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  • 151.
    Davis, Chris B
    et al.
    Center for Energy and Environmental Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Aid, Graham
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Department of Research and Development, Ragn-Sells AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ben, Zhu
    Department of Engineering Systems and Services, TU Delft, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Secondary Resources in the Bio-Based Economy: A Computer Assisted Survey of Value Pathways in Academic Literature2017Inngår i: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 8, nr 7, s. 2229-2246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on value pathways for organic wastes has been steadily increasing in recent decades. There have been few considerably broad overview studies of such materials and their valuation potential in the bio-based economy in part because of the vast multitude of materials and processes that can be used to produce energy carriers, chemicals, and materials of value. This article explores how automated data analysis approaches can help in analyzing large bodies of text to distill and present potential value pathways for secondary (waste) bio-based materials. The study employed multiple methods (literature collection, topic modelling, and co-occurrence analysis) on a collection of abstracts from 53,292 academic articles covering technologies, applications, and products (TAPs) for bio-based wastes. The results of both the topic modelling and co-occurrence analysis are presented as online interactive web pages. The topic modelling presented an overview of research clusters related to secondary organic resources, processes, and disciplines. The co-occurrence analysis helped to understand which TAPs are researched in relation to a broad spectrum of organic wastes. Co-occurrences were evaluated using the Normalized Pointwise Mutual Information measure to locate terms which co-occur more frequently than would be expected by chance. Through the use of detailed lists of organic wastes and TAPs, the co-occurrence method mapped out 7118 unique intersections between 473 specific wastes and 228 TAPs. This technique enables us to find seemingly non-obvious valorization pathways such as the re-use of oyster shells as catalysts for bio-diesel production and bioplastic production from brewery waste. While a proof-of-concept, this work points the way for using Big Data to suggest novel pathways for implementing the Circular Economy.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 152.
    Densai, Avni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Widgren, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Actors and system maps: a methodology for developing product/service systems2016Inngår i: Sustainability Through Innovation in Product Life Cycle Design / [ed] Matsumoto M., Masui K., Fukushige S., Kondoh S., Singapore: Springer, 2016, s. 217-232Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a refined version of the Actors and System Map methodology. The refined method is more clearly defined and follows a structured process. This method can be used for describing actors and activities between a provider and a customer within a product/service system. The methodology helps in providing an overview of participating actors within a system, which is advantageous since there are often differences of opinion regarding the actors involved. An example of when the methodology has been used is presented.

  • 153.
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    et al.
    Unit for Energy Efficient Building, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Unit for Energy Efficient Building, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Calabrese, Toni
    Unit for Energy Efficient Building, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Siegele, Dietmar
    Unit for Energy Efficient Building, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Feist, Wolfgang
    Unit for Energy Efficient Building, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; Passive House Institute, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Dipasquale, Chiara
    EURAC Research, Bolzano, Italy.
    Fedrizzi, Roberto
    EURAC Research, Bolzano, Italy.
    Bales, Chris
    Energy Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    A comprehensive evaluation of a monthly-based energy auditing tool through dynamic simulations, and monitoring in a renovation case study2019Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 183, s. 713-726Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An energy auditing tool (PHPP) was evaluated against a dynamic simulation tool (TRNSYS) and used for the assessment of energy conservation measures in a demo case study. The comprehensive comparison of heating and cooling useful demands and loads included three building types (single-, multi-family house, and office), three building energy levels (before renovation and after renovation with a heating demand of 45 and 25 kWh/(m²·a)) and seven European climates.

    Dynamic simulation results proved PHPP (monthly energy balance) to be able to calculate heating demand and energy savings with good precision and cooling demand with acceptable precision compared to detailed numerical models (TRNSYS). The average deviation between the tools was 8% for heating and 15% for cooling (considering climates with a relevant cooling load only). The higher the thermal envelope quality was, i.e. in case of good energy standards and in cold climates, the better was the agreement. Furthermore, it was confirmed that PHPP slightly overestimates the heating and cooling loads by intention for system design.

    The renovation design of a real multi-family house was executed using PHPP as energy auditing tool. Several calculation stages were performed for (a) baseline, (b) design phase, and (c) verification with monitoring in order to calculate the corresponding heating demand. The PHPP model was calibrated twice, before and after the renovation. The necessity for tool calibration, especially for the baseline, was highlighted increasing the confidence with respect to a number of boundary conditions.

    In this study, PHPP was tested as an energy auditing tool aiming to be a versatile and less error-prone alternative to more complex simulation tools, which require much more expert knowledge and training.

  • 154.
    Desai, Avni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Widgren, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A Collaboration in Product Service System for Telecom Networks: An "Orange and Ericsson case" study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the research is to study the “Orange and Ericsson case” while developing the method Actors and System Map. The interaction between actors within Ericsson’s Device Connection Platform is investigated in order to identify improvement opportunities in the interaction between the provider and the customer. To answer the purpose the following research questions was formulated:

    RQ1)  What type of actors may be involved in a telecom related IPSO?

    RQ2)  How can the connections between actors in the telecom related IPSO be illustrated?

    RQ3)  How can the Actors and System Map method be refined?

    In order to answer the research questions different methodologies were used for the analysing process. The research started with a widespread literature study to collect knowledge related to the area of Product Service System (PSS) and methodologies for identifying how actors interact with one another. Studying different mapping methods the conclusion was made that Actors and System Map was most suitable for this study.

    In the methodology background the previous selected method, Actors and System Map from an Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO) perspective, was examined in order to be able to refine and improve the mapping method. Actors Map provides a visual and clear overview of the actors involved while a System Map shows the information flows and activities between the actors.

    To understand the interaction between the two companies, the definition of IPSO and the importance of value-based selling for a service offering are described in the theory background. Also, different ways of looking at a business model within the telecommunication industry is presented.

    Obtaining information regarding making an Actors Map and a System Map an improved mapping method was refined. The adaption of the method was divided into eight steps. The refined Actors Maps of the DCP shows the actors involved, how they are connected and their main assignments from each respondent’s point of view at Ericsson. The refined System Map shows what kind of information is transferred between the actors within the companies and between Orange and Ericsson. Both maps delivered as a decision basis will help identification of non-value giving links and non-optimal distances in the information flow for both companies.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    A Collaboration in Product Service System for Telecom Networks
  • 155.
    Dipasquale, Chiara
    et al.
    EURAC.
    Fedrizzi, Roberto
    EURAC.
    Bellini, Alessandro
    EURAC.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ochs, Fabian
    University of Innsbruck.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Database of energy, environmental and economic indicators of renovation packages for European residential buildings2019Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 203, artikkel-id 109427Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the energy efficiency with a vast impact in the residential building stock requires retrofit so- lutions that can be exploited with respect to a wide range of different building typologies and climates. Several tools and methodologies are nowadays available both for the assessment of building demands and for the individuation of optimum retrofit solutions. However, they are usually either too complex to be adopted by professionals or, on the contrary, oversimplified to account for the full complexity of a deep envelope and HVAC system retrofit. In this context, this paper describes a methodology developed to generate reliable information on retrofit solutions for typical buildings in different climatic conditions. Detailed numerical models are used to simulate a number of combinations of envelope and HVAC systems retrofit measures and renewable energy integration. Energy performance results are gathered in a database that allows comparing solu- tions, spanning over a range of more than 250,0 0 0 combinations of building types, age of construction, climates, envelope performance levels and HVAC systems configurations. Economic feasibility is also de- rived for each of the combinations. In this way, the accurateness of a detailed and validated calculation is made available to assist during the decision making process, with minimum computational effort being required by professionals: the variety and density of evaluated combinations allows to easily assess the performance of a specific case by interpolating among instances previously assessed. The applicability of the results to different climates and similar building typologies is verified by a comparison of the database results with a specific case dynamic simulation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 156.
    Duong, Sutina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Systematic Assessment of Straw as Potential Biogas Substrate in Co-digestion with Manure2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This work was carried out at Biogas Research Center (BRC) and the company Biogas in Vadstena. The aim was to systematically evaluate new substrates for biogas production. In particular, this case investigated the potential of straw in co-digestion with manure and slurry from pig, chicken and dairy. Straw is interesting to evaluate since it is second generation biomass and available in a large quantity. Also, anaerobic digestion (AD) of manure is beneficial because it deals with the spontaneous methane emission and leads to a better manure handling. Goals within the EU as well as in Sweden have been set up to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel and to produce more renewable energy.

    The methodology used is outlined by BRC in which a number of key areas, such as description of biomass, amount biomass, gas yield, technology, economy, environmental performance and energy system, competing interests and institutional factors, have been evaluated through literature studies and case study Biogas in Vadstena. Based on the results an overall judgment is done to determine the potential of straw.

    The result shows that straw is not appropriate to digest solely because of high TS, high carbon content and lack of nutrients. Straw also has lignocellulosic structures, which are difficult to break down. Especially lignin limits the biodegradability. Mechanical, thermal, chemical and biological pretreatments can increase the availability and biodegradability in the straw. In some cases pretreatment can also increase the methane potential. However, straw works well as a carbon complement in co-digestion with manure, which is a nitrogen-rich substrate. There are technologies available for AD of straw and manure for the whole biogas process, from transportation and pretreatment to digestion and upgrading. Although, there is space for further development of pretreatment and upgrading technology. The economic calculations show that it is profitable to use straw with manure in a farm-based biogas plant for vehicle gas production. Furthermore, the calculations of the energy show that biogas production is energy efficient with energy input/output ratio of 18-23%. Besides production of biogas, the digestate could be used as an environmentally friendly fertilizer.

