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  • 151.
    Mukwaya, Anthony
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Lindvall, Jessica M.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Xeroudaki, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Peebo, Beatrice
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Ali, Zaheer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Lennikov, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Lasse
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk farmakologi. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    A microarray whole-genome gene expression dataset in a rat model of inflammatory corneal angiogenesis2016Ingår i: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 3, artikel-id UNSP 160103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In angiogenesis with concurrent inflammation, many pathways are activated, some linked to VEGF and others largely VEGF-independent. Pathways involving inflammatory mediators, chemokines, and micro-RNAs may play important roles in maintaining a pro-angiogenic environment or mediating angiogenic regression. Here, we describe a gene expression dataset to facilitate exploration of pro-angiogenic, pro-inflammatory, and remodelling/normalization-associated genes during both an active capillary sprouting phase, and in the restoration of an avascular phenotype. The dataset was generated by microarray analysis of the whole transcriptome in a rat model of suture-induced inflammatory corneal neovascularisation. Regions of active capillary sprout growth or regression in the cornea were harvested and total RNA extracted from four biological replicates per group. High quality RNA was obtained for gene expression analysis using microarrays. Fold change of selected genes was validated by qPCR, and protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We provide a gene expression dataset that may be re-used to investigate corneal neovascularisation, and may also have implications in other contexts of inflammation-mediated angiogenesis.

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  • 152.
    Muli, Cosmus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Modelling the Effects of Deforestation on Stream Flows in Arror River Basin-Kenya2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract.

    Like other developing countries, forest conversion to agricultural land has been a common practice in Kenya for the last four decades. Apart from illegal logging, the main cause is the growing population. For most developing countries where majority rely on agriculture for food production, conversion of forests into agricultural land is likely to occur. Kenya is one among such countries and is where the study basin is located. Knowledge of hydrological studies is crucial for proper planning and decision making of limited water resources in river basins. Even in regions where data is limited, changes in land use is a concern to many basin communities over the globe including Arror inhabitants since it has an impact on stream flows. Despite Arror downstream communities’ claims on reducing river flows, scientific proof on this is lacking. Such kind of belief/claim can result to conflicts (Downstream vs. Upstream water users). The main objective of this thesis was therefore to determine the effect of land use changes on Arror basin hydrology, focusing on the impact of deforestation since it has been the main land use change for the last four decades. The overall intention of the study is to verify the downstream basin’s inhabitant’s hypothetical thinking and also create an information foundation base for other future studies in the basin. Based on the lessons learned in this study, several recommendations have been highlighted, including land satellite rainfall data to augment the rainfall data obtained from the relatively sparse rain gauge network in the basin.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 153.
    Mwandu Siyeni, Yvonne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Expanding Water Service Delivery through Partnership between Water Utility and Small Scale Water Providers in Lusaka, Zambia: A Case of Lusaka’s Peri-Urban Areas2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Zambia is a highly urbanized country with 60% of its urban population residing in low cost areas also called peri-urban, slum or informal settlements. The increase in urban population attributed to rapid migration and urbanization due to political and economic changes has taken a toll on service provision as the infrastructure development and service provision has failed to meet the demand. For the 33 peri-urban areas in Lusaka, the water supply and sanitation has been poor, inadequate and unreliable with the coverage being slightly above 50% for water while 90% of the urban population does not have access to the much needed sanitation. The low coverage is a result of lack the financial capacity on the part of the service providers to extend services to un served areas.

    This research focuses on the strategies to provide sustainable water and sanitation services to peri-urban areas to ensure improved accessibility through the expansion of infrastructure and attainment of full cost recovery. In this era of increasing migration to unplanned settlements where the services are inadequate, alternatives to public provision of water and sanitation services need to be put in place. One of the alternatives is the public-private partnership which encompasses the society, private and the civil society. As has been found in the study the best alternative should not only be completely bottom up but should also be more demand driven and be able to provide for greater contributions from the affected communities.

    The hypothesis of the study is to ascertain if provision of water supply to the Peri-Urban Areas (PUAs) can be achieved through the partnership between the water utility and the small scale water providers. Therefore, the objectives of the research are to: evaluate and compare the current service provision to the peri-urban areas by the utility and small scale providers in terms of technical, social and institutional arrangements and determine the best way of ensuring sustained service provision to peri urban areas and show how partnership can be the best solution to improving service delivery to these areas.

    Service provision in PUAs can not be achieved without the involvement of all the stakeholders especially the community who are also the users and whose major role is paying for the service to enhance sustainability. In this study the Small Scale Water Providers (SSWP) users were found to be satisfied with the service provided than the utility users who felt that more needed to be done. The two providers are found to have different strengths which when combined would enhance service provision. The collaboration between utility with its competence in water supply, technical installations, water quality testing and SSWP with theirs in community involvement, cost recovery, effective operation and maintenance and demand driven water schemes have to be merged to achieve the intended goal and it is also an indication that the two can complement each other. Utility should therefore consider opening investment accounts for all the areas so as to detach PUAs needs from the general plan and eventually budget as they would be self sustaining and enhance willingness to pay for the users. The SSWP should therefore be viewed as partners by all and licensing should be considered by the government for the benefit of the urban poor.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 154.
    Mwandu Siyeni, Yvonne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Expanding Water Service Delivery through Partnership between Water Utility and Small Scale Water Providers in Lusaka, Zambia: A Case of Lusaka's Peri-Urban Areas2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Zambia is a highly urbanized country with 60% of its urban population residing in low cost areas also called peri-urban, slum or informal settlements. The increase in urban population attributed to rapid migration and urbanization due to political and economic changes has taken a toll on service provision as the infrastructure development and service provision has failed to meet the demand. For the 33 peri-urban areas in Lusaka, the water supply and sanitation has been poor, inadequate and unreliable with the coverage being slightly above 50% for water while 90% of the urban population does not have access to the much needed sanitation. The low coverage is a result of lack the financial capacity on the part of the service providers to extend services to un served areas.

    This research focuses on the strategies to provide sustainable water and sanitation services to peri-urban areas to ensure improved accessibility through the expansion of infrastructure and attainment of full cost recovery. In this era of increasing migration to unplanned settlements where the services are inadequate, alternatives to public provision of water and sanitation services need to be put in place. One of the alternatives is the public-private partnership which encompasses the society, private and the civil society. As has been found in the study the best alternative should not only be completely bottom up but should also be more demand driven and be able to provide for reater contributions from the affected communities.

    The hypothesis of the study is to ascertain if provision of water supply to the Peri-Urban Areas (PUAs) can be achieved through the partnership between the water utility and the small scale water providers. Therefore, the objectives of the research are to: evaluate and compare the current service provision to the peri-urban areas by the utility and small scale providers in terms of technical, social and institutional arrangements and determine the best way of ensuring sustained service provision to peri urban areas and show how partnership can be the best solution to improving service delivery to these areas.

    Service provision in PUAs can not be achieved without the involvement of all the stakeholders especially the community who are also the users and whose major role is paying for the service to enhance sustainability. In this study the Small Scale Water Providers (SSWP) users were found to be satisfied with the service provided than the utility users who felt that more needed to be done. The two providers are found to have different strengths which when combined would enhance service provision. The collaboration between utility with its competence in water supply, technical installations, water quality testing and SSWP with theirs in community involvement, cost recovery, effective operation and maintenance and demand driven water schemes have to be merged to achieve the intended goal and it is also an indication that the two can complement each other. Utility should therefore consider opening investment accounts for all the areas so as to detach PUAs needs from the general plan and eventually budget as they would be self sustaining and enhance  illingness to pay for the users. The SSWP should therefore be viewed as partners by all and licensing should be considered by the government for the benefit of the urban poor.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 155.
    Mwevura, Haji
    et al.
    State University of Zanzibar, Tanzania.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Vogt, Tash
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Issa, Massoud
    State University of Zanzibar, Tanzania.
    Organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments and polychaete worms from the west coast of Unguja island, Tanzania2020Ingår i: Regional Studies in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2352-4855, Vol. 36, artikel-id 101287Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The coastal areas of Stone Town, on the island of Unguja that is part of Zanzibar, are subjected to different anthropogenic activities and receive untreated municipal wastes that are likely to carry organic pollutants that can bio-accumulate in marine organisms. Sediments and polychaete worms Capitella capitata collected from coastal sites north and south of Stone Town were analysed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using GC-MS to assess their pollution status in the coastal environment and uptake by the food web. The analysis revealed quantifiable concentrations of DDTs, cyclodienes, and HCHs, and six of the 11 USEPA-priority PAHs. The concentration ranges of ΣOCPs were 0.1–100 ng/g dm (dry mass) and 8.5–96 ng/g lm (lipid mass) in sediments and worms, respectively. The concentrations of ΣPAHs6 ranged from non-detectable to 27 ng/g dm in sediments and non-detectable to 18 ng/g lm (lipid mass) in worms. Malindi harbour was the most contaminated of all sites with respect to the pollutants we measured in both sediments and worms. The relative compositions of the OCPs suggest legacy use of DDT and technical HCH, and more recent use of lindane. The relatively higher proportion of low molecular mass PAHs to high molecular mass PAHs suggests major contributions from petrogenic sources in the study area. The results demonstrated bioavailability and uptake of OCPs and PAHs to the food web via C. capitata. Concentrations of DDTs, HCHs, and dieldrin exceed sediment quality guidelines, indicating risk to sediment-dwelling organisms, as well as organisms that eat them. It is likely that other toxic compounds are present, suggesting that the current assessment may underestimate the risk. Due to the indicated risk, further work is needed to look at coastal distributions, terrestrial concentrations, and accumulation of pollutants into higher trophic level organisms of Zanzibar and associated seas.

