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  • 151.
    Hufstetler, Schell
    et al.
    Georgia State University.
    Henrich, Christopher
    Georgia State University.
    Meyers, Joel
    Georgia State University.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Varjas, Kristen
    Georgia State University.
    Predicting future bullying and bystander behavior using moral disengagement2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 152.
    Hurtig, Alexander
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    The Best Balance: An Investigation of Expressions Describing Taste Experiences2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Taste, or gustation, has long been considered a primitive, and even non-rational, perceptual sense. Taste, as a subject of academic research, has been given very little attention; especially, when contrasted to other human perceptual senses. The knowledge of how people express and discuss their perceptions and sensations of tastes, and, specifically, the descriptions of tastes of chocolate, is very limited.

    Furthermore, the terminological inconsistency in the vocabulary of chocolate tasting, with the risk of misunderstanding or miscommunication, suggests that a basic method for representing tastes is needed.

    This thesis presents a study of how people actually express the perception or sensation of tasting, and specifically when tasting chocolate. This study also explores the possibility of crafting a method for use when describing the tastes of chocolate.

    The study was carried out by holding two tasting workshops. The first one was concerned with recording conversations about tasting chocolate. Participants were asked to taste different kinds of chocolates and, freely, discuss what they perceived and sensed. In the second workshop the participants were asked to describe the tastes of chocolate using predetermined vocabulary and formatted questionnaires.

    The results of this study are linguistic semantic analyses of the different words that were used, and also a proposal for a prototypical method to use when tasting chocolate.

  • 153.
    Hurtig, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). University of Gavle, Sweden; University of Dalama, Sweden.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Pekkola, Elina P.
    University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap, Avdelningen för kognition, utveckling och handikapp, CDD. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Childrens Recall of Words Spoken in Their First and Second Language: Effects of Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Reverberation Time2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech perception runs smoothly and automatically when there is silence in the background, but when the speech signal is degraded by background noise or by reverberation, effortful cognitive processing is needed to compensate for the signal distortion. Previous research has typically investigated the effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reverberation time in isolation, whilst few have looked at their interaction. In this study, we probed how reverberation time and SNR influence recall of words presented in participants first- (L1) and second-language (L2). A total of 72 children (10 years old) participated in this study. The to-be-recalled wordlists were played back with two different reverberation times (0.3 and 1.2 s) crossed with two different SNRs (+3 dBA and +12 dBA). Children recalled fewer words when the spoken words were presented in L2 in comparison with recall of spoken words presented in L1. Words that were presented with a high SNR (+12 dBA) improved recall compared to a low SNR (+3 dBA). Reverberation time interacted with SNR to the effect that at +12 dB the shorter reverberation time improved recall, but at +3 dB it impaired recall. The effects of the physical sound variables (SNR and reverberation time) did not interact with language.

  • 154.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Keidser, Gitte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. National Acoustic Laboratories, Australia.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    The effect of functional hearing loss and age on long- and short-term visuospatial memory: evidence from the UK Biobank resource: a longitudinal follow up2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent study (Rönnberg, Hygge, Keidser & Rudner, 2014) we reported cross-sectional epidemiological data from the UK Biobank, which in total contains >500,000 individuals in the UK. The focus in that study was on the effects of functional hearing loss and age on long- and short-term visuospatial memory. Our selection of variables resulted in a sub-sample of 138,098 participants after discarding extreme values.

    A digit triplets functional hearing test was used to divide the participants into three groups: poor, insufficient and normal hearers. We found negative relationships between functional hearing loss and both visuospatial working memory (i.e., a card pair matching task) and visuospatial, episodic long-term memory (i.e., a prospective memory task), with the strongest association for episodic long-term memory. The use of hearing aids showed a small positive effect for working memory performance for the poor hearers, but did not have any influence on episodic long-term memory. Age also showed strong main effects for both memory tasks and interacted with gender and education for the long-term memory task.

    Close to 20,000 of the original (>500,000) participants recently went through the very same test battery a second time, 2-7 years after the first time. In the present study, we will scrutinize in which respects the addition of extra years in the longitudinal analysis is commensurable with extra years from our previous cross-sectional analysis, for the same sets of original moderators and mediators.

  • 155.
    Hylander, Ingrid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Toward a Grounded Theory of the Conceptual Change Process in Consultee-Centered Consultation.2003Inngår i: Journal of educational and psychological consultation, ISSN 1047-4412, E-ISSN 1532-768X, Vol. 14, nr 3-4, s. 263-280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that a grounded-theory research methodology is a useful and fruitful tool to explore important questions in consultation and to generate new conceptualizations and theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The grounded-theory approach is described and illustrated with examples from Hylander's research on consultee-centered consultation as practiced in Sweden. The result is a substantive theory about change processes. The theoretical research approach presented in this article makes it possible to further explore processes of consultation that have not been previously examined.

  • 156.
    Höglund, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Using Shared Priorities to Measure Shared Situation Awareness: A new approach for measuring shared team variables2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    While the concept of situation awareness have received a lot of attention over the past 15 years and many different measures have been developed and tested, the concepts of team situation awareness and shared situation awareness have not gotten as much attention and less progress has been made in developing a meaningful and validated measure.

    Thus, the purpose of this study is to operationalize the concept of shared situation awareness and test its consequences and relation to other concepts.

    In this study a new measure for shared situation awareness was developed and its potential evaluated. The measure was a shared priorities measure where the participants of the study each wrote down and rank ordered five factors they thought were important for good team performance in the situation. The factors were then scrambled and handed over to the other participant who once again ordered them according to priority. The correspondence between the two participants’ ratings was hypothesized to correlate with shared situation awareness. The results show that the shared priorities measure in this study did not relate to shared situation awareness. Several methodological concerns was identified which could have affected the results. The measure did relate to subjective ratings of cooperation which is very interesting and it is suggested that the measure captured aspects of teamwork.

    The shared priorities measure was easy to employ, required little preparation, has a high face-validity and is a promising addition to team research.

  • 157.
    Höjerström, Sonja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi.
    ”Det finns två föräldrar och det är papporna, men så finns lite personer runt omkring”: En diskursanalytisk studie i hur manliga samkönade föräldrapar framställer bäraren och äggdonatorn i samband med värdgraviditet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att utforska och förstå de sätt på vilka manliga samkönade föräldrapar pratar om de kvinnor som varit delaktiga vid barnens tillblivelse. De manliga samkönade föräldraparens berättelser rör dels kvinnan som burit barnet, dels kvinnan som donerat ägg. Denna studie består av nio intervjuer, varav sju involverar båda papporna och två intervjuer involverar ena pappan. Reproduktionsstrategi skiljer sig något åt, men en majoritet av paren har fått barn via värdgraviditet samt äggdonation. Materialet har samlats in via semistrukturerad intervju och analyserats med hjälp av diskursanalys.Resultatet visar att de manliga samkönade föräldraparen använder olika tolkningsrepertoarer då de pratar om bäraren och donatorn. En tolkningsrepertoar som uppkommer när deltagarna pratar om bäraren är bäraren som en nära släkting, men inte en mamma, där det blir synligt att deltagarna behöver förhålla sig till diskurser kring föräldraskap, moderskap och omsorg. En annan tolkningsrepertoar är bäraren som aktiv och självständig och därför inte utsatt, där deltagarna förhåller sig till diskurser kring värdgraviditet och bäraren som en utsatt kvinna. I deltagarnas berättelser om donatorn framkommer tolkningsrepertoaren donatorn som nära kontra avlägsen där deltagarna förhandlar kring hur nära relation de vill ha till donatorn samt tolkningsrepertoaren om donatorn som en betydelsefull individ kontra en instrumentell gengivare där deltagarna behöver förhålla sig till processen med att välja en äggdonator och huruvida man väljer en individ eller ett ursprung.

