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  • 151.
    Mustafa, Elfatih
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Adam, Rania Elhadi
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, 76080, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Elhag, Sami
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Efficient Ni–Fe layered double hydroxides/ZnO nanostructures for photochemical water splitting2019In: Journal of Solid State Chemistry, ISSN 0022-4596, E-ISSN 1095-726X, Vol. 273, p. 186-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are widely investigated for photocatalytic applications but the functional properties are limited by the fast carrier recombination rate, which is an intrinsic property of ZnO. To optimize the recombination rate of ZnO, a study is carried out in which it is covered with Ni-Fe layered double hydroxides and synergistic effects are created which boosted the photocatalytic activity of ZnO. The nanostructured materials are synthesized by the low temperature aqueous chemical growth and electrodeposition methods. These nanostructures are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. SEM study has revealed a Ni–Fe LDH coated ZnO NRs. The powder XRD has showed a cubic phase of the Ni-Fe layered double hydroxide on the ZnO NRs having an excellent crystalline quality. The optical characterization has shown low scattering of light for the Ni–Fe LDH coated ZnO NRs sample. The sample prepared with deposition time of 25 s showed excellent photochemical water splitting properties compared to counter photo-anodes in alkaline media. The photo response was highly stable and fast. The incident photon to current conversion efficiency for the photo-anode of Ni–Fe(LDHs)/ZnO over 25 s was 82% at a maximum absorption of 380 nm compared to the pristine ZnO NRs which has 70% at the same wavelength. This study is providing a simple, cost effective, earth abundant and environment friendly methodology for the fabrication of photo-anodes for diverse applications specifically water oxidation and solar radiation driven water splitting.

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  • 152.
    Myrberg, T
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Jacob, A P
    Chalmers.
    Nour, Omer
    Chalmers.
    Friesel, M
    Chalmers.
    Willander, Magnus
    Chalmers.
    Patel, C J
    University of North Carolina.
    Campidelli, Y
    STMicroelectronics, Crolles-Cedex, France.
    Hernandez, C
    STMicroelectronics, Crolles-Cedex, France.
    Kermarrec, O
    STMicroelectronics, Crolles-Cedex, France.
    Bensahel, D
    STMicroelectronics, Crolles-Cedex, France.
    Structural properties of relaxed Ge buffer layers on Si(001): effect of layer thickness and low temperature Si initial buffer2004In: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482X, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 411-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used the strain sensitive tool two-dimensional reciprocal space mapping (2D-RSM) and high resolution rocking curves (HR-RC) to assess the effect of the layer thickness and the influence of low temperature Si buffer on the properties of fully relaxed Ge on Si (0 0 1). The samples were grown by chemical vapor deposition in an ASM commercial reactor. As complementary measurements we have employed secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for chemical analysis, cross sectional transmission electron microscopy for quality assessment, and finally atomic force microscopy (AFM) for investigating the surface roughness. The investigated samples have a thickness ranging from 0.25 to 5.0 mum. In addition and for a 5.0 mum thick Ge layer, an initial low temperature Si (LT-Si) template was grown before the Ge epitaxy. The results indicate that high quality fully relaxed Ge layers have been achieved using the adopted growth procedure. Most of the improvement in crystalline quality was observed for Ge layers with thickness up to 1.5 mum. Above this thickness the observed crystalline quality improvement was negligible. The LT-Si buffer observed to be disadvantageous for pure relaxed Ge growth.

  • 153.
    Ngok, Sreymean
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Razmi, Nasrin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mustafa, Elfatih Mohammed
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chey, Chan Oeurn
    Royal Univ Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chemical, synthesis, characterization and electrochemical properties of α-Fe2O3/ZnO composite nano-heterojunction for sensing application2024In: NANO SELECT, ISSN 2688-4011, article id e2300155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low temperature hydrothermal methods have been utilized to synthesize Hematite/Zinc oxide alpha-Fe2O3/ZnO composite nano-heterojunction nanorods grown on FTO glass substrates while monitoring the effect of different concentrations of urea on the morphology of the composite nano-heterojunction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used for the structural characterization of the alpha-Fe2O3/ZnO different samples. UV-visible spectroscopy was used for the characteristic absorbance versus wavelength of alpha-Fe2O3/ZnO composite nano-heterojunction which shows an absorption edge from 400 to 560 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was applied to study of chemical composition of the alpha-Fe2O3/ZnO and the obtained information demonstrated a pure phase alpha-Fe2O3/ZnO has been achieved. The best efficiency among urea concentrations for the best composite nano-heterojunction sample was achieved when using 0.2 M of urea. The electrochemical properties of the composite nano-heterojunction were investigated using a three-electrode electrochemical cell. Estimation of the electrochemical area shows that both the composite nano-heterojunction and the bare alpha-Fe2O3 have similar values. This confirms that the enhanced electrochemical property of the composite nano-heterojunction is due to a synergetic effect as expected.

  • 154.
    Noor, Hadia
    et al.
    Islamia University Bahawalpur.
    Klason, P
    University of Gothenburg.
    Faraz, Sadia Muniza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ul Wahab, Qamar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Asghar, M
    Islamia University Bahawalpur.
    Influence of background concentration induced field on the emission rate signatures of an electron trap in zinc oxide Schottky devices2010In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN 0021-8979, Vol. 107, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various well-known research groups have reported points defects in bulk zinc oxide (ZnO) [N-D (intrinsic): 10(14)-10(17) cm(-3)] naming oxygen vacancy, zinc interstitial, and/or zinc antisite having activation energy in the range of 0.32-0.22 eV below conduction band. The attribution is probably based on activation energy of the level which seems not to be plausible in accordance with Vincent et al., [J. Appl. Phys. 50, 5484 (1979)] who suggested that it was necessary to become vigilant before interpreting the data attained for a carrier trap using capacitance transient measurement of diodes having ND greater than 10(15) cm(-3). Accordingly the influence of background free-carrier concentration, ND induced field on the emission rate signatures of an electron point defect in ZnO Schottky devices has been investigated by means of deep level transient spectroscopy. A number of theoretical models were tried to correlate with the experimental data to ascertain the mechanism. Consequently Poole-Frenkel model based on Coulomb potential was found consistent. Based on these investigations the electron trap was attributed to Zn-related charged impurity. Qualitative measurements like current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements were also performed to support the results.

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  • 155.
    Noor, Hadia
    et al.
    Islamia University of Bahawalpur.
    Klason, P.
    Gothenburg University.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ul Wahab, Qamar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Asghar, M.
    Islamia University of Bahawalpur.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Time-delayed transformation of defects in zinc oxide layers grown along the zinc-face using a hydrothermal technique2009In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN 0021-8979, Vol. 105, no 12, p. 123510-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of deep level defects in a hydrothermally grown, intrinsically n-type zinc oxide (ZnO) device has been carried out using conventional deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Performed under variable measurement conditions, DLTS demonstrates two electron trap levels, E-1 (dominant) and E-2, with activation energies E-c-0.22 +/- 0.02 eV and E-c-0.47 +/- 0.05 eV, respectively. A time-delayed transformation of shallow donor defects zinc(interstitial) and vacancy(oxygen) (Zn-i-VO) into the E-1 level has been observed. While the x-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the preferred direction of ZnO growth is along the (10 (1) over bar0) plane, i.e., the (Zn-i-V-O) complex, it is assumed that the (Zn-i-V-O) complex is transformed into a zinc antisite (Zn-O) under favorable conditions. As a result, the free carrier concentration decreases with increasing trap concentration. Henceforth, the E-1 level exhibiting the increase in concentration is attributed to ZnO.