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  • 156.
    Nantaba, Florence
    et al.
    Makerere University, Uganda.
    Wasswa, John
    Makerere University, Uganda.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Palm, Wolf-Ulrich
    Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Germany.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Kümmerer, Klaus
    Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Germany.
    Occurrence, distribution, and ecotoxicological risk assessment of selected pharmaceutical compounds in water from Lake Victoria, Uganda2020Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 239, artikel-id 124642Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of 24 pharmaceuticals (including; 15 antibiotics, three analgesic/anti-inflammatory drugs, three anti-epileptic/ antidepressant drugs, two beta blockers, and one lipid regulator) was investigated in 75 water samples collected from four bays in the Ugandan part of Lake Victoria. In addition, the potential environmental risk of the target pharmaceutical compounds to aquatic organisms in the aquatic ecosystem of Lake Victoria was assessed. Water samples were extracted using solid phase extraction and analyzed for pharmaceuticals using high- performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Eighteen of the 24 pharmaceuticals occurred at quantifiable concentrations. Sulfamethoxazole (1-5600 ng L-1), trimethoprim (1-89 ng L-1), tetracycline (3-70 ng L-1), sulfacetamide (1-13 ng L-1), and ibuprofen (6-780 ng L-1) occurred at quantifiable concentrations in all water samples. Sulfamethazine (2-50 ng L-1), erythromycin (10-66 ng L-1), diclofenac (2-160 ng L-1), and carbamazepine (5-72 ng L-1) were only quantifiable in water samples from Murchison Bay. The highest concentrations of pharmaceuticals were found in Murchison Bay, the main recipient of sewage effluents, industrial and municipal waste from Kampala city via the Nakivubo channel. Ecotoxicological risk assessment showed that sulfamethoxazole, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, and diclofenac pose a high toxic risk to aquatic organisms in the lake, while ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ibuprofen pose a medium risk. This study is the first of its kind to report the levels and ecotoxic risks of pharmaceutical compounds in Lake Victoria waters, of Uganda, and East Africa as a whole.

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  • 157. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Freshwater methane and carbon dioxide fluxes: Spatio-temporal variability and an integrated assessment of lake and stream emissions in a catchment2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sötvatten som sjöar och vattendrag är källor till växthusgaserna metan (CH4) och koldioxid (CO2) i atmosfären. De globala utsläppen av CH4 och CO2 från sötvatten har uppskattats vara av samma storleksordning som den globala land- eller havskolsänkan och är därmed viktiga delar av jordens växthusgasbudget. De globala uppskattningarna saknar ofta information om variation i tid och rum och är därmed mycket osäkra. Denna avhandling behandlar hur CH4- och CO2-flöden från öppet vatten i sjöar och vattendrag i ett avrinningsområde varierar rumsligt och tidsmässigt. Ett syfte var också att utvärdera betydelsen av dessa variationer när data extrapoleras för att göra storskaliga uppskattningar av växthusgasflöden från vattenmiljöer. Förutom de förväntade stora rumsliga och tidsmässiga variationerna i sjöars gasflöden identifierades interaktioner mellan rumsliga och tidsmässiga variation för CH4-flöden. Den rumsliga variabiliteten med högre CH4-flöden från grunda vatten interagerade med tidsvariationen, som i sin tur drevs av en exponentiell temperaturrespons av gasflödena. Det betyder att grunda vattenområden var mer känsliga för uppvärmning än djupare vatten och därmed att vattendjupet har betydelse för hur sjöars CH4-utsläpp påverkas av klimatet. Koncentrationer av CO2 i sjöars ytvatten uppvisade också en betydande rumslig och tidsmässig variation som tillsammans visar att CO2-flöden över längre perioder till stor del styrs av koncentrationer snarare än av gasutbyteshastigheter. Vattendragens gasflöden varierade också mycket i tid och rum. Detta gällde i synnerhet CH4-flödena vilka var förvånansvärt stora och mer varierande än CO2-flödena. Gasflödena var höga från områden i vattendrag med högre lutning och då det var höga vattenflöden, trots att dessa områden och tidsperioder utgjorde en bråkdel av den totala arean och mätperioden. Att inte räkna med dessa gasflöden från bäcksektioner med höga vattenhastigheter eller korta perioder med höga flöden, leder till underskattningar. De totala CH4- och CO2-flödena från öppet vatten i hela avrinningsområdet uppskattades genom att kombinera mätningar i sjöar och vattendrag. Denna avhandling visar att rumslig och tidsmässig variabilitet har stor betydelse, och den ger information om hur denna variation kan beaktas för bättre framtida mätningar och storskaliga uppskattningar av växthusgasflöden från sjöar och vattendrag.

    Delarbeten
    1. Spatio-temporal variability of lake CH4 fluxes and its influence on annual whole lake emission estimates
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Spatio-temporal variability of lake CH4 fluxes and its influence on annual whole lake emission estimates
    Visa övriga...
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 61, s. S13-S26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Lakes are major sources of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere that contribute significantly to the global budget. Recent studies have shown that diffusive fluxes, ebullition and surface water CH4 concentrations can differ significantly within lakes—spatially and temporally. CH4 fluxes may be affected at longer scales in response to seasons, temperature, lake mixing events, short term weather events like pressure variations, shifting winds and diel cycles. Frequent measurements of fluxes in the same system and integrated assessments of the impacts of the spatio-temporal variability are rare. Thereby, large scale assessments frequently lack information on this variability which can potentially lead to biased estimates. In this study, we analysed the variability of CH4 fluxes and surface water CH4 concentrations across open water areas of lakes in a small catchment in southwest Sweden over two annual cycles. Significant patterns in CH4 concentrations, diffusive fluxes, ebullition and total fluxes were observed in space (between and within lakes) and in time (over diel cycles to years). Differences observed among the lakes can be associated with lake characteristics. The spatial variability within lakes was linked to depth or distance to stream inlets. Temporal variability was observed at diel to seasonal scales and was influenced by weather events. The fluxes increased exponentially with temperature in all three lakes, with stronger temperature dependence with decreasing depth. By comparing subsets of our data with estimates using all data we show that considering the spatio-temporal variability in CH4 fluxes is critical when making whole lake or annual budgets.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    John Wiley & Sons, 2016
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Klimatforskning Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126776 (URN)10.1002/lno.10222 (DOI)000388560900002 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council FORMAS [2009-872, 2009-1692]; Swedish Research Council VR [325-2012-48, 621-2011-3575]; Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (Svensk Karnbranslehantering AB)

    Tillgänglig från: 2016-04-05 Skapad: 2016-04-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-10-05Bibliografiskt granskad
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  • 158.
    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sundgren, Ingrid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gålfalk, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Spatiotemporal variability of lake pCO(2) and CO2 fluxes in a hemiboreal catchment2017Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 122, nr 1, s. 30-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, lakes are frequently supersaturated with carbon dioxide (CO2) and are major emitters of carbon to the atmosphere. Recent studies have generated awareness of the high variability in pCO(2aq) (the partial pressure corresponding to the concentration in water) and CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere and the need for better accounting for this variability. However, studies simultaneously accounting for both spatial and temporal variability of pCO(2aq) and CO2 fluxes in lakes are rare. We measured pCO(2aq) (by both manual sampling and mini loggers) and CO2 fluxes, covering spatial variability in open water areas of three lakes of different character in a Swedish catchment for 2years. Spatial pCO(2aq) variability within lakes was linked to distance from shore, proximity to stream inlets, and deepwater upwelling events. Temporally, pCO(2aq) variability was linked with variability in dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, and dissolved oxygen. While previous studies over short time periods (1 to 6h) observed gas transfer velocity (k) to be more variable than pCO(2aq), our work shows that over longer time (days to weeks) pCO(2aq) variability was greater and affected CO2 fluxes much more than k. We demonstrate that 8 measurement days distributed over multiple seasons in combination with sufficient spatial coverage (8 locations during stratification periods and 5 or less in spring and autumn) are a key for representative yearly whole lake flux estimates. This study illustrates the importance of considering spatiotemporal variability in pCO(2aq) and CO2 fluxes to generate representative whole lake estimates.

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  • 159.
    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sundgren, Ingrid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gålfalk, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Crill, Patrick
    Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Spatio-temporal variability of lake CH4 fluxes and its influence on annual whole lake emission estimates2016Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 61, s. S13-S26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lakes are major sources of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere that contribute significantly to the global budget. Recent studies have shown that diffusive fluxes, ebullition and surface water CH4 concentrations can differ significantly within lakes—spatially and temporally. CH4 fluxes may be affected at longer scales in response to seasons, temperature, lake mixing events, short term weather events like pressure variations, shifting winds and diel cycles. Frequent measurements of fluxes in the same system and integrated assessments of the impacts of the spatio-temporal variability are rare. Thereby, large scale assessments frequently lack information on this variability which can potentially lead to biased estimates. In this study, we analysed the variability of CH4 fluxes and surface water CH4 concentrations across open water areas of lakes in a small catchment in southwest Sweden over two annual cycles. Significant patterns in CH4 concentrations, diffusive fluxes, ebullition and total fluxes were observed in space (between and within lakes) and in time (over diel cycles to years). Differences observed among the lakes can be associated with lake characteristics. The spatial variability within lakes was linked to depth or distance to stream inlets. Temporal variability was observed at diel to seasonal scales and was influenced by weather events. The fluxes increased exponentially with temperature in all three lakes, with stronger temperature dependence with decreasing depth. By comparing subsets of our data with estimates using all data we show that considering the spatio-temporal variability in CH4 fluxes is critical when making whole lake or annual budgets.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 160.
    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wallin, Marcus B.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Spatio-temporal patterns of stream methane and carbon dioxide emissions in a hemiboreal catchment in Southwest Swedend2017Ingår i: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikel-id 39729Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Global stream and river greenhouse gas emissions seem to be as large as the oceanic C uptake. However, stream and river emissions are uncertain until both spatial and temporal variability have been quantified. Here we investigated in detail the stream CH4 and CO2 emissions within a hemiboreal catchment in Southwest Sweden primarily covered by coniferous forest. Gas transfer velocities (k(600)), CH4 and CO2 concentrations were measured with multiple methods. Our data supported modelling approaches accounting for various stream slopes, water velocities and discharge. The results revealed large but partially predictable spatio-temporal variabilities in k(600), dissolved gas concentrations, and emissions. The variability in CO2 emission was best explained by the variability in k, while dissolved CH4 concentrations explained most of the variability in CH4 emission, having implications for future measurements. There were disproportionately large emissions from high slope stream reaches including waterfalls, and from high discharge events. In the catchment, stream reaches with low slope and time periods of moderate discharge dominated (90% of area and 69% of time). Measurements in these stream areas and time periods only accounted for amp;lt;36% of the total estimated emissions. Hence, not accounting for local or episodic high emissions can lead to substantially underestimated emissions.

