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  • 151.
    Molander, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Nordqvist, Peter
    Royal institute of technology, Research Institute Hearing Bridge, KTH.
    Ellis, Rachel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience.
    Online administration of a speech in noise test and its relationship to cognition, hearing problems and mental health2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing loss is common, but often both undetected and untreated. In this two-part study we evaluated an online hearing test and used this test to explore potential links between hearing status, cognitive abilities, psychological distress as well as quality of life.

    Out of a total of 1370 online recruited participants who completed the procedure, 16.2% failed the online hearing test. Hearing difficulties were more prevalent among the older participants. Poor self-rated hearing ability, as measured by the Amsterdam Inventory of Auditory Handicap, increased the odds ratio for failing the hearing test (OR 2.34, 95 % CI 1.74-3.15). The same was true for scoring above the cut-off score of 11 on the anxiety subscale on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (OR 2.55, 95 % CI 1.22-5.33). On the other hand, good performance on the cognitive tasks lowered the risk for a failed hearing test.

    We conclude that online hearing tests may have the potential to reduce the time lag between noticing hearing difficulties and beginning a process to address the problem. Moreover, online data collection facilitate large scale investigations on the links between hearing, cognition and perceived communication and mental health problems.

  • 152.
    Molander, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordqvist, Peter
    Öberg, Marie
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Internet-based hearing screening using speech-in-noise: validation and comparisons of self-reported hearing problems, quality of life and phonological representation2013In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 3, no 9, p. 3223-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives For the last decade a host of different projects have been launched to allow persons who are concerned about their hearing status to quickly and at a low cost test their hearing ability. Most often, this is carried out without collecting complementary information that could be correlated with hearing impairment. In this two-part study we first, present the development and validation of a novel Internet-based hearing test, and second, report on the associations between this test and phonological representation, quality of life and self-reported hearing difficulties.

    Design Cross-sectional study.

    Setting An opportunity sample of participants was recruited at the Stockholm central station for the first study. All parts of the second study were conducted via the Internet, with testing and self-report forms adapted for online use.

    Participants The first part of the study was carried out in direct contact with the participants, and participants from the second study were recruited by means of advertisements in newspapers and on webpages. The only exclusion criterion was that participants had to be over 18 years old. Most participants were between 60 and 69 years old. There were almost an equal number of men and women (total n=316).

    Outcome measures 48 participants failed the Internet-based hearing screening test. The group failing the test reported more problems on the Amsterdam Inventory of Auditory Disability. In addition, they were found to have diminished phonological representational skills. However, no difference in quality of life was found.

    Conclusions Almost one in five participants was in need of contacting their local hearing clinic. This group had more complaints regarding tinnitus and hyperacusis, rated their own hearing as worse than those who passed, and had a poorer capability of generating accurate phonological representations. This study suggests that it is feasible to screen for hearing status online, and obtain valid data.

  • 153.
    Naylor, Graham
    et al.
    Eriksholms Research Centre, Denmark.
    Thorén, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Denmark.
    Öberg, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Denmark.
    A randomized controlled trial of professional online rehabilitation for adult hearing-aid users2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 154.
    Naylor, Graham
    et al.
    Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Öberg, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Wänström, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Exploring narrative effects in hearing aid fitting2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploring narrative effects

    The clinical meeting is a narrative (‘story’) in itself. To be able to study narrative effects in isolation, the narrative must be separated from the outcome of the hearing-aid fitting. In this study the test persons were given two hearing aids. These were accompanied by different narratives, but had identical amplification/acoustic signal processing.

     

     

    Testing narrative effects

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the power of the narrative in affecting the client’s perception of the dispensing process. The experimental approach was to implement alternative dispensing processes with divergent narratives but identical acoustical results. Then, in a balanced crossover design, to carry out fittings with these processes on a group of hearing-aid clients. The two carefully rehearsed dispensing processes were: a ‘Diagnostic’ process and an ‘Interactive’ process.

     

     

     

     

     

     Narrative 1: ‘Diagnostic’ process. The client is inactive and the dispenser makes a number of adjustments based on hearing assessments, during which the client is passive. Fitting is based on hearing thresholds only.

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Narrative 2: ‘Interactive’ process. The client is led to believe that they have adjusted the HA settings to their own preferences. Fitting is based on hearing thresholds only (hearing-aid settings identical for Narratives 1 and 2.)

     

     

     

     

     Results

    20 of the 24 subjects had a clear fitting preference. This is surprising, since the two fittings were acoustically identical. We must suppose that it is the subjects’ perception of the fitting process which determined their preferences. However, all subjects except one gave exclusively sound-related reasons for their preferences (“Sounds more clear” etc.). Thus it seems that clinicians may not always hear the ‘true’ reasons for preferences from their clients.

  • 155.
    Naylor, Graham
    et al.
    Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Öberg, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Wänström, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Exploring the Effects of the Narrative Embodied in the Hearing Aid Fitting Process on Treatment Outcomes2015In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 517-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: There is strong evidence from other fields of health, and growing evidence in audiology, that characteristics of the process of intervention as perceived by the client (embodied narratives) can have significant effects on treatment outcomes, independent of the technical properties of the intervention itself. This phenomenon deserves examination because studies of technical interventions that fail to take account of it may reach erroneous conclusions and because clinical practice can put such effects to therapeutic use. The aim of this study was to test the idea that embodied narratives might affect outcomes in hearing aid fitting. This was achieved by carrying out experiments in which technical (acoustic) differences between alternative hearing aid fittings were absent, while providing test subjects with a strong contrast between the processes apparently applied to derive the fittings being compared. Thus, any effects of contrasting narratives could be observed, free of acoustical confounds. The hypothesis was that narrative effects would be observed. Design: A balanced crossover design was used, in which subjects received and evaluated two bilateral hearing aid fittings in succession. Subjects were deceived as to the true identical content of the hearing aid fittings being compared, but encouraged to believe that one fitting process was interactive and the other was diagnostic in character. Two almost identical experiments were undertaken: one with 24 experienced adult hearing aid users and another with 16 adult first-time users. Each hearing aid fitting was worn at home for 2 weeks, after which self-report outcome measures (Hearing Aid Performance Questionnaire, Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly, and International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids) were administered. After the second test period, a short preference questionnaire was also completed. Results: Twenty of the 24 experienced users showed a clear preference for one or the other fitting, and their self-report scores reflected these preferences. Effect sizes were comparable with those typically observed for true acoustical contrasts. No order effect was seen in this group. In contrast, 13 of the 16 first-time users preferred the second fitting. Trends in the self-report measures were similar for this group but weaker than for the experienced users. In both groups, the reasons given for subjects preference were predominantly related to sound, despite there being no acoustical differences. Conclusions: This study suggests that the narrative embodied in a given fitting process can have a substantial effect on the perceived benefit of the treatment, independent of any acoustical differences, at least for experienced users. For first-time users, acclimatization seems to overshadow the purely narrative effect of any fitting process. In the future, research study designs should include steps to avoid narrative effects when technical parameters of hearing aids are the intended object of study. In clinical practice, the narrative is part of the therapeutic context, and one may design it for maximum beneficial effect.

