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  • 1551.
    Wollner, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Olofsson, Camilla
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Vård och handhavande av kompetens: kompetensutveckling i Sverige och England2004Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Competence development has become more important since the pressure on effectiveness is increasing and organisations are expected to constantly improvement. The design of the competence development activities is governed by the strategy which in turn will affect the outcome of the same. A knowledge intense business in which changes recently have taken place is healthcare, a business in which competition also has increased as a result from globalization. Due to this, it is highly important to take care of and improve the competence of individuals. According to this, we have found that healthcare is an interesting business to study with regard to competence development.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of how competence development is handled from an international perspective.

    Method: The thesis has a qualitative approach where interviews have taken place, in Sweden as well as in England. The analysis is based upon theories in combination which empirical findings.

    Result: We have found that the two organisations are good at developing individual competence. Although, there are difficulties in taking care of and spread the competence that is gained mainly through formal activities, this problem is also called the transfer problem. One way to increase the awareness of the problem is to develop an explicit strategy for competence development. It is important that this strategy reflects the needs of the organisation and that the activities are adjusted in accordance to this.

  • 1552.
    Xue, Leng
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    China-EU trade relations: The period after 19752004Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze China-EU trade relations with focus on the period after 1975, when the diplomatic relations between China and EU developed. The research questions are (i) what is the driver in the development of China-EU trade relations? This question is subdivided into two questions: how do economic factors impact on China-EU trade relations and how do political factors influence China-EU trade relations? (ii) what are the existing problems in the current China-EU relations? (iii) what are the future prospects?

    To carry out the research questions and fulfill the aim of the paper, a qualitative and quantitative method has been chosen in order to interpret and understand China-EU traderelations. The theoretical framework of this study is neo-realism and neo-liberalism with particular attention focusing on political issues and economic issues respectively.

    A number of conclusions can be drawn from research. First, China-EU trade has developed very rapidly. Trade relations between the two sides are good. They are the third largest traders with each other. Secondly, the momentum for the development of China-EU trade relations is rooted in their common interests in both the political and economic fields. Thirdly, the prospect of China-EU trade relations is promising. These factors include (i) the establishment of a foundation to promote the healthy development of China-EU trade (for example, a set of legal framework provides both sides with the legal basis for their economic relations); and (ii) the prediction of future political and economic environment as favorable to the development of China-EU trade relations.

    All factors show optimistically that China-EU trade will continue to prosper. The China-EU trade relationship is not without friction and the author theorizes that there are some potential danger factors; such as the Taiwan issue and trade disputes that may shadow the future development of China-EU trade relations and cannot be overlooked. At the end the author puts forward four suggestions to promote the further development of China-EU trade relations: (i) maintain the existing high-level of exchanges such as the annual EU-China summit; (ii) set up a warning mechanism to prevent trade disputes escalating; (iii) provide a method for establishing negotiations; (iv) prevent the politicizing of trade relations, for example, do not connect human right issue with trade relations. Unrelated issues should be addressed separately.

  • 1553.
    Yman, Neil
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Internationalisation of companies2000Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union all conditions and principles for doing business in the area have changed. The shift from a planned economy to a market economy is connected with rapid and basic changes in political, social, economic and technological conditions. The Baltic countries Estonia, Latvia andLithuania are going through a gradual transition and the decrease of central economic power leads to the liquidation of state monopolies. The markets of the Baltic is giving great opportunities for Western European companies since the Baltic is a good springboard to the more Eastern European markets, which consists of over 400 million possible customers.The Baltic countries is not a homogeny group, they have different language, culture and history. Western European companies need to be aware of this facts if they are going to become successful with their establishments. The Western European companies choose different entry modes in order to fulfil their international ambitions. The entry mode signals to host governments and to competitors the companies ambitions in the hostcountry. For the majority of companies the most significant international marketing decision they are likely to take is therefore how they should enter new markets. The purpose of the study is to explain how foreign companies strategies theoretically match the Baltic countries strengths and weaknesses and what kind of entry modes provides a good match between the investor´s strategy and the local attractiveness.

  • 1554.
    Yördem, Özer
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Cosmopolitan Reflections in the European Parliament2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    The problem of world poverty is appalling in human terms. Almost half of all the humankind lives below the poverty line of $2 per day, whereas affluent parts of the world continue to enjoy enormous technological and economical progress. In the light of such discrepancy, the debate in political philosophy regarding “global justice” has renewed significance. The current debate between those who agree global justice is important, is those who think that positive duties towards poor is enough, and those who think that morality requires a re-designation of the ground rules operating at the global level.

