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  • 201.
    Abjanbekov, Aidyn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Alvarez Padilla, Ana Elena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    From Knowledge Transfer to Knowledge Translation: Case Study of a Telecom Consultancy2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In today’s highly competitive business environment, knowledge is viewed as a key strategic resource. The privatization process of telecom operators in different countries created a demand in telecom management skills, and Swedish companies like Swedtel AB became involved in exporting and transferring their knowledge and management skills.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis paper is to identify all stages (from origins to final destination) of the Knowledge Transfer process and to contribute to the understanding about the mechanism of Knowledge Transfer between organizations.

    Scope: This research is limited to the investigation of the transfer process of strategic management knowledge from consulting company Swedtel AB to privatized telecom companies in Lithuania (Lietuvos Telekomas) and Nicaragua (Enitel).

    Results: Theoretical model of Knowledge Transfer was identified and tested. The model of this research was only partially supported: processes were identified in practice as described by the theory, however model required modifications in order to better reflect the reality.

  • 202.
    Ablahad, Marlen
    Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture.
    Bära Sorg Föra Liv: En studie om begravningsritualer bland syrianer/assyrier i hemlandet och i Sverige.2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay describes the phases of funeral rituals between the Syrian/Assyrian, and compares the homeland with Sweden. It describes the stage of rituals according to Victor Turner schema of separation, margin or limin, and aggregation. The rituals religious significance agrees with Clifford Geertz’s theory about the importance of religious beliefs for the human being

  • 203.
    Abo Al Ahad, George
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics.
    Gerzic, Denis
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics.
    A Study on the Low Volatility Anomaly in the Swedish Stock Exchange Market: Modern Portfolio Theory2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates, with a critical approach, if portfolios consisting of high beta stocks yields more than portfolios consisting of low beta stocks in the Swedish stock exchange market. The chosen period is 1999-2016, covering both the DotCom Bubble and the financial crisis of 2008. We also investigate if the Capital Asset Pricing Model is valid by doing a test similar to Fama and Macbeth’s of 1973.

    Based on earlier studies in the field and our own study we come to the conclusion that high beta stocks does not outperform low beta stocks in the Swedish stock market 1999-2016. We believe that this relationship arises from inefficiencies in the market and irrational investing. By doing this study we observe that, the use of beta as the only risk factor for explaining expected returns on stocks or portfolios is not correct.

  • 204. Abom, A.E.
    et al.
    Comini, E.
    Dipto. di Chim. e Fis. dei Materaili, INFM, Università di Brescia, Via Valotti 9, I-251 33 Brescia, Italy.
    Sberveglieri, G.
    Dipto. di Chim. e Fis. dei Materaili, INFM, Università di Brescia, Via Valotti 9, I-251 33 Brescia, Italy.
    Finnegan, N.
    Ctr. for Microanalysis of Materials, Frederick Seitz Mat. Res. Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, United States.
    Petrov, I.
    Ctr. for Microanalysis of Materials, Frederick Seitz Mat. Res. Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, United States.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Erikssion, M.
    Experimental evidence for a dissociation mechanism in NH3 detection with MIS field-effect devices2003In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 89, no 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gas response mechanism of ammonia detection with Pt-based metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) field-effect sensors was investigated. An experimental model system was designed which compares the responses of thick continuous Pt layers with controlled morphology and surface chemical composition, with the response of thin, discontinuous layers. The surface of a thick, continuous sputter-deposited Pt film is modified, either by (i) the deposition of a thin SiO2 overlayer, (ii) reactive sputter deposition of PtOx, or (iii) co-deposition of Pt with SiO2 in Ar + O2 atmospheres. We show that the ammonia response is caused by the formation of atomic hydrogen through the dissociation of NH3 at temperatures <200 °C. It is found that the modified surfaces exhibit increased ammonia selectivity compared to a pure Pt film. Results from this work indicate that the reason for the changed selectivity is the appearance of an oxidized PtOx phase or triple phase boundaries between Pt, SiO2 and the ambient gas, rather than for solely morphological reasons. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 205. Abom, A.E.
    et al.
    Comini, E.
    Sberveglieri, G.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Thin oxide films as surface modifiers of MIS field effect gas sensors2002In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 85, no 1-2, p. 109-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The catalytic activity at the surface of Pt based MIS field effect gas sensors is modified by the deposition of thin films of SnO2, Al2O3 and SiO2, grown by reactive sputtering. It is found that a very thin layer (<10 nm) of SiO2 and SnO2 changes the catalytic activity towards higher NH3 selectivity, but with thicker films the sensor response vanishes. Since the response mechanism for these sensors is dependent on dissociation of molecules, it is likely that at low temperatures (140 °C), neither dissociation on nor transport/diffusion through the thicker films takes place. However, with Pt in conjunction with SiO2 or SnO2, the surface reactions will be altered, with enhanced NH3 selectivity as a result. A thin film of Al2O3, on the other hand, has a much smaller influence on the gas response to the test gases used in this work. Furthermore the sputtering process is found to strongly influence the sensor responses, and specifically reduce the sensitivity of the sensor. A thin intermediate layer of evaporated Pt does not completely protect the underlying structure from sputter induced damage. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 206. Abom, A.E.
    et al.
    Haasch, R.T.
    Frederick Seitz Mat. Res. Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, United States.
    Hellgren, N.
    Frederick Seitz Mat. Res. Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, United States.
    Finnegan, N.
    Frederick Seitz Mat. Res. Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, United States.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Characterization of the metal-insulator interface of field-effect chemical sensors2003In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 93, no 12, p. 9760-9768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The metal-insulator interface of hydrogen-sensitive metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors, with SiO2 as the insulator and Pt as the metal contact, was discussed. It was found that the difference in hydrogen response between differently prepared devices was explained by a difference in concentration of available adsorption sites. The analysis showed that the concentration of Pt atoms in contact with the oxide affected both the hydrogen response and the metal-oxide adhesion.