  • 156.
    Neher, T
    et al.
    Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Hopkins, K
    School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Moore, BC
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Binaural temporal fine structure sensitivity, cognitive function, and spatial speech recognition of hearing-impaired listeners (L).2012In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 131, no 4, p. 2561-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationships between spatial speech recognition (SSR; the ability to understand speech in complex spatial environments), binaural temporal fine structure (TFS) sensitivity, and three cognitive tasks were assessed for 17 hearing-impaired listeners. Correlations were observed between SSR, TFS sensitivity, and two of the three cognitive tasks, which became non-significant when age effects were controlled for, suggesting that reduced TFS sensitivity and certain cognitive deficits may share a common age-related cause. The third cognitive measure was also significantly correlated with SSR, but not with TFS sensitivity or age, suggesting an independent non-age-related cause.

  • 157.
    Neher, Tobias
    et al.
    Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Hopkins, Kathryn
    University of Manchester, United Kingdom .
    Moore, Brian C. J.
    University of Cambridge, United Kingdom .
    Binaural temporal fine structure sensitivity, cognitive function, and spatial speech recognition of hearing-impaired listeners (L)a)2012In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 131, no 4, p. 2561-2564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationships between spatial speech recognition (SSR; the ability to understand speech in complex spatial environments), binaural temporal fine structure (TFS) sensitivity, and three cognitive tasks were assessed for 17 hearing-impaired listeners. Correlations were observed between SSR, TFS sensitivity, and two of the three cognitive tasks, which became non-significant when age effects were controlled for, suggesting that reduced TFS sensitivity and certain cognitive deficits may share a common age-related cause. The third cognitive measure was also significantly correlated with SSR, but not with TFS sensitivity or age, suggesting an independent non-age-related cause.

  • 158.
    Ng, Elaine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Classon, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Arlinger, Stig
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Relationships between working memory capacity and speech recognition threshold in first-time hearing aid usersArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 159.
    Ng, Elaine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Cognitive test performance predicts self-reported hearing aid outcome2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In our previous study (Ng et al., 2013), a group of experienced hearing aid users performed a free recall test (Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall test; SWIR). High performers on the test reported more residual difficulty with hearing aids in challenging listening situations. In the present study, we continued to explore relations between recall performance using a modified SWIR test that was less cognitively demanding (Ng et al., 2015) and self-reported hearing aid outcome. The International Outcome Inventory – Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) and the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ) were administered. Results did not reveal any significant correlations between recall performance and self-reported residual difficulty with hearing aids, possibly because the recall performance of low performers on the modified SWIR test was comparable to that of the high performers on the original test. However, in the present study, SWIR performance was positively correlated with both Speech and Qualities domains of the SSQ. In other words, high performers reported better self-assessed speech understanding ability in various real-life situations. No significant correlations were found in the Spatial domain. High SWIR performers also reported less effort in aided listening. These results suggest that better cognitive performance under less demanding listening conditions indexing speech understanding and listening effort is associated with better self-rated aided listening experience. The modified SWIR test, which resembles real-life listening, can potentially be used to assess hearing aid outcome.

  • 160.
    Ng, Hoi Ning, Elaine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Classon, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Arlinger, Stig
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dynamic relation between working memory capacity and speech recognition in noise during the first six months of hearing aid use2014In: Trends in Hearing, ISSN 2331-2165, Vol. 18, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to investigate the changing relationship between aided speech recognition and cognitive function during the first six months of hearing aid use. Twentyseven first-time hearing aid users with symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Aided speech recognition thresholds in noise (SRTs) were obtained in the hearing aid fitting session as well as at three and six months post-fitting. Cognitive abilities were assessed using a reading span test, which is a measure of working memory capacity, and a cognitive test battery. Results showed a significant correlation between reading span and SRT during the hearing aid fitting session. This relation was significantly weakened over the first six months of hearing aid use. Multiple regression analysis showed that reading span was the main predictor of SRT when hearing aids were first fitted, but that pure-tone average hearing threshold (PTA) was the main predictor six months later. This indicates that working memory capacity plays a more important role in speech recognition in noise before than after six months of use. We argue that new hearing aid users engage working memory capacity to recognize unfamiliar processed speech signals but that as familiarization proceeds, engagement of working memory capacity is reduced.

  • 161.
    Ng, Hoi Ning, Elaine
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of hearing aid fitting strategy on cognitive outcome measurements.2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Ng, Hoi Ning, Elaine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of hearing aid signal processing on cognitive outcome measurements2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 163.
    Ng, Hoi Ning, Elaine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of noise reduction and competing speech on memory2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 164.
    Ng, Hoi Ning, Elaine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of noise reduction and competing speech on memory2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 165.
    Ng, Hoi Ning, Elaine
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Improved cognitive processing of speech for hearing aid users with noise reduction2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Ng, Hoi Ning, Elaine
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Noise reduction can enhance memory for heard sentences2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been demonstrated that the benefit of signal processing intended for hearingaids is not limited to improvement in speech perception. Sarampalis et al.(2009) showed that the Ephraim-Malah noise reduction algorithm improvedcognitive performance and reduced listening effort for people with normal hearing.However, similar effects for hearing-impaired listeners have not been reported.The present study examines the effect of noise reduction in hearing aidson memory processing of speech perceived in stationary noise and competingspeech background. Twenty-six experienced hearing aid users with symmetricalsensorineural hearing loss were tested. A dual task paradigm, which consists ofa perceptual speech recognition task and a free recall memory task, was used tomeasure the cognitive outcomes with the use of binary time-frequency maskingnoise reduction technique (Wang et al., 2009). Working memory capacity wasmeasured using a reading span test. Results showed that free recall performancein the competing speech background improved with noise reduction in listenerswith better working memory capacity. No such improvement was found in thestationary noise. Listeners with better working memory also performed better inthe stationary noise than in the competing speech background. No effect of backgroundnoises or noise reduction was observed in listeners with limited workingmemory capacity. The study demonstrates that binary masking noise reductiontechnique enhances memory performance in competing speech background forpersons with good working memory capacity. In other words, working memorycapacity also predicts benefit of noise reduction signal processing.

