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  • 151.
    Alnervik, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Evaluation of the Configurable Architecture REPLICA with Emulated Shared Memory2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    REPLICA är en grupp av konfigurerbara multiprocessorer som med hjälp utav ett emulerat delat minne realiserar PRAM modellen.

    Syftet med denna avhandling är att genom benchmarking av olika beräkningsproblem på REPLICA, liknande (SB-PRAM och XMT) och mindre lika (Xeon X5660 och Tesla M2050) parallella arkitekturer, utvärdera hur REPLICA står sig mot andra befintliga arkitekturer. Både prestandamässigt och hur enkel arkitekturen är att programmera effektiv, men även försöka ta reda på om REPLICA är speciellt lämpad för några särskilda typer av beräkningsproblem.

    Genom att använda välkända Berkeley dwarfs applikationer och opartisk indata från bland annat The University of Florida Sparse Matrix Collection och Rodinia benchmark suite, säkerställer vi att det är relevanta beräkningsproblem som utförs och mäts.

    Vi visar att dagens parallella arkitekturer har problem med prestandan för applikationer med oregelbundna minnesaccessmönster, vilken REPLICA arkitekturen kan vara en lösning på. Till exempel, så behöver REPLICA endast vara klockad med några få MHz för att matcha både Xeon X5660 och Tesla M2050 för algoritmen breadth first search, vilken lider av just oregelbunden minnesåtkomst. Genom att jämföra effektiviteten för REPLICA gentemot en CPU (Xeon X5660), visar vi att det är lättare att programmera REPLICA effektivt än dagens multiprocessorer.

  • 152.
    Alodeh, Maha
    et al.
    Univ Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Spano, Danilo
    Univ Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Kalantari, Ashkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Tsinos, Christos G.
    Univ Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Christopoulos, Dimitrios
    Newtec Satcom, Belgium.
    Chatzinotas, Symeon
    Univ Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Ottersten, Bjorn
    Univ Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Symbol-Level and Multicast Precoding for Multiuser Multiantenna Downlink: A State-of-the-Art, Classification, and Challenges2018Ingår i: IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, ISSN 1553-877X, E-ISSN 1553-877X, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 1733-1757Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Precoding has been conventionally considered as an effective means of mitigating or exploiting the interference in the multiantenna downlink channel, where multiple users are simultaneously served with independent information over the same channel resources. The early works in this area were focused on transmitting an individual information stream to each user by constructing weighted linear combinations of symbol blocks (codewords). However, more recent works have moved beyond this traditional view by: 1) transmitting distinct data streams to groups of users and 2) applying precoding on a symbol-persymbol basis. In this context, the current survey presents a unified view and classification of precoding techniques with respect to two main axes: 1) the switching rate of the precoding weights, leading to the classes of block-level and symbol-level precoding and 2) the number of users that each stream is addressed to, hence unicast, multicast, and broadcast precoding. Furthermore, the classified techniques are compared through representative numerical results to demonstrate their relative performance and uncover fundamental insights. Finally, a list of open theoretical problems and practical challenges are presented to inspire further research in this area.(1)

  • 153.
    Alonso, Fabiola
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Biomedicinsk instrumentteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hemm-Ode, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Biomedicinsk instrumentteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland.
    Wårdell, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Biomedicinsk instrumentteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Influence on Deep Brain Stimulation from Lead Design, Operating Mode and Tissue Impedance Changes – A Simulation Study2015Ingår i: Brain Disorders and Therapy, ISSN 2168-975X, Vol. 4, nr 3, artikel-id 1000169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems in current mode and new lead designs are recently available. To switch between DBS-systems remains complicated as clinicians may lose their reference for programming. Simulations can help increase the understanding.

    Objective: To quantitatively investigate the electric field (EF) around two lead designs simulated to operate in voltage and current mode under two time points following implantation.

    Methods: The finite element method was used to model Lead 3389 (Medtronic) and 6148 (St Jude) with homogenous surrounding grey matter and a peri-electrode space (PES) of 250 μm. The PES-impedance mimicked the acute (extracellular fluid) and chronic (fibrous tissue) time-point. Simulations at different amplitudes of voltage and current (n=236) were performed using two different contacts. Equivalent current amplitudes were extracted by matching the shape and maximum EF of the 0.2 V/mm isolevel.

    Results: The maximum EF extension at 0.2 V/mm varied between 2-5 mm with a small difference between the leads. In voltage mode EF increased about 1 mm at acute compared to the chronic PES. Current mode presented the opposite relationship. Equivalent EFs for lead 3389 at 3 V were found for 7 mA (acute) and 2.2 mA (chronic).

    Conclusions: Simulations showed a major impact on the electric field extension between postoperative time points. This may explain the clinical decisions to reprogram the amplitude weeks after implantation. Neither the EF extension nor intensity is considerably influenced by the lead design.

  • 154.
    Alonso, Javier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik.
    M.I.M.O Channel Model for High Capacity Wireless Networks and Simulator for Performance Analysis2006Studentarbete första termin, 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The wireless communications have suffered, in these last years, one of the greater technological growth within the communications via radio. The application of multiple antennas, as much in transmission as in reception has taken to an impulse of the study of different models from propagation channels.

    Taking this into consideration, the different types from mentioned models are going to be studied.

    The work that the ISY department at the Institute of Technology of the Linköping University has proposed is to develop to a propagation channel model, with several antennas in reception and transmission, that one first approach allows a capacity of the channel study, in absence of measures of possible scenarios, as well as the development of a small simulator that allows to analyze its benefits.

  • 155.
    Al-Salihi, Hayder
    et al.
    The Department of Informatics, King’s College London, UK.
    Van Chien, Trinh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Le, Tuan Anh
    The Department of Design Engineering and Mathematics, Middlesex University, London, UK.
    Nakhai, Mohammad Reza
    The Department of Informatics, King’s College London, London, UK.
    A Successive Optimization Approach to Pilot Design for Multi-Cell Massive MIMO Systems2018Ingår i: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 22, nr 5, s. 1086-1089Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this letter, we introduce a novel pilot designapproach that minimizes the total mean square errors of theminimum mean square error estimators of all base stations (BSs)subject to the transmit power constraints of individual users inthe network, while tackling the pilot contamination in multicellmassive MIMO systems. First, we decompose the originalnon-convex problem into distributed optimization sub-problemsat individual BSs, where each BS can optimize its own pilotsignals given the knowledge of pilot signals from the remainingBSs. We then introduce a successive optimization approach totransform each optimization sub-problem into a linear matrixinequality form, which is convex and can be solved by availableoptimization packages. Simulation results confirm the fast convergenceof the proposed approach and prevails a benchmarkscheme in terms of providing higher accuracy.

  • 156.
    Alsén, Victoria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik.
    GNSS Aided Inertial Human Body Motion Capture2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Human body motion capture systems based on inertial sensors (gyroscopes andaccelerometers) are able to track the relative motions in the body precisely, oftenwith the aid of supplementary sensors. The sensor measurements are combinedthrough a sensor fusion algorithm to create estimates of, among other parame-ters, position, velocity and orientation for each body segment. As this algorithmrequires integration of noisy measurements, some drift, especially in the positionestimate, is expected. Taking advantage of the knowledge about the tracked sub-ject, a human body, models have been developed that improve the estimates, butposition still displays drift over time.In this thesis, a GNSS receiver is added to the motion capture system to givea drift-free measurement of the position as well as a velocity measurement. Theinertial data and the GNSS data complements each other well, particularly interms of observability of global and relative motions. To enable the models of thehuman body at an early stage of the fusion of sensor data, an optimization basedmaximum a posteriori algorithm was used, which is also better suited for thenonlinear system tracked compared to the conventional method of using Kalmanfilters.One of the models that improves the position estimate greatly, without addingadditional sensing, is the contact detection, with which the velocity of a segmentis set to zero whenever it is considered stationary in comparison to the surround-ing environment, e.g. when a foot touches the ground. This thesis looks at botha scenario when this contact detection can be applied and a scenario where itcannot be applied, to see what possibilities an addition of GNSS sensor couldbring to the human body motion tracking case. The results display a notable im-provement in position, both with and without contact detection. Furthermore,the heading estimate is improved at a full-body scale and the solution makes theestimates depend less on acceleration bias estimation.These results show great potential for more accurate estimates outdoors andcould prove valuable for enabling motion tracking of scenarios where the contactdetection model cannot be used, such as e.g. biking.