    In summary, it is possible to produce biogas from straw together with manure, and this is beneficial from both an environmental and economic perspective.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Master's Thesis - Sutina Duong
  • 157.
    Einhaeupl, Paul
    et al.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium; UAntwerpen, Belgium.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Van Acker, Karel
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium; Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Van Passel, Steven
    UAntwerpen, Belgium.
    Eliciting stakeholder needs - An anticipatory approach assessing enhanced landfill mining2019Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 98, s. 113-125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill owners, governmental institutions, technology providers, academia and local communities are important stakeholders involved in Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM). This concept of excavating and processing historical waste streams to higher added values can be seen as a continuation of traditional landfill mining (LFM) and seems to be an innovative and promising idea for potential environmental and societal benefits. However, ELFMs profitability is still under debate, and environmental as well as societal impacts have to be further investigated. This study provides a first step towards an anticipatory approach, assessing ELFM through stakeholder integration. In the study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with various stakeholders, involved in a case study in Flanders, Belgium. Participants were selected across a quadruple helix (QH) framework, i.e. industrial, governmental, scientific, and local community actors. The research comprises 13 interviews conducted with an aim to elicit stakeholder needs for ELFM implementation using a general inductive approach. In total 18 different stakeholder needs were identified. The paper explains how the stakeholder needs refer to the different dimensions of sustainability, which groups of stakeholders they primarily affect, and what types of uncertainty could be influenced by their implementation. The stakeholder needs are structured into societal, environmental, regulatory and techno-economic needs. Results show additional economic, environmental, and societal aspects of ELFM to be integrated into ELFM research, as well as a need for the dynamic modeling of impacts. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 158.
    Einhaupl, Paul
    et al.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium; Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Van Acker, Karel
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium; Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Van Passel, Steven
    Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    DEVELOPING STAKEHOLDER ARCHETYPES FOR ENHANCED LANDFILL MINING2019Inngår i: DETRITUS, ISSN 2611-4127, Vol. 8, s. 109-124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the perspectives of different stakeholders on emerging technological concepts is an important step towards their implementation. Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM) is one of these emerging concepts. It aims at valorizing past waste streams to higher added values in a sustainable manner. Yet, assessment of ELFM mainly focusses on environmental and private economic issues, and societal impacts are rarely analyzed. This study uses semi-structured interviews to build understanding for different ELFM practitioners and researchers and develops five stakeholder archetypes for ELFM implementation: the Engaged Citizen, the Entrepreneur, the Technology Enthusiast, the Visionary and the Skeptic. The archetypes outline major differences in approaching ELFM implementation. The stakeholder perceptions are put into context with existing literature, and implications for ELFM implementation and future research are discussed. Results show that differences in regulatory changes and technology choices are affected by different stakeholder perspectives and more research is needed to balance inner- and inter-dimensional conflicts of ELFMs sustainability. The developed archetypes can especially be helpful when evaluating social impacts, whose perception often depends on opinion and is difficult to quantify.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 159.
    Ek, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Aktörers roller för att möta utmaningar vid utveckling av industriella och sociala symbiosnätverk: En fallstudie i Sotenäs kommun2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the environmental challenges the communities have faced depend on the increasing population and human activity, especially of the industrial development and the growth of industrial parks. There is a need to develop industrial parks in a way that contributes to minimal environmental impact, economic prosperity as well as local and regional sustainability. One challenge is to use their large amounts of underutilized resources. This can be achieved by creating circular models and coordinating resource exchanges in an industrial and social symbiosis. Industrial symbiosis means that actors collaborate through sharing of resources for collective benefits. In a social symbiosis the human resources and competences are strengthened, in parallel as the industrial symbiosis is assured. Previous studies highlight that there is a need for a better understanding of how symbiosis networks can develop and what role different actors should take. An interesting case to study in this context is the municipality of Sotenäs, where symbiosis development started 2011 and a Centre of Symbiosis under municipal management was established in 2015. The aim of the study is to identify key functions for successful symbiosis development. The aim is also to analyze the roles of different actors, in order to meet challenges in the development, through a qualitative case study in Sotenäs.

    In order to answer the purpose of the thesis, a literature study was initially conducted to investigate the key factors for developing symbiosis networks and the roles of different actors. Furthermore, an interview study was carried out with several actors involved in, or are a part of, the development of the Symbiosis network in Sotenäs municipality. The actors in the study are companies involved in the Symbiosis network, knowledge institutions, financiers, Sotenäs municipality and employers at the Centre of Symbiosis. The literature study was then used together with the empirical study for analysis and discussion. The results show that approaches aiming to increase the actor’s internal capacity and engagement in collective actions are needed to develop symbiosis networks. Here, communication has proven to be most crucial. Having that said, all actors should communicate the benefits that symbiotic collaborations both internally and externally to contribute to the anchoring process as well as understanding and increasing knowledge of the subject.

    The conclusions from the study are that the municipality have a particularly important role in coordinating and conducting symbiosis development activities. They are an actor that remains in the long term, possesses many different functions and invests in the social benefits. Coordination bodies have an important role to play in shaping long term symbiosis activities. They should act as facilitator, catalyst and coordinator to promote symbiosis development, as well as together with other actors, to continuously support companies and conduct development projects. Companies are expected to engage in the activities they benefit from. By understanding the benefits of symbiosis activities, they can free internal resources and include symbiosis activities in their organization as functions, which would benefit both the companies themselves as well as the symbiosis networks. Knowledge institutions are particularly important during the initial stage of symbiosis development. These are expected to transfer knowledge and experience to companies and municipalities in order to engage, as well as contribute with expertise to develop and improve symbiosis networks. Financiers enable development with capital. They should be responsive, pay attention to the benefits of the society, contribute with their contacts as well as create conditions that promote symbiosis development. 

    Finally, the study has further investigated how identified key functions for symbiosis development, based on the case study together with the analysis of the roles of different actors, can contribute with inspiration, reduce the lead time and facilitate the development of symbiosis networks. Depending on the type of symbiosis development (self-organized, facilitated or planned), and the geographical location and therefore the social structure and organization of the region, the local conditions are different. New business establishments with planned symbiotic collaborations differs in comparison to when symbiosis development takes place with already established companies. In this case, the symbiosis development is planned and self-organized, which means that the development process is faster, and that participation and interest of the companies already exists. The results of this study also state the importance of regular and specific dialogues among actors for continued engagement and participation, where synergies and social benefits are clearly communicated.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Aktörers roller för att möta utmaningar vid utveckling av industriella och sociala symbiosnätverk – En fallstudie i Sotenäs kommun
  • 160.
    Eklind, Y.
    et al.
    Department of Soil Sciences, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Kotheus, M.
    Kirchmann, H.
    Department of Soil Sciences, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Formation of chloromethoxybenzaldehyde during composting of organic household waste2004Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 56, nr 5, s. 475-480Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Standardized household waste was mixed with different litter amendments, straw, leaves, hardwood shavings, softwood shavings, paper, and sphagnum peat, resulting in six compost mixtures. In addition non-amended household waste was composted. Composting was done in small rotatable bins and compost samples were taken on a regular basis until day 590. Extraction and analysis of wet compost samples showed no evidence for the presence of chloroorganic compounds. Drying and re-wetting of compost samples, however, revealed that chloromethoxybenzaldehyde (CMBA) was formed in all composts at concentrations varying between 5.6 and 73.4 µgkg-1 dry matter. CMBA was not present in the original materials. During composting, there was a clear positive relation between formation of CMBA and microbial activity, as indicated by C losses and temperature. Formation took place during the most intensive phase of composting when C losses were highest. Under anaerobic conditions, however, which prevailed initially in the non-amended compost, no CMBA was formed. Calculation of total amounts of CMBA in composts revealed that there was a small decrease during storage in the hardwood, peat, and softwood composts. However, all composts contained CMBA after 590 days. The mean concentration was 33.4 µgkg-1 dry matter (s.d.=21.9). Possible biocidal effects of composts when used in cultivation may be explainable by the presence of natural toxic compounds formed during composting. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 161.
    Eklund, Josefine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Henriksson, Isabella
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Hur kan kunskap inom hållbarhet återföras mellan megaprojekt för att inte uppfinna hjulet på nytt?2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 162.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Industrisamhällets framväxt, struktur och miljöpåverkan2023Inngår i: Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling / [ed] Jonas Ammenberg, Olof Hjelm, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, 2, Vol. Sidorna 189-194, s. 189-194Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föregående kapitel bidrog med grundläggande kunskaper om stora tekniska system. Men den kunskapen som bas kan man närma sig frågan hur några av de system som finns i dag kommit till och utvecklats med tiden. Dessutom ges i detta kapitel en historisk introduktion, som på en övergripande nivå beskriver hur industrisamhället och industriella system utvecklats. Kapitlet avslutas med en utblick mot framtiden.

  • 163.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Introduktion till stora tekniska system2023Inngår i: Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling / [ed] Jonas Ammenberg, Olof Hjelm, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, 2, Vol. Sidorna 181-187, s. 181-187Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stora tekniska system fyller en viktig funktion i många människors vardag och de har också en stor miljömässig betydelse. Det gäller dels systemen själva, dels många delsystem i form av produkter och tjänster vars miljöpåverkan till stor del kan avgöras av de stora systemen. I kapitlet introduceras stora tekniska system. Fokus ligger på systemens framväxt och miljökoppling, viktiga komponenter och aktörer, och hur systemen kan utvecklas och förändras.

  • 164.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Systemlösningar som slår flera flugor i samma smäll2011Inngår i: Återvinna fosfor - hur bråttom är det? / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Forskningsrådet Formas, 2011, s. 375-386Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fosfor är nödvändigt för allt liv och för all matproduktion. Nu varnar forskare för att fosforreserverna kan ta slut fortare än vi anar. Men är läget verkligen så allvarligt som vissa forskare säger? Kan vi effektivisera fosforanvändningen? Hur kan vi återvinna fosfor och återföra den till matproduktion? Vad kan jordbruket göra - och vad kan vi göra i städerna? Ska vi gödsla med avloppsslam? Eller ska vi bränna slam och återvinna fosfor ur askan? Ska vi bygga om husens och städernas avloppssystem för källsortering? Vilka lösningar är rimliga i ett hållbart samhälle?

  • 165.
    Eklund, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Karmar högskola.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Historical cadmium and lead lead pollution studies in growth-rings of oakwood1996Inngår i: Environment and History, ISSN 0967-3407, E-ISSN 1752-7023, Vol. 2, s. 347-357Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 166.
    Eklund, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Kalmar högskola.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Reconstruction of historical cadmium and lead emissions from a swedish alum works, 1726-18401995Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 170, s. 21-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 167.
    Eklund, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson (fd Emilsson), Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tio utmaningar för ett hållbart Norrköping: Slutsatser från forskningsprogrammet Hållbara Norrköping (2010-2013)2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Städer är en viktig arena för arbetet för en mer hållbar utveckling. Det finns prognoser som förutspår att omkring 70% av jordens befolkning kommer att leva och bo i städer år 2050 (jämfört med dagens 50%). Detta, tillsammans med en generell förväntad befolkningsökning, ställer höga krav på hur städer utvecklas för att tillgodose staden med de resurser som krävs för att försörja dess invånare, utan att ytterligare överutnyttja jordens ekologiska bärkraftighet. Samtidigt som städer är källor till många av de globala miljöproblemen, är det också på stadsnivå som det finns stora möjligheter att agera och få genomslag för lösningar och förbättringar.