  • 156.
    Nour, Eiman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bondarevs, Andrejs
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huss, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Low-Frequency Self-Powered Footstep Sensor Based on ZnO Nanowires on Paper Substrate2016In: Nanoscale Research Letters, ISSN 1931-7573, E-ISSN 1556-276X, Vol. 11, no 156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we design and fabricate a wireless system with the main operating device based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires. The main operating device is based on piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) achieved using ZnO nanowires grown hydrothermally on paper substrate. The fabricated NG is capable of harvesting ambient mechanical energy from various kinds of human motion, e.g., footsteps. The harvested electric output has been used to serve as a self-powered pressure sensor. Without any storage device, the signal from a single footstep has successfully triggered a wireless sensor node circuit. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using ZnO nanowire piezoelectric NG as a low-frequency self-powered sensor, with potential applications in wireless sensor networks.

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  • 157.
    Nour, Eiman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chey, Chan
    Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Royal University of Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Low frequency accelerator sensor based on piezoelectric ZnO nanorods grown by low temperature scalable process2016In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 213, no 9, p. 2503-2508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Piezoelectric vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) were grown by low temperature aqueous chemical approach and successfully used as a low frequency self-powered accelerator detector system. The nanogenerator (NG) device was tested under the influence of low frequency vibrations, different load masses, and finger prints pressure. The experimental results show relatively high sensitivity to frequencies as low as 5 Hz. This energy conversion device has produced a maximum output voltage of about 0.3 and 1.4 V under a frequency of 41 Hz and a mass of 1000 g, respectively. The fabricated NG can be used as an accelerator sensor with a good performance in the range from about 0.67 to 5.5 m s−2 with a sensitivity of 0.045 V s2 m−1. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the NG is able to harvest energy under finger-print scanning. The result from the finger-print pressure was consistent with the masses testing results. This energy-harvesting technology also provides a simple and cost-effective platform to capture low-frequency mechanical energy, i.e., body movements, and other applications like developing a sensitive finger print camera, etc.

  • 158.
    Nour, Eiman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Echresh, A.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Piezoelectric and opto-electrical properties of silver-doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by low temperature aqueous chemical method2015In: AIP Advances, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 5, no 7, article id 077163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we have synthesized Zn1-xAgxO (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09) nanorods (NRs) via the hydrothermal method at low temperature on silicon substrate. The characterization and comparison between the different Zn1-xAgxO samples, indicated that an increasing Ag concentration from x = 0 to a maximum of x = 0.09; All samples show a preferred orientation of (002) direction with no observable change of morphology. As the quantity of the Ag dopant was changed, the transmittances, as well as the optical band gap were decreased. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data clearly indicate the presence of Ag in ZnO crystal lattice. A nanoindentation-based technique was used to measure the effective piezo-response of different concentrations of Ag for both direct and converse effects. The value of the piezoelectric coefficient (d(33)) as well as the piezo potential generated from the ZnO NRs and Zn1-xAgxO NRs was found to decrease with the increase of Ag fraction. The finding in this investigation reveals that Ag doped ZnO is not suitable for piezoelectric energy harvesting devices.

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  • 159.
    Nour, Eiman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Flexible Sandwich Nanogenerator for Harvesting Piezoelectric Potential from Single Crystalline Zinc Oxide Nanowires2014In: Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, E-ISSN 1847-9804, Vol. 4, no 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-quality single crystalline zinc oxide nanowires were grown on silver and gold coated plastic substrates for the fabrication of a sandwich-like nanogenerator using the aqueous chemical growth method. The applicability of this configuration as a nanogenerator is demonstrated by studying the harvested electrical output under mechanical deformation. Three different configurations were fabricated and utilized for harvesting piezoelectric potential by applying an external force. The maximum resulting output open circuit voltage and short circuit current were 2.4 V and 152.2 mu A, respectively. The comparison between the different configurations indicates that more piezoelectric potential can be harvested by using two arrays of ZnO NWs placed face-to-face than by using a single nanowire configuration. In addition, the use of a piezoelectric polymer will enhance the amount of generated piezoelectric potential. The obtained results from different configurations of zinc oxide nanowire nanogenerators offer a cost-effective, flexible, long term stable nanogenerator for promising application. The principle of the sandwich nanogenerator demonstrated a new idea for novel self-powering nanotechnology that harvests electricity from the environment for applications such as portable electronics.

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  • 160.
    Nour, Eiman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zinc oxide piezoelectric nano-generators for low frequency applications2017In: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 32, no 6, article id 064005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Piezoelectric Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanogenerators (NGs) have been fabricated for low frequency (amp;lt;100 Hz) energy harvesting applications. Different types of NGs based on ZnO nanostructures have been carefully developed, and studied for testing under different kinds of low frequency mechanical deformations. Well aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) possessing high piezoelectric coefficient were synthesized on flexible substrates using the low temperature hydrothermal route. These ZnO NWs were then used in different configurations to demonstrate different low frequency energy harvesting devices. Using piezoelectric ZnO NWs, we started with the fabrication of a sandwiched NG for a handwriting enabled energy harvesting device based on a thin silver layer coated paper substrate. Such device configurations can be used for the development of electronic programmable smart paper. Further, we developed this NG to work as a triggered sensor for a wireless system using footstep pressure. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using a ZnO NWs piezoelectric NG as a low-frequency self-powered sensor, with potential applications in wireless sensor networks. After that, we investigated and fabricated a sensor on a PEDOT: PSS plastic substrate using a one-sided growth and double-sided growth technique. For the first growth technique, the fabricated NG has been used as a sensor for an acceleration system; while the fabricated NG by the second technique works as an anisotropic direction sensor. This fabricated configuration showed stability for sensing and can be used in surveillance, security, and auto-Mobil applications. In addition to that, we investigated the fabrication of a sandwiched NG on plastic substrates. Finally, we demonstrated that doping ZnO NWs with extrinsic elements (such as Ag) will lead to the reduction of the piezoelectric effect due to the loss of crystal symmetry. A brief summary into future opportunities and challenges is also presented.

  • 161.
    Nour, Omer
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Some nano-devices for chemical sensing2008In: Conference on Science and Technology at Nanoscale,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Nur, Omer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Israr, Muhammad Q.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    El Desouky, Fawzy G.
    NRC, Egypt .
    Salem, Mohamed A.
    NRC, Egypt .
    Abou Hamad, Ali B.
    NRC, Egypt .
    Battisha, Inas K.
    NRC, Egypt .
    Effect of elevated concentrations of strontium and iron on the structural and dielectric characteristics of Ba(1-x-y)Sr(x)Ti Fe(y)O3 prepared through sol-gel technique2012In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 407, no 14, p. 2697-2704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nano-composite Ba1-xSr(x)TiO3 (BST), where x=0.01-0.50 and doped with different concentrations of iron Ba(1-x-y)Sr(x)TiFe(y)O3 (BSTF), where x=0.01 and y=0.01-0.05 powders were prepared by sol-gel method. The effect of increasing the iron and strontium concentrations substituted in Barium strontium titanate system will be studied. The prepared samples have a tetragonal crystalline phase after sintering for 1 h at 750 degrees C in air. The structural and the morphological features of the systems have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The dielectric properties of the BST and BSTF systems have been investigated as a function of temperature and frequency. The dielectric measurements are carried out in the frequency range 42 Hz-1 MHz, at a temperature ranging between 25 and 250 degrees C. The results showed a decrease in T-c temperature giving the following values 90 and 85 degrees C for B10ST and B10ST5F prepared powder samples, respectively, implying tetragonal, feroelectric phase at lower temperature into cubic, para-electric phase at temperature higher than T-c.