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  • 161.
    Ndayizigiye, Tharcisse
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Efficient Irrigation Water Allocation and Use for Enhanced Paddy Productivity: Case study of Mugerero in Imbo lowland Region in Burundi2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    To address increasing irrigation water demand consecutive to the increasing population pressure in terms of food demand, there is an imperative of developing relevant mechanisms to regulate irrigation water consumption patterns. A radical shift from uncontrolled flooding irrigation as currently practiced by farmers in Mugerero paddy farming zone towards efficient allocation and use of water resources is important to save water that could be allocated to other water users.

    This paper surveys current and past views on the way irrigation water is allocated in the irrigation scheme of Mugerero and how farmers are using water for paddy production purpose. The existing irrigation water practices as well as paddy productivity are assessed and the results are expected to be useful for water policy professionals, while addressing the growing water demand. According to the respondents, the causes of low paddy yields are the increasing and uncontrolled extension of paddy farming, non adapted irrigation infrastructure and water pricing systems as well as lack of updated knowledge and technologies on irrigation. These issues faced by the paddy farmers have led to pronounced economic, social and environmental consequences which are manifested in conflicts over irrigation water use, increasing soil salinity and pollution, destruction of infrastructure and above all, low irrigation paddy yields.The identification of the core problem in the irrigation system might be important for water managers as it would provide a starting point to establish comprehensive baseline towards efficient irrigation water allocation and use. This would improve paddy productivity within the formal as well as the growing informal paddy farming referred to “hors- perimeter” in the low land of Imbo region.

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    Efficient Irrigation Water Allocation and Use for Enhanced Paddy Productivity: Case study of Mugerero in Imbo lowland Region in Burundi
  • 162.
    Nguyen Thuy, Lan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lundgren, T.
    Håkansson, K.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Release of metals from contaminated sediments under simulated redox changes induced by hydropower operations2007Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Vol. 4, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine the consequent release of the metals Fe, Zn, Cu and Cd from the sediments under simulated redox changes. Two contaminated sediments, ‘A’ representing the top layer and ‘B’ representing the deeper layers taken from Lake Håcklasjön downstream of a hydropower plant in southern Sweden, were incubated in the lake water in flow-cells under both anoxic and aerated conditions. Under anoxic conditions, Fe was rapidly released from both sediments (A and B) into the solution, which was likely a result of diffusion from porewater along with the reductive dissolution of hydroxides, whereas the concentrations of dissolved Zn, Cu and Cd remained low. The opposite results occurred for all the studied metals during aeration: i.e. precipitation of Fe and a progressive release of Zn, Cu and Cd. The oxidation of ferrous to ferric Fe was the most likely process responsible for the removal of Fe from the water column from both sediments. Meanwhile the release of the trace metals was probably a result of the oxidation of sulphides, degradation of particulate organic matter or diffusion/advection. The water flow applied during the aeration period likely induced resuspension, which would be a contributing factor to the metal release by enhancing both porewater diffusion/advection and interactions between the resuspended sediments and the overlying water. The decrease in pH in overlying water of sediment A could be the reason for the faster increase in trace metal concentrations compared to that of sediment B. Copper was probably not affected by pH change, as Cu was complexed with dissolved organic carbon and carbonates using the Visual MINTEQ model. The results from the experiment show that aeration of the sediment samples is an important factor for the release of Zn, Cu and Cd into the water column. The low flow of water applied in the experiment compared to that generated by operation periods of the hydropower plant suggests that probably more metals will be released under field conditions.

  • 163.
    Njagi, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Univ Nairobi, Kenya.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Odhiambo, Moses
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Luo, Chen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Basapuram, Laxmi Gayatri
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Olago, Daniel
    Univ Nairobi, Kenya.
    Klump, Val
    Univ Wisconsin Milwaukee, WI USA; Univ Wisconsin Milwaukee, WI USA.
    Stager, Curt
    Paul Smiths Coll, NY USA.
    A century of human-induced environmental changes and the combined roles of nutrients and land use in Lake Victoria catchment on eutrophication2022Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 835, artikel-id 155425Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lake Victoria, a lifeline for millions of people in East Africa, is affected by anthropogenic activities resulting in eutrophication and impacting the aquatic life and water quality. Therefore, understanding the ongoing changes in the catchment is critical for its restoration. In this context, catchment and lake sediments are important archives in tracing nutrient inputs and their dominant sources to establish causality with human activities and productivity shifts. In this study, we determine the 1) changes in concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), black carbon (BC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio, and phosphorous (P) fractions in catchment sediments and the open lake, 2) distribution of diatom population in the lake, and 3) land use and land cover changes in the catchment. The distribution of TOC, BC, TN, C/N, and P correlate while showing spatial and temporal variations. In particular, the steady increase in BC confirms atmospheric inputs from anthropogenic activities in the catchment. However, lake sediments show more variations than catchment-derived sediments in geochemical trends. Notably, the catchment has undergone dramatic land use changes since the 1960s (post-independence). This change is most evident in satellite records from 1985 to 2014, which indicate accelerated human activities. For example, urban growth (666-1022%) and agricultural expansion (23-48%) increased sharply at the expense of a decline in forest cover, grassland, and woodlands in the catchment. Cities like Kisumu and Homa Bay expanded, coinciding with rapid population growth and urbanization. Consequently, nutrient inputs have increased since the 1960s, and this change corresponds with the divergence of diatom

  • 164.
    Njalam'mano, John Bright Joseph
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Current Status and Management of Hand Pump Equipped Water Facilities in Blantyre Rural District, Malawi: Case Study of Kapeni and Lundu Traditional Authorities2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Although the access to adequate safe drinking water is taken for granted in developed countries and urban settlements in some developing countries at the end of 2002 it was estimated that globally, some 1.1 billion people still rely on unsafe drinking water sources particularly in the developing regions of India and Africa. Malawi is one of the developing countries located in the arid-semiarid Sub-Saharan African region with only 62% of its people having access to safe drinking water. Boreholes and dug wells equipped with hand pumps is the technology that has assisted the country to increase the proportion of people having access to safe drinking water.

    The underlying objectives of the study were to critically characterise the existing rural water facilities management systems, and to assess the status of the water facilities that were provided to rural communities by different organisations and individuals. The aim is to form an information base upon which rural water development efforts will be advanced and to expose points of intervention for sustainable rural water supply.

    A survey was conducted in two traditional authorities of Kapeni and Lundu in Blantyre rural district where 94 water users were interviewed in their households. Physical inspection survey of the water facilities in the area under study was done. Focus group discussions and informal key informants’ interviews were also done.

    A majority (54%) of the respondents indicated that they participated in various stages of their water supply project. The actual responsibility for the management of all water points which were visited lies with a representative group of local community known as water points committee (WPC). 97% of the water facilities that were surveyed had WPCs of which 67% received training in management, operation and maintenance (O&M) of the water facilities. There are two types of hand pumps that were found in the area, Malda and Afridev. 83% of the water facilities were still in order. The downtimes of the water facilities ranged from 1 to 360 days depending on the kind of fault.

    The traditional leaders, Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs) from government and mission clinics, water facility providers and the local communities themselves are the key players at community level. The trust that the communities have in their local leadership, the approach used in provision of the water facilities, the benefits that accrued to the local communities, and the length of time the WPCs serve the communities are the major factors that influence the communities’ participation in O&M activities. Inadequate number of qualified area technicians, theft of hand pump parts and high prices of some spare parts are some of the problems that impede effective O&M of the water facilities. To improve management, O&M of the water supply systems in the area communities have additional number of the water points, and training and refresher courses for WPCs and caretakers as some of their immediate needs. The common technical problems are hand pump related in water facilities equipped with Afridev hand pump and well drying for Malda hand pump equipped water facilities. The WPCs that are not active are those whose water facilities have been out of order for a long time. Recommendations are made regarding; planning phase, construction and operation phase, and government regulation.

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  • 165.
    Nottebohm-Kaiser, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema.
    Företagens sociala ansvar: En studie om svenska klädföretags arbete med CSR2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien har varit att ta reda på hur 20 Svenska klädföretag arbetar med CSR. Fokus har varit att redogöra för viktiga faktorer och förutsättningar som krävs av företagen för ett framgångsrikt CSR-arbete samt att identifiera dessa faktorer och förutsättningar i klädföretagens CSR-arbeten för att bedöma dess prestation, det vill säga vilken ambition och vilka ställningstaganden de arbetar efter. Avslutningsvis har diskuterats kring vad klädföretagens ambitioner och ställningstaganden gällande deras CSR-arbete innebär sett utifrån ett intressentperspektiv.

    Företagens sociala ansvar utgörs av ett företags miljömässiga, sociala, etiska, filantropiska, ekonomiska och juridiska ansvar. Företagen ska stå till svars för sin samhällspåverkan och deras sociala ansvar ska sträcka sig utöver ekonomiska och juridiska krav. För att företagen ska lyckas med och nå ett framgångsrikt arbete med frågor kring CSR krävs att de identifierar ansvarsområden för att vidare kunna definiera vilket ansvar de ska ta och hur det ska hanteras, företagens sociala ansvar definieras i samverkan mellan företagen och dess intressenter. Klädföretagens arbete med CSR har gett skilda uttryck då de identifierats arbeta inom olika ställningstaganden och med olika ambitionsnivå. Tre viktiga faktorer har identifierats som största påverkan på ett företags ställningstagande vad gäller deras arbete med CSR, dessa faktorer är företagens egen tolkning av deras sociala ansvar, externa påtryckningar samt interna faktorer. En förutsättning för att klädföretagen ska kunna bedriva en stabil och lönsam verksamhet med ett framgångsrikt CSR-arbete är att de, förutom att beakta de ovan nämnda faktorer, har en god relation och för en kontinuerlig dialog med sina intressenter.