  • 157.
    Altaf, Amjad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik.
    Design of Millimeter-wave SiGe Frequency Doubler and Output Buffer for Automotive Radar Applications2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Automotive Radars have introduced various functions on automobiles for driver’s safety and comfort, as part of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) including Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), collision warning or avoidance, blind spot surveillance and parking assistance. Although such radar systems with 24 GHz carrier frequency are already in use but due to some regulatory issues, recently a permanent band has been allocated at 77-81 GHz, allowing for long-term development of the radar service. In fact, switchover to the new band is mandatory by 2014.

    A frequency multiplier will be one of the key components for such a millimeter wave automotive radar system because there are limitations in direct implementation of low phase noise oscillators at high frequencies. A practical way to build a cost-effective and stable source at higher frequency is to use an active multiplier preceded by a high spectral purity VCO operating at a lower frequency. Recent improvements in the performance of SiGe technology allow the silicon microelectronics to advance into areas previously restricted to compound semiconductor devices and make it a strong competitor for automotive radar applications at 79 GHz.

    This thesis presents the design of active frequency doubler circuits at 20 GHz in a commercially available SiGe BiCMOS technology and at 40GHz in SiGe bipolar technology (Infineon-B7h200 design). Buffer/amplifier circuits are included at output stages to drive 50 Ω load. The frequency doubler at 20 GHz is based on an emitter-coupled pair operating in class-B configuration at 1.8 V supply voltage. Pre-layout simulations show its conversion gain of 10 dB at -5 dBm input, fundamental suppression of 25dB and NF of 12dB. Input and output impedance matching networks are designed to match 50 Ω at both sides.

    The millimeter wave frequency doubler is designed for 5 V supply voltage and has the Gilbert cell-based differential architecture where both RF and LO ports are tied together to act as a frequency doubler. Both pre-layout and post-layout simulation results are presented and compared together. The extracted circuit has a conversion gain of 8 dB at -8 dB input, fundamental suppression of 20 dB, NF of 12 dB and it consumes 42 mA current from supply. The layout occupies an area of 0.12 mm2 without pads and baluns at both input and output ports. The frequency multiplier circuits have been designed using Cadence Design Tool.

  • 158.
    Altafini, Claudio
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A continuous-time dynamical system that can sort agents through distributed protocols2014Ingår i: 2014 IEEEMulti-conference on Systems and Control, Antibes, France: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2014, s. 2153-2158Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A class of continuous-time dynamical systems able to sort a list of real numbers is introduced in this paper. The dynamical sorting is achieved in a completely distributed manner, by modifying a consensus problem, namely right multiplying a Laplacian matrix by a diagonal matrix of weights that represents the desired order. The sorting obtained is relative, i.e., a conservation law is imposed on the dynamics. It is shown that sorting can be achieved in finite-time even in a globally smooth way.

  • 159.
    Altafini, Claudio
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Involutive flows and discretization errors for nonlinear driftless control systems2017Ingår i: Systems & control letters (Print), ISSN 0167-6911, E-ISSN 1872-7956, Vol. 110, s. 29-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a continuous-time nonlinear driftless control system, an involutive flow is a composition of input profiles that does not excite any Lie bracket. Such flow composition is trivial, as it corresponds to a "forth and back" cyclic motion obtained rewinding the system along the same path. The aim of this paper is to show that, on the contrary, when a (nonexact) discretization of the nonlinear driftless control system is steered along the same trivial input path, it produces a net motion, which is related to the gap between the discretization used and the exact discretization given by a Taylor expansion. These violations of involutivity can be used to provide an estimate of the local truncation error of numerical integration schemes. In the special case in which the state of the driftless control system admits a splitting into shape and phase variables, our result corresponds to saying that the geometric phases of the discretization need not obey an area rule, i.e., even zero-area cycles in shape space can lead to nontrivial geometric phases. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2019-11-04 12:15
  • 160.
    Altafini, Claudio
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Minimal eventually positive realizations of externally positive systems2016Ingår i: Automatica, ISSN 0005-1098, E-ISSN 1873-2836, Vol. 68, s. 140-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a well-known fact that externally positive linear systems may fail to have a minimal positive realization. In order to investigate these cases, we introduce the notion of minimal eventually positive realization, for which the state update matrix becomes positive after a certain power. Eventually positive realizations capture the idea that in the impulse response of an externally positive system the state of a minimal realization may fail to be positive, but only transiently. As a consequence, we show that in discrete-time it is possible to use downsampling to obtain minimal positive realizations matching decimated sequences of Markov coefficients of the impulse response. In continuous-time, instead, if the sampling time is chosen sufficiently long, a minimal eventually positive realization leads always to a sampled realization which is minimal and positive.

  • 161.
    Altafini, Claudio
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nonintegrable discrete-time driftless control systems: geometric phases beyond the area rule2016Ingår i: 2016 IEEE 55th Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), IEEE Press, 2016, s. 4692-4697Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a continuous-time nonlinear driftless control system, a geometric phase is a consequence of nonintegrability of the vector fields, and it describes how cyclic trajectories in shape space induce non-periodic motion in phase space, according to an area rule. The aim of this paper is to shown that geometric phases exist also for discrete-time driftless nonlinear control systems, but that unlike their continuous-time counterpart, they need not obey any area rule, i.e., even zero-area cycles in shape space can lead to nontrivial geometric phases. When the discrete-time system is obtained through Euler discretization of a continuous-time system, it is shown that the zero-area geometric phase corresponds to the gap between the Euler discretization and an exact discretization of the continuous-time system.

  • 162.
    Altafini, Claudio
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Representing externally positive systems through minimal eventually positive realizations2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE 54th Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC),, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, s. 6385-6390Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate the cases in which an externally positive discrete-time system fails to have a minimal positive realization, in this paper we introduce the notion of minimal eventually positive realization, fr which the state update matrix becomes positive after a certain power. This property captures the idea that in the impulse response of an externally positive system the state of a minimal realization may fail to be positive, but only transiently. It is shown in the paper that whenever a minimal eventually positive realization exists, then the sequence of Markov parameters of the impulse response admits decimated subsequences for which minimal positive realizations exist and can be obtained by downsampling the eventually positive realization.

  • 163.
    Altafini, Claudio
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ceragioli, Francesca
    Politecn Torino, Italy.
    Signed bounded confidence models for opinion dynamics2018Ingår i: Automatica, ISSN 0005-1098, E-ISSN 1873-2836, Vol. 93, s. 114-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to modify continuous-time bounded confidence opinion dynamics models so that "changes of opinion" (intended as changes of the sign of the initial states) are never induced during the evolution. Such sign invariance can be achieved by letting opinions of different sign localized near the origin interact negatively, or neglect each other, or even repel each other. In all cases, it is possible to obtain sign-preserving bounded confidence models with state-dependent connectivity and with a clustering behavior similar to that of a standard bounded confidence model. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-03-28 00:01
  • 164.
    Altafini, Claudio
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Facchetti, Giuseppe
    John Innes Centre, England.
    Metabolic Adaptation Processes That Converge to Optimal Biomass Flux Distributions2015Ingår i: PloS Computational Biology, ISSN 1553-734X, E-ISSN 1553-7358, Vol. 11, nr 9, artikel-id e1004434Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In simple organisms like E. coli, the metabolic response to an external perturbation passes through a transient phase in which the activation of a number of latent pathways can guarantee survival at the expenses of growth. Growth is gradually recovered as the organism adapts to the new condition. This adaptation can be modeled as a process of repeated metabolic adjustments obtained through the resilencings of the non-essential metabolic reactions, using growth rate as selection probability for the phenotypes obtained. The resulting metabolic adaptation process tends naturally to steer the metabolic fluxes towards high growth phenotypes. Quite remarkably, when applied to the central carbon metabolism of E. coli, it follows that nearly all flux distributions converge to the flux vector representing optimal growth, i.e., the solution of the biomass optimization problem turns out to be the dominant attractor of the metabolic adaptation process.