  • 163.
    Oeurn Chey, Chan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Low temperature aqueous chemical growth, structural, and optical properties of Mn-doped ZnO nanowires2013In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 375, p. 125-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mn-doped ZnO nanowires were successfully synthesized by using the low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy have been used to characterize the grown Zn1-xMnxO. The FESEM and the XRD measurements revealed that the grown of Mn-doped ZnO had wurtzite structure and the lattice parameters and the size of the crystal changed according to the change of concentration of the dopant. The chemical composition and charge states of the Mn ions doped in the ZnO nanowires was analyzed by the EDX and the XPS, respectively, indicated that the Mn ions is incorporated onto zinc sites in the ZnO nanowires. PL spectroscoCpy shows a strong ultraviolet (UV) emission peak at 378 nm (3.27 eV) from the Mn-doped ZnO nanowires, which is shifted 6 nm to the lower wavelength compared to ZnO nanowires grown by the same ACG method. The unique feature of our samples were the simple low temperature growth method which provides no clustering and the as-synthesized Mn-doped ZnO nanowires have shown good crystal quality. This capability to fabricate Mn-doped ZnO nanowires is of potential to develop new spintronic, photonic and sensor devices fabrication on any substrates.

  • 164.
    Osman, Dalia Ahmed Mohammed
    et al.
    Minist Ind and Trade, Sudan.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mustafa, Mustafa Abbas
    Univ Khartoum, Sudan.
    Reduction of Energy Consumption in Cement Industry Using Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles2020In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 32, no 6, article id 04020124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the possibility of introducing zinc oxide nanoparticles into the cement raw mix so as to reduce the energy consumption and CO2 emissions during processing. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are prepared via a hydrothermal growth method using zinc acetate dihydrate and sodium hydroxide as precursors. The percentages of zinc oxide nanopowder added to the cement raw material was varied between 1% and 3%. The resulted clinker and cement samples were characterized using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), and compressive strength tests. It is concluded that the addition of 1% synthesized zinc oxide nanopowder into portland cement production improves the burnability of the cement raw mixture. A reduction of clinker temperature up to 1,300 degrees C, instead of the 1,450 degrees C-1,500 degrees C usually required, was achieved, thereby enabling a reduction in both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The 28-day strength is within the target design compressive strength of 42.5 N/mm(2). (c) 2020 American Society of Civil Engineers.

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  • 165.
    Persson, Clas
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Nour, Omer
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    de Andrada e Silva, Erasmo A.
    Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brazil.
    da Silva, Antonio Ferreira
    Universidade Federal da Bahia, Brazil.
    Electronic band-edge structure, effective masses, and optical absorption of Si1-xGex using an extended FPLAP/VCA/LDA+U computational method2006In: Brazilian journal of physics, ISSN 0103-9733, E-ISSN 1678-4448, Vol. 36, no 2A, p. 447-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic band-edge structure and optical properties of Sil-xGex are investigated theoretically emloying a full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method. The exchange-correlation potential in the local density approximation (LDA) is corrected by an on-site Coulomb potential (i.e., within the LDA+U-S/C approach) acting asymmetrically on the atomic-like orbitals in the muffin-tin spheres. The electronic structure of the Sil-xGex is calculated self-consistently, assuming a T-d symmetrized Hamiltonian and a linear behavior of the valence-band eigenfunctions for Si, SiGe, and Ge with respect to Ge composition x, assuming randomly alloyed crystal structure. i.e., a "virtual-crystal like" approximation (VCA). We show that this approach yields accurate band-gap energies, effective masses, dielectric function, and optical properties of Sil-xGex. We perform absorption measurements showing the band-gap energy for x less than 0. 25.

     

  • 166.
    Pirhashemi, Mahsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran.
    Elhag, Sami
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elhadi Adam, Rania
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz
    University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    n–n ZnO–Ag2CrO4 heterojunction photoelectrodes with enhanced visible-light photoelectrochemical properties2019In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 9, no 14, p. 7992-8001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, ZnO nanorods (NRs) were hydrothermally grown on an Au-coated glass substrate at a relatively low temperature (90 °C), followed by the deposition of Ag2CrO4 particles via a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) route. The content of the Ag2CrO4 particles on ZnO NRs was controlled by changing the number of SILAR cycles. The fabricated ZnO–Ag2CrO4 heterojunction photoelectrodes were subjected to morphological, structural, compositional, and optical property analyses; their photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties were investigated under simulated solar light illumination. The photocurrent responses confirmed that the ability of the ZnO–Ag2CrO4 heterojunction photoelectrodes to separate the photo-generated electron–hole pairs is stronger than that of bare ZnO NRs. Impressively, the maximum photocurrent density of about 2.51 mA cm−2 at 1.23 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was measured for the prepared ZnO–Ag2CrO4 photoelectrode with 8 SILAR cycles (denoted as ZnO–Ag2CrO4-8), which exhibited about 3-fold photo-enhancement in the current density as compared to bare ZnO NRs (0.87 mA cm−2) under similar conditions. The improvement in photoactivity was attributed to the ideal band gap and high absorption coefficient of the Ag2CrO4 particles, which resulted in improved solar light absorption properties. Furthermore, an appropriate annealing treatment was proven to be an efficient process to increase the crystallinity of Ag2CrO4 particles deposited on ZnO NRs, which improved the charge transport characteristics of the ZnO–Ag2CrO4-8 photoelectrode annealed at 200 °C and increased the performance of the photoelectrode. The results achieved in the present work present new insights for designing n–n heterojunction photoelectrodes for efficient and cost-effective PEC applications and solar-to-fuel energ

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  • 167.
    Pirhashemi, Mahsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran.
    Elhag, Sami
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz
    Univ Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    RETRACTED: Polyethylene glycol-doped BiZn2VO6 as a high efficiency solar-light-activated photocatalyst with substantial durability toward photodegradation of organic contaminations2018In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 8, no 65, p. 37480-37491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we focus on a simple, low-priced, and mild condition hydrothermal route to construct BiZn2VO6 nanocompounds (NCs) as a novel photocatalyst with strong solar Eight absorption ability for environmental purification using solar energy. NCs were further doped with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to improve their photocatalytic efficiency for photodegradation processes through inhibition of fast charge carrier recombination rates and higher charge separation efficiency. Surface morphology, phase structure, optical characteristics, and band structure of the as-prepared samples were analyzed using XRD, EDX, XPS, SEM, UV-vis spectroscopy, CL, and BET techniques. PEG-doped BiZn2VO6 NCs were applied as effective materials to degrade various kinds of organic pollutants including cationic and anionic types, and these NCs exhibited excellent photocatalytic efficiency as compared to traditional photocatalysts. In particular, the PEG-doped BiZn2VO6 (0.10% w/v) photocatalyst exhibited highly enhanced photocatalytic performance with improvements of about 46.4, 28.3, and 7.23 folds compared with PEG-doped ZnO nanorods (NRs), pristine BiVO4, and BiZn2VO6 samples, respectively, for the decomposition of congo red (CR) dye. After 40 minutes of sunlight irradiation, 97.4% of CR was decomposed. In this study, scavenging experiments indicated that both hydroxyl radicals and holes play dominant roles in CR photodegradation under simulated solar Eight irradiation. Meanwhile, the optimal photocatalyst demonstrated good reproducibility and stability for successive cycles of photocatalysis.

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  • 168.
    Qadir Israr, Muhammed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rana Sadaf, Jamil
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Asif, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, B.
    Lund University.
    Potentiometric cholesterol biosensor based on ZnO nanorods chemically grown on Ag wire2010In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 519, no 3, p. 1106-1109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An electrochemical biosensor based on ZnO nanorods for potentiometric cholesterol determination is proposed. Hexagon-shaped ZnO nanorods were directly grown on a silver wire having a diameter of 250 mu m using low temperature aqueous chemical approach that produced ZnO nanorods with a diameter of 125250 nm and a length of similar to 1 mu m. Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was immobilized by a physical adsorption method onto ZnO nanorods. The electrochemical response of the ChOx/ZnO/Ag biosensor against a standard reference electrode (Ag/AgCl) was investigated as a logarithmic function of the cholesterol concentration (1 x 10(-6)M to 1 x 10(-2)M) showing good linearity with a sensitivity of 35.2 mV per decade and the stable output signal was attained at around 10 s.