  • 207. Abom, A.E.
    et al.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Influence of gate metal film growth parameters on the properties of gas sensitive field-effect devices2002In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 409, no 2, p. 233-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of Pt have been grown as gate metals on the oxide surface of gas sensitive field-effect devices. Both electron beam evaporation and dc magnetron sputtering has been used. The energy of the impinging Pt atoms, the substrate temperature and the thickness of the Pt film were used as parameters in this study. The influence of the growth parameters on the gas response has been investigated and compared with the properties of the films, studied by transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The conditions during growth of the Pt film are found to have a large impact on the properties of the device. As expected, crystallinity, morphology and the metal/substrate interfacial structure are also affected by processing parameters. Three different growth processes stand out as the most promising from gas sensor considerations, namely room temperature evaporation, sputtering at high pressures and sputtering at high temperatures. The correlation between gas responses and properties of the gas sensitive layer is discussed. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 208.
    Abongo, D. A.
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, S. O.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jumba, I. O.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Van den Brink, P. J.
    University of Wageningen and Research Centre, Netherlands.
    Naziriwo, B. B.
    Makerere University, Uganda.
    Madadi, V. O.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wafula, G. A.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Nkedi-Kizza, P.
    University of Florida, FL USA.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. North West University, South Africa.
    Occurrence, abundance and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Nyando River catchment, Kenya2015In: African Journal of Aquatic Science, ISSN 1608-5914, E-ISSN 1727-9364, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 373-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A baseline study was conducted of the occurrence of macroinvertebrates at 26 sites in the Nyando River catchment in 2005-2006. A total of 13 orders and 16 families of Arthropoda, Mollusca, Platyhelminthes and Annelida were collected, with the order Ephemeroptera being most abundant in the up- and mid-stream reaches, followed by Hemiptera and Plecoptera respectively. The downstream sections of the river were dominated by Hirudinea and tubificids, as the water quality deteriorated mainly due to local land use, raw sewage effluent discharge and annual floods. Insects and annelids were the main invertebrates found and the extent of pollution increased from mid-section (Site 15) downwards as the river flowed into the Winam Gulf. Stringent management measures are required to safeguard the environment and ecosystems of Lake Victoria.

  • 209.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jumba, Isaac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Impacts of pesticides on human health and environment in the River Nyando catchment, Kenya2014In: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences, ISSN 2348-0521, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 1-14Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the River Nyando catchment largely relies on rain fed agriculture for their subsistence.

    Important crops grown include cereals, cash crops fruits and vegetables. Farming is one of the contributors of pollution to Lake Victoria. Organophosphates and other banned organochlorine pesticides such as lindane, aldrin and dieldrin were used by farmers. The pesticides transport was by storm water run-off and air drift into the lake. Environmental risk assessment background information was collected through questionnaire and interviews of farmers to determine knowledge and safe use of pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were identified as commonly used of which four are toxic to bees and five to birds. The farmers identified declines in the number of pollinating insects, the disappearance of Red-billed Oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorthynchus) and wild bird’s fatalities. The general knowledge among farmers about chemicals risks, safety, and chronic illnesses was low. Activities that increases environmental awareness and safety of pesticides should be initiated by the agrochemical firms and government.

  • 210.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi. Kenya.
    Jumba, Isac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    van den Brink, Paul
    Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
    Nazariwo, Betty
    Makerere University, Uganda.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wafula, Godfrey
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nkedi-Kizza, Peter
    University of Florida, USA.
    Organochlorine pesticide residue levels in soil from the Nyando River catchment, Kenya2015In: Africa Journal of Physical Sciences, ISSN 2313-3317, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 18-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil samples were collected from six locations representative of the Nyando River catchment area of the Lake Victoria over a period of two years. Sampling was done four times in the year in February, May, September and December 2005 and 2006 in farms where maize, tea, sugar cane, coffee, rice and vegetables have been grown over the years. This coincided with the effects of different seasons and farming activities on residue levels of the pesticides in use. The objective was to investigate levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides that have either been banned or are restricted for use in Kenya. Organochlorine pesticides investigated were DDT, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, endrin, endosulfan (both α- and β- isomers and endosulfan sulphate), the sum is called “total” or Σendosulfan and methoxychlor. Prior to the ban or restriction in use, these pesticides had found wide applications in public health for control of disease vectors and in agriculture for control of crop pests. The analysis revealed presence of all the targeted pesticides with the highest mean concentrations for methoxychlor 140 ± 1.5 μg/kg, Σendosulfan (30 ± 2.1 μg/kg), aldrin (18 ± 0.28 μg/kg), respectively. The results show the presence of these pesticides in soils in the basin and this could be impacting negatively on the ecosystem health of the area.

  • 211.
    Aboulaich, Nabila
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Expanding role of caveolae in control of adipocyte metabolism: proteomics of caveolae2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary function of adipose tissue is to store energy in the form of triacylglycerol, which is hydrolyzed to fatty acids to supply other tissues with energy. While insulin promotes the storage of triacylglycerol, catecholamines stimulate its hydrolysis. The development of type II diabetes is strongly associated with obesity, indicating a role of triacylglycerol metabolism in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations found in most cells but are highly abundant in adipocytes. Insulin receptors are localized in caveolae and their function depends on intact caveolae structures. In the present thesis work, mass spectrometry-based methodology allowed identification of a number of new proteins and their posttranslational modifications in caveolae of human adipocytes. Variable N-terminal acetylation and phosphorylation of caveolin-1α and caveolin-1β were identified, which might regulate the function of caveolae. The transcription regulator protein PTRF was identified as the major caveolae associated protein. Specific proteolytic modifications of PTRF at the cytosolic surface of caveolae and phosphorylation on nine serine and one threonine residues were identified. Moreover, insulin induced translocation of PTRF from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. PTRF was previously shown to regulate the activity of both RNA polymerase I and polymerase II, thus a role of PTRF in mediating the anabolic action of insulin on protein synthesis and gene transcription is proposed.

    PTRF was also involved in an extranuclear function in the hormonal regulation of triacylglycerol metabolism in caveolae. PTRF was colocalized with the triacylglycerol regulator proteins perilipin and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in the triacylglycerol-synthesizing caveolae subclass. We showed that, while perilipin was translocated to the plasma membrane, both PTRF and HSL were translocated from the plasma membrane to the cytosol as a complex in response to insulin. The perilipin recruited to the plasma membrane was highly threonine phosphorylated. By mass spectrometry, three phosphorylated threonine residues were identified and were located in an acidic domain in the lipid droplet targeting domain of perilipin. The insulin-induced recruitment of perilipin to the plasma membrane might, therefore be phosphorylation-dependent. Isoproterenol, which stimulates hydrolysis of triacylglycerol, induced a complete depletion of perilipin B from the plasma membrane, suggesting a function of perilipin B to protect newly synthesized triacylglycerol in caveolae from being hydrolyzed by HSL. The location of PTRF and HSL was not affected by isoproterenol, indicating that insulin is acting against a default presence of PTRF and HSL in caveolae.

    Taken together, this thesis expands our knowledge about caveolae and provided valuable information about their involvement in novel roles, particularly in the hormonal regulation of triacylglycerol metabolism.