  • 167.
    Ng, Hoi Ning, Elaine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Noise reduction improves memory for target language speech in competing native but not foreign language speech2015In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 82-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: A hearing aid noise reduction (NR) algorithm reduces the adverse effect of competing speech on memory for target speech for individuals with hearing impairment with high working memory capacity. In the present study, we investigated whether the positive effect of NR could be extended to individuals with low working memory capacity, as well as how NR influences recall performance for target native speech when the masker language is non-native.

    Design: A sentence-final word identification and recall (SWIR) test was administered to 26 experienced hearing aid users. In this test, target spoken native language (Swedish) sentence lists were presented in competing native (Swedish) or foreign (Cantonese) speech with or without binary masking NR algorithm. After each sentence list, free recall of sentence final words was prompted. Working memory capacity was measured using a reading span (RS) test.

    Results: Recall performance was associated with RS. However, the benefit obtained from NR was not associated with RS. Recall performance was more disrupted by native than foreign speech babble and NR improved recall performance in native but not foreign competing speech.

    Conclusions: Noise reduction improved memory for speech heard in competing speech for hearing aid users. Memory for native speech was more disrupted by native babble than foreign babble, but the disruptive effect of native speech babble was reduced to that of foreign babble when there was NR.

  • 168.
    Ng, Hoi Ning, Elaine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Relationships between self-report and cognitive measures of hearing aid outcome2013In: Speech, Language and Hearing, ISSN 2050-571X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 197-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This present study examined the relationship between cognitive measures and self-report hearing aid outcome. A sentence-final word identification and recall (SWIR) test was used to investigate how hearing aid use may relate to experienced explicit cognitive processing. A visually based cognitive test battery was also administered. To measure self-report hearing aid outcome, the International Outcome Inventory – Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) and the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ) were employed. Twenty-six experienced hearing aid users (mean age of 59 years) with symmetrical moderate-tomoderately severe sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Free recall performance in the SWIR test correlated negatively with item 3 of IOI-HA, which measures residual difficulty in adverse listening situations. Cognitive abilities related to verbal information processing were correlated positively with selfreported hearing aid use and overall success. The present study showed that reported residual difficulty with hearing aid may relate to experienced explicit processing in difficult listening conditions, such that individuals with better cognitive capacity tended to report more remaining difficulty in challenging listening situations. The possibility of using cognitive measures to predict hearing aid outcome in real life should be explored in future research.

  • 169.
    Ng, Hoi Ning, Elaine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Syskind Perdersen, Michael
    Oticon A/S, Smörum, Denmark.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of noise and working memory capacity on memory processing of speech for hearing-aid users2013In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 433-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: It has been shown that noise reduction algorithms can reduce the negative effects of noise on memory processing in persons with normal hearing. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether a similar effect can be obtained for persons with hearing impairment and whether such an effect is dependent on individual differences in working memory capacity.

    Design: A sentence-final word identification and recall (SWIR) test was conducted in two noise backgrounds with and without noise reduction as well as in quiet. Working memory capacity was measured using a reading span (RS) test.

    Study sample: Twenty-six experienced hearing-aid users with moderate to moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss.

    Results: Noise impaired recall performance. Competing speech disrupted memory performance more than speech-shaped noise. For late list items the disruptive effect of the competing speech background was virtually cancelled out by noise reduction for persons with high working memory capacity.

    Conclusions: Noise reduction can reduce the adverse effect of noise on memory for speech for persons with good working memory capacity. We argue that the mechanism behind this is faster word identification that enhances encoding into working memory.

  • 170.
    Ng, Hoi-Ning (Elaine)
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of hearing aid fitting strategy on cognitive outcome measurements2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 171.
    Ng, Hoi-Ning (Elaine)
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of hearing aid signal processing on cognitive outcome measurements2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Ng, Hoi-Ning (Elaine)
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of hearing aid signal processing on cognitive outcome measurements2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Ning Ng, Elaine Hoi
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Denmark.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Noise reduction improves memory for target speech in a competing speech2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Ning Ng, Hoi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Cognition in hearing aid users2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive abilities vary between individuals and have been shown to be related to hearing aidbenet. How individual dierences in cognitive abilities interact with signal processing to reducelistening eort will be discussed in this presentation. Two studies were performed to investigate theeect of a hearing aid signal processing algorithm on free recall of speech heard in noise in hearingaid users, and the role of cognition. The specic aims were to develop a free recall test to measurethis eect and to test whether the eect would interact with background noise and/or individualdierences in cognitive capacity. Results demonstrated that noise impairs the ability to recall intelligiblespeech heard in noise. Noise reduction freed up cognitive resources and alleviated the negativeimpact of noise on memory when speech stimuli were presented in background noise consisting ofspeech babble. The possible underlying mechanisms are that noise reduction facilitates segregationof the auditory stream into target and irrelevant speech and reduces the capture of attention bythe linguistic information in irrelevant speech. In both studies, the eect of noise reduction on freerecall performance was modulated by individual dierences in cognitive capacity, suggesting that themechanism by which noise reduction facilitates free recall on speech heard in noise is dependent onworking memory capacity.