    I Sverige har kommunerna en nyckelroll eftersom det oftast är de som ska omsätta de internationella och nationella visionerna och målen om det hållbara samhället till konkreta åtgärder och processer. Genom att utveckla tekniska system som gör det enklare för varje enskild individ att leva mer hållbart kan kommunerna underlätta arbetet för en mer hållbar stadsutveckling. För att lyckas med det räcker det inte med stegvisa förbättringar av de redan befintliga teknikerna, utan flera tekniska system behöver förändras väsentligt. Detta förutsätter gränsöverskridande samverkan mellan olika samhällsaktörer, sektorer, organisationer och över geografiska territorier.

    Innovation är en viktig komponent i hållbar stadsutveckling. Innovation rör inte bara inte tekniska lösningar utan även innovation av organisatoriska samarbetsformer där samverkan och lärande står i fokus. Hållbar utveckling är en stor utmaning med komplexa och flerdimensionella problem. För att klara denna krävs gemensamma ansträngningar och en vilja att arbeta över organisations- och sektorsgränser. Från forskningsprogrammets sida har vi gjort flera olika ansatser för att stimulera bred aktörssamverkan och gemensamt lärande för en mer hållbar stadsutveckling, till exempel genom att:

    • bjuda in till regelbundna möten med forskningsprogrammets referensgrupp som representerar olika lokala aktörsgrupper (se bilaga 1),
    • tillgängliggöra forskningen till en bredare målgrupp i visualiseringsproduktioner i samarbete med Interactive Institute (se bilaga 2),
    • arrangera konferenser och seminarier i syfte att sprida resultat och slutsatser från forskningsprogrammet och stimulera till diskussion om hållbar stadsutveckling (se bilaga 3)
    • publicera vetenskapliga och populärvetenskapliga artiklar, rapporter samt synliggöra forskningen i media (Bilaga 4)

    Forskningens syfte har varit att bidra till relevanta aktörers beslutsprocesser genom att bidra med kunskap och inspiration. Vi gör inte anspråk på att ha gjort en komplett genomlysning, utan de delprojekt som genomförts är valda utifrån att de ansågs vara särskilt värdefullt utifrån forskningsprogrammets syfte och inriktning.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Hållbara Norrköping slutrapport
  • 168.
    Eklund, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Miljöteknik i Norrköping - Inventering av företag och förslag på åtgärder för utveckling2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 169.
    Elfving, Sofi W.
    et al.
    Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ericsson – The History from Product to Solution Provider and Challenges and Opportunities in an Evolving Environment2015Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 30, s. 239-244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) are realizing that their products, earlier the foundation of their success, no longer stand alone in satisfying customer requirements. Customers now demand integration of services and bundling as well as increased active participation of OEMs during the use phase. Ericsson, a Swedish multinational OEM of communications technology and services, is an example of such a company. The objective of this paper is to describe, compare and discuss Ericsson's journey from a product provider to a PSS provider, e.g. by comparison with other industry examples. Furthermore, the paper highlights future challenges and opportunities for instance regarding business models, trends and product design.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 170.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Local authorities' approaches to standardised environmental management systems2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim with this thesis is to create a broader understanding of how the EMS tool works in local authorities. This means to study whether EMS is a useful tool for managing the environmental impact from the local authorities' activities and by highlighting its strengths and weaknesses as a tool. EMS is a tool that is used on a voluntary basis that aims at improving organisations' environmental performance. There are several standards for designing EMSs; however, this thesis focuses on EMSs designed according to the principles of the international standard ISO 14001 and the EU regulation Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). The standards are based on a wide range of requirements. If these requirements are fulfilled, the organisation can choose to get its EMS certified by a third party. The EMS tool is frequently used in the private sector, and it is sometimes argued that it is designed for private (industrial) organisations. However, local authorities worldwide have shown an increased interest in EMSs since the mid 1990s. The EMS use in the private sector has been subject to some critique. For example, there is a risk that the tool is used only to get another certificate in order to increase their legitimacy, which means that there is a risk that the environmental issues are neglected. Until now, little academic research has been conducted concerning EMS use in local authorities. Therefore, it is interesting to study what approaches local authorities have to EMSs.

    Mainly Swedish local authorities have been studied for this thesis. Many Swedish local authorities have been using EMSs for a fairly long time, which means that they have a certain amount of experience from this using tool. The local authorities' approaches to EMS use have been studied from several perspectives using postal surveys, interviews, and case study methodology. This means that the research has a strong empirical foundation.

    The EMS use in Swedish local authorities is fairly common, since almost half of them are in the process of implementing EMSs in all or some of their departments. The main reason for implementing EMSs is to improve the structure of their environmental management. The local authorities often use ISO 14001 and/or EMAS as inspiration and design the EMSs according to their local conditions and ambitions, thus certification of the EMSs is seldom an aim. Although many local authorities seem to use EMSs in a reflective and sensible way, several barriers or difficulties - for example, maintaining continuity and ensuring follow-up of the environmental improvements - have been discovered. Furthermore, the EMSs that are being implemented often exclude environmental impact related to their exercise of authority since it is difficult and abstract. Including environmental impact related to these activities is often seen as a matter of maturity. To develop the organisations' EMSs, internal and external communication and interaction is experienced as very important. Such issues contribute to the EMS maturity processes, since the local authorities find new inspiration, knowledge, and motivation to further develop the EMS processes and, as a consequence, improve their environmental performance.

    Delarbeid
    1. Mapping Environmental Management Systems Initiatives in Swedish Local authorities - a national survey
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Mapping Environmental Management Systems Initiatives in Swedish Local authorities - a national survey
    2002 (engelsk)Inngår i: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, E-ISSN 1535-3966, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 107-115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Nearly half of all Swedish local authorities use environmental management systems (EMSs) in their environmental work. This was shown in the postal survey that is the basis for this paper. The survey was conducted in September 2000 among all 289 local authorities in Sweden, generating an 81% return rate. It was performed in order to gain an understanding of how common it is to implement EMSs in local authorities, how far in the EMS process they have come and what organizations are objects of EMS implementation. It proved to be primarily the technical organizations that have adopted this kind of work and it is most common that these kinds of organization use a third party validation. ISO 14001 is the most frequently used standard but, in general, standards are used only as guidelines when designing EMSs, which means that certification/registration is not an overall objective among Swedish local authorities.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    John Wiley & Sons, 2002
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13594 (URN)10.1002/csr.17 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-06-02 Laget: 2005-06-02 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-23
    2. Implementation of Standardised Environmental Management Systems in Swedish Local Authorities; reasons, expectations and some outcomes
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Implementation of Standardised Environmental Management Systems in Swedish Local Authorities; reasons, expectations and some outcomes
    2002 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, Vol. 5, nr 6, s. 443-448Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental issues have become increasingly important in Swedish local authorities during the last decade. This has been shown as almost half of the local authorities are implementing environmental management systems (EMSs) in their organisations as a voluntary commitment to improve their environmental efforts. In the autumn 2000, a national postal survey to learn more about EMS implementation in Swedish local authorities was carried out. The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons behind Swedish local authorities’ EMS implementation, what the local authorities expect EMS implementation to bring to their organisations, what environmentally related outcomes they have observed, and how the EMS work is co-ordinated. Although Swedish local authorities often have ambitious plans for EMS implementation, few resources are allocated for this purpose, which means, in fact, that EMS implementation is not a high priority. Our study showed that the chief reason for implementing EMSs was of organisational origin (such as bringing order to the environmental efforts), although EMS implementation is often viewed as an environmental project. This paper also discusses the problems surrounding the fact that EMSs are viewed as projects and not as continuous processes that are integrated into the organisation.

    Emneord
    Local authority; Environmental management system (EMS); EMAS; ISO 14001
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13595 (URN)10.1016/S1462-9011(02)00090-4 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-06-02 Laget: 2005-06-02 Sist oppdatert: 2011-05-02
    3. Development of the Use of Standardised Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) in Local Authorities
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Development of the Use of Standardised Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) in Local Authorities
    2005 (engelsk)Inngår i: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 144-156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Local authorities have used EMSs to structure their environmental efforts for some time now, and this paper studies the development over time of the use of EMSs in some Swedish local authorities. The analyses depart from three development indicators: dissemination of the EMS work, the progress in the EMS cycle and the use of EMS standards. The results show that EMSs are more widely used within the local authorities today compared with a few years ago. Before, it was mainly the technical sector that was subject to EMS implementation, but today there is a stronger emphasis on the successfulness of EMS implementation in departments within the soft sector. The study also shows that local authorities have shifted from using ISO 14001 and/or EMAS to using less formal, often locally adapted and designed standards. The paper concludes by discussing the usefulness of standards for EMS implementation in local authorities.

    Emneord
    local authority, EMS, dissemination, progress, use of standards
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13596 (URN)10.1002/csr.80 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-06-02 Laget: 2005-06-02 Sist oppdatert: 2011-05-02
    4. Different Approaches to Standardized Environmental Management Systems in Local Authorities - Two Case Studies in Gothenburg and Newcastle
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Different Approaches to Standardized Environmental Management Systems in Local Authorities - Two Case Studies in Gothenburg and Newcastle
    2004 (engelsk)Inngår i: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 48-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Local authorities have shown an increased interest in committing to voluntary environmental commitment. This paper analyses the use of one of them, standardized environmental management systems (EMSs). It examines how local authorities approach EMS implementation, using two case studies in two European cities, Newcastle City Council (UK) and Gothenburg City Council (Sweden). The research departs from four research topics: drivers; strategy for EMS implementation; integration, dissemination and acceptance; future development of the EMS work. The case study cities' EMS approaches are analysed starting from the three pillars of institutions: the regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive. The analyses reveal that both Newcastle and Gothenburg mainly use a normative approach to EMS implementation; however, there is a regulative inclination in Newcastle's approach. It has also been noted that there is a difference between the standards (e.g. ISO 14001 and EMAS) and the actual use of the standards. The standards are fairly regulative while the application of the standards varies from organization to organization.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13597 (URN)10.1002/csr.54 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-06-02 Laget: 2005-06-02 Sist oppdatert: 2011-05-02
    5. Managing indirect environmental impact within local authorities' standardized environmental management systems
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Managing indirect environmental impact within local authorities' standardized environmental management systems
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Local Environment, ISSN 1354-9839, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 73-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Many local authorities use standardized environmental management systems (EMSs) to improve their environmental management. These authorities often find it difficult to manage environmental impact caused by their exercise of authority i.e. indirect environmental impact (IEI) within their EMSs. Since this is connected to their core activities, it is important to understand how IEI could be more efficiently managed with respect to EMS work. The purpose for this paper is to study if and how IEI could be managed within the framework of EMS. In this study we have identified two different approaches to managing IEI. Because managing IEI is complex, it is often ignored when initiating EMSs or managed by explicitly avoid mentioning the concept. Managing IEI is seen as a matter of maturity within the organization. The paper concludes with a discussion regarding a developed definition of IEI and how management of IEI could be facilitated.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13598 (URN)10.1080/13549830601098271 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-06-02 Laget: 2005-06-02 Sist oppdatert: 2014-10-29
    6. Potential Benefits of Combining Environmental Management Tools in a Local Authority Context
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Potential Benefits of Combining Environmental Management Tools in a Local Authority Context
    2004 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, ISSN 1464-3332, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 131-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are many environmental management tools available to support integration of environmental perspectives in decision-making processes. However, a single tool is seldom the answer to all queries. This paper shows potential benefits of using a combination of different environmental management tools in a local authority context. Three environmental management tools used in Swedish local authorities are examined — Substance Flow Analyses (SFA), Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), and Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) — from mainly a theoretical point-of-view. The tools are positioned according to their key characteristics, and their individual contribution to environmental management in local authorities is explored. For the local authorities, a combination of tools allows decision-makers to integrate experience from individual projects to overall environmental management, which helps decision-makers to deal with some of the challenges that different environmentalmanagement situations require.

