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  • 151.
    Kylin, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Muir, Derek
    Environment Canada, Canada.
    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) and pentachloroanisole (PCA)2017Inngår i: AMAP Assessment 2016: Chemicals of Emerging Arctic Concern, Oslo: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) , 2017, s. 205-211Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was first synthesized for use as a fungicide for wood protection in the 1930s. PCP affects most organisms by decoupling oxidative phosphorylation and other crucial biochemical functions (IPCS, 1987; UNEP, 2013e). As a result it has found a wide range of biocidal and pesticidal uses. Due to adverse environmental and health effects, restrictions  on the use of PCP were first imposed in the 1970s with total bans in effect in some countries by the 1980s (UNEP, 2013d). As of 2014, PCP was still in use in India, Canada and the USA (UNEP, 2014a). In May 2015, PCP was included in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention: calling for elimination, with a time-limited exemption for impregnation of utility poles and crossarms (UNEP, 2015a).

  • 152.
    Kylin, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Research Unit: Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Sören
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Strachan, William
    Environment and Climate Change Canada, Canada.
    Franich, Robert
    Scion Research, New Zealand.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    North-West University, South Africa.
    The trans-continental distributions of pentachlorophenol and pentachloroanisole in pine needles indicate separate origins2017Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 229, s. 688-695Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The production and use of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was recently prohibited/restricted by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs), but environmental data are few and of varying quality. We here present the first extensive dataset of the continent-wide (Eurasia and Canada) occurrence of PCP and its methylation product pentachloroanisole (PCA) in the environment, specifically in pine needles. The highest concentrations of PCP were found close to expected point sources, while PCA chiefly shows a northern and/or coastal distribution not correlating with PCP distribution. Although long-range transport and environmental methylation of PCP or formation from other precursors cannot be excluded, the distribution patterns suggest that such processes may not be the only source of PCA to remote regions and unknown sources should be sought. We suggest that natural sources, e.g., chlorination of organic matter in Boreal forest soils enhanced by chloride deposition from marine sources, should be investigated as a possible partial explanation of the observed distributions. The results show that neither PCA nor total PCP (ΣPCP = PCP + PCA) should be used to approximate the concentrations of PCP; PCP and PCA must be determined and quantified separately to understand their occurrence and fate in the environment. The background work shows that the accumulation of airborne POPs in plants is a complex process. The variations in life cycles and physiological adaptations have to be taken into account when using plants to evaluate the concentrations of POPs in remote areas.

  • 153.
    Kynkäänniemi, P.
    et al.
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Johannesson, Karin M.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ulén, B.
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Assessment of particle deposition and accumulation in newly constructed wetlands receiving agricultural runoff2015Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed variations in sediment deposition and accumulation to improve understanding of retention processes in small wetlands constructed on clay soils. Sediment deposition (in traps) and accumulation (on plates) was measured in four wetlands in east-central Sweden.

    Particle deposition generally exceeded (up to eight-fold) the total particle load to the wetlands, especially in the spring-summer period, suggesting that the settled particles in the traps were generated from internal processes. The particles probably originated from erosion of the bottom and sides of the wetlands, or from production of organic material which deposited in the traps.

    Particle resuspension was evident in all wetlands and considered an important process. Only 13-23% of the deposited material in the traps remained on the plates in the wetlands. Both particle deposition and accumulation was very low in one wetland receiving high hydraulic load (HL, 400 m yr-1), suggesting that such high-loaded wetlands are not efficient as particle sinks in clay soil areas. In the other wetlands, more than 80% of the total sediment accumulation occurred in the initial parts of the wetlands (which represented the first 20% of the total wetland area), indicating the importance of designing wetlands with an initial wetland section that is easy accessed for sediment removal as maintenance.

    The results from this study point to the importance of internal processes and resuspension for annual particle accumulation in constructed wetlands.

  • 154.
    König, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Estetiska institutionen.
    Ekobussen: en rullande naturskola i Jönköping. Deltagarnas uppfattningar om samverkan och den pedagogiska modellen2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 1992 har Jönköpings kommun drivit en naturskola i form av en exkursionsbuss, ekobussen. Verksamheten har varit inriktad mot dagsexkursioner för grundskolans senare år och gymnasieskolan under ledning av utbildad och engagerad personal. Genom åren har, i dialog med kommunens undervisande lärare, en pedagogisk modell för praktisk ekologiundervisning etablerats, där jämförande undersökningar av olika biotoper har utgjort tyngdpunkten. Man har använt ett undersökande och elevaktivt arbetssätt. Bussens utrustning har kunnat användas för avancerade mätningar och examination av djur och växter men tillhandahåller även personlig utrustning som stövlar och regnkläder. Det innebär stor flexibilitet i verksamheten.

    I föreliggande studie berörs hur ett upplevelsebaserat lärande kan främja ett ökat miljömedvetande. I sex gymnasieklasser har undersökts i vilken mån uppfattningarna om den pedagogiska modellen förenas hos deltagarna. Vidare har undersökts hur exkursionen integreras i övrig undervisning i ekologi- och miljöundervisningen på skolorna. Slutligen besvaras frågan hur detta uppfattats av eleverna. Studien har både kvantitativa inslag i form av enkäter till cirka deltagande 150 elever, före och efter exkursion, och kvalitativa delar som innefattar deltagande observation under sex exkursioner, intervjuer med de sju lärare och även med initiativtagaren och den ansvarige för ekobussen. Undersökningen har huvudsakligen genomförts under maj månad år 2004.

    Resultaten visar att verksamheten är mycket efterfrågad, både av lärare och av elever. Eleverna är i stort väl förberedda både teoretiskt och praktiskt och att upplevelserna under dagen används i efterarbetet. Hårt bokningstryck ger dock praktiska problem att inordna exkursionen i ordinarie undervisning. Exkursionsledaren kör bussen men styr också den pedagogiska verksamheten. Det finns en dynamik i processen att välja arbetsformer och parera för händelser under dagen. Det har över tid skett en förskjutning av fokus från kvantifiering av data till mera upplevelsebaserade erfarenheter. En tendens till passiv elevroll finnsi vissa situationer, när klassen lyssnar till exkursionsledarens genomgångar. Under praktiska arbetspass sker redovisningar genom att gruppen samtalar om resultaten, även om de flesta elever också får skriva en formell rapport i efterhand.

    Det finns en stark ambition att vara en utomhuspedagogisk modell för skolorna. Man förefaller också lyckas vara den impuls till pedagogisk utveckling av arbetsformerna som styrdokumenten för skolan uppmuntrar till. Genom sin breda kontakt med kommunens lärare påverkar ekobussens pedagogiska modell ekologi- och miljöundervisningen på ett positivt sätt. Detta kan därmed vara ett värdefullt bidrag till ett ökat miljömedvetande.

  • 155.
    Larsdotter, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Swedish bumblebee decline? Outcome from a national monitoring program with a five-year interval between surveys2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Bumblebees are important pollinators that are said to be in decline all over the world. Swedish bumblebees have now been inventoried through a nationwide monitoring program for which data for the first time have been analysed. The aim here was to give an indication of how 35 bumblebee species in Sweden have changed in occurrence over five years interval in the national inventory program. The results given in this report showed that 5 bumblebee species (B. lucorum, B. magnus, B. cryptarum, B. terrestris and B. pascuorum) had declined significantly. Furthermore bumblebees as a group had a significant decline while none of the species had increased. Moreover, declining Swedish bumblebees are species that are common in Europe while species that are declining in Europe do not seem to decline in Sweden. This result was somewhat unexpected, considering the European status of bumblebee species. Furthermore results showed that early emerging species and species living in ubiquitous and open areas had declined. This was also surprising comparing with previous research. Lastly the results showed that two bumblebee species (B. hortorum and B. terrestris) have shifted towards the south within Sweden while none shifted towards north or in a west-east direction.

  • 156.
    Larsson, Karolina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Elander, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Hantering av naturhänsyn efter slutavverkning i Östergötland2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Mängden död ved i brukade skogar har minskat med ungefär 90 %jämfört med naturliga skogar. Vid slutavverkning minskar mängden ytterligare. Att lämna naturhänsyn vid avverkning är ett viktigt steg för att bevara biologisk mångfald i skogslandskapet. Denna studie undersöker om naturhänsyn tas bort efter slutavverkning. På 63 % av de inventerade lokalerna hade naturhänsyn tagits bort, mestadels vindfälld tall. Det medförde en genomsnittlig minskning av mängden död ved med 2,0 m3 ha-1, vilket är en tredjedel av den totala volymen död ved lämnad vid slutavverkning. En enkät skickades till privata skogsägare. Den främsta orsaken till att man tagit bort träd var relaterade till ekonomi och produktion. Hur ekonomiskt beroende skogsägaren var av sin skog eller om man certifierat sin skog eller inte hade dock ingen betydelse för hur man hanterade naturhänsynen efter slutavverkning. Det berodde snarare på skogsägarnas attityd till produktion kontra bevarandet av biologisk mångfald. Skogsägare som tagit bort hänsynsträd var överlag mer tveksamma till att lämna olika former av naturhänsyn vid slutavverkning. Denna studie utvärderar även mängd och kvalitet på naturhänsyn lämnad efter slutavverkning i Östergötland.