  • 158.
    Høien, Torleiv
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ekkoisk minne og den auditive persepsjonen1983Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Echoic memory seems to have a great impact on the process of auditive perception, as indicated by different studies. There is reason to believe that deviations in echoic persistence can cause disturbances in the process of decoding accoustic stimuli.

    Short echoic memory gives less time for identification of the stimulus, which increases the need for longer duration of the stimulus.

    Long echoic memory would give sufficient time for identification. However, there are some indications that long echoic memory may obstruct perception of patterns in phonemic sequences.

    This research project is based on an information processing mode! in accordance with Massaro's theory. It includes three separate studies. In the first study we found that echoic persistence was inversely related to stimulus time for Tone 1, and that it decreased exponentially with increasing stimulus amplitude of Tone 2. The frequency of the two sounds does not seem to have any influence on echoic persistence.

    In the second study two experiments were performed. The results reveal considerable individual differences in echoic and iconic (visual) memory, and a significant decrease in echoic persistence with age. We also found a positive correlation between the duration of echoic and iconic memory. In the second experiment, the positive correlation just mentioned was confirmed; no reliable sex differences in any age group were found.

    The third study revealed a significant negative correlation between duration of echoic persistance and the ability to perceive two vowel sounds in the middle of a sequence. No positive correlation was found between echoic persistence and the ability to identify monosyllabic nonsense words.

  • 159.
    Ivars, Katrin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Nelson Follin, Nina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Theodorsson, Annette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Neurokirurgiska kliniken US.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk kemi.
    Ström, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk kemi.
    Mörelius, Evalotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Correction: Development of Salivary Cortisol Circadian Rhythm and Reference Intervals in Full-Term Infants2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikkel-id e0151888Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Cortisol concentrations in plasma display a circadian rhythm in adults and children older than one year. Earlier studies report divergent results regarding when cortisol circadian rhythm is established. The present study aims to investigate at what age infants develop a circadian rhythm, as well as the possible influences of behavioral regularity and daily life trauma on when the rhythm is established. Furthermore, we determine age-related reference intervals for cortisol concentrations in saliva during the first year of life.

    METHODS:

    130 healthy full-term infants were included in a prospective, longitudinal study with saliva sampling on two consecutive days, in the morning (07:30-09:30), noon (10:00-12:00) and evening (19:30-21:30), each month from birth until the infant was twelve months old. Information about development of behavioral regularity and potential exposure to trauma was obtained from the parents through the Baby Behavior Questionnaire and the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events checklist.

    RESULTS:

    A significant group-level circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol secretion was established at one month, and remained throughout the first year of life, although there was considerable individual variability. No correlation was found between development of cortisol circadian rhythm and the results from either the Baby Behavior Questionnaire or the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events checklist. The study presents salivary cortisol reference intervals for infants during the first twelve months of life.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Cortisol circadian rhythm in infants is already established by one month of age, earlier than previous studies have shown. The current study also provides first year age-related reference intervals for salivary cortisol levels in healthy, full-term infants.

  • 160.
    Johansson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Vad gör dig till en grön konsument?: En studie kring vad som påverkar och vad som ligger till grund för konsumenter när de väljer eller inte väljer ekologiska livsmedel2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    En lösning på den växande miljöförstöringen tros vara en anpassning till en mer hållbar utveckling. En del av den hållbara utvecklingen anses vara grönare konsumtion, vilket betyder en mer resurseffektiv och skonsammare konsumtion för miljön. Eftersom mat är en stor del av det vi konsumerar är en livsstiländring mot grönare livsmedelskonsumtion viktig. För att göra det enklare för konsumenten att agera miljövänligt har ekologiska livsmedel tagits fram, dessa har en mindre påverkan på miljön och naturen än de konventionella varorna.

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att studera vad det är som avgör och vad det är som påverkar konsumenterna när det gäller att köpa ekologiska livsmedel, vilka faktorer som är viktiga när man väljer livsmedel samt vad ekologiskt innebär för konsumenterna. Varför konsumenter agerar som de gör och hur resonemanget kring valen av livsmedel ser ut undersöks i studien. För att få fram detta har diskussioner förts i fokusgrupper med konsumenter i åldrarna mellan 20-75 år. Samtal i tre olika grupper genomfördes och dessa var indelade i olika ålderskategorier.

    Under diskussionerna framkom det att de vikigaste faktorerna för konsumenterna var fräschhet, smak, kvalitet, pris och ursprung. Det som styrde deras matinköp var ofta vanor. Jag tyckte mig se fyra olika konsumenttyper; den prisberoende, den kvalitetsmedvetna, den hälsosamma och den miljövänliga. Beroende på vilken konsumenttyp deltagarna var styrdes deras inköp av olika faktorer som var viktigast för dem. Alla deltagare var positivt inställda till det ekologiska alternativet och var väl insatta i vad ekologiskt stod för. Anledningen till att köpa ekologiskt, var enligt deltagarna, hälso- och miljöskäl. Trots det ledde det inte så ofta till att deltagarna valde det ekologiska alternativet. Anledningen till det var att priset oftast är högre, vanorna styr och det finns en viss skepticism till ekologiska varor. Ekologiskt var heller inte en viktig faktor för många av deltagarna, därför valde de inte detta alternativ.

    Slutligen verkar det vara deltagarnas grundläggande värderingar som avgör hur inköpen blir, om de väljer ekologiskt eller inte. Att välja den ekologiska mjölken medför så många fler ställningstaganden, det är en hel livsstil som ligger bakom valen. Det är attityden och värderingarna som måste förändras snarare än köpbeteendet för att en livsstilsförändring ska vara möjlig att uppnå. Det är en långsam process och förändringarna måste ske stegvis. För att en grönare konsumtion ska bli möjlig måste samhället och handeln även uppmärksamma de olika konsumenttyperna som finns.

  • 161.
    Johansson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Walter, Katarina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    In-Vehicle Screen Density: Driver distraction and User Preferences for Low vs High Screen Densisty2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Many information technology artefacts can be found in today’s cars. The interaction with these artefacts is the driver’s secondary task while driving the car in a safe way is the primary task. When designing interfaces for in-vehicle usage, measures have to be taken in order to make the interaction with the artefact suit the in-vehicle environment. One of these measures is to have the appropriate screen density level, which is the amount of information present on the screen.

    This thesis compares the usability of two integrated in-vehicle display prototypes, one with low screen density and one with high screen density. The usability comparison considers both safety and user preferences. Safety was measured by a Lane Change Test (LCT) which measures distraction of a primary task while performing a secondary task, and user preferences was measured with a questionnaire. Before the comparison was made, controls and a graphical user interface were designed.

    Results showed no significant difference in driver distraction between performing tasks on the high screen density display and the low screen density display. However, a vast majority of the users preferred high screen density over low. Furthermore, the distraction levels for both the high and the low screen density displays were below the proposed 0.5 meter limit for allowed driver distraction. The results indicate that in-vehicle displays can have a high level of screen density without imposing a level of distraction on the driver that is unsuitable for driving.

  • 162.
    Johansson, Joel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Test av spädbarns nyhetspreferens med ögonrörelsemätare2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (Ftii) är ett parjämförelsetest som mäter spädbarns intresse för ett nytt visuellt stimuli när detta presenteras tillsammans med ett stimuli redan känt för spädbarnet, kallat nyhetspreferens. Även om Ftii har visat sig fungera väl vid bedömning av spädbarns kognitiva nivå kan testet förbättras på ett antal punkter. För att uppnå reliabla resultat har försökspersonerna ofta testats vid ett flertal tillfällen. För att undersöka möjligheterna att ytterligare validera erhållna resultat från Ftii har en version av Ftii skapats för att utföras med en ögonrörelsemätare. Denna version, kallad Ftii-Ö, har testats med hjälp av en spädbarnsgrupp och en vuxengrupp för att på så sätt utvärdera för och nackdelar med ett test utfört på ögonrörelsemätare. Resultaten från studien visar att  spädbarnsgruppen uppvisar nyhetspreferens i de båda testen, och att Ftii-Ö för spädbarnsgruppen ger liknande resultat som Ftii.