    List of papers
    1. Vectorial proteomics reveal targeting, phosphorylation and specific fragmentation of polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) at the surface of caveolae in human adipocytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vectorial proteomics reveal targeting, phosphorylation and specific fragmentation of polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) at the surface of caveolae in human adipocytes
    2004 (English)In: The Biochemical journal, ISSN 1470-8728, Vol. 383, no Pt 2, p. 237-248Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Caveolae, the specialized invaginations of plasma membranes, formed sealed vesicles with outwards-orientated cytosolic surface after isolation from primary human adipocytes. This morphology allowed differential, vectorial identification of proteins at the opposite membrane surfaces by proteolysis and MS. Extracellular-exposed caveolae-specific proteins CD36 and copper-containing amine oxidase were concealed inside the vesicles and resisted trypsin treatment. The cytosol-orientated caveolins were efficiently digested by trypsin, producing peptides amenable to direct MS sequencing. Isolation of peripheral proteins associated with the cytosolic surface of caveolae revealed a set of proteins that contained nuclear localization signals, leucine-zipper domains and PEST (amino acid sequence enriched in proline, glutamic acid, serine and threonine) domains implicated in regulation by proteolysis. In particular, PTRF (polymerase I and transcript release factor) was found as a major caveolae-associated protein and its co-localization with caveolin was confirmed by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. PTRF was present at the surface of caveolae in the intact form and in five different truncated forms. Peptides (44 and 45 amino acids long) comprising both the PEST domains were sequenced by nanospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight MS from the full-length PTRF, but were not found in the truncated forms of the protein. Two endogenous cleavage sites corresponding to calpain specificity were identified in PTRF; one of them was in a PEST domain. Both cleavage sites were flanked by mono- or diphosphorylated sequences. The phosphorylation sites were localized to Ser-36, Ser-40, Ser-365 and Ser-366 in PTRF. Caveolae of human adipocytes are proposed to function in targeting, relocation and proteolytic control of PTRF and other PEST-domain-containing signalling proteins.

    Keywords
    Caveolae, human adipocyte, MS, PEST sequence, polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF), proteolysis
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19145 (URN)10.1042/BJ20040647 (DOI)15242332 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-06-12 Created: 2009-06-12 Last updated: 2009-06-12Bibliographically approved
    2. N-terminal processing and modifications of caveolin-1 in caveolae from human adipocytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>N-terminal processing and modifications of caveolin-1 in caveolae from human adipocytes
    Show others...
    2004 (English)In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 320, no 2, p. 480-486Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Caveolin, the principal structural protein of caveolae membrane domains, has a cytosol-exposed N-terminal part that was cleaved off by trypsin treatment of caveolae vesicles isolated from primary human adipocytes. Sequencing of the released tryptic peptides by nanospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed that both caveolin-1alpha and caveolin-1beta were processed by excision of the starting methionines. The N-terminus of the mature caveolin-1alpha was acetylated, while caveolin-1beta was found in acetylated as well as in non-acetylated forms. Fractional phosphorylation of serine-36 in the mature caveolin-1alpha and of the homologous serine-5 in caveolin-1beta was identified. This is the first experimental evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of caveolin-1 at the consensus site for phosphorylation by protein kinase C. The phosphorylation was found in both the acetylated and non-acetylated variants of caveolin-1beta. This variability in modifications is consistent with critical involvement of the N-terminal domain of caveolin in the regulation of caveolae.

    Keywords
    Human adipocyte, Caveolin-1; Caveolae, Protein phosphorylation, N-terminal acetylation, Mass spectrometry
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19146 (URN)10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.05.196 (DOI)15219854 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-06-12 Created: 2009-06-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Hormonal control of reversible translocation of perilipin B to the plasma membrane in primary human adipocytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hormonal control of reversible translocation of perilipin B to the plasma membrane in primary human adipocytes
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 281, no 17, p. 11446-11449Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In adipocytes, perilipin coats and protects the central lipid droplet, which stores triacylglycerol. Alternative mRNA splicing gives rise to perilipin A and B. Hormones such as catecholamines and insulin regulate triacylglycerol metabolism through reversible serine phosphorylation of perilipin A. It was recently shown that perilipin was also located in triacylglycerol-synthesizing caveolae of the plasma membrane. We now report that perilipin at the plasma membrane of primary human adipocytes was phosphorylated on a cluster of threonine residues (299, 301, and 306) within an acidic domain that forms part of the lipid targeting domain. Perilipin B comprised <10% of total perilipin but was the major isoform associated with the plasma membrane of human adipocytes. This association was controlled by insulin and catecholamine: perilipin B was specifically depleted from the plasma membrane in response to the catecholamine isoproterenol, while insulin increased the amount of threonine phosphorylated perilipin at the plasma membrane. The reversible translocation of perilipin B to and from the plasma membrane in response to insulin and isoproterenol, respectively, suggests a specific function for perilipin B to protect newly synthesized triacylglycerol in the plasma membrane.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19147 (URN)10.1074/jbc.C500461200 (DOI)16527823 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-06-12 Created: 2009-06-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Association and insulin regulated translocation of hormone-sensitive lipase with PTRF
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association and insulin regulated translocation of hormone-sensitive lipase with PTRF
    2006 (English)In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 350, no 3, p. 657-661Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) is in human adipocytes mainly localized at the plasma membrane. This localization was under control of insulin, which translocated PTRF to the cytosol and nucleus, indicating a novel role for PTRF in insulin transcriptional control. In the plasma membrane PTRF was specifically bound to a triacylglycerol-metabolizing subclass of caveolae containing hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). In response to insulin PTRF was translocated to the cytosol in parallel with HSL. PTRF and HSL were quantitatively immunoprecipitated from the cytosol by antibodies against either PTRF or HSL. The findings indicate also a novel extranuclear function for PTRF in the control of lipolysis.

    Keywords
    Hormone-sensitive lipase, Polymerase I and transcript release factor, Adipocyte, Human, Insulin, Translocation, Protein complex, Caveolae, Lipid metabolism, Transcriptional control
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19148 (URN)10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.09.094 (DOI)17026959 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-06-12 Created: 2009-06-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 212.
    Aboulaich, Nabila
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ortegren, Unn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vener, Alexander V
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Association and insulin regulated translocation of hormone-sensitive lipase with PTRF2006In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 350, no 3, p. 657-661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) is in human adipocytes mainly localized at the plasma membrane. This localization was under control of insulin, which translocated PTRF to the cytosol and nucleus, indicating a novel role for PTRF in insulin transcriptional control. In the plasma membrane PTRF was specifically bound to a triacylglycerol-metabolizing subclass of caveolae containing hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). In response to insulin PTRF was translocated to the cytosol in parallel with HSL. PTRF and HSL were quantitatively immunoprecipitated from the cytosol by antibodies against either PTRF or HSL. The findings indicate also a novel extranuclear function for PTRF in the control of lipolysis.