  • 175.
    Nuttall, Alfred L.
    et al.
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97239 USA.
    Ricci, Anthony J.
    Stanford Univ, CA 94025 USA; Stanford Univ, CA 94025 USA.
    Burwood, George
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97239 USA.
    Harte, James M.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Caye-Thomasen, Per
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Denmark.
    Ren, Tianying
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97239 USA.
    Ramamoorthy, Sripriya
    Indian Inst Technol, India.
    Zhang, Yuan
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97239 USA.
    Wilson, Teresa
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97239 USA.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Moore, Brian C. J.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Fridberger, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97239 USA.
    A mechanoelectrical mechanism for detection of sound envelopes in the hearing organ2018In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 4175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand speech, the slowly varying outline, or envelope, of the acoustic stimulus is used to distinguish words. A small amount of information about the envelope is sufficient for speech recognition, but the mechanism used by the auditory system to extract the envelope is not known. Several different theories have been proposed, including envelope detection by auditory nerve dendrites as well as various mechanisms involving the sensory hair cells. We used recordings from human and animal inner ears to show that the dominant mechanism for envelope detection is distortion introduced by mechanoelectrical transduction channels. This electrical distortion, which is not apparent in the sound-evoked vibrations of the basilar membrane, tracks the envelope, excites the auditory nerve, and transmits information about the shape of the envelope to the brain.

  • 176.
    Obleser, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Lübeck, Auditory Cognition.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Graversen, Carina
    Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Towards the brain-informed, brain-controlled hearing aid2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 177.
    Ohlenforst, Barbara
    et al.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands; Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands; Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Wendt, Dorothea
    Oticon AS, Denmark; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Kramer, Sophia E.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands; Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands.
    Naylor, Graham
    MRC CSO Inst Hearing Res, Scotland; Univ Nottingham, England.
    Zekveld, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands; Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Netherlands; Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Orebro Univ, Sweden; Oticon AS, Denmark; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Impact of SNR, masker type and noise reduction processing on sentence recognition performance and listening effort as indicated by the pupil dilation response2018In: Hearing Research, ISSN 0378-5955, E-ISSN 1878-5891, Vol. 365, p. 90-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that activating the noise reduction scheme in hearing aids results in a smaller peak pupil dilation (PPD), indicating reduced listening effort, at 50% and 95% correct sentence recognition with a 4-talker masker. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of the noise reduction scheme (on or off) on PPD and sentence recognition across a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) from +16 dB to -12 dB and two masker types (4-talker and stationary noise). Relatively low PPDs were observed at very low (-12 dB) and very high (+16 dB to +8 dB) SNRs presumably due to giving up and easy listening, respectively. The maximum PPD was observed with SNRs at approximately 50% correct sentence recognition. Sentence recognition with both masker types was significantly improved by the noise reduction scheme, which corresponds to the shift in performance from SNR function at approximately 5 dB toward a lower SNR. This intelligibility effect was accompanied by a corresponding effect on the PPD, shifting the peak by approximately 4 dB toward a lower SNR. In addition, with the 4-talker masker, when the noise reduction scheme was active, the PPD was smaller overall than that when the scheme was inactive. We conclude that with the 4-talker masker, noise reduction scheme processing provides a listening effort benefit in addition to any effect associated with improved intelligibility. Thus, the effect of the noise reduction scheme on listening effort incorporates more than can be explained by intelligibility alone, emphasizing the potential importance of measuring listening effort in addition to traditional speech reception measures. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 178.
    Ohlenforst, Barbara
    et al.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands; Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Netherlands; Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Zekveld, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Vrije University of Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands; Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Netherlands.
    Jansma, Elise P.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Wang, Yang
    Vrije University of Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands; Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Netherlands; Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Naylor, Graham
    MRC CSO Institute Hearing Research, Scotland.
    Lorens, Artur
    Int Centre Hearing and Speech, Poland.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Kramer, Sophia E.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands; Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Netherlands.
    Effects of Hearing Impairment and Hearing Aid Amplification on Listening Effort: A Systematic Review2017In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 267-281Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To undertake a systematic review of available evidence on the effect of hearing impairment and hearing aid amplification on listening effort. Two research questions were addressed: Q1) does hearing impairment affect listening effort? and Q2) can hearing aid amplification affect listening effort during speech comprehension? Design: English language articles were identified through systematic searches in PubMed, EMBASE, Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, and PsyclNFO from inception to August 2014. References of eligible studies were checked. The Population, Intervention, Control, Outcomes, and Study design strategy was used to create inclusion criteria for relevance. It was not feasible to apply a meta-analysis of the results from comparable studies. For the articles identified as relevant, a quality rating, based on the 2011 Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Working Group guidelines, was carried out to judge the reliability and confidence of the estimated effects. Results: The primary search produced 7017 unique hits using the keywords: hearing aids OR hearing impairment AND listening effort OR perceptual effort OR ease of listening. Of these, 41 articles fulfilled the Population, Intervention, Control, Outcomes, and Study design selection criteria of: experimental work on hearing impairment OR hearing aid technologies AND listening effort OR fatigue during speech perception. The methods applied in those articles were categorized into subjective, behavioral, and physiological assessment of listening effort. For each study, the statistical analysis addressing research question Q1 and/or Q2 was extracted. In seven articles more than one measure of listening effort was provided. Evidence relating to Q1 was provided by 21 articles that reported 41 relevant findings. Evidence relating to Q2 was provided by 27 articles that reported 56 relevant findings. The quality of evidence on both research questions (Q1 and Q2) was very low, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Working Group guidelines. We tested the statistical evidence across studies with nonparametric tests. The testing revealed only one consistent effect across studies, namely that listening effort was higher for hearing-impaired listeners compared with normal-hearing listeners (Q1) as measured by electroencephalographic measures. For all other studies, the evidence across studies failed to reveal consistent effects on listening effort. Conclusion: In summary, we could only identify scientific evidence from physiological measurement methods, suggesting that hearing impairment increases listening effort during speech perception (Q1). There was no scientific, finding across studies indicating that hearing aid amplification decreases listening effort (Q2). In general, there were large differences in the study population, the control groups and conditions, and the outcome measures applied between the studies included in this review. The results of this review indicate that published listening effort studies lack consistency, lack standardization across studies, and have insufficient statistical power. The findings underline the need for a common conceptual framework for listening effort to address the current shortcomings.