  • 163.
    Johansson, Linda
    et al.
    Department of Psychology , Uppsala University , Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Department of Psychology , Uppsala University , Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Teknisk audiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för klinisk och socialpsykologi (CS). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Neuroscience , Psychiatry Section , Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden.
    Implicit memory bias for eating- and body appearance-related sentences in eating disorders: An application of Jacoby's white noise task2008Inngår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 135-145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Jacoby's white noise task and an explicit recognition task were used to investigate whether individuals with eating disorders demonstrate implicit memory bias and explicit memory bias, respectively, for information related to eating and body appearance. Included were 33 women with eating disorders (seven with anorexia nervosa and 26 with bulimia nervosa), 29 with nonclinical eating disorder‐related concerns, and 36 healthy controls. Results showed partial support for implicit memory bias but no support for explicit memory bias. These findings suggest that eating disorders may be characterized by relative initial automatic bias for eating disorder‐relevant information but not by bias at later stages of information processing. However, previous studies have demonstrated explicit memory bias in eating disorders, which is inconsistent with this interpretation. Future research is required to clarify the precise cognitive biases associated with eating disorders.

  • 164.
    Jonsson, Emma H.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bendas, Johanna
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Weidner, Kerstin
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Wessberg, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Backlund Wasling, Helena
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Croy, Ilona
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    The relation between human hair follicle density and touch perception2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 2499Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Unmyelinated low threshold C-tactile fibers moderate pleasant aspects of touch. These fibers respond optimally to stroking stimulation of the skin with slow velocities (1-10 cm/s). Low threshold mechanoreceptors are arranged around hair follicles in rodent skin. If valid also in humans, hair follicle density (HFD) may relate to the perceived pleasantness of stroking tactile stimulation. We conducted two studies that examined the relation between HFD and affective touch perception in humans. In total, 138 healthy volunteers were stroked on the forearm and rated the pleasantness and intensity. Stimulation was performed by a robotic tactile stimulator delivering C-tactile optimal (1, 3, 10 cm/s) and non-optimal (0.1, 0.3, 30 cm/s) stroking velocities. Additionally, a measure of discriminative touch was applied in study 2. HFD of the same forearm was determined using the Cyanoacrylate Skin Stripping Method (CSSM), which we validated in a pretest. Women had higher HFD than men, which was explained by body size and weight. Furthermore, women rated affective touch stimuli as more pleasant and had higher tactile acuity. Depilation did not affect touch perception. A weak relationship was found between the C-tactile specific aspects of affective touch perception and HFD, and the hypothesis of HFD relating to pleasant aspects of stroking only received weak support.

  • 165.
    Jonsson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Impact of Voice Variation in Speech-Based In-Vehicle Systems on Attitude and Driving Behavior2009Inngår i: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter (HFES), 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Automobile manufacturers are making information systems available in all vehicles. Mostsystems are screen based, but increasingly systems are either hybrids (screen/speech) orspeech based. Speech systems in vehicles may have advantages over screen based in-vehiclesystems; literature suggests that speech can be less distracting than screen-based interactions.Nonetheless, using speech systems in the car also introduces social and attitudinal effects.Voices are not neutral! Voices carry socio-economic cues including indicators of gender, age,personality, emotional state, ethniticity, education and social status. Perception ofinformation presented by the voice is influenced by the perception of the voice demographics.This is further complicated by different individuals perceiving voices in different ways. A voicethat is seen as positive by one individual can be perceived negatively by another. We presentresults from a number of driving simulator studies of speech based in-vehicle systems. These studiesshow that speech based in-vehicle systems can affect drivers’ attitude and drivingperformance. Attitude and performance can be improved, but the effect of the voice can also proveharmful for driving behaviour and driving safety. This makes it important to include the voice as adesign parameter of speech-based in-vehicle systems.

  • 166.
    Jungert, Tomas
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Lotti, Nathalie
    Università degli Studi di Torino.
    Longobardi, Claudio
    Università degli Studi di Torino.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Student–teacher relationships and their associations with pro-social motivation and bystander behaviors in school bullying2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 167.
    Kalén, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The impact of identifiability and the endowment effect on health care rationing dilemmas2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The identifiability effect - the human tendency to help identified victims to a greater extent than unidentified - has been proved of being an important aspect of moral judgment. However, the endowment effect - the human tendency to overestimate our properties - is unexplored within this area, such as the impact of identifiability on the endowment effect. For the purpose of examining the impact of identifiability and endowment on moral dilemmas, an experiment with 192 participants was conducted, using a charity scenario concerning African children, framed as a trolley dilemma. The results showed that a majority of the participants choose to maximize the number of children saved. No significant effects of identifiability or endowment were found. The main conclusion of the study was that the dilemma affected men and women differently. Women felt stronger feelings of sympathy, were less confident in choosing and perceived the choice more difficult than men.

  • 168.
    Karlsson, Tobias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Visuell framställningseffekt inom digital tv-miljö2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 poäng / 18 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract

    För interaktiv tv-reklam är det viktigt att undvika störande intryck samtidigt som man önskar att få användaren engagerad. För detta ändamål undersöktes den visuella framställningseffekten, som enligt Elder och Krishna (2012) leder till ökat engagemang för den produkt som presenteras, vilket leder till ökade köpintentioner. Specifikt undersöktes om den visuella framställningseffekten leder till en ökad mental simulering och om detta påverkar köpintentioner och attityd. Studien undersökte även om handanvändande påverkade mental simulering i samband med den visuella framställningseffekten. Studien var en inomgruppsdesign med 29 deltagare och analysen utfördes med en Two-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA. Med signifikans p<0.01 styrktes hypotesen att den visuella framställningseffekten för bilder i ett interaktivt tv-gränssnitt påverkar mental simulering och därmed kan påverka engagemang hos användare. Övriga hypoteser förkastades. Studien indikerar att den visuella framställningen av reklam bör utformas så att den bjuder in användaren och därmed får den mer engagerad. Detta kunde dock inte kopplas med ökade köpintentioner.

  • 169.
    Keshmiri, Liisa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Bilder som stör eller bilder som stöd: Placering av bilder som alternativ och kompletterande kommunikation i allmänna utrymmen på en daglig verksamhet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    People with moderate intellectual disability often have communication difficulties and are in need of augmentative and alternative communication, AAC, to replace lacking speech and/or language comprehension. It is imperative that support in the form of AAC is found in the environments where everyday interactions occur. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how the placing of picture-based AAC affects communicative behaviour among participants in a day centre.

    An intervention was made where communication pictures were moved from walls to hang from the belt of staff members. The effects were registered through behavioural observations of four participants both before and one week after the intervention. The behaviours observed were agitation, apathy, motor anxiety and the usage of signs and pointing. A simple sign test showed changes in expected directions (e.g. reduction of apathy or increased usage of signs) for half of the twenty completed observations. In only one case could negative results be observed while nine observations showed no change in the measured behaviours. There were considerable individual differences among the participants. Two of the participants showed little or no change in their behaviours, while two reduced the non-appropriate behaviours apathy, agitation and motor anxiety in favour of pointing to communication pictures and usage of signs. The conclusion drawn in this paper was that placing of communication pictures can have positive impact on the ability to communicate in individuals with moderate intellectual disability.