  • 213.
    Aboulaich, Nabila
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vainonen, Julia P
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vener, Alexander V
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vectorial proteomics reveal targeting, phosphorylation and specific fragmentation of polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) at the surface of caveolae in human adipocytes2004In: The Biochemical journal, ISSN 1470-8728, Vol. 383, no Pt 2, p. 237-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Caveolae, the specialized invaginations of plasma membranes, formed sealed vesicles with outwards-orientated cytosolic surface after isolation from primary human adipocytes. This morphology allowed differential, vectorial identification of proteins at the opposite membrane surfaces by proteolysis and MS. Extracellular-exposed caveolae-specific proteins CD36 and copper-containing amine oxidase were concealed inside the vesicles and resisted trypsin treatment. The cytosol-orientated caveolins were efficiently digested by trypsin, producing peptides amenable to direct MS sequencing. Isolation of peripheral proteins associated with the cytosolic surface of caveolae revealed a set of proteins that contained nuclear localization signals, leucine-zipper domains and PEST (amino acid sequence enriched in proline, glutamic acid, serine and threonine) domains implicated in regulation by proteolysis. In particular, PTRF (polymerase I and transcript release factor) was found as a major caveolae-associated protein and its co-localization with caveolin was confirmed by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. PTRF was present at the surface of caveolae in the intact form and in five different truncated forms. Peptides (44 and 45 amino acids long) comprising both the PEST domains were sequenced by nanospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight MS from the full-length PTRF, but were not found in the truncated forms of the protein. Two endogenous cleavage sites corresponding to calpain specificity were identified in PTRF; one of them was in a PEST domain. Both cleavage sites were flanked by mono- or diphosphorylated sequences. The phosphorylation sites were localized to Ser-36, Ser-40, Ser-365 and Ser-366 in PTRF. Caveolae of human adipocytes are proposed to function in targeting, relocation and proteolytic control of PTRF and other PEST-domain-containing signalling proteins.

  • 214.
    Aboulaich, Nabila
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vener, Alexander V
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hormonal control of reversible translocation of perilipin B to the plasma membrane in primary human adipocytes2006In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 281, no 17, p. 11446-11449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In adipocytes, perilipin coats and protects the central lipid droplet, which stores triacylglycerol. Alternative mRNA splicing gives rise to perilipin A and B. Hormones such as catecholamines and insulin regulate triacylglycerol metabolism through reversible serine phosphorylation of perilipin A. It was recently shown that perilipin was also located in triacylglycerol-synthesizing caveolae of the plasma membrane. We now report that perilipin at the plasma membrane of primary human adipocytes was phosphorylated on a cluster of threonine residues (299, 301, and 306) within an acidic domain that forms part of the lipid targeting domain. Perilipin B comprised <10% of total perilipin but was the major isoform associated with the plasma membrane of human adipocytes. This association was controlled by insulin and catecholamine: perilipin B was specifically depleted from the plasma membrane in response to the catecholamine isoproterenol, while insulin increased the amount of threonine phosphorylated perilipin at the plasma membrane. The reversible translocation of perilipin B to and from the plasma membrane in response to insulin and isoproterenol, respectively, suggests a specific function for perilipin B to protect newly synthesized triacylglycerol in the plasma membrane.

  • 215.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    SME Performance and Its Relationship to Innovation2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current SME performance models suffer from a number of disadvantages. The models use intensively a business ratio approach, they look at SMEs as a homogenous group, they consider firms to be closed systems, they do not directly incorporate the impact of an enterprise’s innovation activities, and finally they are complex and rely on sophisticated statistical refining methods making them unpractical to use by SME managers. There are four major challenges when one tries to build SME performance models that lack these deficiencies. The first challenge is that the desired performance evaluation model must optimally incorporate both quantitative and qualitative input. The second challenge is that the model must incorporate non-financial input parameters, such as firm size and age (among others), in the performance evaluation models. The third is that the model must consider the variety of SMEs as concerns their business sectors, nationalities, sizes, and ages. The final challenge is that the model must be able to utilize existing limited information available from the SMEs bookkeeping practices in an optimal way.

    The thesis addresses three questions related to constructing a better SMEperformance model, namely (1) What are the advantages and disadvantages of the existing models used in evaluating SME performance? (2) What characterizes a comprehensive model for measuring SME performance with acknowledgement of the firm’s innovation activities? (3) How can a firm’s innovation activities be enhanced in relation to the firm’s external environment?

    To construct a model that copes with these challenges, I used a literature-based selection of parameters as well as a theory-based selection. I used both a conceptual approach and an empirical approach to discuss and propose a model, the Survival Index Value (or SIV) model, as an alternative to the existing performance models for SMEs.

    The major contributions of this thesis to the field of SME performance can be summarized in three outcomes: the SIV model as a new model of SME performance evaluation, the ASPEM as a new tool for strategic utilization of SME performance models, and a new approach to account for innovation in relation to the external environment of the firm using the IBAM tool.

    The work adds to the theory of the firm, as it presents a new way of evaluating firm performance. It also contributes to bridging the theory of the firm to organizational theory, by elevating the significance of networking and its impact on SME efficiency.