    The Cosmopolitan view grounds its theoretical framework in this second view. This study aims to analyse if, and how, the normative debate in the European Parliament reflects the assumptions, arguments and considerations of the Cosmopolitan approach. This study identifies central concepts of the Cosmopolitan approach, and then analyses how these concepts are discussed in the European Parliamentary debates. In addition, I identify who discusses what in the parliamentary debates. The analysis reveals how Cosmopolitan ideas are reflected in the discourse within the debates, and the second dimension identifies which party groups discuss and hold which key concepts of Cosmopolitanism.

  • 1555.
    Zeitoun, Suzanna
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Are legislators able to meet efficiency goals?: an analysis of the pharmaceutical industry2004Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, legislators have tried to meet the goal of increased R&D in the pharmaceutical industry through an extension of the patent length. In parallel, an attempt to minimise ex post social costs has been made through the introduction of a shortened drug approval process for generic drugs as well as a so-called Bolar provision, giving generic producers earlier access to patented information. However, one can ask how efficient a patent extension possibility has been to meet the goal of increased R&D. Correspondingly, what effects on social costs can we expect from the introduction of an abbreviated approval process and the Bolar provision? These are questions that are dealt with in this thesis. I argue that the impact of the legislative changes have led to a decrease of ex post social cost. However, I will also show that this has lead to a detriment of ex ante R&D incentives and therefore a negative result on social welfare.

  • 1556.
    Zhu, Bo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Needs, demands and requirements in the vehicle safety product realization process2004Ingår i: Proceedings of IEEE Conference on International Engineering Management,2004, New York: IEEE , 2004, s. 1032-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1557.
    Zink, Bjørn-Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Strategic Determinants in the Software Industry: a study of six software companies in Sweden2003Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The software industry is being described as an industry of fierce competition and rapid technology change. The innovation pace is said to be so high that today's new technology might be history tomorrow. Where do the companies of the software industry focus when making strategic decisions? According to the strategic literature, a firm can focus on either the external environment or the internal environment as strategic starting points.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to find out what determines the strategy of firms in the software industry.

    Procedure: Interviews with six software companies in Sweden.

    Result: Four strategic determinants were identified: Flexible software solution, Markets that fit the software solution, Market Segmentation, Customers within the market segment. In this way, both the internal and external environment determines the strategies of the software companies.

  • 1558.
    Öberg, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Accounting for Customer Relationship Changes2007Ingår i: 23rd IMP Conference,2007, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1559.
    Öberg, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Accounting for Customer Relationship Dissolution - The Case of Arthur Andersen2006Ingår i: Nordic Workshop on Relationship Dynamics,2006, 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 1560.
    Öberg, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    On customers in mergers and acquisitions2004Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on how customers are perceived in mergers and acquisitions. Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) are frequent, yet complex, phenomena in business life. One dimension making M&As complex is that they can affect (the merging companies' relationships to) other companies. With an M&A being a potential source of, for example, customer losses, one must ask how, and indeed whether, customers are taken into account in the M&A process, and what are the merging parties' notions concerning customers in relation to an M&A.

    This thesis takes a triangulation approach to the subject, including a literature and press release review and two case studies. The following is concluded: Customers are seldom focused on in the M&A literature, though they are commonly referred to indirectly, in an unproblematised way. By not considering customers as part of an M&A, the literature is neglecting an important aspect - one that has been emphatically recognised in business experience. In actual M&A practice, customers figure prominently in the underlying motives of M&As, and also when determining the degree of integration. Notions concerning customers are malleable, shifting during the course of tl1e M&A process, and also differ between the official view articulated in press releases, and in intra-company discussions regarding reasons for merging or acquiring. The official discourse commonly refers to customers indirectly and as targets, whereas they are treated as actors in intra-company discussions. Once M&A intentions are realised, the focus shifts from creating value to keeping value, and at this stage, customer considerations constrain the degree of integration. While there is no clear-cutline between the integration itself and a possible post-M&A phase, when evaluating an M&A the evaluation tools correspond to how customers are defined in official M&A motives.