  • 170.
    Kjems, Ulrik
    et al.
    Oticon A/S, Kongebakken 9, DK-2765 Smørum, Denmark.
    Boldt, Jesper B
    Oticon A/S, Kongebakken 9, DK-2765 Smørum, Denmark.
    Pedersen, Michael S
    Oticon A/S, Kongebakken 9, DK-2765 Smørum, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Oticon Research Centre Eriksholm, Kongevejen 243, DK-3070 Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Wang, DeLiang
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering and Center for Cognitive Science, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 .
    Role of mask pattern in intelligibility of ideal binary-masked noisy speech2009Inngår i: Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 126, nr 3, s. 1415-1426Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligibility of ideal binary masked noisy speech was measured on a group of normal hearing individuals across mixture signal to noise ratio (SNR) levels, masker types, and local criteria for forming the binary mask. The binary mask is computed from time-frequency decompositions of target and masker signals using two different schemes: an ideal binary mask computed by thresholding the local SNR within time-frequency units and a target binary mask computed by comparing the local target energy against the long-term average speech spectrum. By depicting intelligibility scores as a function of the difference between mixture SNR and local SNR threshold, alignment of the performance curves is obtained for a large range of mixture SNR levels. Large intelligibility benefits are obtained for both sparse and dense binary masks. When an ideal mask is dense with many ones, the effect of changing mixture SNR level while fixing the mask is significant, whereas for more sparse masks the effect is small or insignificant.

  • 171.
    Kleinstaeuber, Maria
    et al.
    Philipps University, Germany.
    Schmelzer, Katarina
    Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany.
    Ditzen, Beate
    University of Heidelberg Hospital, Germany.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hiller, Wolfgang
    Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany.
    Weise, Cornelia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Psychosocial Profile of Women with Premenstrual Syndrome and Healthy Controls: A Comparative Study2016Inngår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 752-763Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    According to modern bio-psychosocial theories of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), the aim of this study is to investigate systematically associations between selected psychosocial factors and premenstrual symptoms in different menstrual cycle phases. Several psychosocial variables were assessed, in a sample of German women with PMS (N = 90) and without premenstrual complaints (N = 48) during the follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Presence of PMS was indicated by analysis of contemporary daily ratings of premenstrual symptom severity and impairment for one menstrual cycle. Regarding perceived chronic stress (AE (2) = 0.34), self-efficacy (AE (2) = 0.12), and two dimensions of self-silencing (0.06 aeamp;lt;currencyamp;gt;aEuroeAE (2) aeamp;lt;currencyamp;gt;aEuroe0.11) analyses revealed only a significant effect of group. Regarding body dissatisfaction and somatosensory amplification, a significant effect of group (0.07 aeamp;lt;currencyamp;gt;aEuroeAE (2) aeamp;lt;currencyamp;gt;aEuroe0.16) and additionally a group by menstrual cycle phase interaction (AE (2) = 0.06) was identified. Regarding relationship quality, a significant effect of menstrual cycle phase (AE (2) = 0.08) and a group by menstrual cycle phase interaction (AE (2) = 0.06) was demonstrated. In respect to sexual contentment, acceptance of premenstrual symptoms, and the remaining two dimensions of self-silencing statistical analyses revealed no effects at all. Linear multiple regression analysis revealed that 20 % of the variance in PMS symptom severity was explained by the psychosocial variables investigated. Body dissatisfaction ( = 0.26, p = 0.018) and the divided self-dimension of self-silencing ( = 0.35, p = 0.016) were significant correlates of PMS severity. Results of this study are consistent with previous research and additionally show patterns of associations between specific psychosocial factors and PMS in dependence of menstrual cycle phase that have not been researched before. The role of the psychosocial variables we investigated in regard to the development and maintenance of PMS should be clarified in future research.

  • 172.
    Klintbjer, Piroska
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Kommunikation. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nilsonne, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Kommunikation. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ågren, Greta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Kommunikation. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    On the development of the child's ability to identify affective state from the prosodic features of adult speech1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to judge emotional states (anger, surprise, sadness and happiness) from the non- verbal components of speech was studied in 169 children aged from 4 to 10 years (20- 43 children per group, one group for each year of age except 9) in Uppsala, Sweden . 19 adults were used as a control group. The stimulus material consisted of speech samples, in which a male and a female actor had been instructed to portray the indicated emotional states.

    In general, the ability to make correct judgements increased with increased age. This was especially the case with the recognition of "surprise", "sadness" and "happiness", for which emotions increasing improvements were seen up to t he age of 8, where the ability was close to that of the adult controls. The ability to recognise an angry voice appeared to be well developed already at the age of 4.

    The most difficult item was the male voice portraying "happiness", where the children did not show and increase in their scores until the age of 8. Girls were found to have a more developed ability to identify the expressed emotions in all age groups.

    In most cases where erroneous judgements were made, the male voice was judged to be angry and the female to be sad, irrespective of intended emotion and of the sex of the child.

  • 173.
    Koch, Felix-Sebastian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sundqvist, Anett
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Herbert, Jane
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Tjus, Tomas
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Changes in infant visual attention when observing repeated actions2018Inngår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 50, s. 189-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Infants early visual preferences for faces, and their observational learning abilities, are well-established in the literature. The current study examines how infants attention changes as they become increasingly familiar with a person and the actions that person is demonstrating. The looking patterns of 12- (n = 61) and 16-month-old infants (n = 29) were tracked while they watched videos of an adult presenting novel actions with four different objects three times. A face-to-action ratio in visual attention was calculated for each repetition and summarized as a mean across all videos. The face-to-action ratio increased with each action repetition, indicating that there was an increase in attention to the face relative to the action each additional time the action was demonstrated. Infants prior familiarity with the object used was related to face-to-action ratio in 12-month-olds and initial looking behavior was related to face-to-action ratio in the whole sample. Prior familiarity with the presenter, and infant gender and age, were not related to face-to-action ratio. This study has theoretical implications for face preference and action observations in dynamic contexts.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2020-02-03 00:27
  • 174.
    Kogut, Tehila
    et al.
    Ben Gurion University of Negev, Israel.
    Slovic, Paul
    Decis Research, OR USA; University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Research, OR USA.
    The Effect of Recipient Identifiability and Neediness on Childrens Sharing Behavior2016Inngår i: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 353-362Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The identifiable victim effect refers to peoples greater willingness to share resources with identified targets (about whom they have some identifying information) than to share with unidentified or statistical targets. Previous research examining adults behavior suggests that identifiable targets arouse in the perceiver an intense emotional reaction that, in turn, increases sharing especially when the target is perceived as needy. In the current research, we examine whether the spontaneous reaction toward an identifiable, needy target and the increase in sharing with such a target appears in young childrens sharing behavior and when in early childhood it develops. The results suggest that adding identifying information about a needy recipient increases sharing only in older children (above the age of 5.5) and in children who have acquired higher levels of theory of mind (independent of age). Mediation-moderation analysis suggests that theory of mind mediates the relation between age and sharing mainly when a specific, needy recipient is presented. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley amp; Sons, Ltd.

  • 175.
    Koppel, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Morrison, India
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Posadzy, Kinga
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa.
    The effect of acute pain on risky and intertemporal choice2017Inngår i: Experimental Economics, ISSN 1386-4157, E-ISSN 1573-6938, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 878-893Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pain is a highly salient and attention-demanding experience that motivates people to act. We investigated the effect of pain on decision making by delivering acute thermal pain to participants’ forearm while they made risky and intertemporal choices involving money. Participants (n = 107) were more risk seeking under pain than in a no-pain control condition when decisions involved gains but not when they involved equivalent losses. Pain also resulted in greater preference for immediate (smaller) over future (larger) monetary rewards. We interpret these results as a motivation to offset the aversive, pain-induced state, where monetary rewards become more appealing under pain than under no pain and when delivered sooner rather than later. Our findings add to the long-standing debate regarding the role of intuition and reflection in decision making.