    List of papers
    1. Typology Analysis of Performance Models of Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Typology Analysis of Performance Models of Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs)
    2004 (English)In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1099-9264, E-ISSN 1939-4675, Vol. 2, no 1-2, p. 155-177Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A number of firm performance models are available. Reviewing these models and pointing out their individual strengths and weaknesses, would help both academic researchers and professional users to understand and appreciate how and when to use these various models. The theoretical models for Small and Medium-size Enterprise (SME) performance can be divided into two categories: firm dynamics theories and performance prediction models. In the first part of this paper we review, in a condensed manner, the most relevant firm dynamic theories, i.e. SME's performance models. These include: Stochastic Theories, Learning Model Theories and Hazard Modeling Theories. In the second part of this paper, we examine the performance prediction models of SMEs, which include Z-Scores, ZETA-Scores, Neural Networks (NN) and the SIV® models, among others. The strengths and weaknesses of each of these models are exposed and discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SpringerLink, 2004
    Keywords
    small and medium-size enterprises - survival index value - SIV® model - Z-scores - neural networks
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71336 (URN)10.1023/B:JIEN.0000026911.03396.2d (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-10-12 Created: 2011-10-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    2. ASPEM as the New Topographic Analysis Tool for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Performance Models Utilization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>ASPEM as the New Topographic Analysis Tool for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Performance Models Utilization
    2005 (English)In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1099-9264, E-ISSN 1939-4675, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 53-70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying and measuring small firm performance is vital in our understanding of how internationalization influences firm performance. That is also important when attempting to grasp the mechanisms of the internationalization processes. There are few methods used for the evaluation of performance of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SMEs). These methods can be either macro or micro economic in nature. Hazard Modeling, Stochastic Models, and Learning Models are examples of macro economic models while Z-Scores, ZETA-Scores, Neural Networks, and the SIV® model are examples of micro models. Choosing the most suitable performance model is an essential step in order to maximize our knowledge in relation to firm performance. Utilizing SMEs performance measures without thinking about the category of model, will bias the outcome of the majority of SMEs studies. However, using firm performance diverse models in an efficient manner requires strategic thinking. In this paper, we are re-introducing a tool that can accommodate that aspect. Abouzeedan (2002) designated the new tool: the Arena of SMEs Performance Models or an ASPEM diagram. The horizontal axis in the diagram indicates the Information Intensity Requirements of the model. The vertical axis indicates the Coverage Intensity of the model varying from an individual firm up to a whole group of firms. By allocating each of the SMEs performance models, at the suitable region of the ASPEM Diagram, researchers can better build a sound strategy for the application of these methods.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SpringerLink, 2005
    Keywords
    Arena of SMEs performance models, ASPEM - SIV® model, Zeta-scores, ZETA-scores, neural networks, stochastic theories, hazard modeling
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71337 (URN)10.1007/s10843-005-0305-4 (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-10-12 Created: 2011-10-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Analysis of Swedish Fishery Company Using SIV® Model: A Case Study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of Swedish Fishery Company Using SIV® Model: A Case Study
    2004 (English)In: Journal of Enterprising Culture, ISSN 0218-4958, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 277-301Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In his original work of the Survival Index Value (SIV®) model, Dr. Adli Abouzeedan proposed a new parameter, which he named as the Survival Index (SI) (see Abouzeedan, 2001; Abouzeedan and Busler, 2002a). The new parameter is used to evaluate the performance of Small and Medium-size Enterprises (SMEs) utilizing firm survivability as an indicator. The SI is calculated using an equation known as Survival Index (SI) Value Equation or SIE. In this paper, we applied the SIV® model to run an analysis on a very young Swedish firm and up to our knowledge, for the first time. The firm is a small one, working within a business sector defined as "fish preparation industry". This particular enterprise had a bad performance through its short life. The purpose of this study is to truly determine if the SIV® model has the capacity to indicate the performance of the firm. The case study presented in this work showed the valuable analytical power of the new model since it succeeded in giving a clear indication of the worsening situation of the enterprise. During the SIV® analysis of this Swedish firm new concepts have been introduced which do increase the practicality and analytical capacity of the model.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    World Scientific Publishing Co., 2004
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71340 (URN)10.1142/S0218495804000154 (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-10-12 Created: 2011-10-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    4. Innovation Balance Matrix: an application in the Arab countries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovation Balance Matrix: an application in the Arab countries
    2006 (English)In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 270-280Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Economies have different levels of entrepreneurial activities depending on the availability of tangible as well as intangible resources. In their working paper, Abouzeedan and Busler (2004) established a new type of capital, adding up the components of the most important types of capital. These are the human capital, financial capital and the system capital. In that paper, the two researchers defined each of the components and explained what they meant with those terminologies. They called this new type of capital, innovation capital. The two researchers have argued that innovation capital can be used as an indicator for the degree of richness of the entrepreneurial environment in a region and thus the general character of the economy. They also introduced the Innovation Balance Matrix or IBAM as an analytical tool to classify economies based on their entrepreneurial conditions. In this extended work, they have used this analysis and tried to apply it to Arab countries using a general knowledge and deductive approach to the issue. They conclude the paper with some recommendations as how to enrich the innovation capital in that region.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Inderscience Enterprises Limited, 2006
    Keywords
    Human capital; financial capital; system capital; innovation capital; innovation balance matrix; IBAM; Arab countries; Middle East; entrepreneurship.
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71341 (URN)10.1504/WREMSD.2006.009893 (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-10-12 Created: 2011-10-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    5. Entrepreneurial policies and the innovation balance matrix: the case of the Arab countries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial policies and the innovation balance matrix: the case of the Arab countries
    2007 (English)In: Science,Technology and Sustainability in the Middle East and North Africa: Section III: Science Technology and Innovation / [ed] Allam Ahmed, Inderscience Enterprises Limited , 2007, p. 158-175Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of the connection between economic progress and the entrepreneurial environment has been investigated by researchers using diverse approaches. One way to investigate the question is to use deductive analysis regarding the forms of capital contributing to the entrepreneurial environment of society. Adli Abouzeedan and Michael Busler were the first to introduce the concept of 'Innovation Capital'. The two researchers argued that Innovation Capital can be used as an indicator for the degree of richness of the entrepreneurial environment. In the same paper, the researchers also introduced the Innovation Balance Matrix (IBAM) as an analytical tool to classify economies based on their entrepreneurial conditions, applying it across the globe. In a later work, the two researchers tried to run a similar IBAM analysis focusing on the Arab world. The two writers found that the best solution to the lack of individual entrepreneurial economies in that region is through what they called the 'additive solution'. In this work, we take their argument deeper and look at the kind of policies that would achieve that solution.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Inderscience Enterprises Limited, 2007
    Series
    Globalisation, Technology and Sustainable Development Book Series
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71342 (URN)0-907776-30-2 (ISBN)0-907776-32-9 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2011-10-12 Created: 2011-10-12 Last updated: 2011-11-21Bibliographically approved
    6. Managing Innovation in a Globalised Economy: Defining the Open Capital
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing Innovation in a Globalised Economy: Defining the Open Capital
    2009 (English)In: World Sustainable Development Outlook 2009. The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Environment, Energy and Sustainable Development / [ed] Allam Ahmed, World Association for Sustainable Development , 2009, p. 287-294Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Economies develop different levels of entrepreneurial capacity depending on the degree of availability of tangible as well as intangible resources. In an earlier work by Abouzeedan and Busler (2006), a new type of capital, that is, innovation capital, has been suggested to serve as an indicator for the degree of richness of the entrepreneurial environment in an economy. Innovation capital incorporates the concepts of human capital, financial capital and system capital. However, the issue of accessibility and openness in the innovation process also need to be reflected in the innovation capital concept. Innovation activities in the modern economies are growing to become more interconnected and open in their nature. In this paper, we defined and incorporated a new component within the innovation capital, namely open capital. We also reflected on how the four components of the innovation capital concept, including the open capital, are interconnected.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    World Association for Sustainable Development, 2009
    Keywords
    Open Capital, Human Capital, Financial Capital, System Capital, Innovation Capital, Open Innovation, Open Innovation Management
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71344 (URN)978-1-907106-05-7 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2011-10-12 Created: 2011-10-12 Last updated: 2011-11-21Bibliographically approved
    7. Analysis of a Swedish High Technology SME Using the Survival Index Value (SIV) Model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of a Swedish High Technology SME Using the Survival Index Value (SIV) Model
    2011 (English)In: Paper Sessions, Workshops and Special Meetings: The 56th ICSB World Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, 15th and 18th of June, ICSB , 2011, p. 170-179Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major deficiencies in the existing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ (SMEs) performance evaluation models is the fact that they lack a clear coupling to the issue of innovation and its impact on performance. A possible candidate model which could achieve this is the Survival Index Value (SIV) model. The model has a parameter incorporated in its structure, the technology-intake. This parameter can be used as an indicator of the degree of innovativeness of the firm. Previous works using the model looked at general performance without specific focus on innovation activities of the firm and without relating that to aspects of survival and growth. In this paper the aim was to demonstrate the ability of the SIV model to indicate a positive overall performance due to the intensive investment of a selected firm in innovation activities.