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  • 166.
    Nteziryayo, Love-Raoul
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Danielsson, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sediment DSi and DIP fluxes under changing oxygen availability in bottom waters2018Ingår i: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, E-ISSN 1797-2469, Vol. 23, s. 159-174Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we investigated how sediment fluxes of dissolved silica (DSi) and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) were affected by dissolved oxygen (DO) availability in bottom waters. Sediments from two sites in the Baltic proper were incubated under changing oxygen conditions. Our results show that when DO availability decreased from oxic to hypoxic level, the average DSi fluxes decreased significantly at the two sites from 2.12 +/- 0.04 to 0.87 +/- 0.18 and from 2.37 +/- 0.09 to 1.91 +/- 0.55 mmol Si m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Average DIP fluxes increased significantly at one site from 0.06 +/- 0.01 to 0.14 +/- 0.02 mmol P m(-2) d(-1), but not at the other (from 0.06 +/- 0.01 to 0.07 +/- 0.01 mmol P m(-2) d(-1)). These results indicate that a change from highly oxic to hypoxic conditions in bottom waters may decrease DSi fluxes and increase DIP fluxes. However, sediment characteristics can lead to spatial differences in the response of DSi and DI Pfluxes to oxygen availabilit.

  • 167.
    Nuruzzaman, Mohammad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    People's and Meteorologist's perception on Cyclone Forecasting, Warning and Management System in Bangladesh2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate forecasting and up-to-date warning is very important for the coastal people to protect them from the devastation of cyclone. Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) and their concern organizations have important role to provide proper and accurate cyclone forecasting and warning message to the people. The coastal zone of the country is the most precarious place to natural disaster due to its geographical location, frequent formation of cyclone in the Bay, poor infrastructure and insecure socio-economic conditions of the people.  Accurate and timely warning, good infrastructure such as roads, transportations, cyclone shelters, cyclone preparedness training centers can reduce  human vulnerability to cyclone in the coastal area of the country. Due to very high population growth rate in the coastal zone, new settlements are being built in the areas which were under agricultural land, forest or bare before. To study the people’s perceptions on cyclone forecasting, warning and management system in Bangladesh, two questionnaire surveys have been done, one with meteorologists of BMD and the other with the people living in the coastal zone. As land use change has great impact on human vulnerability to disaster so, a brief study on land-use change has also been done under the current research.

     

    Keywords: Cyclone, forecasting technique, questionnaire survey, Natural hazards and Land- use change.

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    People's and Meteorologist's perception on Cyclone Forecasting, Warning and Management System in Bangladesh
  • 168.
    Nzeyimana, Lazare
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Rusumo dam-social challenge in Kagera River Basin: Participation of the affected people2003Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    From long ago, rivers have always sustained livelihoods of the peoples through the utilisation of different natural resources available in the basin. All over the world, many rivers have been dammed in the spirit of performing various purposes: agricultural irrigation, domestic water supply and power generation or flood control.

    By the year 2001, the World Commission on Dams brought into focus the debate on damrelated impacts on local economies, societal cultures, livelihoods security and environmental conservation. The outcome of the World Commission on Dams consultation strongly recommended the governments to involve all stakeholders to address appropriately all issues associated with dams.

    The overall focus of this master thesis is the projected Rusumo Falls dam in the Kagera River Basin (East Africa). Based on literature documentation completed by on-ground observations and qualitative interviews at Rusumo, various issues connected with the dam are presented.

    In the first part, the Kagera River Basin background information is provided. It gives an overview of the physical and human characteristics of the Kagera watershed and subcatchments. A brief history and socio-economic indicators are given to enlighten the outsiders about the development challenges of the riparian countries of Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Regional frameworks for the development and management of Kagera Basin natural resources are presented: The Kagera Basin Organisation and the Nile Basin Initiative.

    Section two analyses the likely social problems around the Rusumo Hydro Electric Project resulting from the land issue and the electricity needs and posing a dilemma for the governments committed to reverse the poverty and developing the economies. Benefits and drawbacks of the dam as perceived by the beneficiaries are thoroughly listed.

    Based on the overwhelming supports from the Rusumo people, the governments of Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania together with the international community, a public participation scenario is suggested in the last chapter. It encourages the governments to come together with all interested groups and the affected people of Rusumo and address any matters associated to the dam management process.

    The conclusion of this study draws some strategies and methods to ensure full popular participation in the dam management. It provides some ways to involve all stakeholders to address the related issues. As the Rusumo people perceptions of the dam possible effects might not be realistic, the popular participation can offer them a good opportunity to handle socio-economic problems such as the land issue, the economy restructure and the nature conservation. In this case study, the government of Rwanda is therefore responsible for the establishment of platforms for a broad popular consultation.

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  • 169.
    Näslund, Philip
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Miljöeffekter inom vägplanering: En utvärdering av den samlade effektbedömningens styrkor och svagheter2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete har genomförts i samarbete med Vägverket Region Mitt med syfte att utvärdera hur bedömningen i de samlade  effektbedömningarna är genomförda. En samlad effektbedömning är ett dokument som ska sammanfatta vilka effekter ett vägprojekt kommer medföra utifrån befintliga dokument. Bland annat brukar den samlade effektbedömningen bedöma miljöeffekter utifrån en upprättad miljökonsekvensbeskrivning. I den samlade effektbedömningen ska både de effekter som kan värderas monetärt och de som inte kan värderas ingå. Ett flertal miljöeffekter som påverkan på naturmiljö, markanspråkstagande och barriäreffekter är svåra att värdera monetärt och hamnar då under ej prissatta effekter. Dessa ska utifrån det som framgår av exempelvis miljökonsekvensbeskrivningen bedömas. Då bedömningen blir individberoende utförs de med varierande kvalitet. Handledningen för den samlade effektbedömningen säger att ej prissatta effekter av betydelser ska ingå och att en motivering ska ges. Det medför att upprättaren av den samlade effektbedömningen själv måste sortera ut de effekter som bör ingå. Det gör att de samlade effektbedömningarna blir subjektiva då påverkan av en effekt kan tolkas olika. Den samlade effektbedömningen upprättas av konsultfirmor på uppdrag av Vägverket och i denna studie har två regioner, Mitt och Sydöst med respektive konsultfirmor jämförts.

    16 projekt ingick i studien, 8 projekt från Region Mitt och 8 projekt från Region Sydöst. I studien låg fokus på de miljöeffekter som påvisades och de dokument som granskades var miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar samt de miljöeffekter som finns beskrivna i de samlade  effektbedömningarna. För att systematiskt ta fram vilka effekter som beskrivs i miljökonsekvensbeskrivningarna har en innehållsanalys använts. Resultatet från studien visar att ingen samlad effektbeskrivning fullständigt speglar de effekter som framgår i  miljökonsekvensbeskrivningarna. Majoriteten av de samlade effektbedömningarna har bedömningar som godkänts med anmärkning medan några blev underkända.

    Det går utifrån studien inte att påvisa någon större skillnad mellan regionerna utan den handledning som finns för den samlade effektbedömningen används likartat i båda regionerna. Vissa brister i den samlade effektbedömningen kunde påvisas som bland annat att begränsningen av antal sidor sänker kvalitén, att vissa indikatorer som används är för omfattande samt att måluppfyllelsebedömningen för miljömålet är svårgenomförbar som den i dagsläget är utformad. Vägverkets verksamhet ska sträva efter att uppnå de transportpolitiska målen och de projekt som genomförs bör därför bidra mot de långsiktiga målen. Några av de åtgärdsförslag som rapporten mynnade ut i var att sidantalet och där med innehållet bör ökas. Detta för att få ett mer utvecklar innehåll som på ett representativt sätt kan avspegla de effekter som vägprojektet medför. Andra förslag var att hänvisningar till miljökonsekvensbeskrivningen skulle underlätta granskningen av den samlade effekt beskrivningen, att några indikatorer som används bör delas upp då de i dagsläget är för omfattande samt att  måluppfyllelsebedömningen för miljömålet bör ses över då dess omfång är för stor.

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    Examensarbete
  • 170.
    Olagunju, Emmanuel Gbenga
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Water resources development: opportunities for increased agricultural production in Nigeria2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Agriculture has been the backbone of the economy in Nigeria providing employment and source of livelihood for the increasing population and accounting for over half of the GDP of the Nigeria economy at independence in 1960. However, the role it plays in the regional and economic development of the country has diminished over the years due to the dominant role of the crude oil sector in the economy. With the increasing food demand in Nigeria, the country has available input natural resources and potential for increasing the volume of crop production towards meeting the food and nutritional requirement of the rapidly increasing population and guarantee food security in the country. The study was undertaken to analyse the effect of different factors and policies on the changes in trend of crop production and investigate the possible effect of water resources development on increased volume of agricultural crop production in Nigeria.

    The study revealed that there are opportunities for water resources development in the country through irrigation to supplement the water requirements and needs of farmers for agricultural production activities in many areas in the semi-arid and arid regions. Available data shows that there are available land and water resources that could be developed to support the production of food and agricultural development with opportunity for increased productivity.

    However, while the water resources are unevenly distributed in the country, there is need for the efficient use and management of the available water resources and increasing the productive use especially in the northern region of the country where there is increasing incidence of drought and competing need for water among the different sectors of the economy. The study also made possible recommendations for policy formulation to address the current problems facing the agricultural sector in conjunction with the requirement for the development of the water resources.

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  • 171.
    Olofsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Comprehensive mass flow analysis of Swedish sludge contaminants2013Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, nr 1, s. 28-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A screening of metals, persistent organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs),and other organic contaminants in sludge from seven Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs) was performed in this study. This extensive screening provides information on mass flows of 282 compounds used in the Swedish society to sewage sludge. It reveals constant relative contaminant concentrations (ng-mg kg‑1 d.w.), except for some pesticides and perfluorinated compounds, indicating that these originate from broad usage and diffuse dispersion rather than (industrial) point sources. There was a five order of magnitude difference in the sum concentrations of the most and least abundant species (metals and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans, respectively). Lower total concentrations were found in sludge from STPs processing primarily food industry or household sewage. Proportions of the amounts used (in Sweden) found in sludge were lower for compounds that are present in consumer goods or are diffusely dispersed into the environment (0.01-1% recovered in sludge) than for compounds used as detergents or PPCPs (17–63%). In some cases, the recovery seemed to be affected by evaporation (e.g. octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane) or biotransformation (e.g. adipates) losses, while polychlorinated alkanes and brominated diphenyl ethers were recovered to disproportionately high degree (ca. 4%); likely due to incomplete statistics for imported goods.