    Emneord
    Substance flow analysis, strategic environmental assessment, environmental management systems, integration, environmental management, local authorities
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13599 (URN)10.1142/S1464333204001663 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-06-02 Laget: 2005-06-02 Sist oppdatert: 2011-05-02
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 171.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Development of the Use of Standardised Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) in Local Authorities2005Inngår i: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 144-156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Local authorities have used EMSs to structure their environmental efforts for some time now, and this paper studies the development over time of the use of EMSs in some Swedish local authorities. The analyses depart from three development indicators: dissemination of the EMS work, the progress in the EMS cycle and the use of EMS standards. The results show that EMSs are more widely used within the local authorities today compared with a few years ago. Before, it was mainly the technical sector that was subject to EMS implementation, but today there is a stronger emphasis on the successfulness of EMS implementation in departments within the soft sector. The study also shows that local authorities have shifted from using ISO 14001 and/or EMAS to using less formal, often locally adapted and designed standards. The paper concludes by discussing the usefulness of standards for EMS implementation in local authorities.

  • 172.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Different Approaches to Standardized Environmental Management Systems in Local Authorities - Two Case Studies in Gothenburg and Newcastle2004Inngår i: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 48-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Local authorities have shown an increased interest in committing to voluntary environmental commitment. This paper analyses the use of one of them, standardized environmental management systems (EMSs). It examines how local authorities approach EMS implementation, using two case studies in two European cities, Newcastle City Council (UK) and Gothenburg City Council (Sweden). The research departs from four research topics: drivers; strategy for EMS implementation; integration, dissemination and acceptance; future development of the EMS work. The case study cities' EMS approaches are analysed starting from the three pillars of institutions: the regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive. The analyses reveal that both Newcastle and Gothenburg mainly use a normative approach to EMS implementation; however, there is a regulative inclination in Newcastle's approach. It has also been noted that there is a difference between the standards (e.g. ISO 14001 and EMAS) and the actual use of the standards. The standards are fairly regulative while the application of the standards varies from organization to organization.

  • 173.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    From Environmental Management Systems to Sustainability Managenment Systems in Swedish Local Authorities2008Inngår i: Facilitating Sustainable Innovations: Sustainable Innovation as a Tool for Regional Development,2008, 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 174.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Implementation of Standardised Environmental Management Systems in Swedish Local Authorities; reasons, expectations and some outcomes2002Inngår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, Vol. 5, nr 6, s. 443-448Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental issues have become increasingly important in Swedish local authorities during the last decade. This has been shown as almost half of the local authorities are implementing environmental management systems (EMSs) in their organisations as a voluntary commitment to improve their environmental efforts. In the autumn 2000, a national postal survey to learn more about EMS implementation in Swedish local authorities was carried out. The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons behind Swedish local authorities’ EMS implementation, what the local authorities expect EMS implementation to bring to their organisations, what environmentally related outcomes they have observed, and how the EMS work is co-ordinated. Although Swedish local authorities often have ambitious plans for EMS implementation, few resources are allocated for this purpose, which means, in fact, that EMS implementation is not a high priority. Our study showed that the chief reason for implementing EMSs was of organisational origin (such as bringing order to the environmental efforts), although EMS implementation is often viewed as an environmental project. This paper also discusses the problems surrounding the fact that EMSs are viewed as projects and not as continuous processes that are integrated into the organisation.

  • 175.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Managing indirect environmental impact within local authorities' standardized environmental management systems2007Inngår i: Local Environment, ISSN 1354-9839, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 73-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many local authorities use standardized environmental management systems (EMSs) to improve their environmental management. These authorities often find it difficult to manage environmental impact caused by their exercise of authority i.e. indirect environmental impact (IEI) within their EMSs. Since this is connected to their core activities, it is important to understand how IEI could be more efficiently managed with respect to EMS work. The purpose for this paper is to study if and how IEI could be managed within the framework of EMS. In this study we have identified two different approaches to managing IEI. Because managing IEI is complex, it is often ignored when initiating EMSs or managed by explicitly avoid mentioning the concept. Managing IEI is seen as a matter of maturity within the organization. The paper concludes with a discussion regarding a developed definition of IEI and how management of IEI could be facilitated.

  • 176.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mapping Environmental Management Systems Initiatives in Swedish Local authorities - a national survey2002Inngår i: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, E-ISSN 1535-3966, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 107-115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nearly half of all Swedish local authorities use environmental management systems (EMSs) in their environmental work. This was shown in the postal survey that is the basis for this paper. The survey was conducted in September 2000 among all 289 local authorities in Sweden, generating an 81% return rate. It was performed in order to gain an understanding of how common it is to implement EMSs in local authorities, how far in the EMS process they have come and what organizations are objects of EMS implementation. It proved to be primarily the technical organizations that have adopted this kind of work and it is most common that these kinds of organization use a third party validation. ISO 14001 is the most frequently used standard but, in general, standards are used only as guidelines when designing EMSs, which means that certification/registration is not an overall objective among Swedish local authorities.

  • 177.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Miljöledningssystem och miljöhänsyn i fysisk planering - arbetsnotat från fallstudier i sex svenska kommuner2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 178.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Towards sustainability management systems in three Swedish local authorities2009Inngår i: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 14, nr 8, s. 721-732Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the development towards sustainability management systems (SMSs) in three Swedish local authorities. Many local authorities have extensive experience in using standardised Environmental Management Systems (EMSs). Recently EMSs have extended their reach by widening the scope of the systems including other dimensions of sustainable development. Case studies have been performed in three of the most EMS-experienced local authorities in Sweden. These authorities have extended their EMSs into a sustainability management approach in different ways. This paper discusses the development, possible contributions, and constraints with this development. Expanding EMSs into SMSs can be seen as a learning process in which a larger systems perspective leads to increased awareness that the management system becomes limited by only managing environmental issues. Expanding the EMSs into SMSs may lead to a more complete view of the organisation's total impact on nature and society, and issues that need to be managed.

  • 179.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Region Östergötland.
    Implementing the global sustainable goals (SDGs) into municipal strategies applying an integrated approach2018Inngår i: Handbook of Sustainability Science and Research / [ed] Walter Leal Filho, Springer, 2018, s. 301-316Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The UN emphasises the importance of collaboration and integrated approaches to effectively implement the SDGs. Much of the action will have to take place locally where municipalities will play an important role in coordinating the efforts towards SDG fulfilment. They are constant local actors close to citizens and they can also influence other actors through their strategies. This paper reflects on how the SDGs can be integrated into existing strategies in order to avoid parallel non-effective processes and to avoid the risk of the SDGs to become marginalised. Furthermore, the paper discusses roles and preconditions of municipalities in the SDG implementation process. This study focuses the implementation of the SDGs into a regional municipality’s strategic planning and management, Region Östergötland, Sweden. The challenges and opportunities connected to implementing the SDGs will be problematized, and the paper gives recommendations on how this type of organisations can implement the SDGs taking advantage from qualities in already existing management and working procedures.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Implementing the Global SustainableGoals (SDGs) into Municipal Strategies Applying an Integrated Approach
  • 180.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tyskeng, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Carlsson, Annica
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Potential Benefits of Combining Environmental Management Tools in a Local Authority Context2004Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, ISSN 1464-3332, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 131-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are many environmental management tools available to support integration of environmental perspectives in decision-making processes. However, a single tool is seldom the answer to all queries. This paper shows potential benefits of using a combination of different environmental management tools in a local authority context. Three environmental management tools used in Swedish local authorities are examined — Substance Flow Analyses (SFA), Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), and Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) — from mainly a theoretical point-of-view. The tools are positioned according to their key characteristics, and their individual contribution to environmental management in local authorities is explored. For the local authorities, a combination of tools allows decision-makers to integrate experience from individual projects to overall environmental management, which helps decision-makers to deal with some of the challenges that different environmentalmanagement situations require.

  • 181.
    Emy, Anspach
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Johanna, Jensen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    The role of trial runs in manufacturing: A case study at a packaging company2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As the world puts increasing demands on sustainability, each organization has a responsibility to act, not only for its business to stay relevant but also for the world. It is possible to work towards sustainable development by replacing fossil-based materials with renewable and recyclable materials. Being able to match the customer requirements with new developments is important for companies, but before they can do that, manufacturing companies need to test that the developments they supply fulfill the performance requirements. Trial runs enable companies to internally test developments, usually through a considerable number of iterations, before supplying them to customers. The objective of this thesis has been to gain a larger understanding of the role of trial runs in productdevelopment as well as to investigate the economic effects of trial runs. The objective has been fulfilled by conducting a case study at a packaging company. The studied case is a production line where the production of paperboards with both dispersion and extrusion technology is performed.