  • 157.
    Larsson, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Do Trichoptera in running water fly upstream?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Drift moves aquatic insects downstream, risking depopulation of upstream reaches. However, the necessity and exist­ence of an upstream flight to compensate for drift has not been undisputed. I analysed a sample of approximately 70 000 Trichoptera from a stream in northern Sweden collected during one season in 1974. The overall flight direction was upstream. Females had a stronger upstream flight than males and species varied in both flight direction and strength of the preference. Flight direction was not affected by wind or trap type. Upstream flight varied during the season and with different larval behaviours. Upstream flight increased with the size of the imago and with the abun­dance in flight. A colonisation cycle might be in effect but even though upstream flight occurs, it might not be neces­sary to sustain populations in upstream reaches.

  • 158.
    Larsson, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Night, light and flight: Light attraction in Trichoptera2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial light is an important and necessary part of our urban environment, but has become a threat to biodiversity. It can have substantial direct and indirect effects on populations of all kinds of organisms. While light attraction in bats and moths has been well studied other organisms such as Trichoptera have been largely neglected, despite Trichoptera being one of the most abundant insect orders in freshwater systems. The light attraction of Trichoptera was studied through seasonal data from three different locations in Sweden. The data was examined through meta- and regression analyses to compare catches in light traps and passive traps. The use of relative abundances excluded bias from the species with large populations, and the difference in individuals caught between passive traps and light traps. The results indicated that artificial light could affect Trichoptera populations. Unlike moths, female Trichoptera were more attracted to light than males and attraction to light varied between species. In both cases, size dimorphism could explain the variation. Day-, evening- and night-active species were all attracted to light, but the latter more so. Research has shown that a false flight activity can occur in day-active Trichoptera when a lamp is lit during night, which could explain the capture of day- and evening-active species in a light trap. In all, artificial light could alter Trichoptera populations, changing sex ratios and species composition. This impact should be considered when erecting light sources near waterways.

  • 159.
    Larsson, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Göthberg, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Night, light and flight: light attraction in Trichoptera2019Inngår i: Insect Conservation and Diversity, ISSN 1752-458X, E-ISSN 1752-4598Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial light is an important and necessary part of urban environments, but light can have substantial direct and indirect effects on populations of various organisms. Urban areas are often situated close to water and thus organisms dependent on water could be especially vulnerable. Trichoptera is one of the most abundant insect orders in freshwater, but its attraction to light has not been analysed in detail. We contrasted catches in light traps and passive traps at three locations in Sweden. The results showed that artificial light can affect Trichoptera populations. Attraction to light varied between Trichoptera species and females were more attracted than males. Day-, evening- and especially night-active species were all attracted to light. Light catches of day- and evening-active Trichoptera could partly be a consequence of atypical flight activity, i.e. they are deceived to take flight when a lamp is lit during night. In all, artificial light can alter Trichoptera populations, sex ratios and species composition. This impact should be considered when erecting and managing light sources near waterways.

  • 160.
    Larsson, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. The Cultural History Association of Southern Sweden, Lund, Sweden ; Swedish Museum of Agriculture, Nordic Museum, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Oliveira, H. R.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Interdisciplinary Center for Archaeology and Evolution of Human Behaviour, Faculdade das Ciências Humanas e Sociais, Universidade do Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Lundström, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hagenblad, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lageras, P.
    The Archaeologists, National Historical Museums, Lund, Sweden.
    Leino, M. W.
    The Archaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Population genetic structure in Fennoscandian landrace rye (Secale cereale L.) spanning 350 years2019Inngår i: Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, ISSN 0925-9864, E-ISSN 1573-5109, Vol. 66, nr 5, s. 1059-1071Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rye (Secale cereale L.) was for centuries the economically most important crop in Fennoscandia (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden). Historical records tell of a range of different types adapted to climate and varying cultivation practices. Genetic analyses of genebank maintained landrace rye have yet failed, with a few exceptions, to detect differentiation between rye types. Concerns have been raised that genebank material does not truly reflect the historical variation in landrace rye. In this study, we have therefore genotyped old and historical samples of rye as well as extant material. Two historical seventeenth century samples were obtained from a grave and a museum archive respectively, and 35 old samples were taken from 100 to 140-year-old seed collections and museum artefacts made of straw. We could confirm the results of previous studies suggesting Fennoscandian landrace rye to be one major meta-population, genetically different from other European rye landraces, but with no support for slash-and-burn types of rye being genetically different from other rye landraces. Only small differences in genetic diversity and allele distribution was found between old landrace rye from museum collections and extant genebank accessions, arguing against a substantial change in the genetic diversity during twentieth century cultivation and several regenerations during genebank maintenance. The genotypes of the old and historical samples suggest that the genetic structure of Fennoscandian landrace rye has been relatively stable for 350years. In contrast, we find that the younger samples and early improved cultivars belong to a different genetic group, more related to landraces from Central Europe.

  • 161.
    Le Moine, Rebecka
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The land use cover changes from 1992 to 2011 in Karbi Anglong, Assam, India2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased human impact, natural resources are under great pressure.  Deforestation is one effect of this, and the largest threat against biodiversity.. Changes in tropical habitats is a major concern for conservation biologists, due to its high biodiversity and rapid decreased area. Recently, developmental activities and habitat destruction have caused a major decline in the abundance of the terrestrial mega-fauna.This is especially evident in areas with a high human population and a rich mega-fauna as in India. The purpose of this project was to determine the land-use cover change (LUCC) in the area of Karbi Anglong, which lies in the middle of Assam, India. This was done by identifying different vegetation types from satellite images, from the years 1992, 2002 and 2011 using a remote sensing application (ERDAS) and ArcGIS. Interviews in the area werealso operated, and data about how animal use the corridors were used along with registered human-tiger conflicts. The results show that during the first period, a total of 360 km2 of the area changed vegetation type, mostly due to an increase of agricultural areas. The second largest change (79 km2) was an increase of moist mixed deciduous forest which seems to have taken over some of the semi evergreen forest’s previous area. If that is the case it is most likely an effect of selective logging from the local people, who use fire wood as fuel.All in all, there has been a great habitat loss along withfragmentation of the landscape. The conflict data shows that tigers are present between the core areas, and the interviews show that the migrations of other animals are also common.To maintain the high ecological values in Karbi Anglong, it is of great importance to maintain connectivity between core areas and stop further habitat loss and fragmentation.

  • 162.
    Lindholm, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Altimiras, Jordi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lees, John
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Measuring ketones in the field: rapid and reliable measures of beta-hydroxybutyrate in birds2019Inngår i: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 161, nr 1, s. 205-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ketone bodies such as beta-hydroxybutyrate are important indicators of metabolic condition in birds and are linked to a suite of ecologically relevant factors including migratory decision-making, hunger level and ectoparasite load. Portable point-of-care (POC) devices designed to measure ketones in humans offer a cheap and easy solution to field physiologists in comparison with previous laboratory methods; however, their accuracy for use in birds has received scant attention. Here, we assessed the accuracy of a POC ketone meter (FreeStyle Precision Neo, Abbott, IL, USA) using samples from intermittently fed Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus. Although the device overestimated ketone levels in comparison with laboratory-derived values, random error was low and laboratory vs. device values correlated well, indicating that the Precision Neo is of sufficient accuracy for use in the field and is a pragmatic choice for avian physiologists.

  • 163.
    Lindholm, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jönsson, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Calais, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Middelkoop, A.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Adaptation Physiology Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Yngwe, N.
    SweHatch AB, Flyinge, Sweden.
    Berndtson, E.
    SweHatch AB, Flyinge, Sweden.
    Lees, John
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hult, E
    SweHatch AB, Flyinge, Sweden.
    Altimiras, Jordi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Growth heterogeneity in broiler breeder pullets is settled before the onset of feed restriction but is not predicted by size at hatch2017Inngår i: Journal of Animal Science, ISSN 0021-8812, E-ISSN 1525-3163, Vol. 95, nr 1, s. 182-193, artikkel-id 2017.95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Uniform growth is a desirable trait in  all large-scale animal production systems because it  simplifies animal management and increases profitability.  In parental broiler flocks, so-called broiler  breeders, low growth uniformity is largely attributed  to the feed competition that arises from quantitatively  restricted feeding. As feed restriction is crucial to  maintaining healthy and fertile breeders, several practices  for reducing feed competition and the associated  growth heterogeneity have been suggested and range  from nutrient dilution by increasing fiber content in  feed to intermittent fasting with increased portion size  (“skip a day”), but no practice appears to be entirely  effective. The fact that a large part of the heterogeneity  remains even when feed competition is minimized  suggests that some growth variation is caused by other  factors. We investigated whether this variation arises  during embryonic development (as measured by size at  hatch) or during posthatch development by following  the growth and body composition of birds of varying  hatch sizes. Our results support the posthatch alternative,  with animals that later grow to be small or large  (here defined as >1 SD lighter or heavier than mean  BW of the flock) being significantly different in size as  early as 1 d after gaining access to feed (P < 0.05). We  then investigated 2 possible causes for different postnatal  growth: that high growth performance is linked 1) to  interindividual variations in metabolism (as measured  by cloacal temperature and verified by respirometry)  or 2) to higher levels of social motivation (as measured  in a social reinstatement T-maze), which should reduce  the stress of being reared in large-scale commercial  flocks. Neither of these follow-up hypotheses could  account for the observed heterogeneity in growth. We  suggest that the basis of growth heterogeneity in broiler  breeder pullets may already be determined at the time  of hatch in the form of qualitatively different maternal  investments or immediately thereafter as an indirect  result of differences in incubation conditions, hatching  time, and resulting fasting time. Although this potential  difference in maternal investment is not seen in body  mass, tarsometatarsal length, or full body length of  day-old chicks arriving at the farm, it may influence  the development of differential feed and water intake  during the first day of feeding, which in turn has direct  effects on growth heterogeneity.