  • 169.
    Razmi, Nasrin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad
    Tabriz Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemical genosensor based on gold nanostars for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 DNA2022In: Analytical Methods, ISSN 1759-9660, E-ISSN 1759-9679, Vol. 14, no 16, p. 1562-1570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) is an enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which has been issued as a major threat to public health worldwide due to fatal contamination of water and food. Thus, its rapid and accurate detection has tremendous importance in environmental monitoring and human health. In this regard, we report a simple and sensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor by targeting Z3276 as a genetic marker in river water. The surface of the designed gold electrode was functionalized with gold nanostars and an aminated specific sensing probe of E. coli O157:H7 to fabricate the genosensor. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques were applied for electrochemical characterization and detection. The synthesized gold nanostars were characterized using different characterization techniques. The fabricated DNA-based sensor exhibited a high selective ability for one, two, and three-base mismatched sequences. Regeneration, stability, selectivity, and kinetics of the bioassay were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the fabricated genosensor exhibited a linear response range of 10(-5) to 10(-17) mu M in the standard sample and 7.3 to 1 x 10(-17) mu M in water samples with a low limit of quantification of 0.01 zM in water samples. The detection strategy based on silver plated gold nanostars and DNA hybridization improved the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for E. coli O157:H7 detection in real water samples without filtration. The detection assay has the advantages of high selectivity, sensitivity, low amounts of reagents, short analysis time, commercialization, and potential application for the determination of other pathogenic bacteria.

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  • 170.
    Razmi, Nasrin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad
    Tabriz Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Recent Progress on the Electrochemical Biosensing of Escherichia coli O157:H7: Material and Methods Overview2020In: Biosensors, ISSN 2079-6374, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 54Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Escherichia coliO157:H7 (E. coliO157:H7) is a pathogenic strain ofEscherichia coliwhich has issued as a public health threat because of fatal contamination of food and water. Therefore, accurate detection of pathogenicE. coliis important in environmental and food quality monitoring. In spite of their advantages and high acceptance, culture-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), flow cytometry, ATP bioluminescence, and solid-phase cytometry have various drawbacks, including being time-consuming, requiring trained technicians and/or specific equipment, and producing biological waste. Therefore, there is necessity for affordable, rapid, and simple approaches. Electrochemical biosensors have shown great promise for rapid food- and water-borne pathogen detection. Over the last decade, various attempts have been made to develop techniques for the rapid quantification ofE. coliO157:H7. This review covers the importance ofE. coliO157:H7 and recent progress (from 2015 to 2020) in the development of the sensitivity and selectivity of electrochemical sensors developed forE. coliO157:H7 using different nanomaterials, labels, and electrochemical transducers.

  • 171.
    Razmi, Nasrin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lazouskaya, Maryna
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Estonia; Ctr Food & Fermentat Technol, Estonia.
    Pajcin, Ivana
    Univ Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Petrovic, Bojan
    Univ Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Grahovac, Jovana
    Univ Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Simic, Mitar
    Univ Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stojanovic, Goran M.
    Univ Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Monitoring the effect of pH on the growth of pathogenic bacteria using electrical impedance spectroscopy2023In: Results in Engineering (RINENG), ISSN 2590-1230, Vol. 20, article id 101425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    pH value is a significant environmental factor controlling the bacterial growth, activity and affecting their metabolic properties. In the present study, the effect of the different pH values (5, 6, 7, 8, and 9) of the cultivation medium on the growth rate of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 134,909/2 were studied. Plate count method and spectrophotometric measurement of optical density of the cultivation broth were used to assess growth of the pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy measurement was applied to monitor the impedance change caused by the bacterial growth and activity at different pH values. Although the results showed that the initial pH did not completely inhibit the growth of the bacteria, the bacterial growth varied with the pH change showing the interference of pH with cell metabolism. Based on the results, the optical density of the cultivation broth measured spectrophotometrically for E. coli and B. cereus has shown good correlation with cell number determined by the plate count method in each phase of bacterial cultivation. Moreover, the results indicated that for E. coli and B. cereus the impedance value of the bacteria and the medium decreased from the beginning of the experiment till its end after 96 h from the start The impedance value during the first 24 h increased for P. aeruginosa, and then was decreasing until the end of the experiment. Nevertheless, the change in the resistance of the bacteria and the medium was proportionate to the change in cell number. For E. coli and B. cereus the resistance was decreasing with the growth of the bacteria. The linear dependency between the impedance and cell number was observed at low frequencies around 10-100 Hz. For P. aeruginosa, the resistance was increasing during the first 24 h and was decreasing afterwards. Furthermore, the resistance for P. aeruginosa was decreasing with the increase in cell number. Nonetheless, the impedance of the medium with P. aeruginosa was in linear dependency on the logarithm of cell number with the best R2 at high frequencies (0.1-1 MHz).

  • 172.
    Riaz, M
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fulati, Alimujiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Amin, Gul
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvi, N H
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Buckling and elastic stability of vertical ZnO nanotubes and nanorods2009In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 106, no 3, p. 034309-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buckling and elastic stability study of vertical well aligned ZnO nanorods grown on Si substrate and ZnO nanotubes etched from the same nanorods was done quantitatively by nanoindentation technique. The critical load, modulus of elasticity, and flexibility of the ZnO nanorods and nanotubes were observed and we compared these properties for the two nanostructures. It was observed that critical load of nanorods (2890 mu N) was approximately five times larger than the critical load of the nanotubes (687 mu N). It was also observed that ZnO nanotubes were approximately five times more flexible (0.32 nm/mu N) than the nanorods (0.064 nm/mu N). We also calculated the buckling energies of the ZnO nanotubes and nanorods from the force displacement curves. The ratio of the buckling energies was also close to unity due to the increase/decrease of five times for one parameter (critical load) and increase/decrease of five times for the other parameter (displacement) of the two samples. We calculated critical load, critical stress, strain, and Young modulus of elasticity of single ZnO nanorod and nanotube. The high flexibility of the nanotubes and high elasticity of the ZnO nanorods can be used to enhance the efficiency of piezoelectric nanodevices. We used the Euler buckling model and shell cylindrical model for the analysis of the mechanical properties of ZnO nanotubes and nanorods.

  • 173.
    Riaz, M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fulati, Alimujiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhao, Qingxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Klason, P.
    Department of Physics, Göteborg University, SE-41296 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Buckling and mechanical instability of ZnO nanorods grown on different substrates under uniaxial compression2008In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Nanotechnology, Vol. 19, no 41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical instability and buckling characterization of vertically aligned single-crystal ZnO nanorods grown on different substrates including Si, SiC and sapphire (a-Al2O3) was done quantitatively by the nanoindentation technique. The nanorods were grown on these substrates by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. The critical load for the ZnO nanorods grown on the Si, SiC and Al2O3 substrates was found to be 188, 205 and 130 µN, respectively. These observed critical loads were for nanorods with 280 nm diameters and 900 nm length using Si as a substrate, while the corresponding values were 330 nm, 3300 nm, and 780 nm, 3000 nm in the case of SiC and Al2O3 substrates, respectively. The corresponding buckling energies calculated from the force displacement curves were 8.46 × 10-12, 1.158 × 10-11 and 1.092 × 10-11 J, respectively. Based on the Euler model for long nanorods and the J B Johnson model (which is an extension of the Euler model) for intermediate nanorods, the modulus of elasticity of a single rod was calculated for each sample. Finally, the critical buckling stress and strain were also calculated for all samples. We found that the buckling characteristic is strongly dependent on the quality, lattice mismatch and adhesion of the nanorods with the substrate. © IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 174.
    Riaz, Mohammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Song, Jinhui
    Georgia Institute Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lin Wang, Zhong
    Georgia Institute Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Study of the Piezoelectric Power Generation of ZnO Nanowire Arrays Grown by Different Methods2011In: ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, ISSN 1616-301X, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 628-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The piezoelectric power generation from ZnO nanowire arrays grown on different substrates using different methods is investigated. ZnO nanowires were grown on n-SiC and n-Si substrates using both the high-temperature vapor liquid solid (VLS) and the low-temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) methods. A conductive atomic force microscope (AFM) is used in contact mode to deflect the ZnO nanowire arrays. No substrate effect was observed but the growth method, crystal quality, density, length, and diameter (aspect ratio) of the nanowires are found to affect the piezoelectric behavior. During the AFM scanning in contact mode without biasing voltage, the ZnO nanowire arrays grown by the VLS method produced higher and larger output voltage signal of 35 mV compared to those grown by the ACG method, which produce smaller output voltage signal of only 5 mV. The finite element (FE) method was used to investigate the output voltage for different aspect ratio of the ZnO nanowires. From the FE results it was found that the output voltage increases as the aspect ratio increases and starts to decreases above an aspect ratio of 80 for ZnO nanowires.