  • 165.
    Altafini, Claudio
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lini, G.
    SISSA, International School for Advanced Studies,Trieste, Italy; Magneti Marelli S.p.A., Venaria Reale (TO), Italy.
    Achieving unanimous opinions in signed social networks2014Ingår i: Control Conference (ECC), 2014 European, IEEE , 2014, s. 184-189Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Being able to predict the outcome of an opinion forming process is an important problem in social network theory. However, even for linear dynamics, this becomes a difficult task as soon as non-cooperative interactions are taken into account. Such interactions are naturally modeled as negative weights on the adjacency matrix of the social network. In this paper we show how the Perron-Frobenius theorem can be used for this task also beyond its standard formulation for cooperative systems. In particular we show how it is possible to associate the achievement of unanimous opinions with the existence of invariant cones properly contained in the positive orthant. These cases correspond to signed adjacency matrices having the eventual positivity property, i.e., such that in sufficiently high powers all negative entries have disappeared. More generally, we show how for social networks the achievement of a, possibily non-unanimous, opinion can be associated to the existence of an invariant cone fully contained in one of the orthants of ℝless thansupgreater thannless than/supgreater than.

  • 166.
    Altafini, Claudio
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. SISSA, Italy.
    Lini, Gabriele
    SISSA, Italy.
    Predictable Dynamics of Opinion Forming for Networks With Antagonistic Interactions2015Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, ISSN 0018-9286, E-ISSN 1558-2523, Vol. 60, nr 2, s. 342-357Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For communities of agents which are not necessarily cooperating, distributed processes of opinion forming are naturally represented by signed graphs, with positive edges representing friendly and cooperative interactions and negative edges the corresponding antagonistic counterpart. Unlike for nonnegative graphs, the outcome of a dynamical system evolving on a signed graph is not obvious and it is in general difficult to characterize, even when the dynamics are linear. In this paper, we identify a significant class of signed graphs for which the linear dynamics are however predictable and show many analogies with positive dynamical systems. These cases correspond to adjacency matrices that are eventually positive, for which the Perron-Frobenius property still holds and implies the existence of an invariant cone contained inside the positive orthant. As examples of applications, we determine cases in which it is possible to anticipate or impose unanimity of opinion in decision/voting processes even in presence of stubborn agents, and show how it is possible to extend the PageRank algorithm to include negative links.

  • 167.
    Al-Taie, Mahir Jabbar Rashid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Elektroniska komponenter. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Comparison of EDMOS and Cascode Structures for PA Design in 65 nm CMOS Technology2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses the potential of implementing watt-level class-AB Power Amplifier (PA) for WLAN in 65 nm CMOS technology, at 2.4 GHz frequency. In total, five PAs have been compared, where the examined parameters were output power (Pout), linearity, power added efficiency (PAE), and area consumption. Four PAs were implemented using conventional cascode topology with different combination of transistors sizes in 65nm CMOS, and one PA using a high-voltage Extended Drain MOS (EDMOS) device, implemented in the same 65 nm CMOS with no process or mask changes. All schematics were created using Cadence Virtuoso CAD tools. The test benches were created using the Agilent's Advance Design System ( ADS) and simulated with the ADS-Cadence dynamic link.

    The simulation results show that the EDMOS PA (L=350 nm) has the smallest area, but has harder to reach the required Pout. Cascode no. 3 (L= 500,260 nm) has the best Pout (29.1 dBm) and PAE (49.5 %). Cascode no. 2 (L= 500,350 nm) has the best linearity (low EVM). Cascode no. 1 (L=500,500 nm) has low Pout (27.7 dBm). Cascode no.4 (L=500,60 nm) has very bad linearity.

    The thesis also gives an overview for CMOS technology, discusses the most important aspects in RF PAs design, such as Pout, PAE, gain, and matching networks. Different PA classes are also discussed in this thesis.

  • 168.
    Al-Trad, Anas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Optimized Composition of Parallel Components on a Linux Cluster2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a novel framework for optimized composition of explicitly parallel software components with different implementation variants given the problem size, data distribution scheme and processor group size on a Linux cluster. We consider two approaches (or two cases of the framework). 

    In the first approach, dispatch tables are built using measurement data obtained offline by executions for some (sample) points in the ranges of the context properties. Inter-/extrapolation is then used to do actual variant-selection for a given execution context at run-time.

    In the second approach, a cost function of each component variant is provided by the component writer for variant-selection. These cost functions can internally lookup measurements' tables built, either offline or at deployment time, for computation- and communication-specific primitives.

    In both approaches, the call to an explicitly parallel software component (with different implementation variants) is made via a dispatcher instead of calling a variant directly.

    As a case study, we apply both approaches on a parallel component for matrix multiplication with multiple implementation variants. We implemented our variants using Message Passing Interface (MPI). The results show the reduction in execution time for the optimally composed applications compared to applications with hard-coded composition. In addition, the results show the comparison of estimated and measured times for each variant using different data distributions, processor group and problem sizes.

  • 169.
    Alvbrant, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Elektroniska Kretsar och System. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A study on emerging electronics for systems accepting soft errors2016Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Moore’s law has until today mostly relied on shrinkage of the size of the devices inintegrated circuits. However, soon the granularity of the atoms will set a limit together with increased error probability of the devices. How can Moore’s law continue in thefuture? To overcome the increased error rate, we need to introduce redundancy. Applyingmethods from biology may be a way forward, using some of the strategies that transformsan egg into a fetus, but with electronic cells.

    A redundant system is less sensitive to failing components. We define electronic clayas a massive redundancy system of interchangeable and unified subsystems. We show how a mean voter, which is simpler than a majority voter, impact a redundant systemand how optimization can be formalized to minimize the impact of failing subsystems.The performance at given yield can be estimated with a first order model, without the need for Monte-Carlo simulations. The methods are applied and verified on a redundant finite-impulse response filter.

    The elementary circuit behavior of the memristor, ”the missing circuit element”, is investigated for fundamental understanding and how it can be used in applications. Different available simulation models are presented and the linear drift model is simulated with Joglekar-Wolf and Biolek window functions. Driven by a sinusoidal current, the memristor is a frequency dependent component with a cut-off frequency. The memristor can be densely packed and used in structures that both stores and compute in the same circuit, as neurons do. Surrounding circuit has to affect (write) and react (read) to the memristor with the same two terminals.

    We looked at artificial neural network for pattern recognition, but also for self organization in electronic cell array. Finally we look at wireless sensor network and how such system can adopt to the environment. This is also a massive redundant clay-like system.

    Future electronic systems will be massively redundant and adaptive. Moore’s law will continue, not based on shrinking device sizes, but on cheaper, numerous, unified and interchangeable subsystems.

  • 170.
    Alvbrant, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Elektroniksystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wikner, J Jacob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Elektroniksystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Study and Simulation Example of a Redundant FIR Filter2012Ingår i: Proceedings 30th Norchip Conference, IEEE, 2012, s. 1-4Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a study and simulation results of the structure and design of a redundant finite-impulse response (FIR) filter. The filter has been selected as an illustrative example for biologically-inspired circuits, but the structure can be generalized to cover other signal processing systems. In the presented study, we elaborate on signal processing properties of the filter if we apply a redundant architecture were different computing paths can be utilized. An option is to utilize different computing paths as inspired by biological architectures (BIAs). We present typical simulation results for a low-pass filter illustrating the trade-offs and costs associated with this architecture.

  • 171.
    Alvila, Markus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Johansson, Jonathan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Johansson, Philip
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Lenz, Silas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Lindmark, Sebastian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Norberg, Emil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Regard, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Övervakning och bedömning av flygledares prestanda2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Möjligheten att fjärrstyra flygledartorn kommer att ställa högre krav på flygledares koncentrations- och simultanförmåga runt om i Sverige. Det är viktigt att åtgärder tas för att förhindra att en trött flygledare begår ett misstag och det är just detta som det framtagna systemet försöker att förhindra.

    Med hjälp av sensorer och modeller kan systemet bestämma flygledarens trötthet, stressnivå, uppmärksamhet och nuvarande arbetsuppgift. Alla värden presenteras i ett enkelt grafiskt gränssnitt. Tillsammans med resultaten för flygledarens hälsa presenteras även all sensordata i gränssnittet.

    Systemet är främst uppbyggt av två olika ramverk: Apache NiFi och Apache Spark. Vad de båda ramverken har gemensamt är att de har funktionalitet för att bygga kluster, vilket betyder att endast antalet noder sätter gränsen för hur många flygledare som kan vara uppkopplade samtidigt.

    Denna prototyp har inte all funktionalitet på plats för att behandla flera flygledare. Grunden är däremot lagd för att enkelt kunna implementera ytterligare funktionalitet och i slutändan ha flera flygledare uppkopplade samtidigt. Systemet öppnar upp möjligheter till att fördela arbetet på de flygledare som är mest fokuserade och kan därför bidra till att öka flygsäkerheten.