  • 164.
    Lindkvist, Tilda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Strukturella förändringar i Östergötlands skogar: En jämförelse mellan år 1927 och 1983–20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Humans have affected the Swedish forests for a long time, mainly through agriculture and forestry. Since the beginning of the 20th century, a lot of changes have taken place in forest policy, which have affected the structures of our forests, such as tree age, size and species distributions. By using information from different types of historical data, we can increase our understanding of the earlier structures of forests and how to manage them in the future. This study investigated changes in annual growth and changes in age, diameter, height and tree species distribution in the forests of Östergötland from year 1927 to the period 1983-2017, using data from the Swedish National Forest Inventory. Six tree species where used, Picea spp, Pinus spp, Quercus robur, Betula spp, Alnus spp and Populus tremula. There was an increase in the proportion of Picea spp, and a decrease in the proportion of Pinus spp since 1927. The proportion of deciduous trees also increased but not as much. Interestingly, the proportion of Betula spp had fallen since 1927, but the now larger proportion of young trees indicate that the proportion of Betula spp is increasing again. Q. robur, P. tremula, Picea spp and Pinus spp also had a larger proportion of younger trees in the more recent period. There was a significantly higher proportion of tall trees during the latter period for all tree species. For growth rate in width, the results varied among tree species. For Betula spp it had decreased and for Q. robur it had increased. For the coniferous trees there was hardly any difference between the periods. Overall, the results show that Östergötland's forests have been influenced by forestry and increased ungulate populations since the first inventory 1927 and that there have been changes in the composition of the forests.

  • 165.
    Lindström, Tom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Phillips, Benjamin L.
    School of Biosciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010 Australia.
    Brown, Gregory P.
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia.
    Shine, Richard
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia.
    Identifying the time scale of synchronousmovement: a study on tropical snakes2015Inngår i: Movement Ecology, E-ISSN 2051-3933, ISSN 2051-3933, Vol. 3, nr 12, s. 1-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Individual movement is critical to organismal fitness and also influences broader population processes such as demographic stochasticity and gene flow. Climatic change and habitat fragmentation render the drivers of individual movement especially critical to understand. Rates of movement of free-ranging animals through the landscape are influenced both by intrinsic attributes of an organism (e.g., size, body condition, age), and by external forces (e.g., weather, predation risk). Statistical modelling can clarify the relative importance of those processes, because externally-imposed pressures should generate synchronous displacements among individuals within a population, whereas intrinsic factors should generate consistency through time within each individual. External and intrinsic factors may vary in importance at different time scales.

    RESULTS:

    In this study we focused on daily displacement of an ambush-foraging snake from tropical Australia (the Northern Death Adder Acanthophis praelongus), based on a radiotelemetric study. We used a mixture of spectral representation and Bayesian inference to study synchrony in snake displacement by phase shift analysis. We further studied autocorrelation in fluctuations of displacement distances as "one over f noise". Displacement distances were positively autocorrelated with all considered noise colour parameters estimated as >0. We show how the methodology can reveal time scales of particular interest for synchrony and found that for the analysed data, synchrony was only present at time scales above approximately three weeks.

    CONCLUSION:

    We conclude that the spectral representation combined with Bayesian inference is a promising approach for analysis of movement data. Applying the framework to telemetry data of A. praelongus, we were able to identify a cut-off time scale above which we found support for synchrony, thus revealing a time scale where global external drivers have a larger impact on the movement behaviour. Our results suggest that for the considered study period, movement at shorter time scales was primarily driven by factors at the individual level; daily fluctuations in weather conditions had little effect on snake movement.

  • 166.
    Liss, Kate
    et al.
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Mitchell, Matthew
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada / Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    MacDonald, Graham
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Mahajan, Shauna
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Methot, Josee
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada .
    Jacob, Aerin
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Maguire, Dorothy
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Ziter, Carly
    Concordia University; at time of publication McGill University.
    Dancose, Karin
    Concordia University; at time of publication McGill University.
    Martins, Kyle
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Terrado, Marta
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Bennett, Elena
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Variability in ecosystem service measurement: a pollination service case study2013Inngår i: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 414-422Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research quantifying ecosystem services (ES) – collectively, the benefits that society obtains from ecosystems –is rapidly increasing. Despite the seemingly straightforward definition, a wide variety of methods are used to measure ES. This methodological variability has largely been ignored, and standard protocols to select measures that capture ES provision have yet to be established. Furthermore, most published papers do not include explicit definitions of individual ES. We surveyed the literature on pollination ES to assess the range of measurement approaches, focusing on three essential steps: (1) definition of the ES, (2) identification of components contributing to ES delivery, and (3) selection of metrics to represent these components. We found considerable variation in how pollination as an ES – a relatively well‐defined service – is measured. We discuss potential causes of this variability and provide suggestions to address this issue. Consistency in ES measurement, or a clear explanation of selected definitions and metrics, is critical to facilitate comparisons among studies and inform ecosystem management.

  • 167.
    Lord, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Olfactory discrimination of aliphatic 2-ketones and 1-alcohols in South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus)2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Odor discrimination ability was tested in four female South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) using a food-rewarded two-choice instrumental conditioning paradigm. The seals’ ability to distinguish between members of homologous series of aliphatic ketones (2-butanone to 2-heptanone) and alcohols (1-butanol to 1-heptanol) was assessed. The results showed that three out of four seals successfully discriminated between all of their stimulus combinations in both classes of odorants. One seal succeeded to reach the discrimination criterion with all 2-ketones but failed with all 1-alcohols.

    No significant correlation between odor discrimination performance and structural similarity of the odorants in terms of differences in carbon chain length was found in either of the two chemical classes. Furthermore, it was found that the 2-ketones were significantly better discriminated than the 1-alcohols. The fact that both classes of odorants are known to be present in the natural environment of seals provides a possible explanation as to why most of the seals were able to successfully discriminate between them. The results of the present study support the notion that the sense of smell may play an important role in behavioral contexts such as social communication, foraging and reproductive behavior of fur seals.

  • 168.
    Lotsander, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Tidsförskjutningar av flyttfåglars höstmigration och vistelse i häckningsområdet: betydelsen av att kunna variera kullantalet i ett varmare klimat2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The timing of many biological events, including the onset of spring and bird migration, have changed in the recent years due to climate change. This may affect birds’ length of stay in the breeding area. By using Swedish ringing data from two periods, 1979-1989 and 2006-2016, changes in the length of stay between birds with different migration modes and seasonal number of broods were analysed. The results indicated that changes in the length of stay differed between species depending on their seasonal number of broods. Species with a fixed number of broods shifted their stay by arriving earlier in the spring and migrating earlier in the fall. In contrast, species with a variable number of broods extended their stay by arriving earlier in the spring without changing the timing of autumn migration. An extended stay might enable a higher reproduction output by giving the opportunity to invest more time in offspring. Thus, climate change might favour species with a variable number of broods. Birds with a fixed number of broods might however not experience the same benefits of a warmer climate because their annual reproductive success often relies on one single brood. Species with a fixed number of broods are generally long-distance migrants and therefore their migration is less flexible. If they do not arrive early enough to match their breeding with the advanced timing of peak food abundance a mismatch arises. As a result, they might be more sensitive to climate change

  • 169.
    Lucia Santoro, Ana
    et al.
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil .
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Enrich-Prast, Alex
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil .
    Simultaneous measurements of dark carbon fixation and bacterial production in lake sediment2013Inngår i: Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, ISSN 1541-5856, E-ISSN 1541-5856, Vol. 11, s. 298-303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon fixation by chemoautotrophic bacteria represents an autochthonous source of organic matter, and may be of particular importance close to redox boundaries. Despite the known sediment chemoautotrophic potential, the quantitative role and the importance of dark carbon fixation (DCF) in lake sediments are still unknown. We provide here a method to measure DCF and bacterial production simultaneously in stratified sediment cores, using C-14 labeled dissolved inorganic carbon ((DIC)-C-14) and H-3-leucine incorporation. Beyond the total activity, the method allows measurements of the processes over depth, as a profile into the sediment. DCF increased with depth in our profiles, indicating a predominance of anoxic processes. In addition, the method can yield information about the extent (DIC)-C-14 was allocated into the bacterial proteins (DCFp). Slurry and stratified core incubations were compared and yielded similar results for total DCF activity.