  • 175.
    Sadaf, J R
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Israr, M Q
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kishwar, S
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forward- and reverse-biased electroluminescence behavior of chemically fabricated ZnO nanotubes/GaN interface2011In: SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0268-1242, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 075003-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electroluminescence characteristics of an n-ZnO nanotubes/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diode (LED) have been investigated at forward and reverse bias. Distinctly different emission spectra have been observed and the location of the recombination of electron-hole is analyzed under both configurations. The forward-biased emission spectrum shows two peaks centered at around 450 and 560 nm, while the reverse-biased spectrum exhibits a single emission peak at 650 nm. By comparing the current transport mechanisms, it is suggested that the violet-blue emission peak (450 nm) observed only under forward bias is originating from the heterojunction of the ZnO nanotubes/p-GaN LED. The influence on the emission intensity of the device with the increase in temperature at constant current is studied in the range from 25 to 65 degrees C, to check its compatibility for practical applications and under harsh conditions.

  • 176.
    Sadaf, Jamal Rana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Israr, Muhammad Qadir
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kishwar, Sultana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    White Electroluminescence Using ZnO Nanotubes/GaN Heterostructure Light-Emitting Diode2010In: NANOSCALE RESEARCH LETTERS, ISSN 1931-7573, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 957-960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the fabrication of heterostructure white light-emitting diode (LED) comprised of n-ZnO nanotubes (NTs) aqueous chemically synthesized on p-GaN substrate. Room temperature electroluminescence (EL) of the LED demonstrates strong broadband white emission spectrum consisting of predominating peak centred at 560 nm and relatively weak violet-blue emission peak at 450 nm under forward bias. The broadband EL emission covering the whole visible spectrum has been attributed to the large surface area and high surface states of ZnO NTs produced during the etching process. In addition, comparison of the EL emission colour quality shows that ZnO nanotubes have much better quality than that of the ZnO nanorods. The colour-rendering index of the white light obtained from the nanotubes was 87, while the nanorods-based LED emit yellowish colour.

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  • 177.
    Sadaf, Jamil R
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Israr, Muhammad Q
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ding, Yong
    Georgia Institute Technology.
    Wang, Zhong L
    Georgia Institute Technology.
    The correlation between radiative surface defect states and high color rendering index from ZnO nanotubes2011In: Nanoscale Research Letters, ISSN 1931-7573, E-ISSN 1556-276X, Vol. 6, no 513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combined surface, structural and opto-electrical investigations are drawn from the chemically fashioned ZnO nanotubes and its heterostructure with p-GaN film. A strong correlation has been found between the formation of radiative surface defect states in the nanotubes and the pure cool white light possessing averaged eight color rendering index value of 96 with appropriate color temperature. Highly important deep-red color index value has been realized andgt; 95 which has the capability to render and reproduce natural and vivid colors accurately. Diverse types of deep defect states and their relative contribution to the corresponding wavelengths in the broad emission band is suggested.

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  • 178.
    Sadollah Khani, Azar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Hatamie, Amir
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zargar, Behrooz
    Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Kazeminezhad, Iraj
    Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Colorimetric Disposable Paper Coated with ZnO@ZnS Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Detection of Copper Ions in Aqueous Solutions2014In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 6, no 20, p. 17694-17701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have proposed a new nanoparticle-containing test paper sensor that could be used as an inexpensive, easy-to-use, portable, and highly selective sensor to detect Cu2+ ions in aqueous solutions. This disposable paper sensor is based on ZnO@ZnS core-shell nanoparticles. The core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized using a chemical method and then they were used for coating the paper. The synthesis of the ZnO@ZnS core-shell nanoparticles was performed at a temperature as low as 60 degrees C, and so far this is the lowest temperature for the synthesis of such core-shell nanoparticles. The sensitivity of the paper sensor was investigated for different Cu2+ ion concentrations in aqueous solutions and the results show a direct linear relation between the Cu2+ ions concentration and the color intensity of the paper sensor with a visual detection limit as low as 15 mu M (similar to 0.96 ppm). Testing the present paper sensor on real river turbulent water shows a maximum 5% relative error for determining the Cu2+ ions concentration, which confirms that the presented paper sensor can successfully be used efficiently for detection in complex solutions with high selectivity. Photographs of the paper sensor taken using a regular digital camera were transferred to a computer and analyzed by ImageJ Photoshop software. This finding demonstrates the potential of the present disposable paper sensor for the development of a portable, accurate, and selective heavy metal detection technology.

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  • 179.
    Sadollah Khani, Azar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Kazeminezhad, Iraj
    Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cation exchange assisted low temperature chemical synthesis of ZnO@Ag2S core-shell nanoparticles and their photo-catalytic properties2015In: Materials Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 0254-0584, E-ISSN 1879-3312, Vol. 163, p. 485-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study ZnO@Ag2S core shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) were synthesized by a chemical approach at a relatively low temperature of around 60 degrees C. The shell material was obtained by transferring a ZnS shell synthesized at around bare a ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) to Ag2S. This transfer was achieved at temperature of around 60 degrees C owing to the relatively low value of the solubility product constant of Ag2S compared to that of ZnS. The as-grown ZnO@Ag2S core shell NPs were used as a photocatalyst to degrade Eriochrome black-T dye. Since dye pollutants can be found in mediums with different pH, the degradation experiments were performed at basic and acidic pH values. Photo-decolonization experiments of Eriochrome black-T dye indicated that the ZnO@Ag2S CSNPs act more efficiently as a photcatalyst for both acidic and basic pH values compared to bare ZnO NPs. Then the reusability of the nano-catalyst was tested to confirm that it can be applied as an effective and recyclable photocatalyst. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 180.
    Sadollah Khani, Azar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kazeminezhad, Iraj
    Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Martin O.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A detailed optical investigation of ZnO@ZnS core-shell nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity at different pH values2015In: Ceramics International, ISSN 0272-8842, E-ISSN 1873-3956, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 7174-7184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via a co-precipitation method and were covered by zinc sulfate using a chemical approach at a temperature of 60 degrees C forming ZnO@ZnS core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs). In order to investigate the effect of the shell thickness on the optical and photocatalytic properties, many samples were grown with different concentration of the sulfur source. The results show that, covering ZnO with ZnS leads to form a type II band alignment system. In addition, the band gap of the ZnO@ZnS CSNPs was found less than both of the core and the shell materials. Also the emission peak intensity of the ZnO NPs changes as a result of manipulating oxygen vacancies via covering. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnO@ZnS CSNPs was invpstigated for degradation of the Congo red dye. As dye pollutants can be found in mediums with different pH, the experiments were performed at three pH values to determine the best photocatalyst for each pH. Congo red dye degradation experiments indicate that the ZnO@ZnS CSNPs act more efficiently as a photcatalyst at pH values of 4 and 7 compare to the pure ZnO NPs.