    The enterprise analyzed, Autoadapt AB, is a Swedish high technology firm working in adapting cars and automobiles to handicapped people. Due to the nature of their activities the firm has a high level of innovation input to be able to solve the complex problems related to usage of cars by disabled people. Both the product development process and managing the activities around it requires a high level of innovativeness and ingenuity. As thus the firm presented a very interesting object to study. The study has a clear significance as there is a need to differentiate the performance of innovation-intensive enterprises from firms who are using less investment in innovation in their activities. This can be done by considering the investment in new technologies both as product development and/or as investing in absorption of external management, product or process innovation. Applying the SIV model to run this analysis can help to demonstrate the need to incorporate the technology intake as an essential component of SME’s performance model.

    The results indicated that the SIVmodel is able to predict correctly the performance of the object firm. By having mostly positive survival factor values, which are single data-points, during years of operation, and also having mostly positive survivability coefficient values, which are agglomerate data-points, the SIVmodel proved its abilities. Clearly, the model has a good potential to be developed and fine-tuned even more. The SIV model can be tested further to look at deviations in performance of firms among different sectors and relates that to the innovativeness of whole sectors.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ICSB, 2011
    Keywords
    small and medium-sized enterprises, SMEs, performance evaluation models, SIV model
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71345 (URN)978-0-9819028-3-8 (ISBN)0-9819028-3-9 (ISBN)
    Conference
    ICSB 2011 World Conference Date: June 15-18, 2011, Stockholm Waterfront Congress Center, Stockholm, Sweden
    Available from: 2011-10-12 Created: 2011-10-12 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved
  • 216.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    Amana Commercial Consultants, Partille, Sweden.
    Busler, Michael
    Pennsylvania State University USA.
    Analysis of Swedish Fishery Company Using SIV® Model: A Case Study2004In: Journal of Enterprising Culture, ISSN 0218-4958, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 277-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In his original work of the Survival Index Value (SIV®) model, Dr. Adli Abouzeedan proposed a new parameter, which he named as the Survival Index (SI) (see Abouzeedan, 2001; Abouzeedan and Busler, 2002a). The new parameter is used to evaluate the performance of Small and Medium-size Enterprises (SMEs) utilizing firm survivability as an indicator. The SI is calculated using an equation known as Survival Index (SI) Value Equation or SIE. In this paper, we applied the SIV® model to run an analysis on a very young Swedish firm and up to our knowledge, for the first time. The firm is a small one, working within a business sector defined as "fish preparation industry". This particular enterprise had a bad performance through its short life. The purpose of this study is to truly determine if the SIV® model has the capacity to indicate the performance of the firm. The case study presented in this work showed the valuable analytical power of the new model since it succeeded in giving a clear indication of the worsening situation of the enterprise. During the SIV® analysis of this Swedish firm new concepts have been introduced which do increase the practicality and analytical capacity of the model.

  • 217.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    Amana Commercial Consultants, Partille, Sweden.
    Busler, Michael
    Pennsylvania State University, Great Valley Graduate Center, Malvern, PA 19355.
    ASPEM as the New Topographic Analysis Tool for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Performance Models Utilization2005In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1099-9264, E-ISSN 1939-4675, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 53-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying and measuring small firm performance is vital in our understanding of how internationalization influences firm performance. That is also important when attempting to grasp the mechanisms of the internationalization processes. There are few methods used for the evaluation of performance of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SMEs). These methods can be either macro or micro economic in nature. Hazard Modeling, Stochastic Models, and Learning Models are examples of macro economic models while Z-Scores, ZETA-Scores, Neural Networks, and the SIV® model are examples of micro models. Choosing the most suitable performance model is an essential step in order to maximize our knowledge in relation to firm performance. Utilizing SMEs performance measures without thinking about the category of model, will bias the outcome of the majority of SMEs studies. However, using firm performance diverse models in an efficient manner requires strategic thinking. In this paper, we are re-introducing a tool that can accommodate that aspect. Abouzeedan (2002) designated the new tool: the Arena of SMEs Performance Models or an ASPEM diagram. The horizontal axis in the diagram indicates the Information Intensity Requirements of the model. The vertical axis indicates the Coverage Intensity of the model varying from an individual firm up to a whole group of firms. By allocating each of the SMEs performance models, at the suitable region of the ASPEM Diagram, researchers can better build a sound strategy for the application of these methods.

  • 218.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    Amana Commercial Consultants, Partille, Sweden.
    Busler, Michael
    Rowan University, 201 Mullica Hill Road, Glassboro, NJ 08028, USA.
    Entrepreneurial policies and the innovation balance matrix: the case of the Arab countries2007In: Science,Technology and Sustainability in the Middle East and North Africa: Section III: Science Technology and Innovation / [ed] Allam Ahmed, Inderscience Enterprises Limited , 2007, p. 158-175Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of the connection between economic progress and the entrepreneurial environment has been investigated by researchers using diverse approaches. One way to investigate the question is to use deductive analysis regarding the forms of capital contributing to the entrepreneurial environment of society. Adli Abouzeedan and Michael Busler were the first to introduce the concept of 'Innovation Capital'. The two researchers argued that Innovation Capital can be used as an indicator for the degree of richness of the entrepreneurial environment. In the same paper, the researchers also introduced the Innovation Balance Matrix (IBAM) as an analytical tool to classify economies based on their entrepreneurial conditions, applying it across the globe. In a later work, the two researchers tried to run a similar IBAM analysis focusing on the Arab world. The two writers found that the best solution to the lack of individual entrepreneurial economies in that region is through what they called the 'additive solution'. In this work, we take their argument deeper and look at the kind of policies that would achieve that solution.