  • 170.
    Lundberg, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Påverkan av Asellus aquaticus (sötvattensgråsugga) på resuspension av partiklar i våtmarker2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Fosfor (P) är ofta det begränsande ämnet i akvatiska system och kan i höga mängder bidra till övergödning i sjöar och hav. För att minska tillförseln av partikelbunden fosfor som läcker från jordbruksmark kan våtmarker anläggas i avrinningsområdet. För en effektiv avskiljning är det viktigt att partiklar sedimenterar i våtmarken och stannar i sedimentet. Studier har visat att vissa karpfiskar och märlkräftor genom bioturbation kan orsaka resuspension av partiklar, samt att effekten ökar med ökad täthet. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om även makroevertebraten Asellus aquaticus (sötvattensgråsugga) kan orsaka resuspension av partiklar. Två hypoteser undersöktes: (i) A. aquaticus orsakar resuspension av sedimenterade partiklar; (ii) ökad täthet av A. aquaticus ger ökad resuspension. Två försök genomfördes och varje försöksuppställning bestod av 15 akvarier, varav finpartikulärt sediment och bäckvatten tillsattes till tio stycken medan fem innehöll endast bäckvatten. I hälften av akvarierna med sediment tillsattes A. aquaticus i olika täthet för försöken. Försöken pågick i sju dygn med dagliga mätningar av vattnets grumlighet. Resultat från försöken bekräftade båda hypoteserna. Genomsnittlig grumlighet efter sju dygn var 161 NTU (143 mg L-1 TSS) vid en täthet på 2083 A. aquaticus m-2 och 37 NTU (26 mg L-1 TSS) vid 500 A. aquaticus m-2. Studiens resultat indikerar att A. aquaticus kan ha en negativ påverkan på retentionen av partikelbunden fosfor i våtmarker.

  • 171.
    Lundberg, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Habitatpreferenser hos tjockskalig målarmussla (Unio crassus) med avseende på vattendjup och beskuggning.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The thick-shelled river mussel (Unio crassus) is a red listed species classified as Endangered (EN) and is also considered within the Habitats Directive. The distribution in Sweden is fragmented and it is mostly occurring in the south eastern parts. We investigated the presence of Unio crassus in a section of the stream Storån, Östergötland County, from Falerum to the inflow into Lake Åkervristen. The environmental parameters investigated were water depth, bottom substrate, shading, water velocity and the slope over the water surface. In this thesis I have focused mainly on water depth and shading, comparing sites with and without mussels. In addition, I used a multivariate PCA analysis to evaluate all parameters together. The water depth was significantly larger in habitats with mussels than in those without. Shading varied from 5 to 80 %, but there was no significant difference between habitats with and without mussels. There was no correlation between water depth and mussel density and not between shading and mussel density either. The multivariate PCA analysis showed that the habitats with and without mussels were different from with regard to the PC1 axis, which included water depth, bottom substrate and water velocity. Alone, the water depth is not enough to predict the presence of Unio crassus in the stream, and it is likely that more parameters need to be considered.  Previous work indicate that the more parameters and habitats that are investigated, the more confident results can be stated of which habitats Unio crassus prefer.

  • 172.
    Lundgren Lodetti, Mathilda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Log-diversity and abundance of dead wood dependent bracket fungi and bryophytes, a comparison between spruce woodland key habitats and adjacent production forests in Östergötland, Sweden.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Dead wood in forests are essential habitat for a wide range of fungal, insects, lichens and bryophyte species. The main threat to dead wood dependent species is lack of substrate, which aggravates their ability to reach and colonize a new substrate. Inventories of woodland key habitats (WKHs) is a method to map forests with high biological value in Sweden, and these areas may benefit dead wood dependent species. The aim of this study was to compare spruce dominated WKHs with adjacent production spruce forests (APFs), regarding (1) log diversity, (2) log characteristics and (3) abundance of selected species on logs. The study was conducted in Östergötland County in Sweden, seven spruce WKHs (≥ 60% spruce) and seven APFs of three different types (two clear-cuts, two dominated by trees < 20 cm and three dominated by trees > 20 cm) were investigated. Data of eight wood dependent species (three bryophytes and five bracket fungi), log diversity, six log characteristics and two environmental factors were collected. In a total area of 4.27 ha, 210 logs (105 logs in WKH and APF each) were studied and the results show that there were significantly higher amount of coarse logs, distribution area of species, number of logs/ha, diameter, decay class and humidity inside WKHs compared with APFs. The total distribution area of species was approximately 85% larger in WKHs. Bark cover was slightly less in WKHs and sun exposure was significantly higher and humidity was lower in clear-cuts. According to the current study, WKHs are important for conservation of wood depending species due to the higher amount and diversity of coarse dead wood. Furthermore, it is necessary to put aside larger amount of coarse dead wood inside production forests, together with changed logging techniques to increase the suitable substrate for dead wood dependent species.

  • 173.
    Löfberg, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Landskap i förändring: Markanvändning kring Julita gård från år 1798 till år 20152017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den snabba förändringen av markanvändningen i Sverige har påverkat arter som är beroende av de minskande markanvändningsklasserna negativt, eftersom stora mängder habitat har förlorats. Genom att använda geografiska informationssystem för att studera kartmaterial, kan man dra slutsatser om förändring i habitattillgång och fragmenteringsgrad i området, baserat på undersökningsområdets historia. I denna studie undersöks kartmaterial över Julita gård i Södermanland, Sverige från åren 1798, 1850, 1900, 1950 och 2015 med avseende på förändring i markanvändning och fragmenteringsgrad.

    Resultaten visar att ängar och hagmarker har minskat betydligt i yta över åren, samtidigt som skogens yta har ökat kraftigt. Habitatförlusten av ängar och hagmarker är stor, men den förväntade fragmenteringseffekten uteblir. Habitatförlusten i Julitaområdet kan till stor del förklaras av ekonomiska och politiska tillstånd och åtgärder som har påverkat hela Sverige. Förlusten av habitat i undersökningsområdet har en förmodad stor negativ påverkan på diversiteten av arter som är knutna till ängar och hagmarker.

  • 174.
    Löfqvist, Zandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Local and regional factors correlating with long term population change in Gentianella campestris2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The decrease of semi-natural grasslands in Europe during the last decade has made several previously common species rare or declining in numbers. One of these species is the endangered field gentian Gentianella campestris, which has been proposed as an important indicator species for semi-natural grasslands. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of consistent management and shown how local conditions affect the species. Less is known about how the population is affected by isolation and changes in the surrounding landscape, both of which are potential consequences of habitat loss.This study utilized long term citizen science data on the population changes to explore if local and regional factors, such as connectivity could explain the rapid decline and local extinctions that the field gentian population in Östergötland, Sweden, has experienced since the beginning of the 1990’s. Generalized linear models showed that the declining field gentian population can partly be explained by changes in the surrounding landscape which has led to decreased connectivity of semi-natural grasslands. The study also indicate that there is a need for future management plans to consider the surrounding landscape on a distance of 1-3 km from field gentian localities as this scale seems to be the most important.

  • 175.
    Lönander, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Förändring av ägoslag samt vegetationstyper mellan 1927 och 2013 i eklandskapet söder om Linköping2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In 1927, the forest in Östergötland was inventoried for the first time by Riksskogstaxeringen. The original, hand-written field protocols have recently been digitized. This made it possible to repeat the fieldwork in the same transects and using the same methodology. The purpose of this study was to re-inventory an area in Sweden south of Linköping to assess changes in land use classes and vegetation types. Another purpose was to identify practical problems with the re-inventory as well as get an idea of the type of questions that are possible to address. A total of 45 two kilometers transects were inventoried in an area that covers much of Linköping oak woodlands. The results show that forests, moors and various impediments had increased since 1927. By contrast, rock outcrop, pastures and more intensively used farmlands had significantly decreased. Among forest types, spruce forest had increased while spruce/pine forest and broad-leaf/pine forest had decreased in the study area. My conclusion is that it is possible to perform re-surveys using the same methodology that was used in 1927. Representative data for all parameters may be difficult to obtain because some methodological descriptions are inadequate. The ratings used for land-use classes are generally clear and the results based on them are thus likely to be representative for the area. Because of problems to classify forest types, however, conclusions regarding them are less reliable.

  • 176.
    Lönnerud, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effekter av kalkning på fosforhalten i en kalkrik sjö – ett mesokosmexperiment i Tåkern2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Eutrofiering av akvatiska miljöer är idag ett stort miljöproblem och åtgärder för att minska eutrofiering av sjöar och vattendrag är av hög prioritet i Sveriges miljöarbete. Eutrofiering leder till negativa följder som försämrad vattenkvalitet, sänkt biodiversitet och försämrade rekreationsmöjligheter. Delvis orsakas dessa negativa följder av hög biomassa hos fytoplankton, vilken i akvatiska miljöer är starkt kopplad till tillgång av näringsämnet fosfor.