  • 181.
    Sadollahkhani, Azar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elhag, Sami
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Photocatalytic properties of different morphologies of CuO for the degradation of Congo red organic dye2014In: Ceramics International, ISSN 0272-8842, E-ISSN 1873-3956, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 11311-11317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Congo red organic dye was degraded by different morphologies of CuO and it was found that CuO nanorods are more favorable for the degradation of Congo red due to their more specific surface area and sensitive surface for the Congo red. All the CuO nanostructures were prepared by low temperature aqueous growth method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used for the morphological and structural characterization of CuO nanostructures. The relative degradation of Congo red for nanorods, nanoleaves and nanosheets was in order 67%, 48% and 12% respectively.

  • 182.
    Sadollahkhani, Azar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Kazeminezhad, Iraj
    Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synthesis, structural characterization and photocatalytic application of ZnO@ZnS core-shell nanoparticles2014In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 4, no 70, p. 36940-36950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation with no capping agent followed by covering with ZnS using a solution-based chemical method at low temperature. By variation of the solution concentrations it was found that the fully-covering ZnS shell forms by a reaction of Na2S with ZnO NPs followed by the formation of ZnS nano-crystals by the reaction of Na2S with ZnCl2. The mechanism that led to full coverage of the ZnO core is proposed to be the addition of ZnCl2 at a later stage of the growth which guarantees a continuous supply of Zn ions to the core surface. Moreover, the ZnS nanocrystals that uniformly cover the ZnO NPs show no epitaxial relationship between the ZnO core and ZnS shell. The slow atomic mobility at the low reaction temperature is attributed to the non-epitaxial uniform ZnS shell growth. The rough surface of the ZnO grains provides initial nucleation positions for the growth of the ZnS shell nano-crystals. The low growth temperature also inhibits the abnormal growth of ZnS grains and results in the homogeneous coverage of ZnS nano-crystals on the ZnO core surface. The as-synthesized ZnO@ZnS core-shell nanoparticles were used as a photocatalyst to decompose Rose Bengal dye at three different pH values. ZnO@ZnS core-shell nanoparticles perform as a more active photocatalyst at a pH of 4, while pure ZnO nanoparticles are more efficient at a pH of 7.

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  • 183.
    Satti Osman, Eiman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chey, Chan Oeurn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A flexible anisotropic self-powered piezoelectric direction sensor based on double sided ZnO nanowires configuration2015In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 26, no 9, article id 095502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have successfully synthesized highly dense and well aligned zinc oxide nanowires (NWs) on the two sides of a PEDOT: PSS substrate by a single step low temperature hydrothermal method. The grown sample was used to fabricate a double sided piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG). The maximum harvested output power density from the fabricated double sided NG configuration was about 4.44 mW cm(-2). The results obtained from the present double sided NG were approximately double the output from a single side. In addition to that, the voltage polarity of the harvested voltage from the two sides of the NG has been investigated. The results showed that upon bending, an anisotropic voltage polarity is generated on the two sides. Indicating that, this double sided NG can be used as a self-powered voltage polarity based direction sensor. The results of the present flexible double sided NG is very promising for harvesting energy from irregular mechanical energy sources in the surrounding environment. In addition, the fabricated configuration showed stability for sensing and can be used in surveillance and security applications.

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  • 184.
    Satti Osman, Eiman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Handwriting enabled harvested piezoelectric power using ZnO nanowires/polymer composite on paper substrate2014In: NANO ENERGY, ISSN 2211-2855, Vol. 9, p. 221-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We here, present a flexible handwriting driven nanogenerator (NG) based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs)/polymer composite grown/deposited on paper substrate. The targeted configuration is composed of ZnO NWs/PVDF polymer ink pasted and sandwiched between two pieces of paper with ZnO NWs grown chemically on one side of each piece of paper. Other configurations utilizing a ZnO/PVDF ink with different ZnO morphologies on paper platform and others on plastic platform were fabricated for comparison. The mechanical pressure exerted on the paper platform while handwriting is then harvested by the ZnO NWs/polymer based NG to deliver electrical energy. Two handwriting modes were tested; these were slow (low pressure) and fast (high pressure) handwriting. The maximum achieved harvested open circuit voltage was 4.8 V. While an out power density as high as 1.3 mW/mm(2) was estimated when connecting the NG to a 100 Omega load resistor. The observed results were stable and reproducible. The present NG provides a low cost and scalable approach with many potential applications, like e.g. programmable paper for signature verification.

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  • 185.
    Savoyant, A.
    et al.
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bertaina, S.
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    EPR investigation of pure and Co-doped ZnO oriented nanocrystals2017In: NANOTECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0957-4484, Vol. 28, no 3, article id 035705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pure and cobalt-doped zinc oxide aligned nanorods have been grown by the low-temperature (90 degrees C) aqueous chemical method on amorphous ZnO seed layer, deposited on a sapphire substrate. High crystallinity of these objects is demonstrated by the electron paramagnetic resonance investigation at liquid helium temperature. The successful incorporation of Co2+ ions in substitution of Zn2+ ones in the ZnO matrix has also been confirmed. A drastic reduction of intrinsic ZnO nanorods core defects is observed in the Co-doped samples, which enhances the structural quality of the NRs. The quantification of substitutional Co2+ ions in the ZnO matrix is achieved by comparison with a reference sample. The findings in this study indicate the potential of using the low-temperature aqueous chemical approach for synthesizing material for spintronics applications.

  • 186.
    Savoyant, A.
    et al.
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pilone, O.
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Core-defect reduction in ZnO nanorods by cobalt incorporation2017In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 28, no 28, article id 285705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown by the low-temperature (90 degrees C) aqueous chemical method with different cobalt concentration within the synthesis solution (from 0% to 15%), are studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), just above the liquid helium temperature. The anisotropic spectra of substitutional Co2+ reveal a high crystalline quality and orientation of the NRs, as well as the probable presence of a secondary disordered phase of ZnO: Co. The analysis of the EPR spectra indicates that the disappearance of the paramagnetic native core-defect (CD) at g similar to 1.96 is correlated with the apparition of the Co2+ ions lines, suggesting a gradual neutralization of the former by the latter. We show that only a little amount of cobalt in the synthesis solution (about 0.2%) is necessary to suppress almost all these paramagnetic CDs. This gives insight in the experimentally observed improvement of the crystal quality of diluted ZnO: Co nanorods, as well as into the control of paramagnetic defects in ZnO nanostructures.

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  • 187.
    Savoyant, A.
    et al.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Rollo, M.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Texier, M.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Elhadi Adam, Rania Elhadi
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bernardini, S.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Pilone, O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Margeat, O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bertaina, S.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Light-induced high-spin state in ZnO nanoparticles2020In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 31, no 9, article id 095707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of white-light irradiation on similar to 15.nm diameter ZnO nanoparticles are investigated by means of electron paramagnetic resonance, near liquid-nitrogen and liquid-helium temperatures. Under dark conditions, usual core- and surface-defects are detected, respectively, at g = 1.960 and g = 2.003. Under white-light illumination, the core-defect signal intensity is strongly increased, which is to be correlated to the light-induced conductivitys augmentation. Beside, a four-lines structure appears, with the same gravity center as that of the surface defects. Simulations and intensity power-dependence measurements show that this four-line-structure is very likely to arise from a localized high spin S = 2, induced by light irradiation, and subjected to a weak axial anisotropy. At 85K, this high-spin state can last several hours after the light-irradiation removal, probably due to highly spin-forbidden recombination process. The possible excited resonant complexes at the origin of this signal are discussed. Other light-induced S = 1/2-like centers are detected as well, which depend on the nanoparticles growth conditions.