  • 179.
    Ohlenforst, Barbara
    et al.
    VU University Medical Center, ENT/audiology.
    Zekveld, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. VU University Medical Center, ENT/audiology.
    Jansma, Ilse
    VU University Medical Center, Medical Library.
    Wang, Yang
    VU University Medical Center, ENT/audiology.
    Naylor, Graham
    Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Lorens, Arthur
    Poland, Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing.
    Kramer, Sophia E.
    VU University Medical Center, ENT/audiology.
    Effects of hearing aid rehabilitation on listening effort a systematic literature review2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing impairment negatively affects speech perception and may increase listening effort, especially under adverse conditions such as in the presence of background noise. Previous research showed that hearing-aid rehabilitation can improve speech perception performance. However, it is not clear whether it influences listening effort during speech perception. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of available evidence of the effect of hearing-aid rehabilitation on listening effort. English language articles were identified through systematic searches in PubMed, EMBASE, Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and through reference checking from inception to August 2014. The primary search produced 12210 unique hits using the key-words: hearing aids OR hearing impairment AND listening effort OR perceptual effort OR ease of listening. Three researchers independently determined eligibility of the articles. In total, about 45 articles fulfilled the search and selection criteria of: experimental work on hearing aid technologies AND listening effort OR fatigue during speech perception.

    Most of the about 45 eligible studies (about 70%) measured perceived effort using subjective scales or questionnaires. Behavioral measures of listening effort mainly included dual-task paradigms. Finally, physiological measures such as provided by pupillometry, electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging objectively estimated listening effort. Some studies found that hearing-aid rehabilitation was associated with significant reductions of listening effort, while others failed to do so or even reported an increase of listening effort associated with hearing-aid rehabilitation.This review summarizes the available evidence on the effects of hearing aid rehabilitation on listening effort.

  • 180.
    Ohlenforst, Barbara
    et al.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Netherlands; Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Zekveld, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Netherlands.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Wendt, Dorothea
    Oticon AS, Denmark; Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Naylor, Graham
    MRC CSO Institute Hearing Research, Scotland.
    Wang, Yang
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Netherlands; Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Versfeld, Niek J.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Netherlands.
    Kramer, Sophia E.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Netherlands.
    Impact of stimulus-related factors and hearing impairment on listening effort as indicated by pupil dilation2017In: Hearing Research, ISSN 0378-5955, E-ISSN 1878-5891, Vol. 351, p. 68-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has reported effects of masker type and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as indicated by the peak pupil dilation (PPD) relative to baseline during speech recognition. At about 50% correct sentence recognition performance, increasing SNRs generally results in declining PPDs, indicating reduced effort. However, the decline in PPD over SNRs has been observed to be less pronounced for hearing-impaired (HI) compared to normal-hearing (NH) listeners. The presence of a competing talker during speech recognition generally resulted in larger PPDs as compared to the presence of a fluctuating or stationary background noise. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay between hearing-status, a broad range of SNRs corresponding to sentence recognition performance varying from 0 to 100% correct, and different masker types (stationary noise and single-talker masker) on the PPD during speech perception. Twenty-five HI and 32 age-matched NH participants listened to sentences across a broad range of SNRs, masked with speech from a single talker (-25 dB to +15 dB SNR) or with stationary noise (-12 dB to +16 dB). Correct sentence recognition scores and pupil responses were recorded during stimulus presentation. With a stationary masker, NH listeners show maximum PPD across a relatively narrow range of low SNRs, while HI listeners show relatively large PPD across a wide range of ecological SNRs. With the single-talker masker, maximum PPD was observed in the mid-range of SNRs around 50% correct sentence recognition performance, while smaller PPDs were observed at lower and higher SNRs. Mixed-model ANOVAs revealed significant interactions between hearing-status and SNR on the PPD for both masker types. Our data show a different pattern of PPDs across SNRs between groups, which indicates that listening and the allocation of effort during listening in daily life environments may be different for NH and HI listeners. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 181.
    Petersen, Eline B
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark, .
    Wöstmann, Malte
    International Max Planck Research School on Neuroscience of Communication, Leipzig, Germany, Max Planck Research Group “Auditory Cognition”, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.
    Obleser, Jonas
    Max Planck Research Group “Auditory Cognition”, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Hearing loss impacts neural alpha oscillations under adverse listening conditions2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, no 177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradations in external, acoustic stimulation have long been suspected to increase the load on working memory (WM). One neural signature of WM load is enhanced power of alpha oscillations (6–12 Hz). However, it is unknown to what extent common internal, auditory degradation, that is, hearing impairment, affects the neural mechanisms of WM when audibility has been ensured via amplification. Using an adapted auditory Sternberg paradigm, we varied the orthogonal factors memory load and background noise level, while the electroencephalogram was recorded. In each trial, participants were presented with 2, 4, or 6 spoken digits embedded in one of three different levels of background noise. After a stimulus-free delay interval, participants indicated whether a probe digit had appeared in the sequence of digits. Participants were healthy older adults (62–86 years), with normal to moderately impaired hearing. Importantly, the background noise levels were individually adjusted and participants were wearing hearing aids to equalize audibility across participants. Irrespective of hearing loss (HL), behavioral performance improved with lower memory load and also with lower levels of background noise. Interestingly, the alpha power in the stimulus-free delay interval was dependent on the interplay between task demands (memory load and noise level) and HL; while alpha power increased with HL during low and intermediate levels of memory load and background noise, it dropped for participants with the relatively most severe HL under the highest memory load and background noise level. These findings suggest that adaptive neural mechanisms for coping with adverse listening conditions break down for higher degrees of HL, even when adequate hearing aid amplification is in place.