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om kalkning under våren kunde minska fosforhalten i sjön Tåkern i Östergötlands län. Studien genomfördes i april 2015 då effekter av kalkning till pH 10 med kalkstensmjöl (CaCO3) samt släckt kalk (Ca(OH)2) undersöktes genom ett mesokosm-försök. Kalktillsatsen förväntades leda till utfällning av kalcit till vilken fosfor kan adsorberas. De variabler som undersöktes var totalfosfor (TP), partikulärt fosfor (PP), löst reaktiv fosfor (MRP) och kompletterande vattenkemi. Resultaten visade att kalkningen inte hade betydande påverkan på varken MRP (under detektionsgränsen 2 µg L-1), TP eller PP. Det fanns en tendens till påverkan på klorofyll a (fytoplanktonbiomassa), effekterna var dock övergående. Den uteblivna effekten var sannolikt en följd av de låga halterna av MRP. En ökning av TP och PP observerades vilken sannolikt orsakades av en kort period med hård vind då kraftig omblandning skedde. Ökningen kan orsakats av resuspendering av partikulärt bunden fosfor från sediment. Resultaten av denna studie visade att kalkning vid ett enda tillfälle inte är en lämplig metod för att kontrollera fosforhalten i Tåkern. De låga halter MRP som observerats indikerar att upprepade kalkningar inte heller skulle ge önskad effekt. 

  • 177.
    Løtvedt, Pia Katrine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Olfactory sensitivity of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) for "green odors"2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Primates have traditionally been viewed as having a poorly developed sense of smell. However, in recent years, studies have shown that at least some primate species use olfaction in a number of behaviors, and that they have a high olfactory sensitivity for various chemical classes of odorants. Using a two-choice instrumental conditioning paradigm, the present study assessed olfactor ydetection thresholds of three spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) for eight aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes, known as "green odors". With all odorants, the animals detected concentrations below 1 parts per million, with single individuals performing even better. The type of functional group present systematically affected olfactory detection thresholds, whereas the presence, position and configuration of a double bond did not. Compared to previously tested classes of odorants, thespider monkeys were not particularly sensitive to "green odors". Furthermore, they are lesssensitive for "green odors" compared to humans and mice. The present results suggest that neuroanatomical and genetic comparisons across species are poor predictors of olfactory sensitivity.

  • 178.
    Lúcia Santoro, Ana
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Institute of Biology, University Federal of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gudasz, Cristian
    Department of Ecology and Evolution - Limnology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Department of Ecology and Evolution - Limnology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Enrich-Prast, Alex
    Department of Ecology, Institute of Biology, University Federal of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Dark Carbon Fixation: An Important Process in Lake Sediments2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Close to redox boundaries, dark carbon fixation by chemoautotrophic bacteria may be a large contributor to overall carbon fixation. Still, little is known about the relative importance of this process in lake systems, in spite the potentially high chemoautotrophic potential of lake sediments. We compared rates of dark carbon fixation, bacterial production and oxygen consumption in sediments from four Swedish boreal and seven tropical Brazilian lakes. Rates were highly variable and dark carbon fixation amounted up to 80% of the total heterotrophic bacterial production. The results indicate that non-photosynthetic carbon fixation can represent a substantial contribution to bacterial biomass production, especially in sediments with low organic matter content.

  • 179.
    Maklakov, Alexei A
    et al.
    Animal Ecology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Friberg, Urban
    Animal Ecology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden / Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Dowling, Damian K
    Animal Ecology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Animal Ecology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Within-population variation in cytoplasmic genes affects female life span and aging in Drosophila melanogaster2006Inngår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 60, nr 10, s. 2081-2086Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may play an important role in aging. Yet, few empirical studies have tested this hypothesis, partly because the degree of sequence polymorphism in mtDNA is assumed to be low. However, low sequence variation may not necessarily translate into low phenotypic variation. Here, we report an experiment that tests whether there is within-population variation in cytoplasmic genes for female longevity and senescence. To achieve this, we randomly selected 25 "mitochondrial founders" from a single, panmictic population of Drosophila melanogaster and used these founders to generate distinct "mt" lines in which we controlled for the nuclear background by successive backcrossing. Potential confounding effects of cytoplasmically transmitted bacteria were eliminated by tetracycline treatment. The mt lines were then assayed for differences in longevity, Gompertz intercept (frailty), and demographic rate of change in mortality with age (rate-of-senescence) in females. We found significant cytoplasmic effects on all three variables. This provides evidence that genetic variation in cytoplasmic genes, presumably mtDNA, contributes to variation in female mortality and aging.

  • 180.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Meta-Omics Tools in the World of Insect-Microorganism Interactions2018Inngår i: Biology, ISSN 2079-7737, Vol. 7, nr 4, artikkel-id E50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms are able to influence several aspects of insects' life, and this statement is gaining increasing strength, as research demonstrates it daily. At the same time, new sequencing technologies are now available at a lower cost per base, and bioinformatic procedures are becoming more user-friendly. This is triggering a huge effort in studying the microbial diversity associated to insects, and especially to economically important insect pests. The importance of the microbiome has been widely acknowledged for a wide range of animals, and also for insects this topic is gaining considerable importance. In addition to bacterial-associates, the insect-associated fungal communities are also gaining attention, especially those including plant pathogens. The use of meta-omics tools is not restricted to the description of the microbial world, but it can be also used in bio-surveillance, food safety assessment, or even to bring novelties to the industry. This mini-review aims to give a wide overview of how meta-omics tools are fostering advances in research on insect-microorganism interactions.

  • 181.
    Malacrinó, Antonino
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Rassati, Davide
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Schena, Leonardo
    University of Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Mehzabin, Rupa
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Battisti, Andrea
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Fungal communities associated with bark and ambrosia beetles trapped at international harbours2017Inngår i: Fungal ecology, ISSN 1754-5048, E-ISSN 1878-0083, Vol. 28, s. 44-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera; Scolytinae) establish trophic relationships with fungi, which could be also agents of plant diseases. Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) and Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg) are two species of Palaearctic origin that have been introduced in several countries around the world. Here, we investigated their associated fungal communities using individuals trapped at harbours in their native range, without strictly focusing on nutritional symbionts. Targeting the ITS2 region of the fungal rDNA through pyrosequencing, we retrieved taxa known to be agents of plant diseases, taxa never previously reported associated with these beetle species, and sequence clusters not linked to any known fungus. These findings underline that surveillance at harbours should be extended to the fungi associated with trapped bark and ambrosia beetles, taking into account their role as potential vectors of plant pathogens. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd and British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  • 182.
    Melin, Emelie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    The impact of tree size, sun exposure and geographical position on the species richness of epiphytic lichens associated with coarse oak trees in southern Sweden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Felling of old trees as well as changes in land use and management of wooded pastures has led to the decline of biodiversity associated with old deciduous trees in Europe. This also applies to Sweden’s most species rich tree, the oak tree (Quercus robur), which changes with age and develops, for example, a rougher bark structure, deeper bark fissures and cavities. These give rise to several different microhabitats that favor the presence of lichens, mosses and wood-dependent organisms. To preserve the biodiversity, environmental conditions linked to a high diversity need to be identified and described, of which indicator species are a simplified way of measuring diversity. Epiphytic lichens are well-used indicators of environmental conditions because of their habitat specificity, longevity and sensitivity to air quality and humidity.

    In this study, the impact of regional (latitude, longitude and dominated landscape) and local (diameter and sun exposure) environmental variables on species richness and occurrence of epiphytic lichens on coarse oak trees (Quercus robur) were analyzed in meadows and pastures in southern Sweden with generalized linear models (GLM). A total number of 2346 oak trees were included in the study, of which about 47 % had presence of at least one of the studied lichen species. All environmental variables demonstrated significant effects on species richness, of which the regional had the greatest effect. Also with the species-specific analyses the same effect of the regional variables was found, while single species showed different requirements for the local factors. The results indicate that global warming may move the Swedish species composition more to the Northeast and that increased homogenization of the landscape may threaten the diversity attached to oaks. The results also demonstrate the importance of preserving a varied landscape with trees of different sizes, ages and different levels of sun exposure to accommodate a greater diversity of epiphytic species, but also other species linked to oak trees.

  • 183.
    Mestre, Laia
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Jansson, Niklas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Saproxylic biodiversity and decomposition rate decrease with small-scale isolation of tree hollows2018Inngår i: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 227, s. 226-232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity is fundamental for ecosystem functioning, but little is known about how function responds to biodiversity loss following habitat disturbance in natural systems. Due to the global decay of veteran trees, many associated saproxylic (ie. deadwood-dependent) insects are considered threatened. Nevertheless, the role of habitat spatial configuration on saproxylic insect biodiversity and dead wood decomposition is poorly understood. We performed a six-year landscape-scale colonization experiment on saproxylic beetles inhabiting hollow oaks, using boxes filled with wood mould as standardized habitat patches. We placed boxes either on a hollow tree or on another tree 61-324 m from the hollows, thereby creating two habitat isolation levels. We quantified wood mould decay and biodiversity in the boxes, measuring species richness, total abundances and community-weighted mean of body mass (CWM) as an index of community functional composition. Isolation had a persistent negative effect on primary consumer biodiversity, but it only impaired decay at the beginning of the experiment. All effects were independent of landscape-level (500-m radius) habitat amount surrounding the boxes. Wood mould decay was mediated by CWM of primary consumers. Therefore function was driven by the body masses of the dominant primary consumer species but not by species numbers (richness) or individual numbers (abundance). Our experiment shows that small-scale habitat isolation leads to biodiversity loss and reduced function and indicates that habitats created by conservation efforts will be used by more saproxylic species if located within sites with a high density of veteran trees.