  • 176.
    Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    et al.
    Center for Health & Medical Psychology, Örebro University, Sweden & Department of Psychology, University of Tehran, Iran.
    Moradi, Alireza
    Department of Psychology, Tehran Teacher Training University, Iran.
    Moradi, Shahram
    Center for Health & Medical Psychology, Örebro University.
    Akbari-Zardkhaneh, Saeed
    Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran.
    Zahedian, Haedeh
    Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    The effect of bilingualism on letter and category fluency tasks in primary school children: Advantage or disadvantage?2012Inngår i: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 351-364Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of bilingualism on letter and category fluency tasks. Participants were1,600 monolingual and bilingual children from three cities in Iran: Tehran (Persian monolinguals), Tabriz (Turkish–Persianbilinguals), and Sanandaj (Kurdish–Persian bilinguals). We separately presented nine Persian letters and thirty-onecategories to the participants, and asked them to generate as many words as possible using each of these initial letters andcategories within a maximum of three minutes. Bilingual children generated more words than monolingual children in theletter fluency task; this effect was more pronounced in Grade 1 and for Turkish–Persian bilinguals. However, Persianmonolinguals generated significantly more words than both bilingual groups in the category fluency task. Thus, bilingualismcan be of both advantage and disadvantage, and produce a dissociative effect. We discuss the results on the basis of thespecific nature and different cognitive demands of letter and category fluency tasks. We suggest that the degree of languageproficiency of bilinguals should be considered as an important variable in future research on bilingualism.

  • 177.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ohlsson, Susanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Toward adaptive support: Modelling drivers' allocation of attention2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver distraction and inattention are major contributing factors in traffic accidents (cf., e.g., Najm et al, 1995). Some of these accidents might be avoided in the future if drivers’ (miss)allocation of attention could be detected, and the driver be prompted toward key events in the traffic scene. Our objective is to develop a cognitively based driver model where drivers’ allocation of attention can be simulated for diagnostic purposes. As a first step, we present a connectionist model framework implemented in PDP++. This framework is based on the notion that focusing attention on a visual object is closely coupled with an intention to act on that object. Using our model, we want to continuously assess if the driver can maintain a general preparedness to act, and hence detect unexpected events, or if he/she is overloaded by non–driving–related tasks. In a first step, we intend to study how attention can be allocated to subtasks in the model, to find out to what extent multiple tasks can be parallelized by drivers. For further develop-ments on this project, visit http://www.ida.liu.se/~ritko.html

  • 178.
    Kristiansson (Forsblad), Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The case of cognitive ecology for cognitive processes in everyday life situations2013Inngår i: Cooperative Minds: Social Interaction and Group Dynamics: Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Berlin, Germany, July 31-August 3, 2013 / [ed] Markus Knauff, Michael Pauen, Natalie Sebanz and Ipke Wachsmuth, Berlin: Cognitive Science Society, Inc., 2013, s. 2778-2783Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive ecology is a term that has been used in environments that are more tightly coupled and purpose specific than environments of everyday life. In this paper I consider cases from a cognitive ethnography of older adults.These cases show the analytical use of understanding the diachronic and synchronic cognitive ecology in which cognitive processes of everyday life occur. Specifically I discuss how the social and physical ecology and changes in these can shape goals, the use of cognitive artifacts and theuse of other cognitive resources in agent environments that are not as purpose created and not as tightly coupled as environments of previous studies in this field.

  • 179.
    Kristiansson (Forsblad), Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wiik, Richard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Prytz, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Sics East Swedish ICT AB.
    Bodily orientations and actions as constituent parts of remembering objects and intentions before leaving home2014Inngår i: Sensoria: A Journal of Mind, Brain, and Culture, ISSN 2203-8469, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 21-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we report an exploratory video-based analysis of bodily actions - specifically head movements and bodily orientations - of two older adults (+65) in their everyday life, as they are about to leave their homes. We show that action patterns can serve an adaptive function to monitor the physical surrounding of objects and spaces, and we argue that these adaptive functions assist prospective memory processes. First, we found that ongoing activities, some partially unrelated to the activity of leaving home, coupled with the structure of the physical environment could assist the participants in remembering intentions before leaving home. Second, we found that participants attended to, and therefore stayed in control of, important spaces and objects through targeted and redundant scanning of such important spaces. In the context of previous research on the effects of cognitive aging, we hypothesize that these bodily action patterns coupled with the efficient shaping of spaces can be important for the general older population to compensate for a decline in prospective memory ability.

  • 180.
    Kusztor, Anikó
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Raud, Liisa
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Juel, Bjorn E.
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Nilsen, Andre S.
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Storm, Johan F.
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Huster, Rene J.
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Sleep deprivation differentially affects subcomponents of cognitive control2019Inngår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 42, nr 4, artikkel-id zsz016Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives

    Although sleep deprivation has long been known to negatively affect cognitive performance, the exact mechanisms through which it acts and what cognitive domains are affected most is still disputed. The current study provides a theory-driven approach to examine and explain the detrimental effects of sleep loss with a focus on attention and cognitive control.

    Methods

    Twenty-four participants (12 females; age: 24 ± 3 years) completed the experiment that involved laboratory-controlled over-night sleep deprivation and two control conditions, namely, a normally rested night at home and a night of sleep in the laboratory. Using a stop signal task in combination with electroencephalographic recordings, we dissociated different processes contributing to task performance such as sustained attention, automatic or bottom-up processing, and strategic or top-down control. At the behavioral level, we extracted reaction times, response accuracy, and markers of behavioral adjustments (post-error and post-stop slowing), whereas at the neural level event-related potentials (ERP) found in context of response inhibition (N2/P3) and error monitoring (ERN/Pe) were obtained.

    Results

    It was found that 24 hr of sleep deprivation resulted in declined sustained attention and reduced P300 and Pe amplitudes, demonstrating a gradual breakdown of top-down control. In contrast, N200 and ERN as well as the stop-signal reaction time showed higher resilience to sleep loss signifying the role of automatic processing.

    Conclusions

    These results support the notion that sleep deprivation is more detrimental to cognitive functions that are relatively more dependent on mental effort and/or cognitive capacity, as opposed to more automatic control processes.

  • 181.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    von Hofsten, ClaesUppsala universitet.Heimann, MikaelUniversitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Emerging Cognitive Abilities in Early Infancy2001Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 182.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Preface2001Inngår i: Emerging cognitive abilities in early infancy / [ed] F Lacerda, C v Hofsten & M Heimann, Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001, s. ix-xiKapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 183.
    Larsson, Ann-Sofie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Measuring the Possible Increase of the Safety Understanding due to the Application of the Safety Scanning Tool2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Safety is very important for our society. In contrast, it is hard to define what this term really means. Nevertheless, one area that is considered important for safety involves accident prevention. Many methods exist within this area which aims at preventing accidents from happening. One accident prevention method is called ‘The Safety Scanning Tool (SST)’. The study conducted in this thesis aimed at exploring whether the SST could improve the safety understanding of experts from the domain of aviation.

    The term ‘safety understanding’, as it is used in this thesis, refers to the understanding of central scientific concepts underlying safety. These concepts relate to the area of accident prevention and they were the results of a literature study on safety. Thus, the safety understanding was addressed on two levels of abstraction. The first general abstraction level concerned the basic assumptions for studying an organization’s safety culture relating to Schein’s (1992) framework cited by Guldenmund (2000). This relates to the area of accident prevention in a more general way. The second more specific abstraction level regarded 21 different safety issues important for accident prevention. These originated from the area of resilience engineering.

    Furthermore, this study was structured as a field experiment using a pre-post test and a within-group design.  In order to measure the different experts’ safety understanding, the data were gathered with the help of two surveys before and after the experts’ used the SST. The SST was applied to two groups of experts. In the first group, they were six people, and, in the second 16. The questions in the surveys were created with the help of the above mentioned literature study on safety. The results were analyzed with the help of the statistics program SPSS. In addition, the results were analyzed with the help of sources from academic literature. These were used in order to determine whether there was an improvement of the safety understanding or not.