  • 1561.
    Öberg, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    På jakt efter alternativa handledningsformer2006Ingår i: Pedagogiska utmaningar i tiden / [ed] Helene Hård af Segerstad, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2006, s. 61-69Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Handledning kan ofta uppfattas som en fokuserad, men också resurskrävande undervisningsform. Förväntningar ställs inte bara på lärarens förmåga att stimulera till egentänkande, men också på att ofta kunna fatta snabba beslut och föra ett projekt framåt. Från studenter kan handledning uppfattas som ett tillfälle att få idéer bekräftade, en möjlighet att ställa specifika frågor och driva den egna lärprocessen framåt, eller som något nödvändigt ont där läraren förväntas vara den som tar initiativ.

    En kritik som därtill ofta riktas mot projekt härrör från grupprocesser och individens syn på sin roll i en gemensam uppgift. Ur lärarperspektivet ställs krav på att stimulera hela gruppen att känna ett gemensamt ansvar, bemöta eventuella gruppinterna konflikter, o s v.

    För att om möjligt komma förbi några av handledningens tillkortakommanden har en projektförberedande seminarieuppgift införts på grundläggande ekonomikurser (industriell ekonomi på ingenjörsutbildningar). Mer specifikt är avsikten med uppgiften att ge studenterna en första orientering och breddad förståelse för det ämne de senare ska fördjupa sig inom. Genom att besvara ett antal frågor och sedan diskutera dessa i tvärgrupper med andra studenter, där varje student individuellt får representera sin grupp, är avsikten att studenterna ska öka sin förmåga att självständigt reflektera och samtidigt lära sig genom att diskutera seminariesvaren med andra studenter.

    Arbetet baseras på studenters utvärdering av projektarbetet och intervjuer med handledare på kurserna. Avsikten med detta papper är att utvärdera om denna seminarieuppgift påverkat det slutliga projektet och kursen som helhet. En avslutande diskussion förs om huruvida denna typ av uppgifter utgör ett komplement till, eller en ersättning för, den traditionella handledningsformen, samt övriga lärdomar från införandet av uppgiften.

  • 1562.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Anderson, Helén
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Do customers matter in mergers and acquisitions (literature)?2002Ingår i: Nordic Workshop onf Interorganisational Research,2002, 2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1563.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Commercialisation via Acquistion? - A Literature Review2007Ingår i: 16th IPSERA Conference,2007, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 1564.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Jönsson, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Acquisitions of innovative firms and their impact on customer access2005Ingår i: Proceedings (online) of the 21st IMP Conference 2005, 1-3 September 2005, Rotterdam, The Netherlands., Rotterdam: RSM Erasmus University , 2005, s. 49-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, the literature depicts acquisitions of technology or innovative firms as a means for the acquirer to obtain resources or knowledge. This paper challenges the traditional view. We take the perspective of an innovative firm ro ask the question: In what ways does the acquirer affect the cusromer access for the target company? This question is addressed where the acquirer is a company within a mature industry, the target is an innovative firm, and when the target's customers at the same time are competitors to the acquirer. The discussion takes its point of departure in a literature review and a case study which highlight issues of customer access in dimensions of ownership and integration. Three hypotheses targeting different aspects of customer access are developed. As this paper considers the situation from the target's perspective it contributes to the literature on acquisitions of innovative firms. Furthermore, it contributes to the innovation literature through highlighting the influence of ownership on an innovative company in the process of getting customer access.

  • 1565.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Henneberg, Stefan
    University of Bath.
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    Lancaster University.
    Changing Network Pictures: The evidence from Mergers and Acquisitions2006Ingår i: IMP Journal Seminar,2006, Göteborg: Chalmers Tekniska Högskola , 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 1566.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Henneberg, Stephan C.
    School of Management University of Bath.
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    School of Management University of Bath.
    Changing Network Pictures: The evidence from Mergers & Acquisitions2006Ingår i: Annual IMP Conference,2006, 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) may cause dramatic changes in a business network which in turn affect managerial cognition as well as managerial activities. We use the concepts of 'network pictures' and 'networking' to illustrate and analyse changes in managerial sensemaking and networking activities following an M&A. The paper focuses on the merging parties and those companies with which they have direct customer relationships. Based on three case studies comprising eight M&As, we show that managers may need to adapt their previous network pictures in a radical way following an M&A, but that these adaptations are not always realised as shifts in network pictures and adjustments in networking activities by all managers involved. Furthermore, whereas the merging parties' network pictures and networking activities are largely driven by their perception of customers' needs and developments, it is not certain that the M&As are enacted accordingly. The paper contributes to the understanding of M&As from a network perspective and to the conceptual interdependence of the constructs of network pictures and networking in a multi-actor situation.