  • 184.
    Metson, Genevieve
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Department of Natural Resource Science, McGill University, 111 Lackeshore Road, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, QC H9X 3V9, Canada.
    Aggarwal, Rimjhim
    School of Sustainability at Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona, USA.
    Childers, Daniel L.
    School of Sustainability at Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona, USA.
    Efficiency Through Proximity: Changes in Phosphorus Cycling at the Urban–Agricultural Interface of a Rapidly Urbanizing Desert Region2012Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 16, nr 6, s. 914-927Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In tightly coupled socioecological systems, such as cities, the interactions between socio-economic and biophysical characteristics of an area strongly influence ecosystem function. Very often the effects of socioeconomic activities on ecosystem function are unintended, but can impact the sustainability of a city and can have irreversible effects. The food system in its entirety, from production to treatment of human waste, is one of the most important contributors to the way phosphorus (P) cycles through cities. In this article we examined the changes in P dynamics at the urbanï¿œagricultural interface of the Phoenix, Arizona, USA, metropolitan area between 1978 and 2008. We found that the contribution of cotton to harvested P decreased while the contribution of alfalfa, which is used as feed for local dairy cows, increased over the study period. This change in cropping pattern was accompanied by growth in the dairy industry and increased internal recycling of P due to dairy cow manure application to alfalfa fields and the local recycling of biosolids and treated wastewater. The proximity of urban populations with dairies and feed production and low runoff in this arid climate have facilitated this serendipitous recycling. Currently P is not strongly regulated or intentionally managed in this system, but farmers’ behaviors, shaped largely by market forces and policies related to water recycling, unintentionally affect P cycling. This underscores the need to move from unintentional to deliberate and holistic management of P dynamics through collaborations between practitioners and researchers in order to enhance urban sustainability.

  • 185.
    Metson, Genevieve
    et al.
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    Bennett, Elena
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, McGill School of Environment, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    Phosphorus cycling Montreal’s food and urban agriculture systems2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, artikkel-id e0120726Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities are a key system in anthropogenic phosphorus (P) cycling because they concentrate both P demand and waste production. Urban agriculture (UA) has been proposed as a means to improve P management by recycling cities’ P-rich waste back into local food production. However, we have a limited understanding of the role UA currently plays in the P cycle of cities or its potential to recycle local P waste. Using existing data combined with surveys of local UA practitioners, we quantified the role of UA in the P cycle of Montreal, Canada to explore the potential for UA to recycle local P waste. We also used existing data to complete a substance flow analysis of P flows in the overall food system of Montreal. In 2012, Montreal imported 3.5 Gg of P in food, of which 2.63 Gg ultimately accumulated in landfills, 0.36 Gg were discharged to local waters, and only 0.09 Gg were recycled through composting. We found that UA is only a small sub-system in the overall P cycle of the city, contributing just 0.44% of the P consumed as food in the city. However, within the UA system, the rate of recycling is high: 73% of inputs applied to soil were from recycled sources. While a Quebec mandate to recycle 100% of all organic waste by 2020 might increase the role of UA in P recycling, the area of land in UA is too small to accommodate all P waste produced on the island. UA may, however, be a valuable pathway to improve urban P sustainability by acting as an activity that changes residents’ relationship to, and understanding of, the food system and increases their acceptance of composting.

  • 186.
    Metson, Genevieve S.
    et al.
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, 21,111 Lakeshore Road, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, QC, Canada.
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, 21,111 Lakeshore Road, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, QC, Canada / McGill School of Environment, McGill University, 3534 University Street, Montreal, QC, Canada .
    Elser, James J.
    School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501, USA.
    The role of diet in phosphorus demand2012Inngår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 1-10, artikkel-id 044043Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past 50 years, there have been major changes in human diets, including a global average increase in meat consumption and total calorie intake. We quantified how changes in annual per capita national average diets affected requirements for mined P between 1961 and 2007, starting with the per capita availability of a food crop or animal product and then determining the P needed to grow the product. The global per capita P footprint increased 38% over the 46 yr time period, but there was considerable variability among countries. Phosphorus footprints varied between 0.35 kg P capita −1 yr −1 (DPR Congo, 2007) and 7.64 kg P capita −1 yr −1 (Luxembourg, 2007). Temporal trends also differed among countries; for example, while China’s P footprint increased almost 400% between 1961 and 2007, the footprints of other countries, such as Canada, decreased. Meat consumption was the most important factor affecting P footprints; it accounted for 72% of the global average P footprint. Our results show that dietary shifts are an important component of the human amplification of the global P cycle. These dietary trends present an important challenge for sustainable P management.

  • 187.
    Metson, Genevieve
    et al.
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Wyant, Karl A.
    School of Life Sciences, Arizona State Univeristy, Tempe, USA.
    Childers, Daniel L.
    School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA.
    Introduction to P Sustainability: P is for Philosophy and Process2013Inngår i: Phosphorus, Food, and Our Future / [ed] Karl A. Wyant, Jessica R. Corman, and James J. Elser, Oxford University Press, 2013, s. 1-19Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter illustrates and explains the basic principles of sustainability. It provides a sustainability framework to existing issues in phosphorous management. It summarizes human impacts on natural phosphorus cycling and the identification of phosphorus sustainability as a "wicked problem". It describes how a sustainability perspective contributes to shaping appropriate solutions to phosphorus management. It also enumerates the general approach of every chapter in connecting various aspects of human use of phosphorous to a sustainability framework. Introduction to P Sustainability: P is for Philosophy and Process.

  • 188.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cronvall, Erik
    Department of Forest Resource Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Åsa I.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Glimskär, Anders
    Department of Ecology, SLU, Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Islamovic, Azra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jonason, Dennis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Löfqvist, Zandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Flower abundance and vegetation height as predictors fornectar-feeding insect occurrence in Swedish semi-natural grasslands2016Inngår i: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 230, s. 47-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With steadily shrinking areas of species-rich semi-natural grasslands in Europe, the management of theremaining fragments becomes ever more crucial for the preservation of key elements of biodiversity inthe agricultural landscape. Detailed knowledge about species-wise, as well as group-wise, relationshipscan provide guidelines for conservation management and a basis for predictions about differentmanagement scenarios. In the present study, we related the occurrence of species of bumblebees (N = 12),butterflies (31) and day-flying moths (4) and their total richness in 424 sites in southern Sweden to threegrass sward attributes, (i)flower abundance, (ii) height of the grass sward and (iii) within-site variation inheight of vegetation. The abundance of nectar-bearingflowers proved overall the best predictor ofrichness and in most of the occurrence-based species-wise models. However, both high grass swardheight and high variation in grass sward height contributed significantly to species richness andoccurrence of individual species. There was a tendency for bumblebees to respond less positively toflower abundance and vegetation height than butterflies and moths. One expectation was that grasslandspecialists, red-listed species, or species decreasing in other part of Europe, would be more responsive totall vegetation orflower abundance but there was no support for this in the data. Hence, managementstrategies that promote common species will also benefit all, or most of, the rare ones as well.

  • 189.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jonason, Dennis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Land-use history influence the vegetation in coniferous production forests in southern Sweden2019Inngår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 440, s. 23-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last centuries, land use in Europe intensified, which has led to a drastic decrease in the cover of semi-natural grasslands. In Sweden, much of the lost grasslands was turned into forest. This study investigated if species typical of managed grasslands could be found in coniferous production forests more than 80 years after grassland management ceased. Species and trait composition for plants was investigated in two types of forest differing in land use history (meadow in the 1870s or continuous coniferous forest), and in reference grasslands. The average plant species richness as well as the richness of grassland indicator species were 30% higher in forests with a history as meadow compared to in forests with a history as forest, hence clear signs of historical grassland management in todays forests. Compared with forests with continuous coniferous history, vegetation in forests with a meadow history tended to be more similar to reference grassland regarding both plant species and especially plant trait composition. The study provides proof of remnant grassland populations in coniferous production as the source for the biodiversity of clearcuts, rather than seed dispersal or seed bank survival. The result highlights the importance of land use for biodiversity of clearcuts, and points to the potential value of forests with a history of meadow in grassland conservation and restoration.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2021-03-09 08:04
  • 190.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sancak, Kerem
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jansson, Nicklas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Assemblages of saproxylic beetles on large downed trunks of oak2016Inngår i: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, nr 6, s. 1614-1625Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Old living oaks (Quercus robur) are known as a very species-rich habitat for saproxylic beetles, but it is less clear to what extent such veteran trees differ from an even rarer feature: downed trunks of large oaks. In this study, we set out to sample this habitat, using window traps, with two aims: (1) to describe the variation of assemblages among downed trunks of different type and (2) to compare beetles on downed oaks with data from veteran standing trees. The results showed that trunk volume and sun exposure better explained assemblages as well as species numbers on downed trunks than did decay stage. Furthermore, species classified as facultative saproxylic species showed weak or no differentiation among downed trunks. Species with different feeding habits showed no apparent differentiation among downed trunks. Furthermore, species composition on dead, downed oak trunks differed sharply from that of living, veteran oaks. Wood or bark feeders were more common on veterans than downed trunks, but there was no difference for those species feeding on fungi or those feeding on insects and their remains. In conclusion, for a successful conservation of the saproxylic beetle fauna it is important to keep downed oak trunks, and particularly large ones, in forest and pastures as they constitute a saproxylic habitat that differs from that of living trees.