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    Mass flow analysis of sludge contaminants
  • 172.
    Olszewska, Dorota Olga
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Wetland planning in agricultural landscape using Geographical Information System: A case study of Lake Ringsjön basin in South Sweden2005Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of increasing eutrophication encouraged the Baltic States to implement new measures, which would help to decrease the nutrient load into the Baltic Sea. Constructed wetlands are considered as one of the possible solutions to the problem of nutrient leakage from agricultural areas in Sweden.

    The aim of this study was to identify the best wetland locations in the Lake Ringsjön basin (in southern Sweden, Scania) using Land Score System (LSS) based on Geographic Information System (GIS). The required area of wetland was calculated on the base of average daily discharge in the whole basin. Next, the possible wetland sites were compared with the location of major nitrogen leakage sources (municipalities, and agriculture). The scenario, which came out from the implemented model (the wetland area required for each sub basin in the Lake Ringsjön basin), was compared to the two scenarios investigated by Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), where wetlands covered 0,4 and 2% of the total cropland area in the Lake Ringsjön basin.

    The result shows that the second SMHI’s scenario relates in some sub basins to the required wetland area calculated in my model. However, in some cases the wetland area seems to be underestimated.

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  • 173.
    Owens, Susan
    Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, England.
    Interpreting sustainable development: a question of values?2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation concludes by suggesting that we have few palatable options but to try to move forward on two fronts: by seeking greater knowledge and understanding of natural environments and the social world; and by engaging in dialogue about values – about what we believe to be good and right, addressing the question of how we wish to inhabit the planet. Vigorous debate, argument, challenge and counter-critique, even if at times they seem futile and inconclusive, should be seen in a positive light, as part of the vital process of interpreting the concept of sustainable development in terms of workable conceptions.

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    Abstract
  • 174.
    Pajala, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sawakuchi, Henrique
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rudberg, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Schenk, Jonathan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sieczko, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gålfalk, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Seekell, David
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Sundgren, Ingrid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nguyen, Thanh Duc
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Effects of Water Column Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations on Lake Methane Emissions-Results From a Whole-Lake Oxygenation Experiment2023Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 128, nr 11, artikel-id e2022JG007185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lakes contribute 9%-19% of global methane (CH4) emissions to the atmosphere. Dissolved molecular oxygen (DO) in lakes can inhibit the production of CH4 and promote CH4 oxidation. DO is therefore often considered an important regulator of CH4 emissions from lakes. Presence or absence of DO in the water above the sediments can affect CH4 production and emissions by (a) influencing if methane production can be fueled by the most reactive organic matter in the top sediment layer or rely on deeper and less degradable organic matter, and (b) enabling CH4 accumulation in deep waters and potentially large emissions upon water column turnover. However, the relative importance of these two DO effects on CH4 fluxes is still unclear. We assessed CH4 fluxes from two connected lake basins in northern boreal Sweden where one was experimentally oxygenated. Results showed no clear difference in summer CH4 emissions attributable to water column DO concentrations. Large amounts of CH4 accumulated in the anoxic hypolimnion of the reference basin but little of this may have been emitted because of incomplete mixing, and effective methane oxidation of stored CH4 reaching oxic water layers. Accordingly, <= 24% of the stored CH4 was likely emitted in the experimental lake. Overall, our results suggest that hypolimnetic DO and water column CH4 storage might have a smaller impact on CH4 emissions in boreal forest lakes than previous estimates, yet potential fluxes associated with water column turnover events remain a significant uncertainty in lake CH4 emission estimates.

  • 175.
    Quistgaard, Louise
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Svensson, Lisa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Under resans gång har vi blivit gröna i själen: konsekvenser för småföretag att arbeta med Stockholms stads miljödiplom2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Kraven på att företag skall arbeta med att minska sin miljöpåverkan har blivit hårdare från samhällets sida. Ett verktyg för småföretag som vill jobba systematiskt med miljöfrågor är miljödiplom, där Stockholms stads miljödiplom är ett av dessa. Stockholms stads miljödiplom är uppbyggt i tre nivåer och det tar ett år att genomföra varje nivå.

    Syftet med denna studie är att studera vilka konsekvenser och förändringar som sker när företag diplomerar sig med Stockholms stads miljödiplom. Detta kommer att analyseras utifrån organisationsteori med tonvikt på förändringar. För att svara på syftet har diplomeringsansvariga för sex företag, fördelade på två per nivå i miljödiplomet, intervjuats om sitt arbete med miljödiplomeringen samt hur miljöarbetet påverkat den dagliga verksamheten inom företaget.

    Resultat och slutsatser visade att kundkrav var den främsta faktorn till varför företagen diplomerade sig med miljödiplomet. Företagen valde Stockholms stads miljödiplom då det är bättre anpassat för småföretag än ISO 14001. Miljödiplomet uppfattas dock inte som tillräckligt känt i företagskretsar, utan där framstår ISO 14001 som mest erkänt. Trots miljödiplomet har inte miljöarbetet blivit direkt integrerat i företagens verksamheter vilket kan bero på bristande kommunikation mellan de diplomeringsansvariga och övriga anställda. De anställda var inte delaktiga i diplomeringsarbetet vilket kan vara en orsak till att inga större förändringar i den dagliga verksamheten hade skett i majoriteten av företagen. Företagen i studien har behövt mycket hjälp från Miljöcentrum, som är ansvariga för Stockholms stads miljödiplom, vilket innebär att kompetensen om miljödiplomet inte alltid skapades eller fanns inom företaget.

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  • 176.
    Quwsar, Mohammad Abu
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    An Economic Analysis of Transparency Improvement in the Baltic Proper, Baltic Sea2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is the one of the most studied seas area in the world and it is severely affected by human activities where eutrophication is the overall environmental problem. Although there is an international agreement that nutrient input to the Baltic should be reduced, the measures taken so far have not resulted in major reductions in nutrient inputs nor in environmental improvements. Sewage reduction is the most important factor for transparency improvement of the Baltic Proper and wetland restoration and change of N spreading time have no effective role in this aspect. Within the Baltic area, establishment of sewage treatment technology in Russia and Poland is more cost-effective than it would be in Sweden. Without this measure transparency improvement would be expensive. In Sweden NOx reduction is most cost-effective measure for transparency improvement in the Baltic Proper and without this measure the total cost would be ~ 58.5 million euro.

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  • 177.
    Rahm, Lars
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Danielsson, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Spatial heterogeneity of nutrients in the Baltic Proper, Baltic Sea2007Ingår i: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 73, nr 1-2, s. 268-278Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Proper shows many signs of eutrophication. Nutrient changes over time have been discernable, and also within the Sea there are large spatial patterns. Present study analyses the spatial patterns of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus as well as dissolved silicate (DSi) in the euphotic zone for the period 1990-2001. The focus is on the spatial heterogeneity with the aim to identify areas significantly different from the overall mean.

    Three regions are clearly discernible, the interior, the western and the eastern coastal zones. This is further complicated by the Gulfs of Finland and Riga with distinct different behaviour compared to the other ones. While the coastal zones are re-supplied by their terrestrial sources, the exchange with the interior is limited by geophysical constraints. The western border shows permanently high DSi but low DIN and DIP concentrations. The riverine loads of DIN, DIP and DSi are low but a large transport of DSi probably takes place from the Bothnian Sea to the Kattegat along the western coast with only minor retention. The eastern region, on the other hand, is characterised by both high nutrient loads and high production. These spatial patterns agree well with a conceptual model where the spring bloom leads to an interior generally low in DIN. This favours N-fixating cyanobacteria blooms at the expense of diatoms. This view is supported by decreasing DIP concentrations but unaffected DSi levels. The spatial patterns observed well reflect the riverine nutrient loads. This should be regarded in future remedy plans for the eutrophic Baltic Sea. The terrestrial load can have very different impacts on the ecosystems depending on which coastal section is involved.

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  • 178.
    Regmi, Santosh Regmi
    et al.
    Society of Hydrologists and Meteorologists (SOHAM) Nepal.
    Bhusal, Jagat K.
    Society of Hydrologists and Meteorologists (SOHAM) Nepal.
    Gurung, Praju
    Society of Hydrologists and Meteorologists (SOHAM) Nepal.
    Zulkafli, Zed
    Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.
    Karpouzoglou, Timothy
    Public Administration and Policy Group, Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    Tocachi, Boris Ochoa
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Buytaert, Wouter
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Mao, Feng
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    Learning to cope with water variability through participatory monitoring: the case study of the mountainous region , Nepal2019Ingår i: Meteorology Hydrology and Water Management, ISSN 2299-3835, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 49-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory monitoring allows communities to understand the use and management of local water resources and at the same time develop a sense of ownership of environmental information. The data generated through participatory monitoring of stream flow and rainfall generate evidences to corroborate local people's experiences with changing water resources patterns. In this study we evaluate the potential of participatory monitoring of hydrological variables to improve scarce water supply utilization in agriculture. The case study site is the Mustang district in Nepal, which is located in the upper Kaligandaki river basin in the Himalayas with unique and complex geographical and climatic features. This region is characterized by a semi-arid climate with total annual precipitation of less than 300 mm. Water supply, agricultural land, and livestock grazing are the key ecosystem services that underpin livelihood security of the local population, particularly socio-economically vulnerable groups. An analysis of the measured stream flow data indicate that annual flow of water in the stream can meet the current crop irrigation water needs for the agricultural land of the research site. The data provide local farmers a new way of understanding local water needs. Participatory monitoring would contribute to an optimization of the use of ecosystem services to support economic development and livelihood improvement.