  • 1567.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Henneberg, Stephan C
    Manchester Business School The University of Manchester.
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    Management School Lancaster University.
    Organisational Manifestations Of Network Pictures2007Ingår i: 23rd IMP Conference 2007,2007, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1568.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Henneberg, Stephan C.
    Manchester Business School The University of Manchester.
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    Management School Lancaster University.
    Organisational Manifestations Of Network Pictures - Concept and case evidence2007Ingår i: 3rd IMP Journal Seminar,2007, Manchester Business School , 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 1569.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Are Mergers and Acquisitions Contagious? Conceptualising parallel M&A: s among customers and suppliers2005Ingår i: IMP Conference,2005, Rotterdam: RSM Erasmus University , 2005, s. 49-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1570.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Interorganizational IT Support for Collaborative Product Development2002Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As product complexity increases and markets become more global, companies tend to collaborate with customers, suppliers and partners in business process activities previously carried out within a single firm. This is observed notably also in product development. Product development is an information and communication intense activity, and collaborative product development requires efficient communication between the participating firms, both during an ongoing project and afterwards when the product is in service. When more than one firm is involved, questions linked to business aspects regarding what information to share and how to communicate the information between the firms become important. With changing partners and competing supply chains this is a delicate management issue.

    The objective of this dissertation is to assess characteristics of communication in collaborative product development, in order to identify requirements for supporting IT tools.

    Empirically, the research was conducted in two parts. Part I was conducted in the aircraft industry, where a systems integrator firm’s relationship to its major suppliers was investigated. In Part II, collaborative product development between a buyer and several suppliers organized in networks was investigated. These studies were complemented with studies of IS/IT development and implementation projects. Theoretically, it is based on the literature on product development, supply chain management, and IT support for business relationships.

    Concerning the buyer-supplier dyad it was found that there was not one collaborative product development process in common between the firms, but rather coordination between the firms’ processes. Concerning the relationship between buyer and supplier network, it was found that one of the suppliers represents the network in a dyadic buyer-supplier relationship. Within the supplier network, the firms conducted interorganizational integrated product development, which means that the functions were represented by several firms. This implied that management practices must respect the special characteristic of small and medium-sized firms in collaboration.

    The investigation of information and communication in collaborative product development in dyads and networks led to a list of requirements on IOIS. The findings were concluded in a matrix that presents characteristics of product development in general, product development in dyads, and product development in supplier networks, and a mapping of the requirements on IOIS.

    Since the business relationship is the major difference between product development in-house and collaborative product development, it was considered appropriate to take a supply chain view on the requirements for an IOIS. It was found that support is needed both for the procurement and the product development process. Moreover, it was found that project management support can significantly improve the efficiency of the development process. Improvements of the effectiveness regard support for the product life cycle, and for the long-term relationship between the parties.

    It was concluded that an IOIS for collaborative product development should be based on standard technology and support standard formats, in order to make it possible for a firm to simultaneously manage its own systems and proprietary information, and exchange information with partners when needed. 

  • 1571.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Berg, Per-Olof
    Stockholm School of Entrepreneurship.
    Svensk innovationskraft: Visionen måste vara starkare än motståndet2004Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 1572.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Briffaut, Jean-Pierre
    Institut National des Télécommunications.
    Agent-based architecture of virtual collaborative contexts2007Ingår i: e-Challenges 2007,2007, the Hague: eChallenges 2007 , 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1573.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Gullander, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Produktutveckling för företag i samverkan - Studie av små och medelstora svenska verkstadsföretag2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

       

  • 1574.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Öhlund Sandström, Gunilla
    Developing Integrated Product and Service Offerings: A Comparison Between Large and Small Manufacturing Firms' Business2007Ingår i: 2nd National Workshop on Functional Product Development and Sales 2007,2007, Luleå: Luleå Tekniska Universitet , 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1575.
    Östberg, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Prisoner of War or Unlawful Combatant: An Evolution of International Humanitarian Law2006Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The construction of International Humanitarian Law and the norms regarding protection of prisoners of war have evolved as a reaction to the horrors of war. After September 11 and the following war on terrorism the notion of POWs has been widely debated. The USA holds prisoners at the navy base at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba without granting them status as POWs; this thesis is placing the treatment of these detainees within a historical context. The norm concerning rights of POWs is today both internationalized and institutionalized, but that has not always been the case. This thesis illuminates how the norms have evolved during World War I, World War II and Vietnam War; finally the war against terrorism and the treatment of the prisoners at Guantánamo Bay is analyzed. The intention of the thesis is to use a historical overview of the evolution of IHL, and the rights of POWs in particular, to formulate a wider assumption about the implication of IHL in the war against terrorism and the future.