  • 172.
    Alwan, Abdulrahman
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Informationskodning.
    Implementation of Wavelet-Kalman Filtering Technique for Auditory Brainstem Response2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory brainstem response (ABR) evaluation has been one of the most reliable methods for evaluating hearing loss. Clinically available methods for ABR tests require averaging for a large number of sweeps (~1000-2000) in order to obtain a meaningful ABR signal, which is time consuming.  This study proposes a faster new method for ABR filtering based on wavelet-Kalman filter that is able to produce a meaningful ABR signal with less than 500 sweeps. The method is validated against ABR data acquired from 7 normal hearing subjects with different stimulus intensity levels, the lowest being 30 dB NHL. The proposed method was able to filter and produce a readable ABR signal using 400 sweeps; other ABR signal criteria were also presented to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  • 173.
    Amarasuriya, Gayan
    et al.
    Princeton University, NJ 08544 USA.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vincent Poor, H.
    Princeton University, NJ 08544 USA.
    Wireless Information and Power Transfer in Multiway Massive MIMO Relay Networks2016Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 3837-3855Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer techniques for multiway massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay networks are investigated. By using two practically viable relay receiver designs, namely 1) the power splitting receiver and 2) the time switching receiver, asymptotic signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) expressions are derived for an unlimited number of antennas at the relay. These asymptotic SINRs are then used to derive asymptotic symmetric sum rate expressions in closed form. Notably, these asymptotic SINRs and sum rates become independent of radio frequency-to-direct current (RF-to-DC) conversion efficiency in the limit of infinitely many relay antennas. Moreover, tight average sum rate approximations are derived in closed form for finitely many relay antennas. The fundamental tradeoff between the harvested energy and the sum rate is quantified for both relay receiver structures. Notably, the detrimental impact of imperfect channel state information (CSI) on the MIMO detector/precoder is investigated, and thereby, the performance degradation caused by pilot contamination, which is the residual interference due to nonorthogonal pilot sequence usage in adjacent/cochannel systems, is quantified. The presence of cochannel interference (CCI) can be exploited to be beneficial for energy harvesting at the relay, and consequently, the asymptotic harvested energy is an increasing function of the number of cochannel interferers. Notably, in the genie-aided perfect CSI case, the detrimental impact of CCI for signal decoding can be cancelled completely whenever the number of relay antennas grows without bound. Nevertheless, the pilot contamination severely degrades the sum rate performance even for infinitely many relay antennas.

  • 174.
    Ambuluri, Sreehari
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Garrido, Mario
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Elektroniksystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Caffarena, Gabriel
    Boadilla del Monte, Madrid, Spain.
    Ogniewski, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Informationskodning. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ragnemalm, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Informationskodning. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    New Radix-2 and Radix-22 Constant Geometry Fast Fourier Transform Algorithms For GPUs2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents new radix-2 and radix-22 constant geometry fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms for graphics processing units (GPUs). The algorithms combine the use of constant geometry with special scheduling of operations and distribution among the cores. Performance tests on current GPUs show a significant improvements compared to the most recent version of NVIDIA’s well-known CUFFT, achieving speedups of up to 5.6x.

  • 175.
    Amgård, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Elektroniska Kretsar och System.
    Bergman, Kevin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Elektroniska Kretsar och System.
    Efficient Energy Use of FPGA for Underwater Sensor Network2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational time is becoming an increasingly important aspect in electronic devices and is also highly relevant in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UWSN). This thesis contains a study which explores what can be done to de-crease power consumption while maintaining the same functionality of an FPGA inside an underwater sensor-node network. A longer operational time means a more effective system since reconnaissance is one of UWSN’s area of application. The thesis will also cover the implementation of a new sensor-node ‘mode’ which will add new features and increase operational time.

  • 176.
    Amin, Farooq ul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik.
    On the Design of an Analog Front-End for an X-Ray Detector2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid development in CMOS technology has resulted in its suitability for the implementation of readout front-end systems in terms of high integration density, and low power consumption yet at the same time posing many challenges for analog circuits design like readout front-end. One of the significant challenges is the low noise design for high speed front-end systems, while at the same time minimizing the power consumption as much as possible.

    A high speed, low noise, low power, and programmable readout front-end system is designed and implemented for an X-ray detector in CMOS 0.18 m technology in this thesis work. The front-end system has a peaking time of 10 ns, which is the highest speed ever reported in the published work. The front-end system is designed to achieve low noise in terms of ENC, and a low power consumption of 2.9 mW. The detector capacitance is the most dominating parameter to low noise, which in turn is directly related to the power consumption. In this thesis work an ENC of 435 electrons is achieved for a detector capacitance of 5 pF and an ENC of 320 electrons for a detector capacitance of 3 pF. Based on the comparison to related published work, a performance improvement of at least two times is achieved taking peaking time, power, ENC, and detector capacitance all into consideration. The output pulse after amplification has peak amplitude of 300 mV for a maximum injected charge of 40000 electrons from the detector.

    The readout front-end system noise performance is strongly dependent on the input MOSFET type, size, and biasing. In this work a PMOS has been selected and optimized as the input device due to its smaller 1/f noise and high gain as compare to NMOS when biased at same currents. The architecture designed in this work consists of a folded cascode CSA with extra cascode in first stage, a pole-zero cancellation circuit to eliminate undershoot, a shaper amplifier, and integrators using Gm-C filter technique. All of these components are optimized for low power while meeting the noise requirements. The whole front-end system is programmed for peaking times of 10, 20, and 40 ns. The programmability is achieved by switching different capacitors and resistors values for all the poles and zeros in the front-end, and by switching parallel transconductance in the Gm-C filters. Finally fine tuning of all the capacitance, resistance, and transconductance values is done to achieve required performance.

  • 177.
    Aminifar, Amir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Embedded Control Systems2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many embedded or cyber-physical systems, e.g., in the automotive domain, comprise several control applications, sharing the same platform. It is well known that such resource sharing leads to complex temporal behaviors that degrades the quality of control, and more importantly, may even jeopardize stability in the worst case, if not properly taken into account.

    In this thesis, we consider embedded control or cyber-physical systems, where several control applications share the same processing unit. The focus is on the control-scheduling co-design problem, where the controller and scheduling parameters are jointly optimized. The fundamental difference between control applications and traditional embedded applications motivates the need for novel methodologies for the design and optimization of embedded control systems. This thesis is one more step towards correct design and optimization of embedded control systems.

    Offline and online methodologies for embedded control systems are covered in this thesis. The importance of considering both the expected control performance and stability is discussed and a control-scheduling co-design methodology is proposed to optimize control performance while guaranteeing stability. Orthogonal to this, bandwidth-efficient stabilizing control servers are proposed, which support compositionality, isolation, and resource-efficiency in design and co-design. Finally, we extend the scope of the proposed approach to non-periodic control schemes and address the challenges in sharing the platform with self-triggered controllers. In addition to offline methodologies, a novel online scheduling policy to stabilize control applications is proposed.

  • 178.
    Aminifar, Amir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Self-Triggered Controllers, Resource Sharing, and Hard Guarantees2016Ingår i: 2016 2ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EVENT-BASED CONTROL, COMMUNICATION, AND SIGNAL PROCESSING (EBCCSP), IEEE , 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many control applications in embedded and cyber-physical systems are implemented on shared platforms, alongside other hard real-time or safety-critical applications. Having the resource shared among several applications, to provide hard guarantees, it is required to identify the amount of resource needed for each application. This is rather straightforward when the platform is shared among periodic control and periodic real-time applications. In the case of event-triggered and self-triggered controllers, however, the execution patterns and, in turn, the resource usage are not clear. Therefore, a major implementation challenge, when the platform is shared with self-triggered controllers, is to provide hard and efficient stability and schedulability guarantees for other applications. In this paper, we identify certain execution patterns for self-triggered controllers, using which we are able to provide hard and efficient stability guarantees for periodic control applications.

  • 179.
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Frenger, Pål
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moe, Johan
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Kristina
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    On Self-Optimization of the Random Access Procedure in 3G Long Term Evolution2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the 11th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management, IEEE , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Operationally efficient radio networks typically feature a high degree of self-organization. This means less planning efforts and manual intervention, and a potential for better radio resource utilization when network elements adapts its operation to the observed local conditions. The focus in this paper is selfoptimization of the random access channel (RACH) in the 3G Long Term Evolution (LTE). A comprehensive tutorial about the RACH procedure is provided to span the complexity of the selfoptimization. Moreover, the paper addresses RACH key performance metrics and appropriate modeling of the various steps and components of the procedure. Finally, some coupling between parameters and key performance metrics as well as selfoptimization examples are presented together with a feasibility discussion. The main ambition with this workshop paper is to present and define a relevant set of self-optimization problems, rather than to provide a complete solution.