  • 179.
    Rockström, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm Environment Institute/Stockholm Resilience Centre, Kräftriket 2, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lannerstad, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Falkenmark, Malin
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Kräftriket 2, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Assessing the water challenge of a new green revolution in developing countries2007Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 104, nr 15, s. 6253-6260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the water implications in 92 developing countries of first attaining the 2015 hunger target of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals and then feeding a growing population on an acceptable standard diet. The water requirements in terms of vapor flows are quantified, potential water sources are identified, and impacts on agricultural land expansion and water tradeoffs with ecosystems are analyzed. This article quantifies the relative contribution from infiltrated rainwater/green water in rain-fed agriculture, and liquid water/blue water from irrigation, and how far water productivity (WP) gains can go in reducing the pressure on freshwater resources. Under current WP levels, another 2,200 km3·yr−1 of vapor flow is deemed necessary to halve hunger by 2015 and 5,200 km3·yr−1 in 2050 to alleviate hunger. A nonlinear relationship between vapor flow and yield growth, particularly in low-yielding savanna agro-ecosystems, indicates a high potential for WP increase. Such WP gains may reduce additional water needs in agriculture, with 16% in 2015 and 45% by 2050. Despite an optimistic outlook on irrigation development, most of the additional water will originate from rain-fed production. Yield growth, increasing consumptive use on existing rain-fed cropland, and fodder from grazing lands may reduce the additional rain-fed water use further by 43–47% until 2030. To meet remaining water needs, a cropland expansion of ≈0.8% yr−1, i.e., a similar rate as over the past 50 years (≈0.65% yr−1), seems unavoidable if food production is to occur in proximity to local markets.

  • 180.
    Rosswall, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Introduction2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation is only available as a sound file.

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  • 181.
    Routh, Joyanto
    et al.
    Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.
    Grossman, Ethan L.
    Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.
    Murphy, Ellyn M.
    Environmental and Energy Sciences Division, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA.
    Benner, Ronald
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.
    Characterization and Origin of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Yegua Ground Water in Brazos County, Texas2005Ingår i: Groundwater, E-ISSN 1745-6584, Vol. 39, nr 5, s. 760-767Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in five shallow (< 20 m) and three deeper wells (27 to 30 m) in the Eocene Yegua Formation (Brazos County in east-central Texas) ranged from 92 to 500 ᅵm. Characterization of high, intermediate, and low molecular weight DOC fractions (HMW > 3000 amu, IMW 1000 to 3000 amu, and LMW 500 to 1000 amu) and combined neutral sugar analyses provide information on organic matter sources in the Yegua aquifers. Combined neutral sugars ranged in concentration from 0.6 to 2.7 ᅵmol/L and comprised 0.8% to 6.7% of DOC in ground water. Glucose was the most abundant neutral sugar, followed by xylose and galactose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose, and fucose. These combined neutral sugars were more diagenetically altered in shallow, oxic ground water as indicated by high mole % fucose + rhamnose and low neutral sugar yield. The precursors for neutral sugars are most probably angiosperm leaves, which show a similar distribution pattern of neutral sugars. Ground water DOC was depleted in 13C relative to soil-zone organic matter (OM) (-16ᅵ to -19ᅵ). The d13C values of bulk DOC and HMW DOC ranged from -24ᅵ to ᅵ32ᅵ, whereas LMW and IMW DOC ranged from -32ᅵ to -34ᅵ and ᅵ16ᅵ to ᅵ28ᅵ, respectively. This variability in d13C values is probably related to microbial processes and selective preservation of OM. Carbon isotope analyses in bulk and different molecular weight DOC fractions imply a predominantly C3 OM source and a low contribution of soil-zone OM to DOC.

  • 182.
    Routh, Joyanto
    et al.
    Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.
    Ikramuddin, Mohammed
    Department of Geology, Eastern Washington University, Cheney, WA 99004, USA.
    Trace-element geochemistry of Onion Creek near Van Stone lead-zinc mine (Washington, USA) — Chemical analysis and geochemical modeling1996Ingår i: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 133, nr 1, s. 211-224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Van Stone lead-zinc mine in Washington is a possible contamination source of Columbia River water. Breaching of an old tailings pond, seepage of contaminated water, and surficial transport of mine tailings have increased trace-element (TE) concentrations in the Onion Creek water and sediments. Chemical analyses of water and sediment samples indicate high TE levels near the breached tailings pond. TE contamination indices for sediments indicate high values of Pb, Zn, and other TE’s which decrease downstream. High Kd values (> 104) for several TE’s (e.g., Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn) suggest their enrichment in the solid phase. TE concentrations in Onion Creek water and sediment sharply attenuate downstream due to: (1) enhanced carbonate dissolution, thereby increasing pH and immobilizing TE’s; (2) sorption to oxides; and (3) change in lithology from carbonate to granite. Speciation model MINTEQA2 was used to study the effect on TE dispersion due to dissolution-precipitation reactions and adsorption to ferrihydrite. In addition to the field and chemical data, the model also supports the hypothesis that Onion Creek sediments are the major sink for TE’s at VSM. Model runs indicate precipitation of Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Mn minerals from oversaturation, whereas TE’s with low concentrations (Cr, Cu, Ni, Se) or geochemically more mobile (As, Mo, Sb) remain dissolved in water. Near the tailings ponds, high pH and abundance of sorption sites in sediments contribute to the complete adsorption of Pb and Zn species. Because ambient conditions result in the sorption of most Pb and Zn ions, Onion Creek water quality meets EPA regulatory standards. These species will persist in Onion Creek sediments as sorbed or insoluble complexes, and without drastic pH changes (< 4.0) they will remain immobilized. However, continued TE enrichment in sediments will prove hazardous to filter feeding and aquatic organisms.

  • 183.
    Sakeyo, Emmanuel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Modelling the impact of deforestation on the stream flows - A case of Chalimbana river catchment in Chongwe, Zambia2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a basic necessity for sustaining life and development of society. Proper management, protection and exploitation of water resources are the challenges imposed by population growth, increasing pressure on the water and land resources by competing usage. A good amount of clean water exists on Earth although it is normally inadequate in supply because of anthropogenic activities such as deforestation and land use change. Like many other catchments that provide economic activities for the community’s livelihood, the Chalimbana river catchment in Zambia has been deforested heavily and most of the local communities believe that deforestation could be the main contributing factor to the drying up of Chalimbana River. The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of deforestation on the stream flow of Chalimbana River Catchment with the help of a conceptual hydrological model, HBV. There was a 24% reduction in the annual average rainfall amounts for the deforested period as compared to the period before deforestation. The Qrec/Qsim ratios had revealed that the annual stream flow generation for the period after deforestation (1987 to 1996) for the Chalimbana River had decreased by about 12% as compared to the period with enough forest cover (1975 to 1985). The ratio of annual Qrec/P had indicated that after a 30% forest loss in Chalimbana catchment, there was a 33% increase in the generation of the stream flow. Based on the results that were obtained, a number of recommendations aiming at improving the catchment management were made.

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  • 184.
    Sandström, Klas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Forests and Water - Friends or Foes?: Hydrological implications of deforestation and land degradation in semi-arid Tanzania1995Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of landscape hydrology; a type of hydrology which focuses on large sca1e implications of hydrologica1 processes as a function of hydroclimate, surface and sub-surface land properties, and the effect of human activities. The focus of the thesis is groundwater recharge and dry season flow following deforestation and land degradation. This is a highly controversial issue. In many countries, inc1uding those in humid-temperate regions, an a1most intuitiona1 feeling causes many to many believe that springs and streams will flow more steadily and at higher rates in a forested as compared to a deforested catchment. The trees are not seen as giant pumps transferring stored soilwater to the atmosphere, but as creators of an environment of "sponges" that can "buffer" tbe runoff and support dry season flow. Both of these views are simplistic. The aim of this thesis is to try to separate myth from science in regard to forests and water.

    In tbe study area in Babati District in Tanzania a multi-component research approach was attempted. Two catchments, one forested and one deforesteddegraded, were studied regarding soj] properties, runoff and groundwater recharge. This was done botb in tbe field and with tbe use of two computer models: one simulating groundwater recharge as a function of rainfa1l variability, and one simulating hydrological implications of massive land cover conversion on tbe flooding ofnearby Lake Babati.

    Three major findings came out of the study. The first is that most forested catchments (in various hydroclimates and landscapes) will increase the runoff following deforestation (due to less evapotranspiration). This is well-established knowledge, but it also depends on the actual conditions at hand. These conditions are defined as hydroclimate, soil texture and slope. In humid-temperate climates with coarse soils on flat land, the conditions strongly favor increased runoff following deforestation. However, in dry tropical regions with fine textured soils on billy ground, and where deforestation also implies land degradation, less dry season flow is likely to develop after a considerable adjustment period has been allowed. Secondly, the prevalence of preferential flow in a forest soil, as compared to a compacted and eroded soil, must be a key component in an explanation of why more dry season flow can emerge from a forested as compared to a deforested catchment in the dry tropics. Thirdly, there are several aspects of semi-arid and arid tropical hydrology which make comparisions with humid-temperate regions difficult and require special attention in the management ofwater resources in the dry tropics.

  • 185.
    Santhi Kanna, Dorai Kannan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Industrial Pollution and Economic Compensation: A  Study of Down Stream Villages in Noyyal River, Tirupur, Tamil Nadu, South India2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Tirupur is an Indian textile town which constitutes many dyeing and bleaching units situated in the upstream. Tirupur serves as one of the major exporters of textiles. The industrial pollution have affected not only the surface water but also the soils and ground water. This thesis studies the impacts of industrial pollution on agriculture and livestock. It also explores the implicated problems involved in putting an economic compensation mechanism into practise. The impact study was made on the detailed primary data collected from an intensive study of comparing a pollution affected villages located downstream of the Orathapalyam dam, Tamil Nadu, South India with a control village. The cost estimates that the impact of industrial pollution on predominant crops is quite substantial in monetary terms. This paper argues that the compensation principle might work if the assessment is done to all affected victims. Both quantifying and non quantifying benefits should be incurred in the mechanism. Further, mere passing of fines and creating institutional structures are not sufficient to address the environmental problems. Policies should be implemented in their right perspective. Institutions should be strong enough, with more autonomy and powers, to deal with problems and to monitor the RO plants in dyeing units in Tirupur.

