model.

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