  • 180.
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Frenger, Pål
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moe, Johan
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Kristina
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Towards Random Access Channel Self-Tuning in LTE2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the 69th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 2009, s. 1-5Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Future radio access networks are expected to show a high degree of self-organization. This paper addresses self-tuning of the random access channel (RACH) in the 3G Long Term Evolution (LTE). The feasibility of self-tuning is investigated by means of simulation, where the coupling between several parameters and the performance of RACH is provided. The conclusion of the simulations is that RACH self-tuning is indeed possible given that UE assisted measurements are available for the self-tuning mechanism.

  • 181.
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, RTSLAB - Laboratoriet för realtidssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Son, Sang H.
    University of Virginia, USA.
    Quantifying and Suppressing the Measurement Disturbance in Feedback Controlled Real-Time Systems2008Ingår i: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 44-76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the control of continuous and physical systems, the controlled system is sampled sufficiently fast to capture the dynamics of the system. In general, this property cannot be applied to the control of computer systems as the measured variables are often computed over a data set, e.g., deadline miss ratio. In this paper we quantify the disturbance present in the measured variable as a function of the data set size and the sampling period, and we propose a feedback control structure that suppresses the measurement disturbance. The experiments we have carried out show that a controller using the proposed control structure outperforms a traditional control structure with regard to performance reliability.

  • 182.
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, RTSLAB - Laboratoriet för realtidssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, RTSLAB - Laboratoriet för realtidssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Son, Sang H.
    University of Virginia, VA, USA.
    Enhancing Feedback Control Scheduling Performance by On-line Quantification and Suppression of Measurement Disturbance2005Ingår i: Proceedings of the 11th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, 2005, s. 2-11Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the control of continuous and physical systems, the controlled system is sampled sufficiently fast to capture the system dynamics. In general, this property cannot be applied to the control of computer systems as the measured variables are often computed over a data set, e.g., deadline miss ratio. In this paper we quantize the disturbance present in the measured variable as a function of the sampling period and we propose a measurement disturbance suppressive control structure. The experiments we have carried out show that a controller using the proposed control structure outperforms a traditional control structure with regard to performance reliability and adaptation.

  • 183.
    Amirijoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, RTSLAB - Laboratoriet för realtidssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, RTSLAB - Laboratoriet för realtidssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Son, Sang H.
    University of Virginia, USA.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Experimental Evaluation of Linear Time-Invariant Models for Feedback Performance Control in Real-Time Systems2007Ingår i: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383, Vol. 35, nr 3, s. 209-238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years a new class of soft real-time applications operating in unpredictable environments has emerged. Typical for these applications is that neither the resource requirements nor the arrival rates of service requests are known or available a priori. It has been shown that feedback control is very effective to support the specified performance of dynamic systems that are both resource insufficient and exhibit unpredictable workloads. To efficiently use feedback control scheduling it is necessary to have a model that adequately describes the behavior of the system. In this paper we experimentally evaluate the accuracy of four linear time-invariant models used in the design of feedback controllers. We introduce a model (DYN) that captures additional system dynamics, which a previously published model (STA) fails to include. The accuracy of the models are evaluated by validating the models with regard to measured data from the controlled system and through a set of experiments where we evaluate the performance of a set of feedback control schedulers tuned using these models. From our evaluations we conclude that second order models (e.g., DYN) are more accurate than first order models (e.g. STA). Further we show that controllers tuned using second order models perform better than controllers tuned using first order models.

  • 184.
    Amlinger, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    An Evaluation of Clustering and Classification Algorithms in Life-Logging Devices2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Using life-logging devices and wearables is a growing trend in today’s society. These yield vast amounts of information, data that is not directly overseeable or graspable at a glance due to its size. Gathering a qualitative, comprehensible overview over this quantitative information is essential for life-logging services to serve its purpose.

    This thesis provides an overview comparison of CLARANS, DBSCAN and SLINK, representing different branches of clustering algorithm types, as tools for activity detection in geo-spatial data sets. These activities are then classified using a simple model with model parameters learned via Bayesian inference, as a demonstration of a different branch of clustering.

    Results are provided using Silhouettes as evaluation for geo-spatial clustering and a user study for the end classification. The results are promising as an outline for a framework of classification and activity detection, and shed lights on various pitfalls that might be encountered during implementation of such service.

  • 185.
    Amlinger, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik.
    Application of a New Software Tool for the Automated Test of Automotive Electronic Control Unit Software2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Testing plays a very important role for assuring the quality of developed software. In a modern vehicle, more and more of the functionality is controlled by software and the complexity of the software always increases. The expectations on automating the testing process are to save time and to reach an even higher quality.

    In this thesis, which was performed at ZF Friedrichshafen AG, a new tool for automated tests is studied. The tool is used for software in the loop simulation based system tests. The user specifies which outputs that shall be observed and which inputs that can be controlled. Based on these prerequisites, test cases are generated.

    It has been studied how to apply the tool, how the test case generation can be influenced, on which systems it successfully could be used and which results that could be reached with the tool. The tool has been evaluated on the hand of two real-life examples; the software of an automatic transmission and of a pressure controller, a module of this software. It was found that there are many interesting possibilities to apply the tool in order to support the present testing process.

  • 186.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Kolmården Wildlife Park.
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Molinder, Lars
    Carnegie Investment Bank, Swedden.
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, s. 31-32Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

  • 187.
    Anchora, Luca
    et al.
    IMT of Lucca.
    Badia, Leonardo
    Università degli Studi di Padova.
    Karipidis, Eleftherios
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zorzi, Mikele
    Università degli Studi di Padova.
    Capacity Gains due to Orthogonal Spectrum Sharing in Multi-Operator LTE Cellular Networks2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS), 2012, s. 286-290Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Static spectrum allocation leads to resource wastage and inter-operator spectrum sharing is a possible way to improve spectrum efficiency. In this work, we assume that two cellular network operators agree upon sharing part of their spectrum, which can then be dynamically accessed by either of them in a mutually exclusive way. Our goal is to numerically assess the gain, in terms of cell capacity, due to such orthogonal spectrum sharing. Hence, we propose a centralized algorithm that performs coordinated scheduling, in order to numerically evaluate an upper bound on the achievable sum capacity. The algorithm is centralized and exploits complete information on both networks to perform the optimum allocation. The simulation results illustrate the impact of the multiuser diversity and the asymmetry in the traffic load among the networks on the overall achievable gain.

  • 188.
    Anchora, Luca
    et al.
    IMT of Lucca.
    Badia, Leonardo
    Università degli Studi di Padova.
    Zhang, Haibin
    TNO ICT.
    Fahldieck, Torsten
    Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent.
    Zhang, Jianshu
    Ilmenau University of Technology.
    Szydelko, Michal
    Wroclaw Research Centre EIT+ .
    Schubert, Martin
    Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications HHI.
    Karipidis, Eleftherios
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Haardt, Martin
    Ilmenau University of Technology.
    Resource Allocation and Management in Multi-Operator Cellular Networks with Shared Physical Resources2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS), IEEE , 2012, s. 296-300Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we focus on next-generation cellular networks and discuss physical resources sharing among the operators. This implies cooperative usage of the available radio frequencies and also infrastructure sharing. In particular, we analyze the spectrum sharing gain achievable at different time scales and the main factors impacting on it. Then, we move towards a wider idea of resource sharing and consider a joint spectrum and infrastructure sharing (full sharing). We describe a two-layer resource management architecture that enables operators to reduce costs while still guaranteeing a good service level. The main findings of our investigations are to quantify the effectiveness of resource sharing and open up new perspectives for the operators of next-generation networks.

  • 189.
    Anders, Söderholm
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Justus, Sörman
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    GPU-accelleration of image rendering and sorting algorithms with the OpenCL framework2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's computer systems often contains several different processing units aside from the CPU. Among these the GPU is a very common processing unit with an immense compute power that is available in almost all computer systems. How do we make use of this processing power that lies within our machines? One answer is the OpenCL framework that is designed for just this, to open up the possibilities of using all the different types of processing units in a computer system. This thesis will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using the integrated GPU available in a basic workstation computer for computation of image processing and sorting algorithms. These tasks are computationally intensive and the authors will analyze if an integrated GPU is up to the task of accelerating the processing of these algorithms. The OpenCL framework makes it possible to run one implementation on different processing units, to provide perspective we will benchmark our implementations on both the GPU and the CPU and compare the results. A heterogeneous approach that combines the two above mentioned processing units will also be tested and discussed. The OpenCL framework is analyzed from a development perspective and what advantages and disadvantages it brings to the development process will be presented.