  • 191.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fogelfors, Håkan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tälle, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Annual burning of semi-natural grasslands for conservation favours tall-grown species with high nectar production2018Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 36, nr 5, artikkel-id UNSP e01709Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Species-rich semi-natural grasslands in Europe are a main target for conservation efforts, and alternative methods to the traditional management of mowing or grazing would be welcome due to the difficulties in maintaining traditional management practices. One such method proposed is burning of grassland vegetation during late winter or spring. To evaluate the effects of annual spring burning vs annual mowing on semi-natural grassland vegetation, we compared the frequency of species in eleven field experiments in southern Sweden after ca 14 years. Out of the 88 species analyzed, five were more frequent in burnt plots compared with mowed plots (Vicia cracca, Cirsium arvense, Urtica dioica, Galium verum, Convallaria majalis). In contrast, 37 species were significantly less frequent in burnt plots compared with mowed ones, those with the largest differences being Ranunculus acris, Briza media, Veronica chamaedrys, Festuca ovina, Plantago lanceolata and Anthoxanthum odoratum. Tall-grown species and those with preferences for N-rich soils increased in frequency under an annual spring-burn regime, compared with annual mowing, as did species producing larger amounts of nectar. Hence, although vegetation composition becomes more trivial with annual spring burns, there might be long-term benefits for nectar-feeding insects.

  • 192.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tälle, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fogelfors, Hakan
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The biodiversity cost of reducing management intensity in species-rich grasslands: Mowing annually vs. every third year2017Inngår i: Basic and Applied Ecology, ISSN 1439-1791, E-ISSN 1618-0089, Vol. 22, s. 61-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mowing is an important management method for species-rich semi-natural grasslands in Europe. Since mowing is costly, it is important to find a balance between mowing frequency and conservation benefits. We compared vegetation data from eleven field trials situated in southern Sweden that involved two mowing regimes, annually and every third year, as well as a no-management control. After approximately 14 years, mowing every third year showed (i) a drop in species richness and Shannon and GiniSimpson diversity indices, (ii) an increase in woody species, and (iii) increases in tall-grown species. However, there were no apparent changes in (iv) species that were indicative of poor management, nor (v) those indicating good management. For one of the trials, data after 38 years were also evaluated. Compared with annual mowing, there were strong negative changes in the number of species in the untreated control, while the results were conflicting for mowing every third year. In conclusion, the expected loss of conservation values from reduced mowing intensity was 5060% of the loss after abandonment. The outcomes, however, varied among the eleven sites. (C) 2017 Gesellschaft fur Okologie. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  • 193.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tälle, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fogelfors, Håkan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Corrigendum to "The biodiversity cost of reducing management intensity in species-rich grasslands: Mowing annually vs. every third year" [Basic Appl. Ecol. 22 (2017) 61-74]2018Inngår i: Basic and Applied Ecology, ISSN 1439-1791, E-ISSN 1618-0089, s. 97-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 194.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Törnqvist, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Temporal variations in methane emissions from emergent aquatic macrophytes in two boreonemoral lakes2017Inngår i: AoB Plants, ISSN 2041-2851, E-ISSN 2041-2851, Vol. 9, artikkel-id plx029Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane (CH4) emissions via emergent aquatic macrophytes can contribute substantially to the global CH4 balance. We addressed temporal variability in CH4 flux by using the static chamber approach to quantify fluxes from plots dominated by two species considered to differ in flux transport mechanisms (Phragmites australis, Carex rostrata). Temporal variability in daily mean emissions from early June to early October was substantial. The variable that best explained this variation was air temperature. Regular and consistent diel changes were absent and therefore less relevant to include when estimating or modelling CH4 emissions. Methane emissions per m(2) from nearby plots were similar for Phragmites australis and Carex rostrata indicating that CH4 production in the system influenced emissions more than the species identity. This study indicates that previously observed diel patterns and specieseffects on emissions require further evaluation to support improved local and regional CH4 flux assessments.

  • 195.
    Mohammed, Suraj
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Urbanization and Water Resources Vulnerability in the Kumasi Metropolitan Area, Ghana2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Most urban areas of developing countries were hitherto experiencing unprecedented growth in their population, the phenomenon commonly referred to as urbanization, which in this study can be said to be the proportion of urban population relative to the total population of a region.

    This phenomenon has opportunities vis-à-vis challenges, whose impact on natural resources in general and water resources in particular, cannot be over- emphasized. It is within the context of these urban challenges that this study attempts to look into and possibly assess the situation in the urban and peri- urban areas of Kumasi Metropolitan Area (KMA) in Ghana, whose urbanization processes is prejudiced by this study to be increasing rapidly.

    The study specifically attempted to assess thechanges in the urbanization patterns and the possible future urbanization trend of the area within a specific time frame. The study also attempts to look at the causes of this urbanization, and its impact on water resources in the Area, both qualitatively and quantitatively, envisaged to be the results of socio-economic activities taking place in the Area. Finally, the study attempts to look into the measures put in place to curb these challenges.

    Amid paucity of data, however, the study reveals that the most single contributor of urbanization processes in the area has been migration from the countryside, and in particular from the northern part of the country. The study also reveals the fact that even though the general quality standard of some water resources is better, the largely uncontrolled socio-economic activities, coupled with the deplorable sanitary conditions in the KMA, has potential to degrade the water resources in the KMA. In addition, the study reveals that little attention is given, in terms of policy formulation to curb this urbanization processes and to protect water resources in the area.

  • 196.
    Molin, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Predation på evertebrater under tidig vår i sjön Tåkern2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Benthic invertebrates play important roles as feeding resources for many organisms in different food webs. Shifts in predation of these organisms can generate cascading effects and potentially lead to the disappearance of one or more species from a site. Cascading effects can bring impacts to organisms who aren’t even directly involved, why studies in this field are important for understanding sudden changes in ecosystems. I examined the predation from fish and waterfowl on benthic invertebrates in the shallow and eutrophic Lake Tåkern in the plains of Östergötland County, southern Sweden. The study was experimental and used exclosures (three types, eight replicates) in the shape of 130-liter cages to examine the composition of invertebrates. It was conducted during early spring, a relatively unexamined period for this kind of study. I found no significant differences in the control treatment compared to any of the other treatments regarding biodiversity. The invertebrate fauna was dominated by a small number of species, with a relatively patchy spread throughout the sediment area. Furthermore, the results indicate that the fish hadn’t had the time to properly activate their predatory habits due to prolonged winter temperatures. The waterfowl were considered too absent during the test period to affect the invertebrate community. Future studies in this area are recommended to work with a greater sampling area, to reduce the influence of extreme values.

  • 197.
    Montelius, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Chlorine Cycling in Terrestrial Environments2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated organic compounds (Clorg) are produced naturally in soil. Formation and degradation of Clorg affect the chlorine (Cl) cycling in terrestrial environments and chlorine can be retained or released from soil. Cl is known to have the same behaviour as radioactive chlorine-36 (36Cl), a long-lived radioisotope with a half-life of 300,000 years. 36Cl attracts interest because of its presence in radioactive waste, making 36Cl a potential risk for humans and animals due to possible biological uptake. This thesis studies the distribution and cycling of chloride (Cl) and Clorg in terrestrial environments by using laboratory controlled soil incubation studies and a forest field study. The results show higher amounts of Cl and Clorg and higher chlorination rates in coniferous forest soils than in pasture and agricultural soils. Tree species is the most important factor regulating Cl and Clorg levels, whereas geographical location, atmospheric deposition, and soil type are less important. The root zone was the most active site of the chlorination process. Moreover, this thesis confirms that bulk Clorg dechlorination rates are similar to, or higher than, chlorination rates and that there are at least two major Clorg pools, one being dechlorinated quickly and one remarkably slower. While chlorination rates were negatively influenced by nitrogen additions, dechlorination rates, seem unaffected by nitrogen. The results implicate that Cl cycling is highly active in soils and Cl and Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between chlorination and dechlorination. Influence of tree species and the rapid and slow cycling of some Cl pools, are critical to consider in studies of Cl in terrestrial environments. This information can be used to better understand Cl in risk-assessment modelling including inorganic and organic 36Cl.