  • 219.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    Amana Commercial Consultants, Partille, Sweden.
    Busler, Michael
    Rowan University, 201 Mullica Hill Road, Glassboro, NJ 08028, USA.
    Innovation Balance Matrix: an application in the Arab countries2006In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 270-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Economies have different levels of entrepreneurial activities depending on the availability of tangible as well as intangible resources. In their working paper, Abouzeedan and Busler (2004) established a new type of capital, adding up the components of the most important types of capital. These are the human capital, financial capital and the system capital. In that paper, the two researchers defined each of the components and explained what they meant with those terminologies. They called this new type of capital, innovation capital. The two researchers have argued that innovation capital can be used as an indicator for the degree of richness of the entrepreneurial environment in a region and thus the general character of the economy. They also introduced the Innovation Balance Matrix or IBAM as an analytical tool to classify economies based on their entrepreneurial conditions. In this extended work, they have used this analysis and tried to apply it to Arab countries using a general knowledge and deductive approach to the issue. They conclude the paper with some recommendations as how to enrich the innovation capital in that region.

  • 220.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    Amana Commercial Consultants, Partille, Sweden.
    Busler, Michael
    Pennsylvania State University, Great Valley Graduate Center, Malvern, PA 19355, USA.
    Typology Analysis of Performance Models of Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs)2004In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1099-9264, E-ISSN 1939-4675, Vol. 2, no 1-2, p. 155-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of firm performance models are available. Reviewing these models and pointing out their individual strengths and weaknesses, would help both academic researchers and professional users to understand and appreciate how and when to use these various models. The theoretical models for Small and Medium-size Enterprise (SME) performance can be divided into two categories: firm dynamics theories and performance prediction models. In the first part of this paper we review, in a condensed manner, the most relevant firm dynamic theories, i.e. SME's performance models. These include: Stochastic Theories, Learning Model Theories and Hazard Modeling Theories. In the second part of this paper, we examine the performance prediction models of SMEs, which include Z-Scores, ZETA-Scores, Neural Networks (NN) and the SIV® models, among others. The strengths and weaknesses of each of these models are exposed and discussed.

  • 221.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Busler, Michael
    The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, USA.
    Hedner, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Managing Innovation in a Globalised Economy: Defining the Open Capital2009In: World Sustainable Development Outlook 2009. The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Environment, Energy and Sustainable Development / [ed] Allam Ahmed, World Association for Sustainable Development , 2009, p. 287-294Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Economies develop different levels of entrepreneurial capacity depending on the degree of availability of tangible as well as intangible resources. In an earlier work by Abouzeedan and Busler (2006), a new type of capital, that is, innovation capital, has been suggested to serve as an indicator for the degree of richness of the entrepreneurial environment in an economy. Innovation capital incorporates the concepts of human capital, financial capital and system capital. However, the issue of accessibility and openness in the innovation process also need to be reflected in the innovation capital concept. Innovation activities in the modern economies are growing to become more interconnected and open in their nature. In this paper, we defined and incorporated a new component within the innovation capital, namely open capital. We also reflected on how the four components of the innovation capital concept, including the open capital, are interconnected.

  • 222.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Medicine Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hedner, Thomas
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Medicine Sahlgrenska Academy, University of.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Innovation and entrepreneurship – new themes for new times2010In: Annals of Innovation & Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2000-7396, E-ISSN 2000-7396, ISSN ISSN 2000-7396, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-3Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout history, innovators and entrepreneurs have had a tremendous impact on development, exploration, trade, education, science, and integration. During the 20th century, innovation and entrepre-neurship have been regarded as key drivers in technological progress and productivity development worldwide. New radical innovations from new fields of knowledge such as information and communication technologies and biotechnology have emerged to influence everyday life for most people. Realizing this, policy makers as well as individuals argue that innovative and entrepreneurial change processes need to be further implemented on the micro as well as macro levels in society (Abouzeedan, Busler, & Hedner, 2009; Busenitz, Gomez, & Spencer, 2000). The study of innovation is therefore likely to be an increasingly important topic in, for example, economics, business, entrepreneurship, tech-nology, engineering, medicine, environmental biology, sociology, design, and reregional development (cf. Etzkowitz & Klofsten, 2005).

  • 223.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hedner, Thomas
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Analysis of a Swedish High Technology SME Using the Survival Index Value (SIV) Model2011In: Paper Sessions, Workshops and Special Meetings: The 56th ICSB World Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, 15th and 18th of June, ICSB , 2011, p. 170-179Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major deficiencies in the existing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ (SMEs) performance evaluation models is the fact that they lack a clear coupling to the issue of innovation and its impact on performance. A possible candidate model which could achieve this is the Survival Index Value (SIV) model. The model has a parameter incorporated in its structure, the technology-intake. This parameter can be used as an indicator of the degree of innovativeness of the firm. Previous works using the model looked at general performance without specific focus on innovation activities of the firm and without relating that to aspects of survival and growth. In this paper the aim was to demonstrate the ability of the SIV model to indicate a positive overall performance due to the intensive investment of a selected firm in innovation activities.

    The enterprise analyzed, Autoadapt AB, is a Swedish high technology firm working in adapting cars and automobiles to handicapped people. Due to the nature of their activities the firm has a high level of innovation input to be able to solve the complex problems related to usage of cars by disabled people. Both the product development process and managing the activities around it requires a high level of innovativeness and ingenuity. As thus the firm presented a very interesting object to study. The study has a clear significance as there is a need to differentiate the performance of innovation-intensive enterprises from firms who are using less investment in innovation in their activities. This can be done by considering the investment in new technologies both as product development and/or as investing in absorption of external management, product or process innovation. Applying the SIV model to run this analysis can help to demonstrate the need to incorporate the technology intake as an essential component of SME’s performance model.

    The results indicated that the SIVmodel is able to predict correctly the performance of the object firm. By having mostly positive survival factor values, which are single data-points, during years of operation, and also having mostly positive survivability coefficient values, which are agglomerate data-points, the SIVmodel proved its abilities. Clearly, the model has a good potential to be developed and fine-tuned even more. The SIV model can be tested further to look at deviations in performance of firms among different sectors and relates that to the innovativeness of whole sectors.

  • 224.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hedner, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Implementing the SIV Model on an Intensively Innovation-Oriented Firm: The Case of Autoadapt AB2012In: World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 2042-5961, Vol. 8, no 2/3, p. 122-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small to medium-sized enterprise (SME) evaluation models lack a clear coupling to innovation and its impact on firm performance. A model which can achieve this is the Survival Index Value (SIV) model. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability of the SIV model to indicate and predict the performance of a company. The firm, Autoadapt AB, is an innovation-oriented enterprise, adapting personal cars to be driven by handicapped people. The authors knew in advance about the good performance of the firm and its high efficiency in conducting its operations and expected the SIV model to reflect correctly on Autoadapt's performance. Because the handicap degree of each of the individuals who benefit from the firm activities differs from one person to another, product solutions have to be individually designed. Therefore the firm has had to pursue a high level of innovativeness and it had to abide with this policy right from the start. The product development processes in the firm needed to adapt to such strategies.