    The thesis adopts a theory which combines constructivism and John Rawls´ theory of justice and uses constructivist ideas about the nature of the international system applied to Rawls´ notion of justice. The constructivist theory and ontology are the basis of the theoretical framework of this thesis and Rawls´ definition of justice as the base of social institutions are viewed from a constructivist perspective. IHL and the norms regarding protection of POWs are thus considered as social facts, constructed and upheld through social interaction between states.

  • 1576.
    Österberg, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Kommunal demokrati och medborgarinflytande i ett samhälle i förändring2002Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The organisation of the municipalities is based on the principle of representation. It has previously been impossible to give the citizens more influence through direct democracy, but the information technology gives new possibilities and the choice of democracy model might no longer be obvious. Representation can be interpreted in many ways and there is a need for a more distinct definition of the rule that the municipalities shall be governed according to the principle of representation. It should also be further investigated how the new technology can be used to increase the use of direct democracy. The municipalities ought to work to supplement the representation with direct democracy in the form of active discourse with the citizens. This can be done for example through referendums, consultations or citizen councils. There are already possibilities to increase the civil influence, and the municipalities are therefore responsible to ensure that these possibilities are used.

  • 1577.
    Österlin, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Pactum turpe: Avtal i strid med lag eller goda seder2003Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Möjligheten att få en tvist prövad i domstol är en rättighet många ser som självklar. Vissa typer av tvister anses emellertid så främmande för rättsordningen att de inte förtjänar dess skydd. Hit hör fall av pactum turpe, det vill säga ett avtal vars innehåll står i strid med lag eller goda seder. Huruvida en talan grundad på ett sådant avtal skall avvisas av en domstol eller ej har varit denna uppsats syfte att utreda. I utländsk lagstiftning förekommer lagbestämmelser, enligt vilka avtal i strid med lag eller goda seder är ogiltiga. I Sverige har emellertid lagstiftaren inte ansett en sådan bestämmelse lämplig. Avtal i strid med lag eller goda seder anses däremot ogiltiga enligt allmänna rättsgrundsatser. Det är inte möjligt att ge ett generellt svar på frågan huruvida en avvisning i fall av pactum turpe skall ske. Det enda fall där en avvisning säkert bör ske är när en talan grundar sig på ett avtal med ett uppenbart brottsligt syfte och innehåll, exempelvis ett avtal om att begå ett mord. Av praxis har framkommit att en avvisning däremot inte är det självklara tillvägagångssättet när det är fråga om en talangrundad på ett avtal vars huvudsyfte är fullt legitimt, exempelvis avtal om köp av städtjänster, men där vissa moment i avtalsinnehållet är brottsliga, exempelvis att ersättningen består av"svart"betalning. Vad gäller avtal i strid med goda seder gäller först och främst att utröna vilka dessa seder är. Det kan konstateras att goda seder är ett föränderligt begrepp och avgörs efter ett samhälles moraluppfattning. Begreppet är inte bara föränderligt över tiden, utan även mellan olika kulturer. I Sverige är avtal om prostitution ett klassiskt exempel på avtal i strid med goda seder. Även avtal om spel och vad anges i doktrinen som exempel. Att döma av praxis skall allmänna domstolar vara än mer restriktiva med avvisningar av talan grundade på avtal i strid med goda seder. En avvisning av en talan grundad på ett pactum turpe innebär att avtalet inte får några som helst rättsverkningar. Det kan varken bli fråga om påföljder för kontraktsbrott eller om fullgörelse av avtalet. Därför är det nödvändigt med en ytterst restriktiv tillämning av regeln om pactum turpe. En generell regel huruvida en talan grundad på ett avtal i strid med lag eller goda seder skall avvisas eller ej kan emellertid inte uppställas, utan en bedömning måste ske i varje enskilt fall.

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