  • 182.
    Petersen, Eline Borch
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Snekkersten, Eriksholm Research Centre, Denmark.
    Wöstmann, Malte
    University of Lübeck, Auditory Cognition.
    Obleser, Jonas
    University of Lübeck, Auditory Cognition.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Influence of hearing impairment on alpha power during retention of auditory stimuli2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Petersen, Eline Borch
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Snekkersten, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Wöstmann, Malte
    University of Lübeck, Auditory Cognition.
    Obleser, Jonas
    University of Lübeck, Auditory Cognition.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Tuning in on the target: The influence of hearing impairment on the neural encoding of speech2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 184.
    Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen M.
    et al.
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Kramer, Sophia E.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands.
    Eckert, Mark A.
    Medical University of South Carolina, SC USA.
    Edwards, Brent
    EarLens Corp, CA USA.
    Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.
    Vanderbilt University, TN 37212 USA.
    Humes, Larry E.
    Indiana University, IN 47405 USA.
    Lemke, Ulrike
    Phonak AG, Switzerland.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Matthen, Mohan
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Mackersie, Carol L.
    San Diego State University, CA 92182 USA.
    Naylor, Graham
    MRC CSO Institute Hearing Research, Scotland.
    Phillips, Natalie A.
    Concordia University, Canada.
    Richter, Michael
    Liverpool John Moores University, England.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Sommers, Mitchell S.
    Washington University, MO 63130 USA.
    Tremblay, Kelly L.
    University of Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Wingfield, Arthur
    Brandeis University, MA USA.
    Hearing Impairment and Cognitive Energy: The Framework for Understanding Effortful Listening (FUEL)2016In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 37, p. 5S-27SArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fifth Eriksholm Workshop on "Hearing Impairment and Cognitive Energy" was convened to develop a consensus among interdisciplinary experts about what is known on the topic, gaps in knowledge, the use of terminology, priorities for future research, and implications for practice. The general term cognitive energy was chosen to facilitate the broadest possible discussion of the topic. It goes back to Titchener (1908) who described the effects of attention on perception; he used the term psychic energy for the notion that limited mental resources can be flexibly allocated among perceptual and mental activities. The workshop focused on three main areas: (1) theories, models, concepts, definitions, and frameworks; (2) methods and measures; and (3) knowledge translation. We defined effort as the deliberate allocation of mental resources to overcome obstacles in goal pursuit when carrying out a task, with listening effort applying more specifically when tasks involve listening. We adapted Kahnemans seminal (1973) Capacity Model of Attention to listening and proposed a heuristically useful Framework for Understanding Effortful Listening (FUEL). Our FUEL incorporates the well-known relationship between cognitive demand and the supply of cognitive capacity that is the foundation of cognitive theories of attention. Our FUEL also incorporates a motivation dimension based on complementary theories of motivational intensity, adaptive gain control, and optimal performance, fatigue, and pleasure. Using a three-dimensional illustration, we highlight how listening effort depends not only on hearing difficulties and task demands but also on the listeners motivation to expend mental effort in the challenging situations of everyday life.

  • 185.
    Pichora-Fuller, Kathy
    et al.
    University of Toronto in Mississauga, Department of Psychology.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Consensus on a Framework for Understanding Effortful Listening (FUEL)In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Foo, Catharina
    Avdelningen för kognition, utveckling och handikapp CDD Linköpings universitet.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology .
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Aided speech recognition in noise, perceived effort and explicit cognitive capacity2008In: International Hearing Aid Research Conference IHCON 2008, Lake Tahoe, California, 13-17 August 2008.,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Speech recognition in noise is an effortful process requiring explicit cognitive processing. It may be influenced by level and type of noise and by the signal processing algorithms employed when hearing is aided. These complex relationships may be understood in terms of the working memory model for Ease of language Understanding (ELU, Rönnberg et al., in press). This model predicts that under challenging listening conditions, explicit cognitive processing demands will be high and that persons with good explicit cognitive capacity will be better listeners. Previous work has suggested that they may also find listening less effortful (Behrens et al., 2004; Larsby et al., 2005; in press). We studied this issue by including subjective effort ratings in a larger study designed to investigate aided speech recognition in noise and cognition. 32 experienced hearing aid users participated. Effort was rated using a visual analogue scale and the speech material was the Hagerman sentences presented in three fixed speech to noise ratios of +10 dB, +4 dB and -2dB. Effort was rated in modulated and unmodulated noise with fast and slow compression release settings, after each of two nine week training sessions with the same settings. Speech recognition performance was tested objectively under the same conditions using an adaptive procedure. Order of testing was balanced. Explicit cognitive capacity was measured using the reading span test. ANOVAs and correlations were computed. Preliminary results showed that decreasing SNR led to greater perceived effort and that the difference in perceived effort between the highest and the lowest SNR was greater in unmodulated noise than in modulated noise. Speech recognition performance in unmodulated noise generally correlated with effort ratings under similar conditions but in modulated noise generally it did not. Effort ratings correlated with reading span performance at the lowest SNR (-2dB) but only in unmodulated noise after the first training session. These preliminary findings show that subjective ratings of the effort involved in aided speech recognition covary with noise level and performance but that these effects are reduced by noise modulation. Further, the perceived effort of aided speech recognition at low SNR may be related to explicit cognitive capacity as measured by the reading span test. However, we only find evidence of this in unmodulated noise after the first training session. These findings extend previous work on perceived effort and cognitive capacity and provide further evidence that type of noise is an important factor in this relationship.

  • 187.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Foo, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cognition and aided speech recognition in noise: specific role for cognitive factors following nine-week experience with adjusted compression settings in hearing aids.2009In: Scandinavian journal of psychology, ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 405-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The working memory model for Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) proposes that language understanding under taxing conditions is related to explicit cognitive capacity. We refer to this as the mismatch hypothesis, since phonological representations based on the processing of speech under established conditions may not be accessed so readily when input conditions change and a match becomes problematic. Then, cognitive capacity requirements may differ from those used for processing speech hitherto. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by investigating the relationship between aided speech recognition in noise and cognitive capacity in experienced hearing aid users when there was either a match or mismatch between processed speech input and established phonological representations. The settings in the existing digital hearing aids of the participants were adjusted to one of two different compression settings which processed the speech signal in qualitatively different ways ("fast" or "slow"). Testing took place after a 9-week period of experience with the new setting. Speech recognition was tested under different noise conditions and with match or mismatch (i.e. alternative compression setting) manipulations of the input signal. Individual cognitive capacity was measured using a reading span test and a letter monitoring test. Reading span, a reliable measure of explicit cognitive capacity, predicted speech recognition performance under mismatch conditions when processed input was incongruent with recently established phonological representations, due to the specific hearing aid setting. Cognitive measures were not main predictors of performance under match conditions. These findings are in line with the ELU model.