    Dispersion technology, which enables a protecting layer for liquid and food packaging is a relatively new technology enabling better recycling opportunities than substitute technologies. The production line can produce paperboard with either dispersion or extrusion technology as the company aims to combine the two technologies in the future. Research question A aimed to investigate the role of trial runs from three different internal viewpoints: sustainability, strategic, and operational. Research question B aimed at investigating the economic effects of trial runs. Research question A was answered through a literature and interview study while research question B has been answered through a literature study, unstructured interviews, and a quantitative cost analysis. Quantitative data from Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems were collected to perform a cost analysis on trial runsas well as a comparison of time utilization between trial runs and ordinary production. For research question A, the results from the interview study show that trial runs are an important tool for a company to stay competitive. Analysis has shown that trial runs help a company fulfill the needs of the future, act as a driver for innovation, and help actualize business strategies by testing new developments in production facilities. There are thus many aspects motivating trial runs, but there are however also many challenges affecting the role of trial runs within a packaging company. The most prominent challenges are different depending on the viewpoint of the interviewee. From thesustainability viewpoint, one of the most mentioned challenges was the balancing of customer requirements with the technical feasibility of the products. The most prominent challenges mentioned by the strategic viewpoint were the efficiency of the facility while performing trial runs as well as the need to work in different time horizons simultaneously. Lastly, the most prominent challenges for the operational viewpoint was communicative misunderstandings and challenges as well as the high degree of manual work when performing trial runs.

    For research question B, the value adding activities constitute 78% of the total cost per produced ton for trial runs, while set-up, ramping up, and stop constitute 12%, 1%, and 9%, respectively. Theanalysis shows that trial runs cause significantly more set-up and stop time than ordinary production.For trial runs, value adding activities are taking place 57% of the time while for ordinary production, value is added 86% of the time, which confirms the result from the interview study about trial runs resulting in efficiency challenges for the facility.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 182.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle, Sjukgymnastik.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Employees at recycling centres in Sweden - Risks and Conditions,2005Inngår i: Nordic Ergonomics Society NES 37th Annual Conference,2005, 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 183.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för fysioterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Perspectives on recycling centres and future developments2016Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 57, s. 17-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this paper is to draw combined, all-embracing conclusions based on a long-term multidisciplinary research programme on recycling centres in Sweden, focussing on working conditions, environment and system performance. A second aim is to give recommendations for their development of new and existing recycling centres and to discuss implications for the future design and organisation. Several opportunities for improvement of recycling centres were identified, such as design, layout, ease with which users could sort their waste, the work environment, conflicting needs and goals within the industry, and industrialisation. Combining all results from the research, which consisted of different disciplinary aspects, made it possible to analyse and elucidate their interrelations. Waste sorting quality was recognized as the most prominent improvement field in the recycling centre system. The research identified the importance of involving stakeholders with different perspectives when planning a recycling centre in order to get functionality and high performance. Practical proposals of how to plan and build recycling centres are given in a detailed checklist. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 184.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Sjukgymnastik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Division of Ergonomics, STH, Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Richard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Sjukgymnastik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Joint investigation of working conditions, environmental and system performance at recycling centres - development of instruments and their usage2010Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 336-346Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling is a new and developing industry, which has only been researched to a limited extent. This article describes the development and use of instruments for data collection within a multidisciplinary research programme "Recycling centres in Swede - working conditions, environmental and system performance". The overall purpose of the programme was to form a basis for improving the function of recycling centres with respect to these three perspectives and the disciplines of: ergonomics, safety, external environment, and production systems. A total of 10 instruments were developed for collecting data from employees, managers and visitors at recucling centres, including one instrument for observing visitors. Validation tests were performed in several steps. This, along with the quality of the collected data, and experience from the data collection, showed that the instruments and methodology used were valid and suitable for their purpose.

  • 185.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Sjukgymnastik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Industriell ergonomi, KTH.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    STFI-Packforsk AB.
    Planera, utforma och driva en återvinningscentral2009Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok baserar sig på de forskningsresultat och erfarenheter som kommit fram inom forskningsprogrammet ”Framtidens återvinningscentral” som är ett multidiciplinärt forskningsprogram som drivits vid Linköpings universitet under åren 2002-2007.Boken vänder sig till alla som är involverade vid planering, byggnation, ombyggnation och drift av återvinningscentraler. Dessa kan vara ansvariga inom kommuner, arkitekter, konsulter, arbetsledare på återvinningscentral, skyddsombud, fackliga förtroendemän med flera.

  • 186.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle, Sjukgymnastik.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    STFI-Packforsk AB.
    Återvinningscentralen - sorteringsplats, arbetsplats, mötesplats2008Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 187.
    Englund, Andreas
    et al.
    Innovatum Technology Park.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Market barriers for environmental innovations2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes market barriers experienced by Swedish innovators in start-up companies early in the process of bringing environmental innovations to the market. The studied innovators are mainly active in a business-to-business market that often involves capital-intensive industry sectors and large companies are seen as important customers. Most of the market barriers identified can be related to customer relations. The innovators experience their customers’ negative attitudes and unwillingness to try new technologies as major barriers. Furthermore, they perceived their customers to be conservative and reluctant to take risks. These barriers may be relevant in most innovation developments although they may be more articulated for environmental innovations since such innovations mostly evolve in emerging industries and since capital-intensive industry sectors dominate the area. Measures to stimulate diffusion of environmental innovation are discussed, including ways to encourage customers to test new technologies and to see the adoption of the innovation as worth the perceived risks.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 188.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Mobility's future should be science-based, not only electric2024Inngår i: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, E-ISSN 2352-4669, Vol. 80, artikkel-id 101440Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Society is largely moving into electric mobility to achieve net -zero emissions, with the choice of electrification as the sole viable option for decarbonizing personal road transport. While this perspective has some merits, it overlooks the potential of biomethane produced through anaerobic digestion (AD) as a carbon -negative solution. Biomethane from AD offers not only carbon -neutrality but the possibility of being carbon -negative, with estimates suggesting it could provide 10 % of the world 's primary energy consumption by 2050. AD provides socio-environmental advantages, including improved quality of life and employment opportunities, a particularly relevant topic in developing countries. The technology is mature, cost-effective, and applicable across various sectors and therefore it is imperative that it is considered as an alternative or complementation to electrification of road transport.

  • 189.
    Eriksson, Linnea
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Runevad, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Evaluating digestate processing methods at Linköping biogas plant: A resource efficient perspective2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Production of biogas is one of several alternatives to meet sustainable energy solutions and waste management. However, managing the by-product (digestate) can be problematic with its high handling costs. Digestate from wet co-digestion biogas plants contains large volumes of water, causing high transportation costs and low concentration of the valuable nutrients. An alternative to try and reduce the associated costs is by processing the digestate. Processing the digestate for volume reduction allow for more economic and resource efficient ways of handling the product.

    This master thesis was performed on an initiative from Tekniska verken AB and address digestate handling from Linköping biogas plant, a large co-digestion biogas plant in Sweden. The project aimed to find a feasible, more resource efficient management of their digestate by looking at digestate processing alternatives.The approach systematically evaluated a large number of processing techniques by both literature and communication with TvAB or experts. A selection of techniques were further evaluated were studies in laboratory and a market analysis on digestate provided complementary information, aiding the economical evaluation. Results suggest that processing by centrifuge is a viable, economic option when digestate management is costly and a liquid fraction can be recirculated in the process. It has the potential to significantly reducing digestate management costs. Other processing alternatives may be beneficial if transportation distance can be greatly reduced and/or synergies can be found, but the findings in this project suggest that only treatment with centrifuge is of interest.

    The results are subject to a number of conditions (such as size of the plant) and assumptions (such as recirculation of a liquid fraction) and therefore need individual adaption to be applicable at any specific plant. Conclusive remarks are that although site specific conditions affect the choice of processing, a project such as this may help reducing the necessary time spent on evaluation. Both research process and results may provide valuable findings for similar evaluations in any industry.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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  • 190.
    Eriksson, Olle
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Förenklad bränsleförbrukningsfunktion: fokus på vägytans betydelse2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bränsleförbrukningen hos ett vägfordon påverkas av ett flertal faktorer. För att enklare och snabbare kunna göra analyser av bränsleförbrukningen, utan att göra faktiska mätningar i fordonen, är det önskvärt att kunna beskriva bränsleförbrukningens samband med dessa faktorer genom en funktion eller en modell. Det finns bränsleförbrukningsmodeller, men de kan vara byggda runt komplicerade sambandsfunktioner som är svåra att använda. De är oftast inte uttryckta som en summa av olika komponenter och erbjuder ingen möjlighet att enkelt diskutera komponenterna var och en för sig. Man kan t.ex. inte bryta ut en separat delmodell för att beräkna vad en åtgärd av vägytan får för effekt på bränsleförbrukningen. Det finns även bränsleförbrukningsfunktioner som är nära att uppträda som en summa av komponenter. Rapporten avser att använda en sådan funktion som utgångspunkt och förenkla något för att göra den till en summa av komponenter. Förenklingen utvärderas genom att sätta olika mått på hur mycket sämre resultat den förenklade funktionen ger, men samtidigt visa hur mycket mer användbar den blir. 

    Det förekommer direkta effekter som att ojämnheter påverkar bränsleförbrukningen och indirekta som att ojämnheter påverkar hastigheten som påverkar luftmotståndet och bränsleförbrukningen. De direkta effekterna har störst utrymme i rapporten men de indirekta behandlas också utan att vara huvudföremål för rapporten. 

    Modellerna är approximationer. Man kan behöva väga användbarhet och noggrannhet mot varandra och välja att använda en modell med enklare användning men sämre noggrannhet. För den valda modellen visar sig förenklingen av bränsleförbrukningsfunktionen fungera väl för personbil och lastbil men bara en del av förenklingen rekommenderas för lastbil med släp. Rapporten redovisar den förenklade funktionen och jämför med den ursprungliga. Den ger också exempel på beräkning av om en åtgärd kan motiveras ur energisynvinkel med den förenklade funktionen och jämför resultaten med och utan förenkling.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 191.
    Ersson, Carolina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Conditions for resource-efficient production of biofuels for transport in Sweden2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation has continued to increase worldwide and fossil-fuel dependency is strong which leads to a number of problems, e.g. increased emissions of green-house gases (GHG) and risks related to energy security. Biofuels have until now been one of the few renewable alternatives which have been able to replace fossil fuels on a large scale. The biofuel share in relation to the total use of fuel in the transportation sector is still small, but in many places in the world political targets are set to increase the share of renewable fuels, of which biofuels are supposed to be an important part. Within the European Union targets for renewable energy have been set, including within the transportation sector, where 10% shall come from renewable sources by 2020 according to the EU Renewable Energy Directive (EU RES). Biofuels also need to fulfill the sustainability criteria in the EU RES, to be regarded as renewable. Depending on how biofuels are produced their resource efficiency varies, and the differences in environmental and economic performance can for instance be significant.