  • 190.
    Andersen, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Khoshfetrat Pakazad, Sina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rantzer, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Distributed Robust Stability Analysis of Interconnected Uncertain Systems2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 51st IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, 2012, s. 1548-1553Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers robust stability analysis of a large network of interconnected uncertain systems. To avoid analyzing the entire network as a single large, lumped system, we model the network interconnections with integral quadratic constraints. This approach yields a sparse linear matrix inequality which can be decomposed into a set of smaller, coupled linear matrix inequalities. This allows us to solve the analysis problem efficiently and in a distributed manner. We also show that the decomposed problem is equivalent to the original robustness analysis problem, and hence our method does not introduce additional conservativeness.

  • 191.
    Andersen, Martin S.
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark .
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Vandenberghe, Lieven
    University of California (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Reduced-Complexity Semidefinite Relaxations of Optimal Power Flow Problems2014Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, ISSN 0885-8950, E-ISSN 1558-0679, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 1855-1863Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a new method for generating semidefinite relaxations of optimal power flow problems. The method is based on chordal conversion techniques: by dropping some equality constraints in the conversion, we obtain semidefinite relaxations that are computationally cheaper, but potentially weaker, than the standard semidefinite relaxation. Our numerical results show that the new relaxations often produce the same results as the standard semidefinite relaxation, but at a lower computational cost.

  • 192.
    Andersen, Martin S.
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Khoshfetrat Pakazad, Sina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rantzer, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Robust stability analysis of sparsely interconnected uncertain systems2014Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, ISSN 0018-9286, E-ISSN 1558-2523, Vol. 59, nr 8, s. 2151-2156Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider robust stability analysis of large-scale sparsely interconnected uncertain systems. By modeling the interconnections among the subsystems with integral quadratic constraints, we show that robust stability analysis of such systems can be performed by solving a set of sparse linear matrix inequalities. We also show that a sparse formulation of the analysis problem is equivalent to the classical formulation of the robustness analysis problem and hence does not introduce any additional conservativeness. The sparse formulation of the analysis problem allows us to apply methods that rely on efficient sparse factorization techniques, and our numerical results illustrate the effectiveness of this approach compared to methods that are based on the standard formulation of the analysis problem.

  • 193.
    Anderson, Sören
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    On Optimal Dimension Reduction for Sensor Array Signal Processing1993Ingår i: Signal Processing, ISSN 0165-1684, E-ISSN 1872-7557, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 245-256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The computational complexity for direction-of-arrival estimation using sensor arrays increases very rapidly with the number of sensors in the array. One way to lower the amount of computations is to employ some kind of reduction of the data dimension. This is usually accomplished by employing linear transformations for mapping full dimension data into a lower dimensional space. Different approaches for selecting these transformations have been proposed. In this paper, a transformation matrix is derived that makes it possible to theoretically attain the full-dimension Cramér-Rao bound also in the reduced space. A bound on the dimension of the reduced data set is given, above which it is always possible to obtain the same accuracy for the estimates of the source localizations, using the lower-dimension data, as that achievable by using the full dimension data. Furthermore, a method is devised for designing the transformation matrix. Numerical examples, using this design method, are presented, where the achievable performance of the (optimal) Weighted Subspace Fitting method with full dimension data is compared to the performance obtained with reduced dimension data. The problem of estimating parameters of sinusoidal signals from noisy data is also addressed by a direct application of the results derived herein.

  • 194.
    Andersson, Amanda
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik.
    Näsholm, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik.
    Fast Real-Time MPC for Fighter Aircraft2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The main topic of this thesis is model predictive control (MPC) of an unstable fighter aircraft. When flying it is important to be able to reach, but not exceed the aircraft limitations and to consider the physical boundaries on the control signals. MPC is a method for controlling a system while considering constraints on states and control signals by formulating it as an optimization problem. The drawback with MPC is the computational time needed and because of that, it is primarily developed for systems with a slowly varying dynamics.

    Two different methods are chosen to speed up the process by making simplifications, approximations and exploiting the structure of the problem. The first method is an explicit method, performing most of the calculations offline. By solving the optimization problem for a number of data sets and thereafter training a neural network, it can be treated as a simpler function solved online. The second method is called fast MPC, in this case the entire optimization is done online. It uses Cholesky decomposition, backward-forward substitution and warm start to decrease the complexity and calculation time of the program.

    Both methods perform reference tracking by solving an underdetermined system by minimizing the weighted norm of the control signals. Integral control is also implemented by using a Kalman filter to observe constant disturbances. An implementation was made in MATLAB for a discrete time linear model and in ARES, a simulation tool used at Saab Aeronautics, with a more accurate nonlinear model.

    The result is a neural network function computed in tenth of a millisecond, a time independent of the size of the prediction horizon. The size of the fast MPC problem is however directly affected by the horizon and the computational time will never be as small, but it can be reduced to a couple of milliseconds at the cost of optimality.

  • 195.
    Andersson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut (VTI), Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS, Linköping, Sweden.
    Distributed Moving Base Driving Simulators: Technology, Performance, and Requirements2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of new functionality and smart systems for different types of vehicles is accelerating with the advent of new emerging technologies such as connected and autonomous vehicles. To ensure that these new systems and functions work as intended, flexible and credible evaluation tools are necessary. One example of this type of tool is a driving simulator, which can be used for testing new and existing vehicle concepts and driver support systems. When a driver in a driving simulator operates it in the same way as they would in actual traffic, you get a realistic evaluation of what you want to investigate. Two advantages of a driving simulator are (1.) that you can repeat the same situation several times over a short period of time, and (2.) you can study driver reactions during dangerous situations that could result in serious injuries if they occurred in the real world. An important component of a driving simulator is the vehicle model, i.e., the model that describes how the vehicle reacts to its surroundings and driver inputs. To increase the simulator realism or the computational performance, it is possible to divide the vehicle model into subsystems that run on different computers that are connected in a network. A subsystem can also be replaced with hardware using so-called hardware-in-the-loop simulation, and can then be connected to the rest of the vehicle model using a specified interface. The technique of dividing a model into smaller subsystems running on separate nodes that communicate through a network is called distributed simulation.

    This thesis investigates if and how a distributed simulator design might facilitate the maintenance and new development required for a driving simulator to be able to keep up with the increasing pace of vehicle development. For this purpose, three different distributed simulator solutions have been designed, built, and analyzed with the aim of constructing distributed simulators, including external hardware, where the simulation achieves the same degree of realism as with a traditional driving simulator. One of these simulator solutions has been used to create a parameterized powertrain model that can be configured to represent any of a number of different vehicles. Furthermore, the driver's driving task is combined with the powertrain model to monitor deviations. After the powertrain model was created, subsystems from a simulator solution and the powertrain model have been transferred to a Modelica environment. The goal is to create a framework for requirement testing that guarantees sufficient realism, also for a distributed driving simulation.

    The results show that the distributed simulators we have developed work well overall with satisfactory performance. It is important to manage the vehicle model and how it is connected to a distributed system. In the distributed driveline simulator setup, the network delays were so small that they could be ignored, i.e., they did not affect the driving experience. However, if one gradually increases the delays, a driver in the distributed simulator will change his/her behavior. The impact of communication latency on a distributed simulator also depends on the simulator application, where different usages of the simulator, i.e., different simulator studies, will have different demands. We believe that many simulator studies could be performed using a distributed setup. One issue is how modifications to the system affect the vehicle model and the desired behavior. This leads to the need for methodology for managing model requirements. In order to detect model deviations in the simulator environment, a monitoring aid has been implemented to help notify test managers when a model behaves strangely or is driven outside of its validated region. Since the availability of distributed laboratory equipment can be limited, the possibility of using Modelica (which is an equation-based and object-oriented programming language) for simulating subsystems is also examined. Implementation of the model in Modelica has also been extended with requirements management, and in this work a framework is proposed for automatically evaluating the model in a tool.