  • 188.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Foo, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Phonological mismatch makes aided speech recognition in noise cognitively taxing2007In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 28, p. 879-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The working memory framework for Ease of Language Understanding predicts that speech processing becomes more effortful, thus requiring more explicit cognitive resources, when there is mismatch between speech input and phonological representations in long-term memory. To test this prediction, we changed the compression release settings in the hearing instruments of experienced users and allowed them to train for 9 weeks with the new settings. After training, aided speech recognition in noise was tested with both the trained settings and orthogonal settings. We postulated that training would lead to acclimatization to the trained setting, which in turn would involve establishment of new phonological representations in long-term memory. Further, we postulated that after training, testing with orthogonal settings would give rise to phonological mismatch, associated with more explicit cognitive processing.

    Design: Thirty-two participants (mean = 70.3 years, SD = 7.7) with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (pure-tone average = 46.0 dB HL, SD = 6.5), bilaterally fitted for more than 1 year with digital, two-channel, nonlinear signal processing hearing instruments and chosen from the patient population at the Linkooping University Hospital were randomly assigned to 9 weeks training with new, fast (40 ms) or slow (640 ms), compression release settings in both channels. Aided speech recognition in noise performance was tested according to a design with three within-group factors: test occasion (T1, T2), test setting (fast, slow), and type of noise (unmodulated, modulated) and one between-group factor: experience setting (fast, slow) for two types of speech materials-the highly constrained Hagerman sentences and the less-predictable Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). Complex cognitive capacity was measured using the reading span and letter monitoring tests.

    Prediction: We predicted that speech recognition in noise at T2 with mismatched experience and test settings would be associated with more explicit cognitive processing and thus stronger correlations with complex cognitive measures, as well as poorer performance if complex cognitive capacity was exceeded.

    Results: Under mismatch conditions, stronger correlations were found between performance on speech recognition with the Hagerman sentences and reading span, along with poorer speech recognition for participants with low reading span scores. No consistent mismatch effect was found with HINT.

    Conclusions: The mismatch prediction generated by the working memory framework for Ease of Language Understanding is supported for speech recognition in noise with the highly constrained Hagerman sentences but not the less-predictable HINT.

  • 189.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Karlsson, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundewall-Thoren, Elisabet
    Oticon A/S, Research Centre Eriksholm, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Phonological mismatch and explicit cognitive processing in a sample of 102 hearing-aid users2008In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 47, no 2, p. S91-S98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rudner et al (2008) showed that when compression release settings are manipulated in the hearing instruments of Swedish habitual users, the resulting mismatch between the phonological form of the input speech signal and representations stored in long-term memory leads to greater engagement of explicit cognitive processing under taxing listening conditions. The mismatch effect is manifest in significant correlations between performance on cognitive tests and aided-speech-recognition performance in modulated noise and/or with fast compression release settings. This effect is predicted by the ELU model (Ronnberg et al, 2008). In order to test whether the mismatch effect can be generalized across languages, we examined two sets of aided speech recognition data collected from a Danish population where two cognitive tests, reading span and letter monitoring, had been administered. A reanalysis of all three datasets, including 102 participants, demonstrated the mismatch effect. These findings suggest that the effect of phonological mismatch, as predicted by the ELU model (Ronnberg et al, this issue) and tapped by the reading span test, is a stable phenomenon across these two Scandinavian languages.

  • 190.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Karlsson Foo, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology .
    Notice of retraction: unintentional errors in "Phonological mismatch makes aided speech recognition in noise cognitively taxing." (Ear & Hear.2007;28[6]) in Ear and Hearing(ISSN 0196-0202), vol 29, issue 5, pg 8142008Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 191.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Karlsson Foo, Catharina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Technical Audiology.
    Retracted Article: Phonological mismatch makes aided speech recognition in noise cognitively taxing: in Ear and Hearing(ISSN 0196-0202), vol 28, issue 6, pp 879-8922007Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The working memory framework for Ease of Language Understanding predicts that speech processing becomes more effortful, thus requiring more explicit cognitive resources, when there is mismatch between speech input and phonological representations in long-term memory. To test this prediction, we changed the compression release settings in the hearing instruments of experienced users and allowed them to train for 9 weeks with the new settings. After training, aided speech recognition in noise was tested with both the trained settings and orthogonal settings. We postulated that training would lead to acclimatization to the trained setting, which in turn would involve establishment of new phonological representations in long-term memory. Further, we postulated that after training, testing with orthogonal settings would give rise to phonological mismatch, associated with more explicit cognitive processing. DESIGN: Thirty-two participants (mean = 70.3 years, SD = 7.7) with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (pure-tone average = 46.0 dB HL, SD = 6.5), bilaterally fitted for more than 1 year with digital, two-channel, nonlinear signal processing hearing instruments and chosen from the patient population at the Linköoping University Hospital were randomly assigned to 9 weeks training with new, fast (40 ms) or slow (640 ms), compression release settings in both channels. Aided speech recognition in noise performance was tested according to a design with three within-group factors: test occasion (T1, T2), test setting (fast, slow), and type of noise (unmodulated, modulated) and one between-group factor: experience setting (fast, slow) for two types of speech materials-the highly constrained Hagerman sentences and the less-predictable Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). Complex cognitive capacity was measured using the reading span and letter monitoring tests. PREDICTION: We predicted that speech recognition in noise at T2 with mismatched experience and test settings would be associated with more explicit cognitive processing and thus stronger correlations with complex cognitive measures, as well as poorer performance if complex cognitive capacity was exceeded. RESULTS: Under mismatch conditions, stronger correlations were found between performance on speech recognition with the Hagerman sentences and reading span, along with poorer speech recognition for participants with low reading span scores. No consistent mismatch effect was found with HINT. CONCLUSIONS: The mismatch prediction generated by the working memory framework for Ease of Language Understanding is supported for speech recognition in noise with the highly constrained Hagerman sentences but not the less-predictable HINT. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  • 192.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Karlsson Foo, Catharina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Sundewall-Thórén, Elisabeth
    Oticon A/S, Research Centre Eriksholm, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Technical Audiology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Phonological mismatch and explicit cognitive processing in a sample of 100 hearing aid users.2007In: From Signal to Dialogue: Dynamic Aspects of Hearing, Language and Cognition,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Cognitive aspects of auditory plasticity across the lifespan2013In: ISAAR 2013, 2013, p. 201-211Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers evidence of plasticity resulting from congenital and acquired hearing impairment as well as technical and language interventions. Speech communication is hindered by hearing loss. Individuals with normal hearing in childhood may experience hearing loss as they grow older and use technical and cognitive resources to maintain speech communication. The short- and medium-term effects of hearing aid interventions seem to be mediated by individual cognitive abilities and may be specific to listening conditions including speech content, type of background noise and type of hearing aid signal processing. Furthermore, some aspects of cognitive function may decline with age and there is evidence that age-related hearing impairment is associated with poorer long-term memory. It is not yet clear whether improving audition through hearing aid intervention can prevent cognitive decline. Profound deafness from an early age implicates a set of critical choices relating to possible restoration of the auditory signal through the use of prostheses including cochlear implants and hearing aids as well as to mode of communication, sign or speech. These choices have an influence on the organization of the developing brain. In particular, while the cortex may display sensory reorganization in response