    Delarbeid
    1. Organic Matter Chlorination Rates in Different Boreal Soils: The Role of Soil Organic Matter Content
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Organic Matter Chlorination Rates in Different Boreal Soils: The Role of Soil Organic Matter Content
    Vise andre…
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 1504-1510Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Transformation of chloride (Cl-) to organic chlorine (Cl-org) occurs naturally in soil but it is poorly understood how and why transformation rates vary among environments. There are still few measurements of chlorination rates in soils, even though formation of Cl-org has been known for two decades. In the present study, we compare organic matter (OM) chlorination rates, measured by Cl-36 tracer experiments, in soils from eleven different locations (coniferous forest soils, pasture soils and agricultural soils) and discuss how various environmental factors effect chlorination. Chlorination rates were highest in the forest soils and strong correlations were seen with environmental variables such as soil OM content and Cl- concentration. Data presented support the hypothesis that OM levels give the framework for the soil chlorine cycling and that chlorination in more organic soils over time leads to a larger Cl-org pool and in turn to a high internal supply of Cl- upon dechlorination. This provides unexpected indications that pore water Cl- levels may be controlled by supply from dechlorination processes and can explain why soil Cl- locally can be more closely related to soil OM content and the amount organically bound chlorine than to Cl- deposition.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    American Chemical Society, 2012
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75467 (URN)10.1021/es203191r (DOI)000299864400030 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR)|2006-5387|

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-03-02 Laget: 2012-03-02 Sist oppdatert: 2018-10-05
    2. Experimental Evidence of Large Changes in Terrestrial Chlorine Cycling Following Altered Tree Species Composition
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Experimental Evidence of Large Changes in Terrestrial Chlorine Cycling Following Altered Tree Species Composition
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 8, s. 4921-4928Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Organochlorine molecules (Cl-org) are surprisingly abundant in soils and frequently exceed chloride (Cl-) levels. Despite the widespread abundance of Cl-org and the common ability of microorganisms to produce Cl-org, we lack fundamental knowledge about how overall chlorine cycling is regulated in forested ecosystems. Here we present data from a long-term reforestation experiment where native forest was cleared and replaced with five different tree species. Our results show that the abundance and residence times of Cl- and Cl-org after 30 years were highly dependent on which tree species were planted on the nearby plots. Average Cl- and Cl-org content in soil humus were higher, at experimental plots with coniferous trees than in those with deciduous trees. Plots with Norway spruce had the highest net accumulation of Cl- and Cl-org over the experiment period, and showed a 10 and 4 times higher Cl- and Cl-org storage (kg ha(-1)) in the biomass, respectively, and 7 and 9 times higher storage of Cl- and Cl-org in the soil humus layer, compared to plots with oak. The results can explain why local soil chlorine levels are frequently independent of atmospheric deposition, and provide opportunities for improved modeling of chlorine distribution and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    American Chemical Society, 2015
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118871 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.5b00137 (DOI)000353610300017 ()25811074 (PubMedID)
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|EDF, France; French national radioactive waste management agency (Andra), France; Linkoping University, Sweden; "Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique" (FNRS) of Belgium

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-06-05 Laget: 2015-06-04 Sist oppdatert: 2018-10-05
    3. Chlorination and dechlorination rates in a forest soil: A combined modelling and experimental approach
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Chlorination and dechlorination rates in a forest soil: A combined modelling and experimental approach
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 554-555, s. 203-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Much of the total pool of chlorine (Cl) in soil consists of naturally produced organic chlorine (Clorg). The chlorination of bulk organic matter at substantial rates has been experimentally confirmed in various soil types. The subsequent fates of Clorg are important for ecosystem Cl cycling and residence times. As most previous research into dechlorination in soils has examined either single substances or specific groups of compounds, we lack information about overall bulk dechlorination rates. Here we assessed bulk organic matter chlorination and dechlorination rates in coniferous forest soil based on a radiotracer experiment conducted under various environmental conditions (additional water, labile organic matter, and ammonium nitrate). Experiment results were used to develop a model to estimate specific chlorination (i.e., fraction of Cl− transformed to Clorg per time unit) and specific dechlorination (i.e., fraction of Clorg transformed to Cl− per time unit) rates. The results indicate that chlorination and dechlorination occurred simultaneously under all tested environmental conditions. Specific chlorination rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.01 d− 1 and were hampered by nitrogen fertilization but were otherwise similar among the treatments. Specific dechlorination rates were 0.01–0.03 d− 1 and were similar among all treatments. This study finds that soil Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between the chlorination and rapid dechlorination of some Clorg compounds, while another Clorg pool is dechlorinated more slowly. Altogether, this study demonstrates a highly active Cl cycling in soils.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2016
    Emneord
    Chlorine cycling, Chloride, Organic chlorine, Radioactive chlorine-36, Modelling
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125912 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02.208 (DOI)000373274700022 ()26950634 (PubMedID)
    Merknad

    Funding agencies:  EDF, France; National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), France; Linkoping University, Sweden

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-03-08 Laget: 2016-03-08 Sist oppdatert: 2018-10-05bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 198.
    Montelius, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz
    EDF, Laboratoire National d'Hydraulique et Environnement, 78401 Chatou, France.
    Thiry, Yves
    Andra, Research and Development Division, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1/7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex, Franc.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Chlorination and dechlorination rates in a forest soil: A combined modelling and experimental approach2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 554-555, s. 203-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Much of the total pool of chlorine (Cl) in soil consists of naturally produced organic chlorine (Clorg). The chlorination of bulk organic matter at substantial rates has been experimentally confirmed in various soil types. The subsequent fates of Clorg are important for ecosystem Cl cycling and residence times. As most previous research into dechlorination in soils has examined either single substances or specific groups of compounds, we lack information about overall bulk dechlorination rates. Here we assessed bulk organic matter chlorination and dechlorination rates in coniferous forest soil based on a radiotracer experiment conducted under various environmental conditions (additional water, labile organic matter, and ammonium nitrate). Experiment results were used to develop a model to estimate specific chlorination (i.e., fraction of Cl− transformed to Clorg per time unit) and specific dechlorination (i.e., fraction of Clorg transformed to Cl− per time unit) rates. The results indicate that chlorination and dechlorination occurred simultaneously under all tested environmental conditions. Specific chlorination rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.01 d− 1 and were hampered by nitrogen fertilization but were otherwise similar among the treatments. Specific dechlorination rates were 0.01–0.03 d− 1 and were similar among all treatments. This study finds that soil Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between the chlorination and rapid dechlorination of some Clorg compounds, while another Clorg pool is dechlorinated more slowly. Altogether, this study demonstrates a highly active Cl cycling in soils.

  • 199.
    Montelius, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Structor Miljö Öst AB Linköping Sweden.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz
    EDF R&D LNHE - Laboratoire National d’Hydraulique et Environnement Chatou, France.
    Thiry, Yves
    Andra, Research and Development Division, Parc de la Croix Blanche Châtenay-Malabry Cedex, France.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Radiotracer evidence that the rhizosphere is a hot-spot for chlorination of soil organic matter2019Inngår i: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    The ubiquitous and extensive natural chlorination of organic matter in soils, leading to levels of chlorinated soil organic matter that often exceed the levels of chloride, remains mysterious in terms of its causes and regulation. While the composition of plant species and the availability of labile organic matter was recently shown to be important, the physical localization of chlorination in soils remains unclear but is a key for understanding regulation and patterns observed. Here we assess the relative importance of organic matter chlorination in (a) bulk soil, (b) the plant roots plus the rhizosphere zone surrounding the roots, and (c) above-ground plant biomass, in an experimental plant-soil system.

    Methods

    A radiotracer, 36Cl, was added to study translocation and transformations of Cl and Clorg in agricultural soil with and without wheat (Triticum vulgare) over 50 days.

    Results

    The specific chlorination rates (the fraction of the added 36Cl converted to 36Clorg per day) in soil with plants was much higher (0.02 d−1) than without plants (0.0007 d−1) at peak growth (day 25). The plant root and rhizosphere showed much higher formation of 36Clorg than the bulk soil, suggesting that the rhizosphere is a hotspot for chlorination in the soil. In addition, the treatment with plants displayed a rapid and high plant uptake of Cl.

    Conclusions

    Our results indicate that the rhizosphere harbour the most extensive in-situ chlorination process in soil and that root-soil interaction may be key for terrestrial chlorine cycling.

  • 200.
    Moore, Michael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Perceptions and interpretations of "environmental flows" and implications for future water resource management: A survey study2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    An understanding of the impacts on freshwater systems from water management and development practices and the recognition that freshwater ecosystems are dependent on various aspects of the natural hydrological variability has given rise to a relatively new field of science commonly referred to as environmental flows. The assessment and application of environmental flows has advanced considerably in the last ten years. To coincide with the emergence and expansion of the environmental flows concept around the world, this survey study was undertaken aiming to identify people’s perceptions and interpretations of the environmental flows concept and its role in water management. It also aims to add to existing knowledge of the extent to which the concept is being applied, how it is being translated into policy and practice and the major challenges and opportunities that exist for continued understanding and implementation. The survey was distributed to a range of people representing different water-related sectors and regions around the world. A total of 272 responses representing 64 countries in the six major regions of the world was received. The responses were compiled and analysis of aspects of the respondents backgrounds as well as the questions were conducted using the computer statistical program SPSS. Representation of specific groups, particularly water user groups, and specific regions in the survey however was low, demonstrating possible limitations of the survey distribution method as well as the lack of concept awareness and application in many parts of the world. The ways in which people define and interpret the concept varied widely. The degree to which the concept was applied shows the growing recognition around the world of the need to consider the environmental water requirements when making decisions on water allocations. Despite the growing recognition many areas do not yet apply the concept. The survey allowed the opportunity for respondents to highlight what they perceived asthe major obstacles and difficulties for the concept within their respective areas. Lack of understanding among stakeholders of the socio-economic costs and benefits associated with concept implementation and a lack of political will were the two most common obstacles for the continued adoption and application of environmental flows around the world. Overall, the survey delivered promising signs for the continued evolution of environmental flows within water management. There was widespread opinion that the concept of environmental flows was an essential element in the efforts to achieve sustainable management of water resources.

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