    Based on the results from this study, it can be concluded that undergoing the SST caused several improvements of the experts’ safety understanding. These improvements were found in both groups of experts and on both abstraction levels of the safety understanding. However, one result relating to the basic assumption level in the second group of experts could be interpreted both as an improvement and as a decrease of the safety understanding.

    The results of this study indicate not only that the SST has the ability to detect safety problems in an early state, before they can develop to the outcome of an accident. It has also the ability to enhance its user’s safety understanding relating to factors important for accident prevention.

  • 184.
    Lee, Elinda Ai Lim
    et al.
    Curtin Univ Technol, Australia; Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Black, Melissa H.
    Curtin Univ Technol, Australia; Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. Curtin Univ Technol, Australia; Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin Univ Technol, Australia; Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Im Destined to Ace This2019Inngår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, nr 8, s. 3089-3101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As postsecondary outcomes of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are poor, there is a need for programs that aim to improve employment and education outcomes. This study employed a grounded theory approach to explore the key factors contributing to successful work placement experience and the perceived benefits of these placements from the perspective of adolescents with ASD (n=5), their parents (n=6) and employers (n=6). Key factors contributing to success include preparing for the workplace, harnessing strengths and interests and developing work related skills, while the benefits include insight into the workplace, recognising and realising potential, working as a team and the pathway ahead. The findings articulate a framework which could underpin future transition interventions for adolescents with ASD.

  • 185.
    Lim, Yi Huey
    et al.
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Allison, Garry T.
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Lee, Wee Lih
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Morris, Susan L.
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Effect of Optic Flow on Postural Control in Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder2018Inngår i: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 393, s. 138-149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been associated with sensorimotor difficulties, commonly presented by poor postural control. Postural control is necessary for all motor behaviors. However, findings concerning the effect of visual motion on postural control and the age progression of postural control in individuals with ASD are inconsistent. The aims of the present study were to examine postural responses to optic flow in children and adults with and without ASD, postural responses to optic flow in the central and peripheral visual fields, and the changes in postural responses between the child and adult groups. Thirty-three children (8-12 years old) and 33 adults (18-50 years old) with and without ASD were assessed on quiet standing for 60 seconds under conditions of varying optic flow illusions, consisting of different combinations of optic flow directions and visual field display. The results showed that postural responses to most optic flow conditions were comparable between children with and without ASD and between adults with and without ASD. However, adults with ASD appeared more responsive to forward-moving optic flow in the peripheral visual field compared with typically developed adults. The findings suggest that children and adults with ASD may not display maladaptive postural responses all the time. In addition, adults in the ASD group may have difficulties prioritizing visual information in the central visual field over visual information in the peripheral visual field when in unfamiliar environments, which may have implications in understanding their motor behaviors in new surroundings. (C) 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 186.
    Lind, Therese
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Motivated reasoning when assessing the effects of refugee intake2018Inngår i: Behavioural Public Policy, ISSN 2398-063XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Do differences in worldview ideology hinder people from objectively interpreting the effect of immigration? In an experiment with Swedish adults (n = 1015), we investigate whether people display motivated reasoning when interpreting numerical information about the effects of refugee intake on crime rate. Our results show clear evidence of motivated reasoning along the lines of worldview ideology (i.e., whether people identify themselves primarily as nationally oriented or globally oriented). In scenarios where refugee intake was associated with higher crime rate, nationally oriented people were 18 percentage points more likely to make the correct assessment compared to globally oriented people. Likewise, in scenarios where refugee intake was associated with lower crime rate, nationally oriented people were 20 percentage points less likely to make the correct assessment compared to globally oriented people. Individuals with higher numeric ability were less likely to engage in motivated reasoning, suggesting that motivated reasoning more commonly is driven by feelings and emotional cues rather than deliberate analytical processes.

  • 187.
    Lindahl, Lisbeth B
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Research report: Social proximity in early mother- infant interactions: Implications for gender differences?1997Inngår i: Early development & parenting, ISSN 1057-3593, E-ISSN 1099-0917, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 83-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In an exploratory study, we investigated degrees of socialproximity between mothers and their 9-month-old children.Twenty-four Swedish mother±infant dyads (12 boys and 12girls) were observed during a brief free play episode. Socialproximity was measured through nine items focusing on bothcommunication and social interaction. Overall, we found thatmother±daughter dyads displayed significantly higher degrees ofsocial proximity than mother±son dyads. More specifically,mothers with daughters displayed more physical and visualcontact, and were also rated as more sensitive than mothers withsons. It was also found that girls were judged as being morecompliant than boys.

  • 188.
    Lindahl, Lisbeth B
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Social proximity in Swedish mother-daughter and mother-son interactions in infancy.2002Inngår i: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, ISSN 0264-6838, E-ISSN 1469-672X, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 37-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated free play interactions between 20 Swedish mothers andtheir infants (11 boys and nine girls) at 9 and 14 months of age. Higher degrees of socialproximity within mother± daughters dyads were found, as compared to mother± son dyads.Mothers with daughters also displayed more physical contact at 9 months and scored higher onmaternal sensitivity at 14 months, as compared to mothers of boys. Higher degrees of socialpromixity (combined infant and mother scores) were found at 14 months of age, as comparedto 9 months. These findings suggest that despite the high level of gender equality promoted inSwedish society, Swedish mothers treat girls differently from boys.

  • 189.
    Lindahl, Lisbeth B
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Heimann, Mikael
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Ullsatdius, Eva
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Occurrence of regressive periods in the normal development of Swedish infants2003Inngår i: Regression periods in human infancy / [ed] M Heimann, Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003, s. 41-55Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 190.
    Linton, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Germundsson, Per
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Danemark, Berth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Örebro University, Sweden.
    School Staff’s Social Representation of Inclusion of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asperger)2016Inngår i: Journal of Education & Social Policy, ISSN 2375-0782, Vol. 3, nr 5, s. 82-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study examined and compared the social representations (SR) concerning the inclusion of students with Asperser diagnosis (AS) among principals, school health professionals, and teachers. Swedish school staff were invited to anonymously answer a web-based questionnaire (N=229). An association task was conducted to obtain data on principals, school health professionals and teachers’ of inclusion of students with AS. The content and structure of the SRs were explored by using the theoretical framework of social representation theory. Our results suggest that principals were mainly concerned with the organization and structural level of inclusion. School health professionals emphasized educational strategies, structure and routines and, students’ needs and their individual potentials whereas teachers refer to their own interaction as the most important aspect and more often than other staff referred to a burden. Social representation methodology offers unique opportunities for research as well as for applications aiming to promote inclusion. 

  • 191.
    Linusson, Josefin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema.
    Miljövänligt båtliv?: En undersökning om intresset för och inställningen till miljövänliga båtvårdsprodukter och tjänster hos tre aktörer inom den växande båtbranschen2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie skrevs i uppdrag från stiftelsen Håll Sverige rent. Syftet med studien var att undersöka intresset för och inställningen till miljövänliga båtvårdsprodukter och tjänster, vilka motiv som finns för att välja eller inte välja dessa miljövänliga alternativ samt om det finns någon skillnad till detta beroende av kön, ålder och båttyp. För att få en bild över hur marknaden ser ut idag samt hur förutsättningarna ser ut för framtiden genomfördes undersökningar genom intervju och enkät hos tre aktörer inom båtbranschen. Dessa aktörer är fritidsbåtägare, marinor samt återförsäljare för båtvårdsprodukter. De frågeställningar som formulerades för studien var; Hur ser intresset ut för miljövänliga båtvårdsprodukter respektive tjänster hos de olika aktörerna?, vilka skäl finns för att välja eller inte välja miljövänliga båtvårdsprodukter och tjänster?, hur uppfattas fritidsbåtägarna av marinorna och återförsäljarna inom frågan? samt varierar intresset och skälen hos fritidsbåtägare för miljövänligt alternativ beroende av ålder, kön eller båttyp?