    The aim of this thesis is to describe and analyze conditions for a development towards increased and more resource-efficient production of biofuels in Sweden. The conditions have been studied from a regional resource perspective and from a biofuel producer perspective since it has been assumed that the producers are in possession of important knowledge, and potentially will play an important role in future biofuel development. The concept of resource efficiency used in this thesis includes an environmental and economic perspective as well as an overall societal dimension to some extent. The region of Östergötland in Sweden was used for the assessment of the resourcefocused biofuel potential for the year 2030, where two scenarios based on assessments regarding socio-technical development in relation to regional resources were used. The scenarios were based on semi-structured interviews with biofuel actors, literature studies and information from experts in the field. In the EXPAN (Expansion) scenario a continued development in line with the current one was assumed, but also an increased availability of feedstock primarily within the agricultural and waste sectors (also including byproducts from industry) for biofuel production. In the INNTEK (Innovation and Technology development) scenario greater technological progress was assumed to also enable the use of some unconventional feedstock besides increased available arable land and improved collection/availability of certain feedstock. Biomass feedstock from four categories was included in the potential: waste, agriculture, forestry and aquatic environments. One important feedstock which was not included in this study, but which is often included in studies of potential, is lignocellulosic material from the forest. This choice was also supported by the regional actors who judged it as less probable that there will be any large-scale use of such feedstock for biofuels in this region within the given timeframe. Regarding arable land available for biofuel production a share of 30% was assumed at maximum in the region, of which 15% is already used for cereal production for ethanol fuel. On these additional 15% assumed to be available for biofuel production year 2030, ley cropping for production of biogas was assumed in this study. Aquatic biomass is often not included in biofuel potentials. Here, algae were assumed to be a potentially interesting substrate for biogas production since harvesting algae in for instance the Baltic Sea could be seen as a multifunctional measure, i.e., contributing additional environmental benefits such as reducing eutrophication. Based on the assumption that the energy need in the transportation sector will be the same in 2030 as in 2010, up to 30% could be substituted with biofuels in the EXPAN scenario and up to 50% in the INNTEK scenario, without seriously conflicting with other interests such as food or feed production. In the study of potential, production systems for biogas production were   prioritized since such systems were judged to have a large potential for resource efficiency. This is because they have a big capacity to utilize by-products and waste as feedstock, and also because they can contribute to closing the loops of plant nutrients, seen as an important goal in society, if the digestate is returned to arable land.

    The utilization of by-products and waste however in many cases requires cooperation between different actors in society. Within the research field of industrial symbiosis, cooperation regarding material and energy flows is studied from different perspectives, e.g. how such cooperation between actors evolves and to what extent such cooperation can contribute to improving the environmental and economic performance of systems. Both these perspectives are interesting in relation to biofuels since production often involves a large number of energy- and material flows at the same time as resource efficiency is important. How the producers organize the production when it comes to feedstock, energy, by-products and products and what influences this is therefore interesting to study. In this thesis four biofuel producers of three different biofuels (ethanol, biodiesel and biogas) on the Swedish market were studied, focusing on how they organize their biofuel production in terms of e.g. their material and energy flows, and how they intend to organize it in the future. The study is based on semi-structured interviews with the biofuel producers as well as literature studies. In all the cases, a number of areas of material and energy flow cooperation were identified and it could also be concluded that there had been some change regarding these patterns over time. Looking into the future a clear change of strategy was identified in the ethanol case and partly also in the biodiesel case where a development towards improved valorisation and differentiation of by-product flows was foreseen. If such a “biorefinery” strategy is realized, it can potentially improve the economic viability and resource efficiency in these biofuel producers. In the biogas cases, instead a strategy to lower the costs for feedstock through the use of lower quality feedstock was identified. This strategy also has a potential to increase economic viability and improve the resource efficiency. However, the success of this strategy is to a large extent dependent on how the off-set of the biofertilizer can be arranged regarding the economic challenges that the biogas producers’ experience, and yet no strategy for implementation regarding this was identified. The EU Renewable Energy Directive was mentioned in relation to most cooperation projects and therefore regarded as an important critical factor. All of the studied companies also struggle to be competitive, for which reason the importance of the direct economic aspects of cooperation seems to increase.

    Delarbeid
    1. Biofuels for transportation in 2030: feedstock and production plants in a Swedish county
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Biofuels for transportation in 2030: feedstock and production plants in a Swedish county
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 379-395Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This paper gives insight into whether biofuels for road transport can play an important role in a Swedish county in the year 2030, and contributes to knowledge on how to perform similar studies.

    Methodology: A resource-focused assessment, including feedstock from the waste sector, agricultural sector, forestry sector and aquatic environments, partially considering technological and economic constraints.

    Results: Two scenarios were used indicating that biofuels could cover almost 30 and 50%, respectively, of total energy demand for road transport.

    Conclusion: Without compromising food security, this study suggests that it is possible to significantly increase biofuel production, and to do this as an integrated part of existing society, thereby also contributing to positive societal synergies.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102371 (URN)10.4155/bfs.13.23 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-12-09 Laget: 2013-12-09 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13
    2. Connectedness and its dynamics in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Connectedness and its dynamics in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 269-295Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Connectedness through cooperation with other sectors regarding feedstock, energy, products and by-products is important for environmental performance of industrial production. The aim of this study is to provide a better understanding of the level of connectedness in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry, involving producers of ethanol, biogas and biodiesel. In interviews, the CEOs of four important companies provided information about current strategies, historic and planned development. The production systems are dynamic and have changed significantly over time, including material and energy exchanges between traditionally separate industries. Interesting development was noted where revised business strategies have led to changed cooperation structures and thus altered material and energy flows. Fuel and raw material prices are very influential and all of the respondents said that political decisions to a large extent affect their competitiveness and emphasised the importance of clear long-term institutional conditions, ironically very much in contrast to the current situation within EU and Sweden.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    InderScience Publishers, 2015
    Emneord
    biofuels, biogas, ethanol, biodiesel, industrial ecology and symbiosis, synergies, material and energy flows, connectedness, resource efficiency
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123223 (URN)10.1504/PIE.2015.073416 (DOI)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Merknad

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-12-08 Laget: 2015-12-08 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Conditions for resource-efficient production of biofuels for transport in Sweden
    Download (pdf)
    omslag
  • 192.
    Ersson, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Biofuels for transportation in 2030: feedstock and production plants in a Swedish county2013Inngår i: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 379-395Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This paper gives insight into whether biofuels for road transport can play an important role in a Swedish county in the year 2030, and contributes to knowledge on how to perform similar studies.

    Methodology: A resource-focused assessment, including feedstock from the waste sector, agricultural sector, forestry sector and aquatic environments, partially considering technological and economic constraints.

    Results: Two scenarios were used indicating that biofuels could cover almost 30 and 50%, respectively, of total energy demand for road transport.

    Conclusion: Without compromising food security, this study suggests that it is possible to significantly increase biofuel production, and to do this as an integrated part of existing society, thereby also contributing to positive societal synergies.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 193.
    Ersson, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Connectedness and its dynamics in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry2015Inngår i: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 269-295Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Connectedness through cooperation with other sectors regarding feedstock, energy, products and by-products is important for environmental performance of industrial production. The aim of this study is to provide a better understanding of the level of connectedness in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry, involving producers of ethanol, biogas and biodiesel. In interviews, the CEOs of four important companies provided information about current strategies, historic and planned development. The production systems are dynamic and have changed significantly over time, including material and energy exchanges between traditionally separate industries. Interesting development was noted where revised business strategies have led to changed cooperation structures and thus altered material and energy flows. Fuel and raw material prices are very influential and all of the respondents said that political decisions to a large extent affect their competitiveness and emphasised the importance of clear long-term institutional conditions, ironically very much in contrast to the current situation within EU and Sweden.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 194.
    Ersson, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Vision för biodrivmedel i Östergötland: Tillgång på regionala råvaror och principer för en resurseffektiv produktion år 20302012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary focus in this study is availability of local feedstock for biofuels for transportation. A basic assumption is that we need to increase the availability of all renewable fuels amongst which biofuels are one, to have a chance to reach the political goals and visions that are set for the Swedish transportation sector in the period up to year 2030. In the region of Östergötland biofuels are estimated to be a renewable alternative with good potential why we chose to focus on this. The aim of this study is threefold, to map a potential feedstock for biofuels for transportation, to elucidate characteristic principles of resource efficient biofuel production and to discuss and sketch a synoptic strategy of biofuel production plants for realizing the potential feedstock. The study takes off from an ”a priori construct” of potential sources of feedstock in Östergötland developed together with a group of experts. Further on a literature and an interview study with actors in the biofuel sector is performed to derive both quantitative and qualitative data for the mapping of the potential feedstock. The potential is further analyzed through scenario building. Two different scenarios are built for the year 2030, EXPAN (The expansion scenario) and INNTEK (The innovation- and technique development scenario). The potential of scenario INNTEK is assumed to be a bit more uncertain than the potential of scenario EXPAN since the realization of the potential requires some specific technological break-through whilst the EXPAN scenario requires technological development that is expected to be more closely achievable, but above all a better steering and allocation of available resources. The scenarios does not include any feedstock from forestry since the technological break-through required to get biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass viable until the year 2030 is not expected to happen soon enough. The potential of scenario EXPAN amounted to almost 40% of todays need for fuel in the transportation sector in Östergötland while INNTEK reached just over 50%. The agricultural sector is found to be the most important sector for producing a potential feedstock for biofuels and, but the forest industry is also considered to be important although lignocellolosic biomass from the forest is not considered for the potential feedstock. Since the resources from agriculture is estimated to be a major part of the potential feedstock for biofuels in Östergötland a sensitivity analysis on the share of cropland used for production of raw material for biofuel production  is performed where the share is varied between 30-60%. In the scenarios EXPAN and INNTEK a share of 30% of the available cropland in Östergötland is used. Further the three principles characterizing resource efficient production of biofuels is described: energy cascading, biofuels cascading and value rising utilization of resources. Since the transition towards usage of biofuels is partly an environmental driven process it is important to develop resource efficient systems where the environmental pressure is minimized. The most important policy measure for biofuels for transportation today, the European Renewable Directive (RED), is fostering only production of biofuels with low emissions of greenhouse gases and is not taking any of the other added values often associated with biofuels into consideration. An important bottle-neck when it comes to realization of the biofuel potential is estimated to be the establishment of new production plants. In the report an idea sketch is presented where a number of plants which would realize about 700 GWh (1000 GWh including tall oil) beyond the 500 GWh that is produced at present. From the starting point where Östergötland is estimated to be considering potential feedstock and production conditions biofuels are estimated to be an obvious track to go in the transition towards a bigger share of renewable fuels. A continued expansion and development of the existing production plants in Händelö, Norrköping and in Linköping is desirable, but to reach the political goals that have been set for the next 20 years also completely new production plants are required at several locations in the region.