  • 194.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Cognitive aspects of cortical plasticity in connection with auditory deprivation2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers evidence of plasticity resulting from congenital and acquired hearing impairment as well as technical and language interventions. Speech communication is hindered by hearing loss. Individuals with normal hearing in childhood may experience hearing loss as they grow older and use technical and cognitive resources to maintain speech communication.The short- and medium-term effects of hearing aid interventions seem to be mediated by individual cognitive abilities and may be specific to listening conditions including speech content, type of background noise and type of hearing aid signal processing. Furthermore, some aspects of cognitive function may decline with age and there is evidence that age-related hearing impairment is associated with poorer long-term memory. It is not yet clear whether improving audition through hearing aid intervention can prevent cognitive decline. Profound deafness from an early age implicates a set of critical choices relating to possible restoration of the auditory signal through the use of prostheses including cochlear implants and hearing aids as well as tomode of communication, sign or speech. These choices have an influence on the organization of the developing brain. In particular, while the cortex may display sensory reorganization in response the linguistic modality of choice, cognitive organization seems to prevail.

  • 195.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Cognitive spare capacity and speech communication: a narrative overview2014In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, Vol. 2014, no 869726Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background noise can make speech communication tiring and cognitively taxing, especially for individuals with hearing impairment. It is now well established that better working memory capacity is associated with better ability to understand speech under adverse conditions as well as better ability to benefit from the advanced signal processing in modern hearing aids. Recent work has shown that although such processing cannot overcome hearing handicap, it can increase cognitive spare capacity, that is, the ability to engage in higher level processing of speech. This paper surveys recent work on cognitive spare capacity and suggests new avenues of investigation.

  • 196.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Denmark.
    Cognitive Spare Capacity as a Window on Hearing Aid Benefit2013In: Seminars in Hearing, ISSN 0734-0451, E-ISSN 1098-8955, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 298-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that successful listening with advanced signal processing in digital hearing aids is associated with individual working memory capacity, which is the cognitive ability to keep information in mind and process it. Different types of cognitive processing may be required in different situations. For example, when listening in noise it may be necessary to inhibit irrelevant information and update misheard information. There is evidence that simply hearing a spoken utterance consumes cognitive resources and may do so to different degrees for different individuals. To determine just how useful different kinds of signal processing are, it is important to determine to what extent they help individual hearing aid users cope with the kind of cognitive demands that may arise in everyday listening situations. This article explores the role of cognition in hearing aid use and describes recent work aimed at determining individual cognitivespare capacity or the ability to process speech heard in noise in ways that may be relevant for communication.

  • 197.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Cognitive Spare Capacity as a Window on Hearing Aid Benefit2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Behrens, T
    Sundewall Thorén, E
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Selt-rated effort, cognition and aided speech recognition in noise.2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 199.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Behrens, Thomas
    Oticon AS, Denmark .
    Thorén, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Working Memory Capacity May Influence Perceived Effort during Aided Speech Recognition in Noise2012In: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF AUDIOLOGY, ISSN 1050-0545, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 577-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recently there has been interest in using subjective ratings as a measure of perceived effort during speech recognition in noise. Perceived effort may be an indicator of cognitive load. Thus, subjective effort ratings during speech recognition in noise may covary both with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and individual cognitive capacity. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanPurpose: The present study investigated the relation between subjective ratings of the effort involved in listening to speech in noise, speech recognition performance, and individual working memory (WM) capacity in hearing impaired hearing aid users. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResearch Design: In two experiments, participants with hearing loss rated perceived effort during aided speech perception in noise. Noise type and SNR were manipulated in both experiments, and in the second experiment hearing aid compression release settings were also manipulated. Speech recognition performance was measured along with WM capacity. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanStudy Sample: There were 46 participants in all with bilateral mild to moderate sloping hearing loss. In Experiment 1 there were 16 native Danish speakers (eight women and eight men) with a mean age of 63.5 yr (SD = 12.1) and average pure tone (PT) threshold of 47. 6 dB (SD = 9.8). In Experiment 2 there were 30 native Swedish speakers (19 women and 11 men) with a mean age of 70 yr (SD = 7.8) and average PT threshold of 45.8 dB (SD = 6.6). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanData Collection and Analysis: A visual analog scale (VAS) was used for effort rating in both experiments. In Experiment 1, effort was rated at individually adapted SNRs while in Experiment 2 it was rated at fixed SNRs. Speech recognition in noise performance was measured using adaptive procedures in both experiments with Dantale II sentences in Experiment 1 and Hagerman sentences in Experiment 2. WM capacity was measured using a letter-monitoring task in Experiment 1 and the reading span task in Experiment 2. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: In both experiments, there was a strong and significant relation between rated effort and SNR that was independent of individual WM capacity, whereas the relation between rated effort and noise type seemed to be influenced by individual WM capacity. Experiment 2 showed that hearing aid compression setting influenced rated effort. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: Subjective ratings of the effort involved in speech recognition in noise reflect SNRs, and individual cognitive capacity seems to influence relative rating of noise type.

  • 200.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Behrens, Timothy W
    n/a.
    Sundewall Thorén, Elisabeth
    n/a.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Good cognitive resources make listening under challenging conditions seem less effortful.2009Conference paper (Refereed)
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