    De frågor som ställdes till aktörerna var bland annat vilka skäl som finns för och emot att välja miljövänliga alternativ. Dessutom lades ett perspektiv på att undersöka hur fritidsbåtägare resonerade kring detta beroende på kön, ålder och båttyp. Då marinorna och återförsäljarna inte valdes efter ålder och kön gjordes ingen motsvarande analys på hur de resonerade, dock hade marinorna intressanta åsikter om hur de trodde att detta varierade mellan fritidsbåtägarna. Studien visar på att det i majoritet finns ett miljötänk inom branschen men att det samtidigt finns viss skepsis, traditioner samt andra aspekter som talar emot att välja miljövänliga alternativ. Dock är de miljöanpassade produkterna mer efterfrågade än miljöanpassad service i fallet för studien, kanske kan detta bero på att ansvaret i och med service läggs på den som står för utförandet medan valet av produkt snarare ligger på konsumenten.

    Att kvinnor och segelbåtsägare är och uppfattas som mer miljövänliga än män var en av slutsatserna som studien visade på. Åldern verkar ha betydelse för att välja miljövänliga alternativ, men i fråga om att tänka på miljön fanns ingen skillnad för åldersgrupperna, inte heller utifrån båttyp eller kön.

    Samtidigt som fritidsbåtägare inte såg hinder för att välja miljövänliga alternativ var svarsfrekvensen relativt hög på skälen; att dessa produkter är sämre samt att det är svårt att få tag på miljövänliga alternativ. De viktigaste aspekterna för att fritidsbåtägare skulle välja miljövänliga alternativ var just att de är bättre för miljön. Denna uppfattning fanns även om kunderna enligt återförsäljarna. Marinorna hade däremot uppfattningen om att kunderna framförallt var priskänsliga, vilket fritidsbåtägarna inte heller var i fallet för service då kvalitet och tillgänglighet var mer efterfrågat. Att fritidsbåtägare har miljöomtanke och miljön som argument för att välja miljövänliga alternativ skulle kunna bero på att deras intresse för båtlivet bottnar i intresset för naturen.

  • 192.
    Livingstone, Luisa T.
    et al.
    University of New England, Australia.
    Coventry, William L.
    University of New England, Australia.
    Corley, Robin P.
    University of Colorado, CO 80309 USA.
    Willcutt, Erik G.
    University of Colorado, CO 80309 USA.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. Stavanger University, Norway.
    Olson, Richard K.
    University of Colorado, CO 80309 USA.
    Byrne, Brian
    University of New England, Australia.
    Does the Environment Have an Enduring Effect on ADHD? A Longitudinal Study of Monozygotic Twin Differences in Children2016Inngår i: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 44, nr 8, s. 1487-1501Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental factors play a key role in the development of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but the long-term effects of these factors are still unclear. This study analyses data from 1024 monozygotic (identical) twins in Australia, the United States, and Scandinavia who were assessed for ADHD in Preschool, Kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. Differences within each twin pair were used as a direct measure of non-shared environmental effects. The Trait-State-Occasion (TSO) model developed by Cole et al. (Psychological Methods, 10, 3-20, 2005) was used to separate the non-shared environmental effects into stable factors, and transient factors that excluded measurement error. Stable factors explained, on average, 44 % and 39 % of the environmental variance in hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive symptoms, respectively. Transient effects explained the remaining 56 % and 60 % of variance. The proportion of stable variance was higher than expected based on previous research, suggesting promise for targeted interventions if future research identifies these stable risk factors.

  • 193.
    Ljunglöf, Peter
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lundälv, Mats
    Drottning Silvias barn- och ungdomssjukhus, Göteborg.
    Mühlenbock, Katarina
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    GRASP: Grammatikbaserad språkinlärningför barn med funktionshinder2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi avser att utveckla ett pedagogiskt hjälpmedel för barn med språkliga funktionshinder. Hjälpmedlet kommer att bestå av ett datorsystem som ger stöd för språkinlärning och språkträning. Systemet är grafiskt,där barnet kan peka på ord eller fraser för att få förklaringar i form av text eller ljud, och också själv kan göra omformuleringar. Barnet kan själv flytta omkring ord i en mening, och systemet flyttar automatiskt omkring andra ord och ändrar böjningar, så att meningen hela tiden blir grammatiskt korrekt. Hjälpmedlet är avsett att på ett lekfullt sätt stimulera barnets vilja att utforska språkets möjligheter.

  • 194.
    Ljunglöv, Robin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Prestation, intresse, engagemang, uppskattning: Skillnader i upplevelse av en virtuell lärmiljö mellan matematiskt hög- och lågpresterande elever2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Digitala läromedel blir ett vanligare inslag i skolgången då ny teknologi erbjuder tidigare okända pedagogiska möjligheter. Denna uppsats undersöker hur elever som använder ett digitalt läromedel i form av en virtuell lärmiljö för matematiklärande upplever denna lärmiljö. Dessutom undersöks elevernas prestation i lärmiljöns matematiska uppgifter. Skillnader mellan elever i olika årskurser samt elever som är matematiskt låg- eller högpresterande studeras. Matematisk prestation beskrivs utifrån Goods (1981) passivitetsmodell som innebär att lågpresterande elever är mindre risktagande i klassrumsmiljön.

    Elevernas upplevelse av digitala läromedel studerades i en virtuell lärmiljö bestående av två moduler, en spelmodul och en modul för skriven dialog. Upplevelsen av lärmiljön undersöktes genom att studera hur intressant eleverna tyckte att spelet var, huruvida eleverna tyckte att agenten gjorde att de brydde sig mer när de spelade, samt om de gillade den skrivna dialogen. Tidigare insamlad data från elever i årskurs 6-8 som använt den virtuella lärmiljön undersöktes med kvasiexperimentell metod och analyserades med ANOVA.

    Analysen påvisade en skillnad mellan låg- och högpresterande elever i hur mycket de tycker att en pedagogisk virtuell agent engagerar dem i en virtuell lärmiljö. Matematiskt högpresterande elever anser att agenten gör dem mer engagerade än vad matematiskt lågpresterande elever anser. Detta kan tyda på att lågpresterande elevers passivitet utöver traditionell klassrumspedagogik också påverkar elevernas upplevelse av digitala läromedel.

    I vidareutvecklingen av den virtuella lärmiljön och skapandet av andra virtuella lärmiljöer är det viktigt att se till att elever både lär sig och engageras av lärmiljön. Utvecklare bör också ta hänsyn till de skillnader som finns mellan låg- och högpresterande elevers upplevelse av lärmiljön. Detta kan exempelvis ske genom att den virtuella lärmiljön görs anpassningsbar för att passa elever oberoende av prestationsnivå. Detta är en viktig målsättning för att se förbättra lågpresterande elevers möjligheter i skolan, något som virtuella lärmiljöer och digitala läromedel i allmänhet kan utgöra ett kraftfullt medium för.