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  • 186.
    Sawakuchi, Henrique
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ward, Nicholas D.
    Pacific Northwest Natl Lab, WA USA; Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Camargo, Plinio B.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Richey, Jeffrey E.
    Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Low Diffusive Methane Emissions From the Main Channel of a Large Amazonian Run-of-the-River Reservoir Attributed to High Methane Oxidation2021Ingår i: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 9, artikel-id 655455Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The global development of hydropower dams has rapidly expanded over the last several decades and has spread to historically non-impounded systems such as the Amazon Rivers main low land tributaries in Brazil. Despite the recognized significance of reservoirs to the global methane (CH4) emission, the processes controlling this emission remain poorly understood, especially in Tropical reservoirs. Here we evaluate CH4 dynamics in the main channel and downstream of the Santo Antonio hydroelectric reservoir, a large tropical run-of-the-river (ROR) reservoir in Amazonia. This study is intended to give a snapshot of the CH4 dynamics during the falling water season at the initial stage after the start of operations. Our results show substantial and higher CH4 production in reservoirs littoral sediment than in the naturally flooded areas downstream of the dam. Despite the large production in the reservoir or naturally flooded areas, high CH4 oxidation in the main channel keep the concentration and fluxes of CH4 in the main channel low. Similar CH4 concentrations in the reservoir and downstream close to the dam suggest negligible degassing at the dam, but stable isotopic evidence indicates the presence of a less oxidized pool of CH4 after the dam. ROR reservoirs are designed to disturb the natural river flow dynamics less than traditional reservoirs. If enough mixing and oxygenation remain throughout the reservoirs water column, naturally high CH4 oxidation rates can also remain and limit the diffusive CH4 emissions from the main channel. Nevertheless, it is important to highlight that our results focused on emissions in the deep and oxygenated main channel. High emissions, mainly through ebullition, may occur in the vast and shallow areas represented by bays and tributaries. However, detailed assessments are still required to understand the impacts of this reservoir on the annual emissions of CH4.

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  • 187.
    Schmid Neset, Tina-Simone
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bader, Hans-Peter
    Systems Analysis, Integrated Assessment and Modelling (SIAM) Department of the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG), in Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Scheidegger, Ruth
    Systems Analysis, Integrated Assessment and Modelling (SIAM) Department of the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG), in Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Food Consumption and Nutrient Flows – Nitrogen in Sweden since the 1870s2006Ingår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 61-75Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in food consumption and related processes have a significant impact on the flow of nitrogen in the environment. This study identifies both flows within the system and emissions to the hydrosphere and atmosphere. A case study of an average inhabitant of the city of Linköping, Sweden, covers the years 1870, 1900, 1950, and 2000 and includes changes in food consumption and processing, agricultural production, and organic waste handling practices. Emissions to the hydrosphere from organic waste handling increased from 0.57 kilograms of nitrogen per capita per year (kg N/cap per year) to 3.1 kg N/cap per year, whereas the total flow of nitrogen to waste deposits grew from a negligible amount to 1.7 kg N/cap per year. The largest flow of nitrogen during the entire period came from fodder. The input of chemical fertilizer rose gradually to a high level of 15 kg N/cap per year in the year 2000. The total load per capita disposed of to the environment decreased during these 130 years by about 30%.

  • 188.
    Schmid Neset, Tina-Simone
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Spatial Imprint of Food Consumption: A Historical Analysis for Sweden, 1870-20002005Ingår i: Human Ecology, ISSN 0300-7839, E-ISSN 1572-9915, Vol. 33, nr 4, s. 565-580Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Depending on quantity and composition of food as well as on production conditions and techniques, the space needed to sustain an individual’s nourishment varies. The amount of space needed also depends on the use of resources such as energy, water, and fertilizers, as well as potential land degradation and water pollution. Our study focuses on the changing spatial imprint of an average inhabitant of an expanding Swedish city, Linköping, from 1870 to 2000 taking into account both shifts in consumption as well as agricultural productivity and practices. Despite the distinctly larger amount of animal food products, such as meat and fish, consumed in 2000, we calculate the area needed to sustain an individual’s annual food consumption could be less than one fourth of that needed in 1870. However, if the import of various globally produced foods is included in our calculations, the land needed to sustain the consumption of an inhabitant of Linköping in 2000 doubles. We also argue that an examination of this regional imprint can be used to explore and evaluate possibilities for regional development.

  • 189. Schönning, Caroline
    et al.
    Westrell, Therese
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Stenström, Thor-Axel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten
    Hasling, Arne Bernt
    Høibye, Linda
    Carlsen, Anders
    Microbial risk assessment of local handling and reuse of human faeces2007Ingår i: Journal of Water and Health, ISSN 1477-8920, E-ISSN 1996-7829, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 117-128Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dry urine-diverting toilets may be used in order to collect excreta for the utilisation of nutrients. A quantitative microbial risk assessment was conducted in order to evaluate the risks of transmission of infectious disease related to the local use of faeces as a fertiliser. The human exposures evaluated included accidental ingestion of small amounts of faeces, or a mixture of faeces and soil, while emptying the storage container and applying the material in the garden, during recreational stays to the garden, and during gardening. A range of pathogens representing various groups of microorganisms was considered. Results showed that 12-months' storage before use was sufficient for the inactivation of most pathogens to acceptable levels. When working or spending time in the garden the annual risk of infection by Ascaris was still slightly above 10-4 in these scenarios, although the incidence rate for Ascaris is very low in the population in question. Measures to further reduce the hygienic risks include longer storage, or treatment, of the faeces. The results can easily be extended to other regions with different incidence rates.

  • 190.
    Signori, Camila Negrao
    et al.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    de Sa Felizardo, Joao Paulo
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro UFRJ, Brazil.
    Bacterial production prevails over photo- and chemosynthesis in a eutrophic tropical lagoon2020Ingår i: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 243, artikel-id 106889Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dark carbon fixation is a combination of processes performed by microorganisms to fix inorganic carbon driven the energy generated by chemical reactions. Our study quantified microbial primary and secondary production rates to evaluate the relative importance of dark carbon fixation in relation to photosynthetic rates and heterotrophic bacterial production and their contribution to the carbon cycle in a tropical eutrophic and human-impacted lagoon (Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, Brazil). Samples were collected daily at a fixed point to assess short-term temporal variations and at six different stations to assess spatial variability. Water samples were incubated using C-14-bicarbonate at 100% of light and in the dark to quantify photosynthesis and dark carbon fixation, respectively; and H-3-leucine incubations were performed to measure bacterial production. Environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon and inorganic nutrients) were measured to characterize the hydrology of the studied area, and to evaluate their influence on the microbial production rates. There were no significant changes in production rates over time or within different depths. Bacterial production rates varied significantly over space, and were correlated with nitrogen compounds, temperature, salinity and pH. However, a short rainfall event, although not strong or extreme, promoted rapid changes in the shallow water column, such as a decrease in temperature and nitrogen compounds, inducing responses to microbial production rates, such as higher rates of dark carbon fixation and bacterial production at the bottom and lower rates of photosynthesis. Heterotrophic bacterial production was significantly higher than dark and light carbon fixation, being the most important carbon-cycling process in Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, possibly favored by the high allochthonous organic matter and nutrient inputs. This study showed that, on average, dark carbon fixation accounted for 30% at the surface and 43% near the bottom of the total primary production and up to 10% of heterotrophic production in the water column, which may be related to the availability of ammonia and methane. We concluded that, even for this short-term temporal and spatial assessment, dark carbon fixation is relevant, although usually disregarded, and this process should be taken into account when evaluating carbon budgets, metabolic balance and ecosystem functioning in tropical coastal lagoons.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 191.
    Sjöblom, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Mechanisms of metal immobilisation in mine drainage treatment wetlands – a sustainability perspective2003Ingår i: Proceedings from the 6th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Carlton, Victoria, Australia, 2003, s. 817-823Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 192.
    Sjöblom, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wetlands as a means to reduce the environmental impact of mine drainage waters2003Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In many mining regions of the world, pollution of surface water and groundwater by drainage water originating from mines aiming waste poses either a serious threat to the environment, or a severe environmental problem. During the last two and a half decades, treatment of mine drainage water in constructed and natural wetlands has emerged as an alternative to more conventional methods to handle the problem. In this thesis, the major biogeochemical processes behind metal immobilization in wetlands are summarized. Factors that influence the efficiency and longevity of these processes are discussed based on a review of previous experiences from wetlands exposed to mine drainage waters. The potential for successful treatment is largely determined by the characteristics of the drainage, the morphology of the wetland, and the degree of maintenance planned. In maintenance-free wetland, factors that have to be considered include: changes in drainage water production and wetland performance over the years, the total metal accumulating capacity of the wetland, and the post treatment integrity of the wetland. Results from a case study indicated that no or little immobilization of metals occured in natural wetlands situated along a mining region recipient (the river Vormbäcken, northern Sweden). However, Fe supplied from the catchment area appeared to favor the fraction of As, Cu, and Pb recovered in particles, a mechanism that could be of interest for the polishing of treated mine drainage waters, especially when combined with settling in a downstream wetland. Laboratory experiments showed that such a process is likely to be favored by addition of Fe in its ferrous form, higher water temperatures, presence of Ca, and absence of dissolved organic matter.