    Delarbeten
    1. Vehicle Powertrain Test Bench Co-Simulation with a Moving Base Simulator Using a Pedal Robot
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Vehicle Powertrain Test Bench Co-Simulation with a Moving Base Simulator Using a Pedal Robot
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems, ISSN 1946-4614, E-ISSN 1946-4622, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 169-179Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate driver perception of a vehicle powertrain a moving base simulator is a well-established technique. We are connecting the moving base simulator Sim III, at the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute with a newly built chassis dynamometer at Vehicular Systems, Linköping University. The purpose of the effort is to enhance fidelity of moving base simulators by letting drivers experience an actual powertrain. At the same time technicians are given a new tool for evaluating powertrain solutions in a controlled environment. As a first step the vehicle model from the chassis dynamometer system has been implemented in Sim III. Interfacing software was developed and an optical fiber covering the physical distance of 500 m between the facilities is used to connect the systems. Further, a pedal robot has been developed that uses two linear actuators pressing the accelerator and brake pedals. The pedal robot uses feedback loops on accelerator position or brake cylinder pressure and is controlled via an UDP interface. Results from running the complete setup showed expected functionality and we are successful in performing a driving mission based on real road topography data. Vehicle acceleration and general driving feel was perceived as realistic by the test subjects while braking still needs improvements. The pedal robot construction enables use of a large set of cars available on the market and except for mounting the brake pressure sensor the time to switch vehicle is approximately 30 minutes.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-92215 (URN)10.4271/2013-01-0410 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-05-08 Skapad: 2013-05-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-28Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA
    Visa övriga...
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the DSC 2015 Europe: Driving Simulation Conference & Exhibition / [ed] Heinrich Bülthoff, Andras Kemeny and Paolo Pretto, 2015, s. 123-130Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern vehicles are complex systems consisting of an increasing large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification on individual components is important, it is also important to test components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform.

    As an example, consider a workflow where a developer can go from a desktop simulation to an intermediate driving simulator to a high fidelity driving simulator with Hardware-In-the-Loop systems close to a finished vehicle in an easy way. To accomplish this, a distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented that divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces, using HLA as the method of communication. This platform was evaluated on two aspects, flexibility/scalability and timing performance. Results show that increased flexibility and scalability was achieved when using a distributed simulation platform. It is also shown that latency was only slightly increased when using HLA.

    Nyckelord
    Test, Vehicle, Engine, Performance, Simulator (driving), Computer
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Datorsystem
    Forskningsämne
    90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 96 Road: Vehicle operating and management
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136153 (URN)9783981309935 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    Driving Simulation Conference 2015. 16-18 september 2015, Tübingen, Germany
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-01-11 Skapad: 2017-03-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-28Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Testing cooperative intelligent transport systems in distributed simulators
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Testing cooperative intelligent transport systems in distributed simulators
    Visa övriga...
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 65, s. 206-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation is often used as a technique to test and evaluate systems, as it provides a cost-efficient and safe alternative for testing and evaluation. A combination of simulators can be used to create high-fidelity and realistic test scenarios, especially when the systems-under-test are complex. An example of such complex systems is Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), which include many actors that are connected to each other via wireless communication in order to interact and cooperate. The majority of the actors in the systems are vehicles equipped with wireless communication modules, which can range from fully autonomous vehicles to manually driven vehicles. In order to test and evaluate C-ITS, this paper presents a distributed simulation framework that consists of (a) a moving base driving simulator; (b) a real-time vehicle simulator; and (c) network and traffic simulators. We present our approach for connecting and co-simulating the simulators. We report on limitation and performance that this simulation framework can achieve. Lastly, we discuss potential benefits and feasibility of using the simulation framework for testing of C-ITS.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2019
    Nyckelord
    Cooperative intelligent transportation systems, Hardware-in-the-loop, Network simulator, Traffic simulator, Moving base driving simulator
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Farkostteknik Datorsystem
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159824 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2019.07.020 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-08-22 Skapad: 2019-08-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-22Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Parameterization procedure of a powertrain model for a driving simulator
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Parameterization procedure of a powertrain model for a driving simulator
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. 1, s. 99-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry is facing a major challenge to reduce environmental impacts. As a consequence, the increasing diversity of powertrain configurations put a demand on testing and evaluation procedures. One of the key tools for this purpose is simulators. In this paper a powertrain model and a procedure for parameterizing it, using chassis dynamometers and a developed pedal robot are presented. The parameterizing procedure uses the on-board diagnostics of the car and does not require any additional invasive sensors.

    Thus, the developed powertrain model and parameterization procedure provide a rapid non- invasive way of modelling powertrains of test cars. The parameterizing procedure has been used to model a front wheel drive Golf V with a 1.4L multi-fuel engine and a manual gearbox. The achieved results show a good match between simulation results and test data. The powertrain model has also been tested in real-time in a driving simulator.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Aracne editrice, 2016
    Nyckelord
    Motor, Test, Characteristics, Simulation
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Farkostteknik
    Forskningsämne
    90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156538 (URN)10.4399/978885489179109 (DOI)2-s2.0-84982994768 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-26 Skapad: 2019-04-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-03Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Vehicle model quality framework for moving base driving simulators, a powertrain model example
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Vehicle model quality framework for moving base driving simulators, a powertrain model example
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, E-ISSN 1745-6444, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 93-108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Moving base driving simulators, with an enclosed human driver, are often used to study driver-vehicle interaction or driver behaviour. Reliable results from such a driving simulator study strongly depend on the perceived realism by the driver in the performed driving task. Assuring sufficient fidelity for a vehicle dynamics model during a driving task is currently to a large degree a manual task. Focus here is to automate this process by employing a framework using collected driving data for detection of model quality for different driving tasks. Using this framework, a powertrain model credibility is predicted and assessed. Results show that chosen powertrain model is accurate enough for a driving scenario on rural roads/motorway, but need improvements for city driving. This was expected, considering the complexity of the vehicle dynamics model, and it was accurately captured by the proposed framework which includes real-time information to the simulator operator.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    InderScience Publishers, 2018
    Nyckelord
    vehicle dynamics model, driving simulator, driving task, quality framework, domain of validity, domain of operation, powertrain model
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Datorsystem Farkostteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156544 (URN)10.1504/IJVSMT.2018.098330 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063100727 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-26 Skapad: 2019-04-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-03Bibliografiskt granskad
    6. Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools; April 19, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK / [ed] Henrik Nilsson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, Vol. 84, s. 131-139Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A car model in Modelica has been developed to be used in a new setup for distributed real-time simulation where a moving base car simulator is connected with a real car in a chassis dynamometer via a 500m fiber optic communication link. The new co-simulator set-up can be used in a number of configurations where hardware in the loop can be interchanged with software in the loop. The models presented in this paper are the basic blocks chosen for modeling the system in the context of a distributed real-time simulation; estimating parameters for the powertrain model; the choice of numeric solver; and the interaction with the solver for real-time properties.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013
    Serie
    Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 84
    Nyckelord
    Modelica; real-time; distributed; communications link
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Datorsystem
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118994 (URN)978-91-7519-621-3 (ISBN)978-91-7519-617-6 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    The 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools, April 19, University of Nottingham, Nottingham; UK
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-06-05 Skapad: 2015-06-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-28Bibliografiskt granskad
    7. Powertrain Model Assessment for Different Driving Tasks through Requirement Verification
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Powertrain Model Assessment for Different Driving Tasks through Requirement Verification
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: The 9th EUROSIM Congress on Modelica and Simulation, 2018, s. 721-727Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For assessing whether a system model is a good candidate for a particular simulation scenario or choosing the best system model between multiple design alternatives it is important to be able to evaluate the suitability of the system model. In this paper we present a methodology based on finite state machine requirements verifying system behaviour in a Modelica environment where the intended system model usage is within a moving base driving simulator. A use case illustrate the methodology with a Modelica powertrain system model using replaceable components and measured data from a Golf V. The achieved results show the importance of context of requirements and how users are assisted in finding system model issues. 

    Serie
    Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 142
    Nyckelord
    system model assessment, requirement modelling, Modelica, finite state machine, powertrain validations
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Datorsystem
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156540 (URN)10.3384/ecp17142721 (DOI)978-91-7685-399-3 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    EUROSIM 2016
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-26 Skapad: 2019-04-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-13
  • 196.
    Andersson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Extensions for Distributed Moving Base Driving Simulators2017Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern vehicles are complex systems. Different design stages for such a complex system include evaluation using models and submodels, hardware-in-the-loop systems and complete vehicles. Once a vehicle is delivered to the market evaluation continues by the public. One kind of tool that can be used during many stages of a vehicle lifecycle is driving simulators.