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  • 188.
    Shah, Aqeel Ahmed
    et al.
    NED Univ Engn & Technol Karachi, Pakistan.
    Bhatti, Muhammad Ali
    Univ Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Chandio, Ali Dad
    NED Univ Engn & Technol Karachi, Pakistan.
    Almani, Khalida Faryal
    Univ Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Univ Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Bhatti, Adeel Liaquat
    Univ Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Mugheri, Abdul Qayoom
    Univ Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Waryani, Baradi
    Univ Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Univ Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Tin as an Effective Doping Agent into ZnO for the Improved Photodegradation of Rhodamine B2021In: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ISSN 1533-4880, E-ISSN 1533-4899, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 2529-2537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have fabricated ZnO nano rods by hydrothermal method and successively doped them with tin (Sn) using different concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg of tin chloride. XRD of the fabricated structures showed that ZnO possess hexagonal wurtzite phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to explore the morphology and it shows nanorod like morphology for all samples and no considerable change in the structural features were found. The dimension of nanorod is 200 to 300 nm. The doped materials were then investigated for their photo catalytic degradation of environmental pollutant Rhodamine B. The performance of doped ZnO is compared with the pristine ZnO. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to explore the morphology and it shows nanorod like morphology for all samples and no considerable change in the structural features were found. The dimension of nanorod is 200 to 300 nm. XRD of the fabricated structures showed that ZnO possess hexagonal wurtzite phase. Photo catalytic activity of rhodamine B was investigated under UV light and a maximum degradation efficiency of 85% was obtained. The optical property reveals the reduction in band gap of upto 17.14% for 100 mg Sn doped ZnO. The degradation is followed by the pseudo order kinetics. The produced results are unique in terms of facile synthesis of Sn doped ZnO and excellent photo degradation efficiency, therefore these materials can be used for other environmental applications.

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  • 189.
    Shah, Aqeel Ahmed
    et al.
    NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi, Pakistan.
    Bhatti, Muhammad Ali
    University of Sindh Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chandio, Ali Dad
    NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi, Pakistan.
    Channa, Iftikhar A.
    NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi, Pakistan.
    Sahito, Ali Ghulam
    University of Sindh Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.
    Chalangar, Ebrahim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    University of Sindh Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.
    Facile synthesis of copper doped ZnO nanorods for the efficient photo degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange2020In: Ceramics International, ISSN 0272-8842, E-ISSN 1873-3956, ISSN 0272-8842, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 9997-10005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods are doped with copper by low temperature aqueous chemical growth method using different concentrations of copper 5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg and 20 mg and labeled as sample 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The morphology and phase purity of nanostructures was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. The optical characterization was carried out through UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The band gap of coper doped ZnO has brought reduction at 250-600 nm and it indicates the fewer time for the recombination of electron and hole pairs, thus enhanced photo degradation efficiency is found. ZnO exhibits nanorods like shape even after the doping of copper. The photo degradation efficiency for the two chronic dyes such as methyl orange MO and methylene blue MB was found to be 57.5% and 60% respectively for a time of 180 mints. This study suggests that the copper impurity in ZnO can tailor its photocatalytic activity at considerable rate. The proposed photo catalysts are promising and can be used for the waste water treatment and other environmental applications.

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  • 190.
    Si, Peng
    et al.
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Razmi, Nasrin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Solanki, Shipra
    Delhi Technol Univ, India; Delhi Technol Univ, India.
    Pandey, Chandra Mouli
    Delhi Technol Univ, India.
    Gupta, Rajinder K.
    Delhi Technol Univ, India.
    Malhotra, Bansi D.
    Delhi Technol Univ, India.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    de la Zerda, Adam
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Gold nanomaterials for optical biosensing and bioimaging2021In: Nanoscale Advances, E-ISSN 2516-0230, Vol. 3, no 10, p. 2679-2698Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are highly compelling nanomaterials for biomedical studies due to their unique optical properties. By leveraging the versatile optical properties of different gold nanostructures, the performance of biosensing and biomedical imaging can be dramatically improved in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, speed, contrast, resolution and penetration depth. Here we review recent advances of optical biosensing and bioimaging techniques based on three major optical properties of AuNPs: surface plasmon resonance, surface enhanced Raman scattering and luminescence. We summarize the fabrication methods and optical properties of different types of AuNPs, highlight the emerging applications of these AuNPs for novel optical biosensors and biomedical imaging innovations, and discuss the future trends of AuNP-based optical biosensors and bioimaging as well as the challenges of implementing these techniques in preclinical and clinical investigations.

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  • 191.
    Soliveres, S
    et al.
    University of Montpellier.
    Hoffmann, A
    University of Montpellier.
    Pascal, F
    University of Montpellier.
    Delseny, C
    University of Montpellier.
    Kabir, M S
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Gothenburg University.
    Salesse, A
    University of Montpellier.
    Willander, Magnus
    Gothenburg University.
    Deen, J
    McMaster University, Canada.
    Excess low frequency noise in single-wall carbon nanotube2006In: Fluctuation and Noise Letters, ISSN 0219-4775, E-ISSN 1793-6780, Vol. 6, no 1, p. L45-L55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low frequency noise measurements have been performed on a single-wall carbon nanotube connected by Ti/Au electrodes. It has been found that the 1/f noise decreases when the measurements are undertaken under vacuum and when the nanotube is partially degassed, showing a correlation between the fluctuation inducing the 1/f noise and the presence of gases. We show that the 1/f noise sources are located at the metal/nanotube contacts. When the device is annealed under vacuum at 450K, some Lorentzian shapes are observable and can be related to nanotube defects or to strongly bound molecules.

  • 192.
    Soomro, Muhammad Yousuf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, I
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bano, Nargis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, S
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enhancement of zinc interstitials in ZnO nanotubes grown on glass substrate by the hydrothermal method2012In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 106, no 1, p. 151-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, high density well aligned ZnO nanotubes were grown on glass via a two-step growth-then-etching by simple and template-free hydrothermal method. We used etching procedure to introduce additional zinc interstitial defects in the ZnO nanotubes. The optical properties of the ZnO nanotubes have been investigated by depth-resolved cathodluminescence spectroscopy (DRCLS) which provides information about the physical origin and growth dependence of optically active defects together with their spatial distribution. The DRCLS study gives clear evidence about the enhancement of zinc interstitial defects which are responsible for the violet and decrease of the DL emission in ZnO nanotubes when compared to the as grown ZnO nanorods. We observed a variation in the zinc interstitials along the nanotube depth.

  • 193.
    Soomro, Muhammad Yousuf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, I
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bano, Nargis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Piezoelectric power generation from zinc oxide nanowires grown on paper substrate2012In: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 80-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we demonstrate piezoelectric power generation from zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires grown on paper substrate. Vertically aligned ZnO nanowires are deflected by an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip in contact mode which generates an output voltage of up to 7 mV. Furthermore, the effects of different parameters mainly influencing the magnitude of the output voltage are discussed. We expect that due to its simplicity, this approach represents an important step within the development of nanoscale power generators. It offers a promising alternative powering source for the next generation of nanodevices on disposable paper.

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  • 194.
    Soomro, Muhammad Yousuf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Ijaz
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bano, Nargis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nanoscale elastic modulus of single horizontal ZnO nanorod using nanoindentation experiment2012In: Nanoscale Research Letters, ISSN 1931-7573, E-ISSN 1556-276X, Vol. 7, p. 146-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We measure the elastic modulus of a single horizontal ZnO nanorod [NR] grown by a low-temperature hydrothermal chemical process on silicon substrates by performing room-temperature, direct load-controlled nanoindentation measurements. The configuration of the experiment for the single ZnO NR was achieved using a focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope dual-beam instrument. The single ZnO NR was positioned horizontally over a hole on a silicon wafer using a nanomanipulator, and both ends were bonded with platinum, defining a three-point bending configuration. The elastic modulus of the ZnO NR, extracted from the unloading curve using the well-known Oliver-Pharr method, resulted in a value of approximately 800 GPa. Also, we discuss the NR creep mechanism observed under indentation. The mechanical behavior reported in this paper will be a useful reference for the design and applications of future nanodevices.