    Delarbeten
    1. Changes in water chemistry along a river receiving treated AMD: the influence of different kinds of wetlands, phase 1
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Changes in water chemistry along a river receiving treated AMD: the influence of different kinds of wetlands, phase 1
    2000 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings from the 5th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage: The Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., Littleton, Colorado, USA, 2000, s. 1185-1192Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13429 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2003-10-26 Skapad: 2003-10-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13
    2. Metal concentrations along a mining region recipient: some aspects on water quality
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Metal concentrations along a mining region recipient: some aspects on water quality
    2001 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings from Securing the Future: International Conference on Mining and the Environment, Skellefteå, Sweden, 2001, s. 777-786Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes parts of the results from a sampling campaign conducted along a mining region recipient, the Vormbäcken River, in northern Sweden during 1999 and 2000. Surface water from seven stations along the river, and the effluent water from an active mine, were sampled on six occasions. On two of these occasions, additional samples were collected both from the river and its major tributaries. Applying a catchment perspective, special emphasis was given to identify sources and potential sinks to different metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ca, and As) encountered in the river water. Base parameters such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC), and SO42- were also investigated. The aim of the selected approach was both to quantify the importance of natural immobilization processes occurring in wetlands and a lake along the river, as a basis for a further development within the field of passive treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD), and to point at issues within the catchment area that can be dealt with to improve the overall water quality.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13430 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2003-10-26 Skapad: 2003-10-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13
    3. Present patterns of metal concentrations and loadings in a small river in a mining region
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Present patterns of metal concentrations and loadings in a small river in a mining region
    Manuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13431 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2003-10-26 Skapad: 2003-10-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2010-01-13
    4. River water metal speciation in a mining region – the influence of wetlands, liming, tributaries, and groundwater
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>River water metal speciation in a mining region – the influence of wetlands, liming, tributaries, and groundwater
    2004 (Engelska)Ingår i: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, Vol. 152, nr 1-4, s. 173-194Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Nyckelord
    Ca, DOC, Fe, metals, organic complexes, particles, POC, the Skellefte mining district, treatment
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13432 (URN)10.1023/B:WATE.0000015355.50606.a5 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2003-10-26 Skapad: 2003-10-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13
    5. Repartitioning of river water trace metals following addition of minor amounts of ferrous iron
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Repartitioning of river water trace metals following addition of minor amounts of ferrous iron
    2003 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings from the 6th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage: Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Carlton, Victoria, Australia, 2003, s. 1125-1128Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13433 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2003-10-26 Skapad: 2003-10-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13
    6. Particulate Fe as a scavenger of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in simulated contaminated river waters
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Particulate Fe as a scavenger of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in simulated contaminated river waters
    Manuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13434 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2003-10-26 Skapad: 2003-10-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2010-01-13
    7. Mechanisms of metal immobilisation in mine drainage treatment wetlands – a sustainability perspective
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Mechanisms of metal immobilisation in mine drainage treatment wetlands – a sustainability perspective
    2003 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings from the 6th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Carlton, Victoria, Australia, 2003, s. 817-823Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13435 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2003-10-26 Skapad: 2003-10-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 193.
    Sjöblom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Allard, B.
    Changes in water chemistry along a river receiving treated AMD: the influence of different kinds of wetlands, phase 12000Ingår i: Proceedings from the 5th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage: The Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., Littleton, Colorado, USA, 2000, s. 1185-1192Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 194.
    Sjöblom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Håkansson, K.
    Repartitioning of river water trace metals following addition of minor amounts of ferrous iron2003Ingår i: Proceedings from the 6th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage: Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Carlton, Victoria, Australia, 2003, s. 1125-1128Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 195.
    Sjöblom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Håkansson, Karsten
    Allard, Bert
    Metal concentrations along a mining region recipient: some aspects on water quality2001Ingår i: Proceedings from Securing the Future: International Conference on Mining and the Environment, Skellefteå, Sweden, 2001, s. 777-786Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes parts of the results from a sampling campaign conducted along a mining region recipient, the Vormbäcken River, in northern Sweden during 1999 and 2000. Surface water from seven stations along the river, and the effluent water from an active mine, were sampled on six occasions. On two of these occasions, additional samples were collected both from the river and its major tributaries. Applying a catchment perspective, special emphasis was given to identify sources and potential sinks to different metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ca, and As) encountered in the river water. Base parameters such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC), and SO42- were also investigated. The aim of the selected approach was both to quantify the importance of natural immobilization processes occurring in wetlands and a lake along the river, as a basis for a further development within the field of passive treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD), and to point at issues within the catchment area that can be dealt with to improve the overall water quality.

  • 196.
    Sjöblom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Håkansson, Karsten
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Allard, Bert
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre, Department of Natural Science, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    River water metal speciation in a mining region – the influence of wetlands, liming, tributaries, and groundwater2004Ingår i: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, Vol. 152, nr 1-4, s. 173-194Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 197.
    Sjömander Magnusson, Therése
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Household responsiveness to water demand management incentives in Windhoek, Namibia.2004Ingår i: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 453-471Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Water demand management is seen as a useful tool for curbing luxury water demand, improving efficiency and increasing awareness about water scarcity. In this paper, the response by households to pricing and information, as part of water demand management, in both the formal and informal areas of Windhoek is analysed. The results imply that the effectiveness of block tariffs is overestimated when applied to middle and high income areas. Instead urban lifestyle and accessibility to water dominates behavioural patterns at a certain consumption level. In addition, information about water scarcity was adapted among most households in the squatter areas.

  • 198.
    Sjömander Magnusson, Therése
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Urban Water Security – Local Conditions and Regional Context: A case study of attitudes and water use behaviour in Windhoek, Namibia2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is becoming urbanised. Between 1995 and 2025, it is estimated that the cities and towns of the developing world will have absorbed another two billion people. A majority of these people will be poor and settle down in the unregulated areas. It is therefore fair to say that the management and use of water in urban areas is a very complex and dynamic issue. The fact that cities in the South are composed of two systems, the regulated and the unregulated areas, and that considerable diversity exists between them, highlights the need for a context driven policy design in urban water management. For attaining urban water security in these cities, controlling water demand in the regulated areas while improving access to water of good quality in the unregulated areas must be a priority. This thesis is based on a case study of Windhoek, a city characterized by conditions of aridity, rapid urbanisation and primate city dominance. Since 1994, a thorough water demand management (WDM) strategy has been implemented in Windhoek, aiming at improving water use efficiency and to reduce water consumption through economic and non-economical measures. It has been the purpose to examine the development of urban water management along with urban growth, the response to WDM by the domestic and private business sectors, as well as challenges and benefits of allowing urban branch-lines along water transfer schemes.

    WDM can be an efficient tool in the struggle against luxury and non-efficient water use, to postpone bulk water investments and for cost-recovery. However, it is crucial that the incentives are based on and flexible according to socio-economic conditions, and that water managers acknowledge motives and attitudes that shape water use behaviour. One dilemma of WDM lies in the fact that if the supply capacity is increased, it is likely that demand will be adjusted accordingly. It is a tricky task to motivate water savings through demand management alongside with an improved water supply. Moreover, it is essential that savings are not only temporary, but also part of a long-term adjustment. Another predicament of WDM is that a high trust in water authorities actually lowered the efficiency of the strategy to meet the anticipated goal.

    Delarbeten
    1. Context driven policy design in urban water management: A case study of Windhoek, Namibia
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Context driven policy design in urban water management: A case study of Windhoek, Namibia
    2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 151-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Urban water management in the southern cities of Namibia is composed through both a formal and an informal system. In the formal system, controlling demand is the key issue, and in the informal system, an improved accessibility to water is fundamental. The main issue raised in this paper is how authorities can support an ever-increasing poor population with water and at the same time keep demand among households with private water connections at a reasonable level. To decrease the demand for water in Windhoek, a thorough water demand management strategy (WDM) was launched in 1994. Water managers showed a high level of adaptability to the alarming water situation. One of the lessons learned from the implementation in Windhoek is that dedicated people with active involvement and vision are important for successful WDM. The budget must be allocated on a continuous basis for the implementation of certain WDM measures and a degree of flexibility among water users is important for the strategy to be successful. The dual situation experienced in cities in the South where both a need to expand services, and at the same time control demand, calls for a new approach in urban water management. Strategies need to be socially specific and flexible to changing pre-conditions. Therefore, a context driven policy design is advocated.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Taylor & Francis, 2005
    Nyckelord
    Urban water management; Urban growth; Water demand management; Social adaptability; Context driven policy design
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13463 (URN)10.1080/15730620500236468 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2005-06-19 Skapad: 2005-06-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Household responsiveness to water demand management incentives in Windhoek, Namibia.
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Household responsiveness to water demand management incentives in Windhoek, Namibia.
    2004 (Engelska)Ingår i: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 453-471Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Water demand management is seen as a useful tool for curbing luxury water demand, improving efficiency and increasing awareness about water scarcity. In this paper, the response by households to pricing and information, as part of water demand management, in both the formal and informal areas of Windhoek is analysed. The results imply that the effectiveness of block tariffs is overestimated when applied to middle and high income areas. Instead urban lifestyle and accessibility to water dominates behavioural patterns at a certain consumption level. In addition, information about water scarcity was adapted among most households in the squatter areas.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13464 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2005-06-19 Skapad: 2005-06-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13
    3. Motives affecting water demand within the economic sector in Windhoek, Namibia: Contradictions and Dilemmas
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Motives affecting water demand within the economic sector in Windhoek, Namibia: Contradictions and Dilemmas
    2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Water international, ISSN 0250-8060, E-ISSN 1941-1707Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13465 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2005-06-19 Skapad: 2005-06-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13
    4. Urban water security beyond primate cities – considering urban branch-lines along water transfer schemes: A scenario of the proposed pipeline from the Okavango River to Windhoek in Namibia
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Urban water security beyond primate cities – considering urban branch-lines along water transfer schemes: A scenario of the proposed pipeline from the Okavango River to Windhoek in Namibia
    2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Water resources management, ISSN 0920-4741, E-ISSN 1573-1650Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13466 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2005-06-19 Skapad: 2005-06-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 199.
    Sjömander-Magnusson, Therese
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lundqvist, Jan Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Motives affecting water demand within the economic sector in Windhoek, Namibia: Contradictions and Dilemmas2005Ingår i: Water international, ISSN 0250-8060, E-ISSN 1941-1707Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 200.
    Sjömander-Magnusson, Therese
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Schachtschneider, K.
    Urban water security beyond primate cities – considering urban branch-lines along water transfer schemes: A scenario of the proposed pipeline from the Okavango River to Windhoek in Namibia2005Ingår i: Water resources management, ISSN 0920-4741, E-ISSN 1573-1650Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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