  • 195.
    Esguerra, John
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Laner, David
    Univ Kassel, Germany.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Landfill mining in Europe: Assessing the economic potential of value creation from generated combustibles and fines residue2021Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 126, s. 221-230Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies showed that resources recovery through landfill mining (LFM) is generally challenging from an economic perspective and that a large share of project costs is related to the external treatment and disposal of bulk process wastes such as combustibles and fines residue. Building on these analyses, this study aims to explore the potential for improving the economy of LFM in Europe by creating value from these bulk process wastes. Specifically, the combustibles are treated through internal incineration with subsequent energy recovery, while fines residue is utilized as construction aggregates. These explored possibilities are investigated considering other varying factors at the site, project, and system levels that cover possible LFM project settings in Europe. A set-based modelling approach is adapted generate multiple LFM scenarios (531,441) and investigate the underlying critical factors that drive the economy of LFM through global sensitivity analysis. Results show that an additional 16% of LFM sce-narios become net profitable, mainly driven by fines residue utilization. Avoided costs for re-landfilling are higher than the revenues from construction aggregates. By contrast, internal incineration is driven by the revenues from recovered energy rather than the avoided gate fee, which is substituted by the costs for building and operating own plants. Overall, the policy conditions remain critical to further improve the economy of LFM in Europe. Recommendations include an inclusive quality standard that relies on pollutant leachability rather than total concentration for higher-value application of fines residue and incentive rather than taxation for producing renewable energy from the combustibles. (c) 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 196. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Developing strategies for improved economic performance and reduced climate impact of landfill mining in Europe2021Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill mining refers to the re-circulation of resources from the previously deposited wastes. It is an alternative approach for managing landfills that integrates resource recovery with site remediation. Several resources that can be recovered in landfills include scrap metals for recycling, combustibles for energy recovery, and inert materials for construction applications. In addition, land can be recovered for alternative uses, or landfill void space can be liberated for the deposition of future wastes. At present, landfill mining is still an emerging concept with few project implementations. Consequently, the assessments of its economic and climate implications are case study-specific, limiting the understanding of its potential in a wider geographical scope.  

    This thesis aims to assess the economic performance and climate impact of landfill mining in Europe towards the development of sound strategies for implementation. Different project setups are assessed in relation to varying factors at the site level such as waste composition and landfill settings, and at the system level such as policy and market conditions and background material and energy. In doing so, a factor-based method is developed and applied to generate multiple scenarios (531, 441 scenarios per project setup) and determine the underlying important factors and their interrelations that drive the results. Such understanding is used to develop and discuss strategies for improvement by addressing relevant questions for specific stakeholders, including project investors (i.e., which landfill sites to prioritize?), landfill mining practitioners (i.e., how to set up such projects?), and policymakers (i.e., which policy instruments can effectively support such projects?).  

    Results show that landfill mining is preferable in terms of climate than economy. In general, about 50% of the scenarios are climate beneficial, while only about 20% of the scenarios are profitable. Possible economic and climate improvements are shown by employing internal thermal treatment of combustibles and extending fines residue utilization as construction aggregates. However, these require overarching conditions such that the choice of project setup must be in line with the selection of landfills for mining. Preferable site and system-level conditions are identified in general but it is also discussed that the plausibility of finding such conditions may be difficult at present. This steers the development of more tailored strategies on what can be done now by the landfill practitioners in terms of setting up projects under current policy and market conditions in specific regions, or what can be done by the policymakers in terms of implementing various policy instruments that can drive such changes at the system level. In this regard, the future of landfill mining research can be guided towards addressing key challenges and potential solutions for improvement elicited through a generic and learning-oriented assessment. Furthermore, this thesis highlights the role of assessment as a tool for learning and guiding the development of emerging concepts such as landfill mining.  

    Delarbeid
    1. Systematic assessment of critical factors for the economic performance of landfill mining in Europe: What drives the economy of landfill mining?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Systematic assessment of critical factors for the economic performance of landfill mining in Europe: What drives the economy of landfill mining?
    Vise andre…
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 95, s. 674-686Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill mining (LFM) is a strategy to mitigate environmental impacts associated with landfills, while simultaneously recovering dormant materials, energy carriers, and land resources. Although several case study assessments on the economy of LFM exist, a broader understanding of the driving factors is still lacking. This study aims at identifying generically important factors for the economy of LFM in Europe and understanding their role in developing economically feasible projects in view of different site, project and system-level conditions. Therefore, a set-based modeling approach is used to establish a large number (531,441) of LFM scenarios, evaluate their economic performance in terms of net present value (NPV), and analyze the relationships between input factors and economic outcome via global sensitivity analysis. The scenario results range from -139 Euro to +127 Euro/Mg of excavated waste, with 80% of the scenarios having negative NPVs. Variations in the costs for waste treatment and disposal and the avoided cost of alternative landfill management (i.e. if the landfill was not mined) have the strongest effect on the scenario NPVs, which illustrates the critical role of system level factors for LFM economy and the potential of policy intervention to incentivize LFM. Consequently, system conditions should guide site selection and project development, which is exemplified in the study for two extreme regional archetypes in terms of income and waste management standard. Future work should further explore the developed model to provide decision support on LFM strategies in consideration of alternative purposes, stakeholders, and objectives. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2019
    Emneord
    Scenario analysis; Economic analysis; Global sensitivity analysis; Waste recovery; Landfill management; Landfill mining
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162773 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2019.07.007 (DOI)000499920700065 ()31351655 (PubMedID)
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|European Cooperation for Science and Technology - Mining the European Anthroposphere (COST-Action MINEA) [CA15115]; Christian Doppler Laboratory for Anthropogenic Resources; European Training Network for Resource Recovery Through Enhanced Landfill Mining (NEW-MINE) [721185]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-12-17 Laget: 2019-12-17 Sist oppdatert: 2022-11-24
    2. Landfill mining in Europe: Assessing the economic potential of value creation from generated combustibles and fines residue
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Landfill mining in Europe: Assessing the economic potential of value creation from generated combustibles and fines residue
    2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 126, s. 221-230Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies showed that resources recovery through landfill mining (LFM) is generally challenging from an economic perspective and that a large share of project costs is related to the external treatment and disposal of bulk process wastes such as combustibles and fines residue. Building on these analyses, this study aims to explore the potential for improving the economy of LFM in Europe by creating value from these bulk process wastes. Specifically, the combustibles are treated through internal incineration with subsequent energy recovery, while fines residue is utilized as construction aggregates. These explored possibilities are investigated considering other varying factors at the site, project, and system levels that cover possible LFM project settings in Europe. A set-based modelling approach is adapted generate multiple LFM scenarios (531,441) and investigate the underlying critical factors that drive the economy of LFM through global sensitivity analysis. Results show that an additional 16% of LFM sce-narios become net profitable, mainly driven by fines residue utilization. Avoided costs for re-landfilling are higher than the revenues from construction aggregates. By contrast, internal incineration is driven by the revenues from recovered energy rather than the avoided gate fee, which is substituted by the costs for building and operating own plants. Overall, the policy conditions remain critical to further improve the economy of LFM in Europe. Recommendations include an inclusive quality standard that relies on pollutant leachability rather than total concentration for higher-value application of fines residue and incentive rather than taxation for producing renewable energy from the combustibles. (c) 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2021
    Emneord
    Landfill management; Resources recovery; Scenario analysis; Economic analysis; Global sensitivity analysis
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-176869 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2021.03.013 (DOI)000655586100022 ()33774582 (PubMedID)
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|European Cooperation for Science and Technology-Mining the European Anthroposphere (COST-Action MINEA, Action) [CA15115]; European Training Network for Resource Recovery Through Enhanced Landfill Mining (NEW-MINE) [721185]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-06-23 Laget: 2021-06-23 Sist oppdatert: 2021-11-12
    3. Assessing the economic potential of landfill mining: Review and recommendations
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Assessing the economic potential of landfill mining: Review and recommendations
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: DETRITUS, ISSN 2611-4127, Vol. 8, s. 125-140Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    As landfill mining (LFM) gains public attention, systematic assessment of its economic potential is deemed necessary. The aim of this review is to critically analyze the usefulness and validity of previous economic assessments of LFM. Following the life cycle costing (LCC) framework, (i) the employed methods based on goal and scope, technical parameters and data inventory, and modelling choices were contrasted with respect to (ii) the synthesized main findings based on net profitability and economic performance drivers. Results showed that the selected studies (n=15) are mostly case study-specific and concluded that LFM has a weak economic potential, hinting at the importance of favorable market and regulation settings. However, several method issues are apparent as costs and revenues are accounted at different levels of aggregation, scope and scale-from process to sub-process level, from private to societal economics, and from laboratory to pilot-scale, respectively. Moreover, despite the inherent large uncertainties, more than half of the studies did not perform any uncertainty or sensitivity analyses posing validity issues. Consequently, this also limits the usefulness of results as individual case studies and as a collective, towards a generic understanding of LFM economics. Irrespective of case study-specific or generic aims, this review recommends that future assessments should be learning-oriented. That is, uncovering granular information about what builds up the net profitability of LFM, to be able to systematically determine promising paths for the development of cost-efficient projects.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    CISA PUBLISHER, 2019
    Emneord
    Economic assessment; Life cycle costing; Landfill mining; Landfill management
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-163965 (URN)10.31025/2611-4135/2019.13883 (DOI)000504065300011 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|European Training Network for Resource Recovery Through Enhanced Landfill Mining (NEW-MINE) under the European Unions EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon 2020European Union (EU) [721185]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-03-05 Laget: 2020-03-05 Sist oppdatert: 2022-11-24
    4. INTEGRATION OF RESOURCE RECOVERY INTO CURRENT WASTE MANAGEMENT THROUGH (ENHANCED) LANDFILL MINING
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>INTEGRATION OF RESOURCE RECOVERY INTO CURRENT WASTE MANAGEMENT THROUGH (ENHANCED) LANDFILL MINING
    Vise andre…
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: DETRITUS, ISSN 2611-4127, Vol. 8, s. 141-156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Europe has somewhere between 150,000 and 500,000 landfill sites, with an estimated 90% of them being "non-sanitary" landfills, predating the EU Landfill Directive of 1999/31/EC. These older landfills tend to be filled with municipal solid waste and often lack any environmental protection technology. " Doing nothing", state-of-theart aftercare or remediating them depends largely on technical, societal and economic conditions which vary between countries. Beside " doing nothing and landfill aftercare, there are different scenarios in landfill mining, from re-landfilling the waste into "sanitary landfills" to seizing the opportunity for a combined resource-recovery and remediation strategy. This review article addresses present and future issues and potential opportunities for landfill mining as an embedded strategy in current waste management systems through a multi-disciplinary approach. In particular, three general landfill mining strategies are addressed with varying extents of resource recovery. These are discussed in relation to the main targets of landfill mining: (i) reduction of the landfill volume (technical), (ii) reduction of risks and impacts (environmental) and (iii) increase in resource recovery and overall profitability (economic). Geophysical methods could be used to determine the characteristics of the landfilled waste and subsurface structures without the need of an invasive exploration, which could greatly reduce exploration costs and time, as well as be useful to develop a procedure to either discard or select the most appropriate sites for (E)LFM. Material and energy recovery from land-filled waste can be achieved through mechanical processing coupled with thermochemical valorization technologies and residues upcycling techniques. Gasification could enable the upcycling of residues after thermal treatment into a new range of eco-friendly construction materials based on inorganic polymers and glass-ceramics. The multi-criteria assessment is directly influenced by waste- and technology related factors, which together with site-specific conditions, market and regulatory aspects, influence the environmental, economic and societal impacts of (E)LFM projects.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    CISA PUBLISHER, 2019
    Emneord
    Landfill mining strategies; Enhanced landfill mining; Resource recovery; Waste management practices and policies; Economic assessment; Environmental impacts
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-163966 (URN)10.31025/2611-4135/2019.13884 (DOI)000504065300012 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|European UnionEuropean Union (EU) [721185]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-03-05 Laget: 2020-03-05 Sist oppdatert: 2021-11-12
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  • 197. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Economics of Landfill Mining: Usefulness and Validity of Different Assessment Approaches2020Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill mining (LFM) is an alternative strategy to manage landfills that integrates remediation with secondary resource recovery. At present, LFM remains as an emerging concept with a few pilot-scale project implementations, which presents challenges when assessing its economic performance. These challenges include large knowledge deficits about the individual processes along the LFM process chain, lack of know-how in terms of project implementation and economic drivers, and limited applicability of results to specific case studies. Based on how these challenges were addressed, this thesis aims to analyze the usefulness and validity of different economic assessments of LFM towards the provision of better support for decision-making and in-depth learning for the development of cost-efficient projects. Different studies were analyzed including the previous studies through a systematic literature review and the factor-based method that is developed in this thesis. Four categories of economic assessment approaches were derived in terms of the study object that is about either an individual LFM project (case-study specific) or multiple LFM projects in a region (generic); and in terms of the extent of analysis that is about either the identification of the net economic potential (decision-oriented) or extended towards an in-depth learning of what builds up such result (learning-oriented). Across the different approaches, most of the previous studies have questionable usefulness and validity. The unaddressed parametric uncertainties exclude the influence of using inherently uncertain input data due to large knowledge deficits. While the narrowly accounted scenario uncertainties limits the fact that LFM can be done in various ways and settings in terms of site selection, project set-up and regulatory and market conditions. In essence, these uncertainties propagate from case-study specific to generic study object. From decision-oriented to learning-oriented studies, the identification of what builds up the result are unsystematically determined that raises issues on their subsequent recommendations for improvement based on superficially derived economic drivers. The factor-based method, with exploratory scenario development and global sensitivity analysis, is presented as an approach to performing generic and learning-oriented studies. As for general recommendations, applied research is needed to aid large knowledge deficits, methodological rigor is needed to account for uncertainties and systematically identify economic drivers, and learningoriented assessment is needed to facilitate future development of LFM. This thesis highlights the important role of economic assessments, which is not only limited for the assessment of economic potential but also for learning and guiding the development of emerging concepts such as LFM.