    The use of driving simulators with a human driver is commonly focused on driver behavior. In a high fidelity moving base driving simulator it is possible to provide realistic and repetitive driving situations using distinctive features such as: physical modelling of driven vehicle, a moving base, a physical cabin interface and an audio and visual representation of the driving environment. A desired but difficult goal to achieve using a moving base driving simulator is to have behavioral validity. In other words, \A driver in a moving base driving simulator should have the same driving behavior as he or she would have during the same driving task in a real vehicle.".

    In this thesis the focus is on high fidelity moving base driving simulators. The main target is to improve the behavior validity or to maintain behavior validity while adding complexity to the simulator. One main assumption in this thesis is that systems closer to the final product provide better accuracy and are perceived better if properly integrated. Thus, the approach in this thesis is to try to ease incorporation of such systems using combinations of the methods hardware-in-the-loop and distributed simulation. Hardware-in-the-loop is a method where hardware is interfaced into a software controlled environment/simulation. Distributed simulation is a method where parts of a simulation at physically different locations are connected together. For some simulator laboratories distributed simulation is the only feasible option since some hardware cannot be moved in an easy way.

    Results presented in this thesis show that a complete vehicle or hardware-in-the-loop test laboratory can successfully be connected to a moving base driving simulator. Further, it is demonstrated that using a framework for distributed simulation eases communication and integration due to standardized interfaces. One identified potential problem is complexity in interface wrappers when integrating hardware-in-the-loop in a distributed simulation framework. From this aspect, it is important to consider the model design and the intersections between software and hardware models. Another important issue discussed is the increased delay in overhead time when using a framework for distributed simulation.

    Delarbeten
    1. Vehicle Powertrain Test Bench Co-Simulation with a Moving Base Simulator Using a Pedal Robot
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Vehicle Powertrain Test Bench Co-Simulation with a Moving Base Simulator Using a Pedal Robot
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems, ISSN 1946-4614, E-ISSN 1946-4622, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 169-179Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate driver perception of a vehicle powertrain a moving base simulator is a well-established technique. We are connecting the moving base simulator Sim III, at the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute with a newly built chassis dynamometer at Vehicular Systems, Linköping University. The purpose of the effort is to enhance fidelity of moving base simulators by letting drivers experience an actual powertrain. At the same time technicians are given a new tool for evaluating powertrain solutions in a controlled environment. As a first step the vehicle model from the chassis dynamometer system has been implemented in Sim III. Interfacing software was developed and an optical fiber covering the physical distance of 500 m between the facilities is used to connect the systems. Further, a pedal robot has been developed that uses two linear actuators pressing the accelerator and brake pedals. The pedal robot uses feedback loops on accelerator position or brake cylinder pressure and is controlled via an UDP interface. Results from running the complete setup showed expected functionality and we are successful in performing a driving mission based on real road topography data. Vehicle acceleration and general driving feel was perceived as realistic by the test subjects while braking still needs improvements. The pedal robot construction enables use of a large set of cars available on the market and except for mounting the brake pressure sensor the time to switch vehicle is approximately 30 minutes.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-92215 (URN)10.4271/2013-01-0410 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-05-08 Skapad: 2013-05-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-28Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools; April 19, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK / [ed] Henrik Nilsson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, Vol. 84, s. 131-139Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A car model in Modelica has been developed to be used in a new setup for distributed real-time simulation where a moving base car simulator is connected with a real car in a chassis dynamometer via a 500m fiber optic communication link. The new co-simulator set-up can be used in a number of configurations where hardware in the loop can be interchanged with software in the loop. The models presented in this paper are the basic blocks chosen for modeling the system in the context of a distributed real-time simulation; estimating parameters for the powertrain model; the choice of numeric solver; and the interaction with the solver for real-time properties.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013
    Serie
    Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 84
    Nyckelord
    Modelica; real-time; distributed; communications link
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Datorsystem
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118994 (URN)978-91-7519-621-3 (ISBN)978-91-7519-617-6 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    The 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools, April 19, University of Nottingham, Nottingham; UK
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-06-05 Skapad: 2015-06-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-28Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA
    Visa övriga...
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the DSC 2015 Europe: Driving Simulation Conference & Exhibition / [ed] Heinrich Bülthoff, Andras Kemeny and Paolo Pretto, 2015, s. 123-130Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern vehicles are complex systems consisting of an increasing large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification on individual components is important, it is also important to test components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform.

    As an example, consider a workflow where a developer can go from a desktop simulation to an intermediate driving simulator to a high fidelity driving simulator with Hardware-In-the-Loop systems close to a finished vehicle in an easy way. To accomplish this, a distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented that divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces, using HLA as the method of communication. This platform was evaluated on two aspects, flexibility/scalability and timing performance. Results show that increased flexibility and scalability was achieved when using a distributed simulation platform. It is also shown that latency was only slightly increased when using HLA.

    Nyckelord
    Test, Vehicle, Engine, Performance, Simulator (driving), Computer
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Datorsystem
    Forskningsämne
    90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 96 Road: Vehicle operating and management
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136153 (URN)9783981309935 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    Driving Simulation Conference 2015. 16-18 september 2015, Tübingen, Germany
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-01-11 Skapad: 2017-03-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-28Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 197.
    Andersson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik.
    Implementation, validation and evaluation of an ESC system during a side impact using an advanced driving simulator2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is to implement a basic, yet realistic, ESC system into the VTI simulator environment. This system is then validated to assure that it is working properly and provides a realistic behavior.

    The implemented ESC system is used in a study, where the ESC system could be turned on and off, to evaluate the benefits of an ESC system after a side impact. This study shows that an ESC system may aid the driver in such a critical situation when the driver is unaware that a side impact will occur. With the ESC system active no driver lost control while with the system inactive there were five drivers that lost control, but deviations in initial speed give statistical difficulties, thus more tests are needed. In the case where the driver knows that an impact will occur the ESC system showed to stabilize the automobile faster and it is shown that an expected improvement in stabilization time is between 40 to 62 percent. It was also seen during this part of the scenario that 2 percent loss of control occurred with an active ESC system and 45 percent without.

  • 198.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Leandertz, Rickard
    Hiq Accelerated Concept Evaluation AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Martin
    Pitch Technologies.
    Eriksson, Steve
    Pitch Technologies.
    Jakobson, Ola
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the DSC 2015 Europe: Driving Simulation Conference & Exhibition / [ed] Heinrich Bülthoff, Andras Kemeny and Paolo Pretto, 2015, s. 123-130Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern vehicles are complex systems consisting of an increasing large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification on individual components is important, it is also important to test components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform.

    As an example, consider a workflow where a developer can go from a desktop simulation to an intermediate driving simulator to a high fidelity driving simulator with Hardware-In-the-Loop systems close to a finished vehicle in an easy way. To accomplish this, a distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented that divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces, using HLA as the method of communication. This platform was evaluated on two aspects, flexibility/scalability and timing performance. Results show that increased flexibility and scalability was achieved when using a distributed simulation platform. It is also shown that latency was only slightly increased when using HLA.

  • 199.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Buffoni, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Powertrain Model Assessment for Different Driving Tasks through Requirement Verification2018Ingår i: The 9th EUROSIM Congress on Modelica and Simulation, 2018, s. 721-727Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For assessing whether a system model is a good candidate for a particular simulation scenario or choosing the best system model between multiple design alternatives it is important to be able to evaluate the suitability of the system model. In this paper we present a methodology based on finite state machine requirements verifying system behaviour in a Modelica environment where the intended system model usage is within a moving base driving simulator. A use case illustrate the methodology with a Modelica powertrain system model using replaceable components and measured data from a Golf V. The achieved results show the importance of context of requirements and how users are assisted in finding system model issues. 

  • 200.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish National Road and Transportation Research Institute.
    Fritzson, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools; April 19, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK / [ed] Henrik Nilsson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, Vol. 84, s. 131-139Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A car model in Modelica has been developed to be used in a new setup for distributed real-time simulation where a moving base car simulator is connected with a real car in a chassis dynamometer via a 500m fiber optic communication link. The new co-simulator set-up can be used in a number of configurations where hardware in the loop can be interchanged with software in the loop. The models presented in this paper are the basic blocks chosen for modeling the system in the context of a distributed real-time simulation; estimating parameters for the powertrain model; the choice of numeric solver; and the interaction with the solver for real-time properties.

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