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  • 195.
    Soomro, Muhammad Yousuf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enhancing the piezopotential from Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire usingp-type polymers2014In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 124, p. 123-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the effects of different p-type polymer layers on the piezoelectric potential from ZnO nanowire (NWs) grown on silver (Ag) coated silicon (Si) substrate by the low temperature chemical synthesis method. Piezoelectric measurement was performed by a conductive atomic force microscope (AFM). In the case of the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-Tosylate (PEDOT-Tos), the output voltage is enhanced by about 95 mV, compared to 18 mV with the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) oxidized with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) layer. The enhancement in the output piezopotential was attributed to the reduction of the screening effect due to free charge carriers. It is suggested that the present method may be one of the best possible alternative ways to improve the piezo-potential output from ZnO NWs nanogenerators.

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  • 196.
    Soomro, Muhammad Yousuf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zinc Oxide Nanowire Based Piezoelectric Nano Generators Grown on Flexible Substrates2013In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 1556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible substrates, like plastic, paper and cotton fabrics can be of interest for several reasons in connection to the appealing issue of generating voltage-current from piezoelectric ZnO nanowires (NWs). Zinc oxide NWs have shown very high voltage generation and they are possible to grown on plastic, paper and cotton. Since we with these substrates can get a new freedom to bend and also stretch the NWs and to incorporate them into new applications they are of great potential. Here we will describe the mechanical and piezoelectric properties of ZnO NWs grown on ordinary clean room paper and on cotton fabrics substrates as well as possibility of coating the ZnO NWs to maximize the output generated power. An enhancement of 160 times in the piezo-potential was observed from ZnO NWs coated with P3HT p-type polymer compared to non-coated NWs.

  • 197.
    Strelchuk, V.
    et al.
    National Academic Science Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Kolomys, O.
    National Academic Science Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Rarata, S.
    National Academic Science Ukraine, Ukraine; Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, Ukraine.
    Lytvyn, P.
    National Academic Science Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Khyzhun, O.
    NASU, Ukraine.
    Chey, Chan Oeurn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Raman Submicron Spatial Mapping of Individual Mn-doped ZnO Nanorods2017In: Nanoscale Research Letters, ISSN 1931-7573, E-ISSN 1556-276X, Vol. 12, article id 351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO nanorods (NRs) arrays doped with a large concentration of Mn synthesized by aqueous chemical growth and were characterized by SEM, photoluminescence, Raman scattering, magnetic force microscopy (MFM). By comparison of spectra taken on pure and Mn-doped ZnO NRs, a few new Raman impurity-related phonon modes, resulting from the presence of Mn in the investigated samples. We also present a vibrational and magnetic characterization of individual lying nanorods using Raman and MFM imaging. Confocal scanning micro-Raman mapping of the spatial distribution of intensity and frequency of phonon modes in single Mn-doped ZnO NRs nanorods is presented and analyzed for the first time. Mn-related local vibrational modes are also registered in Raman spectra of the single nanorod, confirming the incorporation of Mn into the ZnO host matrix. At higher Mn concentration the structural transformation toward the spinel phase ZnMn2O4 and Mn3O4 is observed mainly in 2D bottom layers. MFM images of Mn-doped ZnO NR arrays and single nanorod were studied in nanoscale at room temperature and demonstrate magnetic behavior. The circular domain magnetic pattern on top of single nanorod originated to superposition of some separate domains inside rod. This demonstrates that long-range ferromagnetic order is present at room temperature. Aligned Mn-doped ZnO NRs demonstrates that long-range ferromagnetic order and may be applied to future spintronic applications.

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  • 198.
    Strelchuk, V. V.
    et al.
    National Academic Science Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Nikolenko, A. S.
    National Academic Science Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Kolomys, O. F.
    National Academic Science Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Rarata, S. V.
    National Academic Science Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Avramenko, K. A.
    National Academic Science Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Lytvyn, P. M.
    National Academic Science Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Tronc, P.
    Ecole Super Phys and Chim Ind Ville Paris, France.
    Chey, Chan Oeurn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Optical and structural properties of Mn-doped ZnO nanorods grown by aqueous chemical growth for spintronic applications2016In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 601, p. 22-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of Mn-doping on the structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of the ZnO:Mn nanorods (NRs) synthesized by aqueous chemical process is reported. Grown ZnO:Mn NRs are shown to have hexagonal end facets and the diameters increasing with nominal Mn content. Optical absorption measurements show a decrease in optical band gap with increase of Mn concentration. Raman spectroscopy revealed significant modification of the lattice vibrational properties of the ZnO matrix upon Mn doping. The additional Mn-related vibrational mode, intensity of which increases with amount of Mn can be regarded as an evidence of Mn incorporation into the host lattice of the ZnO. At high Mn concentrations, coexistence of hexagonal Zn1-xMnxO phase along with the secondary phases of ZnMn2O4 cubic spinel is revealed. Magnetic properties of ZnO: Mn NRs are studied by combinatorial atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy imaging, and obtained clear magnetic contrast at room temperature provides a strong evidence of ferromagnetic behavior. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 199.
    Sultana, Kishwar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Asif, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Per-Olof
    Lund University.
    Intracellular ZnO Nanorods Conjugated with Protoporphyrin for Local Mediated Photochemistry and Efficient Treatment of Single Cancer Cell2010In: NANOSCALE RESEARCH LETTERS, ISSN 1931-7573, Vol. 5, no 10, p. 1669-1674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO nanorods (NRs) with high surface area to volume ratio and biocompatibility is used as an efficient photosensitizer carrier system and at the same time providing intrinsic white light needed to achieve cancer cell necrosis. In this letter, ZnO nanorods used for the treatment of breast cancer cell (T47D) are presented. To adjust the sample for intracellular experiments, we have grown the ZnO nanorods on the tip of borosilicate glass capillaries (0.5 mu m diameter) by aqueous chemical growth technique. The grown ZnO nanorods were conjugated using protoporphyrin dimethyl ester (PPDME), which absorbs the light emitted by the ZnO nanorods. Mechanism of cytotoxicity appears to involve the generation of singlet oxygen inside the cell. The novel findings of cell-localized toxicity indicate a potential application of PPDME-conjugated ZnO NRs in the necrosis of breast cancer cell within few minutes.

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  • 200.
    Sultana, Kishwar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ul Hasan, Kamran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvi, N, H.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klason, P.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A comparative study of the electrodeposition and the aqueous chemical growth techniques for the utilization of ZnO nanorods on p-GaN for white light emitting diodes2011In: Superlattices and Microstructures, ISSN 0749-6036, E-ISSN 1096-3677, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 32-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertically well aligned zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) were grown on p-GaN by electrodeposition (ED) and aqueous chemical growth (ACG) techniques and the structures were employed to fabricate white light emitting diodes (LEDs). Room temperature current voltage (IV), photoluminescence (PL), and electroluminescence (EL) measurements were performed to investigate and compare both LEDs. In general, the IV characteristics and the PL spectra of both LEDs were rather similar. Nevertheless, the EL of the ED samples showed an extra emission peak shoulder at 730 nm. Moreover, at the same injection current, the EL spectrum of the ED light emitting diode showed a small UV shift of 12 nm and its white peak was found to be broader when compared to the ACG grown LED. The broadening of the EL spectrum of the LED grown by ED is due to the introduction of more radiative deep level defects. The presented LEDs have shown excellent color rendering indexes reaching a value as high as 95. These results indicate that the ZnO nanorods grown by both techniques possess very interesting electrical and optical properties but the ED is found to be faster and more suitable for the fabrication of white LEDs.

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