    Delarbeid
    1. Assessing the economic potential of landfill mining: Review and recommendations
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Assessing the economic potential of landfill mining: Review and recommendations
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: DETRITUS, ISSN 2611-4127, Vol. 8, s. 125-140Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    As landfill mining (LFM) gains public attention, systematic assessment of its economic potential is deemed necessary. The aim of this review is to critically analyze the usefulness and validity of previous economic assessments of LFM. Following the life cycle costing (LCC) framework, (i) the employed methods based on goal and scope, technical parameters and data inventory, and modelling choices were contrasted with respect to (ii) the synthesized main findings based on net profitability and economic performance drivers. Results showed that the selected studies (n=15) are mostly case study-specific and concluded that LFM has a weak economic potential, hinting at the importance of favorable market and regulation settings. However, several method issues are apparent as costs and revenues are accounted at different levels of aggregation, scope and scale-from process to sub-process level, from private to societal economics, and from laboratory to pilot-scale, respectively. Moreover, despite the inherent large uncertainties, more than half of the studies did not perform any uncertainty or sensitivity analyses posing validity issues. Consequently, this also limits the usefulness of results as individual case studies and as a collective, towards a generic understanding of LFM economics. Irrespective of case study-specific or generic aims, this review recommends that future assessments should be learning-oriented. That is, uncovering granular information about what builds up the net profitability of LFM, to be able to systematically determine promising paths for the development of cost-efficient projects.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    CISA PUBLISHER, 2019
    Emneord
    Economic assessment; Life cycle costing; Landfill mining; Landfill management
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-163965 (URN)10.31025/2611-4135/2019.13883 (DOI)000504065300011 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|European Training Network for Resource Recovery Through Enhanced Landfill Mining (NEW-MINE) under the European Unions EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon 2020European Union (EU) [721185]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-03-05 Laget: 2020-03-05 Sist oppdatert: 2022-11-24
    2. Systematic assessment of critical factors for the economic performance of landfill mining in Europe: What drives the economy of landfill mining?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Systematic assessment of critical factors for the economic performance of landfill mining in Europe: What drives the economy of landfill mining?
    Vise andre…
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 95, s. 674-686Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill mining (LFM) is a strategy to mitigate environmental impacts associated with landfills, while simultaneously recovering dormant materials, energy carriers, and land resources. Although several case study assessments on the economy of LFM exist, a broader understanding of the driving factors is still lacking. This study aims at identifying generically important factors for the economy of LFM in Europe and understanding their role in developing economically feasible projects in view of different site, project and system-level conditions. Therefore, a set-based modeling approach is used to establish a large number (531,441) of LFM scenarios, evaluate their economic performance in terms of net present value (NPV), and analyze the relationships between input factors and economic outcome via global sensitivity analysis. The scenario results range from -139 Euro to +127 Euro/Mg of excavated waste, with 80% of the scenarios having negative NPVs. Variations in the costs for waste treatment and disposal and the avoided cost of alternative landfill management (i.e. if the landfill was not mined) have the strongest effect on the scenario NPVs, which illustrates the critical role of system level factors for LFM economy and the potential of policy intervention to incentivize LFM. Consequently, system conditions should guide site selection and project development, which is exemplified in the study for two extreme regional archetypes in terms of income and waste management standard. Future work should further explore the developed model to provide decision support on LFM strategies in consideration of alternative purposes, stakeholders, and objectives. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2019
    Emneord
    Scenario analysis; Economic analysis; Global sensitivity analysis; Waste recovery; Landfill management; Landfill mining
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162773 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2019.07.007 (DOI)000499920700065 ()31351655 (PubMedID)
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|European Cooperation for Science and Technology - Mining the European Anthroposphere (COST-Action MINEA) [CA15115]; Christian Doppler Laboratory for Anthropogenic Resources; European Training Network for Resource Recovery Through Enhanced Landfill Mining (NEW-MINE) [721185]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-12-17 Laget: 2019-12-17 Sist oppdatert: 2022-11-24
    Fulltekst (pdf)
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    Download (png)
    presentationsbild
  • 198.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University; Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology.
    Arsénio, André Marques
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology.
    Scholten, Lisa
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology.
    Hu, Mingming
    Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University.
    Economic Assessment of Faecal Sludge Management and Sewer-Based Sanitation System in Maputo, Mozambique2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Abstract
  • 199.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Carlsson, Annica
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Trade-offs between material efficiency and environmental performance for managing plastics packaging waste2023Inngår i: Proceeding of the 11th International Conference on Industrial Ecology, Leiden, The Netherlands, 2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The single-use function of plastic packaging generates a continuously increasing input to the waste management system leading to sustainability challenges. In response, several management strategies along the plastic value chain are proposed including improvements on product design, source-separation, mechanical and optical sorting, and further downstream material recycling. However, in some countries like Sweden, these strategies are often implemented in isolation without considering their combination effects on the performance of the entire plastic value chain. Moreover, the corresponding assessments of these strategies are often limited to material efficiency (i.e., recycling rate) thus overlooking the potential trade-offs with environmental performance. Hence, this study aims to assess the combination effects of different management strategies for plastic packaging in Sweden in terms of both material and environmental dimensions. Over 700 scenarios involving different combinations of management strategies were modeled and assessed through life cycle assessment. The results show that upstream strategies such us polymer restriction especially for food packaging (i.e., limiting to polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene) lead to higher recycling rates and better environmental performance. In contrast, further downstream material recycling strategies show more apparent trade-offs, especially between recycling rates and environmental impacts related to toxicity. Recommendations for the combinations of management strategies for plastic packaging, which can increase recycling rates and reduce environmental impacts, are presented and discussed. 

  • 200.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Van Passel, Steven
    Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Assessing the economic potential of landfill mining: Review and recommendations2019Inngår i: DETRITUS, ISSN 2611-4127, Vol. 8, s. 125-140Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As landfill mining (LFM) gains public attention, systematic assessment of its economic potential is deemed necessary. The aim of this review is to critically analyze the usefulness and validity of previous economic assessments of LFM. Following the life cycle costing (LCC) framework, (i) the employed methods based on goal and scope, technical parameters and data inventory, and modelling choices were contrasted with respect to (ii) the synthesized main findings based on net profitability and economic performance drivers. Results showed that the selected studies (n=15) are mostly case study-specific and concluded that LFM has a weak economic potential, hinting at the importance of favorable market and regulation settings. However, several method issues are apparent as costs and revenues are accounted at different levels of aggregation, scope and scale-from process to sub-process level, from private to societal economics, and from laboratory to pilot-scale, respectively. Moreover, despite the inherent large uncertainties, more than half of the studies did not perform any uncertainty or sensitivity analyses posing validity issues. Consequently, this also limits the usefulness of results as individual case studies and as a collective, towards a generic understanding of LFM economics. Irrespective of case study-specific or generic aims, this review recommends that future assessments should be learning-oriented. That is, uncovering granular information about what builds up the net profitability of LFM, to be able to systematically determine promising paths for the development of cost-efficient projects.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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