  • 195.
    Lotti, Nathalie
    et al.
    Università degli Studi di Torino.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Lunds universitet.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Longobardi, Claudio
    Università degli Studi di Torino.
    Participant roles and motivation to defend in Swedish and Italian public school students: A cultural comparison2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 196.
    Lundqvist, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Creating Resilience – A Matter of Control or Computation?: Resilience Engineering explored through the lenses of Cognitive Systems Engineering and Distributed Cognition in a patient safety case study2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the research approach known as Resilience Engineering (RE) has offered a promising new way of understanding safety-critical organizations, but less in the way of empirical methods for analysis. In this master’s thesis, an extensive comparison was made between RE and two different research approaches on cognitive systems: Distributed Cognition (DC) and Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) with the aim of exploring whether these approaches can contribute to the analysis and understanding of resilience. In addition to a theoretical comparison, an ethnographic healthcare case study was conducted, analyzing the patient safety at a pediatric emergency department using the Three-Level Analytical Framework from DC and the Extended Control Model from CSE, then conducting an RE analysis based on the former two analyses. It was found that while the DC and CSE approaches can explain how an organization adapts to current demands, neither approach fully addresses the issue of future demands anticipation, central to the RE perspective. However, the CSE framework lends itself well as an empirical ground providing the entry points for a more thoroughgoing RE analysis, while the inclusion of physical context in a DC analysis offers valuable insights to safety-related issues that would otherwise be left out in the study of resilience.

  • 197.
    Lundqvist, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Riskkompensation hos dysforiska bilförare: en körsimulatorstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Med fler än en miljon omkomna i trafikolyckor världen över varje år är trafiksäkerhet ett ständigt aktuellt område. Studier på deprimerade patienter har visat att negativ sinnesstämning medför försämrad körförmåga. Dessa effekter är i hög grad outforskade och det är därför viktigt att undersöka om de förekommer även vid en mildare grad av nedstämdhet, så kallad dysfori, vilket i så fall skulle innebära att negativ sinnesstämning i likhet med trötthet och alkoholpåverkan utgör en allvarlig trafikfara. För att bättre förstå hur sinnesstämning påverkar körförmåga är det dock också relevant att undersöka om dysfori kan bidra till riskkompensation, det fenomen som inträffar när människor kompenserar för säkerhetsförändringar genom ett förändrat riskbeteende. I denna uppsats beskrivs en del av en körsimulatorstudie kring dysfori och bilkörning, där syftet var att undersöka om dysfori kan vara en orsak till riskkompensation. 15 studenter vid Linköpings universitet delades upp i en testgrupp med dysforiska försöksdeltagare (N = 5) och en kontrollgrupp (N = 10) med hjälp av Major Depression Inventory, ett instrument för att diagnostisera depression. Dessa fick sedan genomföra en körning i simulatorn Desktop T&D där time headway, time to collision, genomsnittshastighet och antal omkörningar mättes för de olika grupperna för att undersöka förekomsten av riskkompensation. Resultatet visade att inga signifikanta skillnader kunde observeras för något av måtten. Riskkompensation har i många studier visat sig vara ett komplext fenomen att undersöka och ett flertal metodologiska problem förelåg, särskilt på grund av svårigheten att mäta risk i en simulator med god validitet. Det är dock viktigt att fortsatta undersökningar görs för att bättre förstå riskkompensation, samt att fenomenet beaktas som en tänkbar inverkande faktor i framtida studier av körförmåga.

  • 198.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Cognitive hearing aids and top-down/bottom-up issues2014Inngår i: Abstract book, 2014, s. 39-40Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory is important for online language processing in a dialogue. We use it to store, to inhibit or ignore what is not relevant, and to attend to things selectively. lt is our way of keeping track while taking tums or following the gist of the dialogue. The Ease-of Language Understanding (ELU) model describes the role of working memory capacity (WMC) in sound and speech processing and attempts to explain findings on e.g. the relationship between WMC and speech signal processing and short-term retention and the effects of hearing impairment on memory.

    In a given listening situation, the mental/cognitive state may be different in the same acoustic environment if the cognitive tasks differ including e.g. single task versus dual task, time of the day, fatigue, or attention to different sources. Hearing aids include automatics to control signal processing schemas like noise reduction and beamforming/directional microphones. The different mental states during listening indicates that for a hearing aid it might not be enough with just measuring acoustics, it might be necessary to monitor cognitive parameters and make decisions on hearing aid settings, i.e. cognition-driven hearing aids. New technological developments relevant for auditory processing include physiological monitoring via e.g. the electroencephalogram (EEG), and via pupillometry. In the presentation some ideas will be reviewed and some preliminary work will be presentad on (a) cognitive load monitoring for hearing aid control, and (b) attention modulation, i.e. which source is attended to?

  • 199.
    MacDonald, Beatriz
    et al.
    Univ New Mexico, NM 87131 USA.
    Pennington, Bruce F.
    Univ Denver, CO 80208 USA.
    Willcutt, Erik G.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, CO USA.
    Dmitrieva, Julia
    Univ Denver, CO 80208 USA.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. Univ Stavanger, Norway.
    Byrne, Brian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. Univ New England, Australia.
    Olson, Richard K.
    Linköpings universitet. Univ Colorado Boulder, CO USA.
    Cross-Country Differences in Parental Reporting of Symptoms of ADHD2019Inngår i: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, ISSN 0022-0221, E-ISSN 1552-5422, Vol. 50, nr 6, s. 806-824Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies within the United States suggest there are cultural and contextual influences on how attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are perceived. If such influences operate within a single country, they are likely to also occur between countries. In the current study, we tested whether country differences in mean ADHD scores also reflect cultural and contextual differences, as opposed to actual etiological differences. The sample for the present study included 974 participants from four countries tested at two time points, the end of preschool and the end of second grade. Consistent with previous research, we found lower mean ADHD scores in Norway and Sweden in comparison with Australia and the United States, and we tested four explanations for these country differences: (a) genuine etiological differences, (b) slower introduction to formal academic skills in Norway and Sweden than in the United States and Australia that indicated a context difference, (c) underreporting tendency in Norway and Sweden, or (d) overreporting tendency in the United States and Australia. Either under- or overreporting would be examples of cultural differences in the perception of ADHD symptoms. Of these explanations, results of ADHD measurement equivalence tests across countries rejected the first three explanations and supported the fourth explanation: an overreporting tendency in the United States and Australia. These findings indicate that parental reporting of ADHD symptoms is more accurate in Norway and Sweden than in Australia and the United States, and, thus, have important clinical and educational implications for how parental reporting informs an ADHD diagnosis in these countries.

  • 200.
    Malmberg, Milijana
    et al.
    Habilitation and Health, Region Västra Götaland, Sweden; Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S Snekkersten, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Kähäri, Kim
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evaluating the short-term and long-term effects of an internet-based aural rehabilitation programme for hearing aid users in general clinical practice: a randomised controlled trial.2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 5, artikkel-id e013047Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Guided internet-based intervention beyond hearing aid (HA) fitting has been shown to be efficacious in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, internet interventions have rarely been applied clinically as a part of regular aural rehabilitation (AR). Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-based AR for HA users from a clinical population.

    OUTCOME MEASURES: The Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE) was used as the primary outcome measure, and the Communication Strategies Scale (CSS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used as secondary outcome measures. All questionnaires were administered before and directly after the intervention and at 6 months postintervention.

    METHODS: We used a parallel group design (RCT). The data were collected in 2013-2014 at three different clinics. Seventy-four HA users were randomly assigned to receive either full internet-based AR (intervention group, n=37) or one element of the internet-based AR (control group, n=37).

    RESULTS: Data were analysed following the intention-to-treat principle. Each group showed improved HHIE scores over time and did not differ significantly from each other. The intervention group showed significantly greater improvement compared with the control group for the CSS total and the non-verbal subscale scores. The intervention group and control group were also subdivided into two age groups: 20-59 years and 60-80 years. Significantly better improvement on the CSS total and non-verbal subscale scores was found in the older group compared with the younger participants.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that participants in an internet-based intervention applied in general clinical practice showed improved self-reported communication skills compared with a control group. Receiving a full intervention was not more effective in improving self-reported hearing problems than receiving just one element of the internet-based intervention.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This trial is registered at ClinicalTrals.gov, NCT01837550; results.

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