    To be able to demonstrate the ability of the SIV model to indicate a positive performance due to the intensive innovation activities of Autoadapt AB, a case study approach was used. Case studies are very suited for in-depth analysis of an object under a longer period of time. It is a widely-used research method in firm performance studies.

    The results of the SIV analysis indicated that the model is able to project correctly the performance of the object firm. At all the four levels of analysis, i.e. SI values, the SPI slope, the survival factors, and the survivability coefficients, the SIV analysis performance indicated a stable positive development of the firm through the life time of the enterprise.

    Measuring performance of SMEs is an important issue. There are couple of models stemming from the traditional accountancy disciplines in use; however these models suffer from clear disadvantages. Recently a new model, the SIV model, was introduced and has shown the ability of being a better candidate for performance analysis. The paper demonstrates the ability of the SIV model to judge correctly the performance of an innovative firm.

  • 225.
    Aboyans, Victor
    et al.
    Dupuytren University Hospital.
    Criqui, Michael
    University of California, USA.
    Abraham, Pierre
    University Hospital of Angers, France.
    Allison, Matthew
    University of California, USA.
    Creager, Mark
    Brigham and Women’s Hospital, USA.
    Diehm, Curt
    Karlsbad Clinic/University of Heidelberg, Germany.
    Fowkes, Gerry
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Hiatt, William
    University of Colorado, USA.
    Jönsson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Lacroix, Philippe
    Limoges University, France.
    Marin, Benoit
    Limoges Teaching Hospital, France.
    McDermott, Mary
    Northwestern University,USA.
    Norgren, Lars
    University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Pande, Reena
    Brigham and Women’s Hospital, USA.
    Preux, Pierre-Marie
    University of Limoges, France.
    Stoffers, H.E.
    Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Treat-Jacobsson, Diane
    University of Minnesota, USA.
    Measurement and interpretation of the ankle-brachial index: a scientific statement from the Ammerican Heart Association2012In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 226.
    Abraham, Abel
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Om konsten att sälja: En studie om hur företag försöker nå yngre konsumenter2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens konsumtion och mediesamhälle bombarderas den unga individen av reklam. Det är utifrån detta förstårligt att man konstruerar en mur där man helt enkelt säger stopp till reklamen. Dock stoppar dtet ainte företagen som då försöker komma över denna mur  och på så sätt nå konsumenten.

    Syftet med studien är att belysa vilka uppfattningar marknadsförare har angående ungdomar som målgrupp och hur man utifrån det försöker nå denna målgrupp. Vilka tillvägagångssätt använder sig marknadsförarna av och hur övertygar de konsumenten?

    I analysen framkommer det tre diskurser är av väsentlig betydelse. Dessa diskurser tar upp den unga konsumentens situation och levnadsvillkor, retorikens betydelse för hur man påverkan konsumenterna och användandet av kommunikationsmedel för att nå målgruppen.

  • 227.
    Abraham-Nordling, Mirna
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Persson, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Bioinformatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nordling, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Bioinformatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Model of the complex of Parathyroid hormone-2receptor and Tuberoinfundibular peptide of39 residues2010In: BMC Reseach Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 3, no 270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    We aim to propose interactions between the parathyroid hormone-2 receptor (PTH2R) and its ligand the tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) by constructing a homology model of their complex. The two related peptides parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP) are compared with the complex to examine their interactions.

    Findings

    In the model, the hydrophobic N-terminus of TIP39 is buried in a hydrophobic part of the central cavity between helices 3 and 7. Comparison of the peptide sequences indicates that the main discriminator between the agonistic peptides TIP39 and PTH and the inactive PTHrP is a tryptophan-phenylalanine replacement. The model indicates that the smaller phenylalanine in PTHrP does not completely occupy the binding site of the larger tryptophan residue in the other peptides. As only TIP39 causes internalisation of the receptor and the primary difference being an aspartic acid in position 7 of TIP39 that interacts with histidine 396 in the receptor, versus isoleucine/histidine residues in the related hormones, this might be a trigger interaction for the events that cause internalisation.

    Conclusions

    A model is constructed for the complex and a trigger interaction for full agonistic activation between aspartic acid 7 of TIP39 and histidine 396 in the receptor is proposed.

  • 228.
    Abrahams, M
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology.
    Eriksson, H
    Björnström, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC - Medicin och kirurgicentrum, Anestesi.
    Eintrei, Christina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC - Medicin och kirurgicentrum, Anestesi.
    Effects of propofol on extracellular acidification rates in primary cortical cell cultures: application of silicon microphysiometry to anaesthesia.1999In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 83, p. 567-569Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 229.
    Abrahams, M
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC - Medicin och kirurgicentrum, Anestesi.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Plastic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Oscarsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC - Medicin och kirurgicentrum, Anestesi.
    Sundqvist, Tommy
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology.
    The effects of human burn injury on urinary nitrate excretion. 1999In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 25, p. 29-33Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 230.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Capodanno, Alessandra
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Rzepecka, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Downregulation of tumor suppressive microRNAs in vivo in dense breast tissue of postmenopausal women2017In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 54, p. 92134-92142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women with dense breast tissue on mammography are at higher risk of developing breast cancer but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. De-regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been associated with the onset of breast cancer. miRNAs in the extracellular space participate in the regulation of the local tissue microenvironment. Here, we recruited 39 healthy postmenopausal women attending their mammography-screen that were assessed having extreme dense or entirely fatty breasts (nondense). Microdialysis was performed in breast tissue and a reference catheter was inserted in abdominal subcutaneous fat for local sampling of extracellular compounds. Three miRNAs, associated with tumor suppression, miR-193b, miR-365a, and miR-452 were significantly down-regulated in dense breast tissue compared with nondense breast tissue. In addition, miR-452 exhibited significant negative correlations with several pro-inflammatory cytokines in vivo, which was confirmed in vitro by overexpression of miR-452 in breast cancer cells. No differences were found of miR-21, -29a, -30c, 146a, -148a, -203, or -451 in breast tissue and no miRs were different in plasma. Extracellular miRNAs may be among factors that should be included in studies of novel prevention strategies for breast cancer.

  • 231.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Tissue specific expression of extracellular microRNA in human breast cancers and normal human breast tissue in vivo2015In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 6, no 26, p. 22959-22969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extracellular circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested to be biomarkers for disease monitoring but data are inconsistent, one reason being that blood miRNA is of heterogeneous origin. Here, we sampled extracellular microRNAs locally in situ using microdialysis. Three different cohorts of women were included; postmenopausal women with ongoing breast cancer investigated within the cancer and in normal adjacent breast tissue, postmenopausal women investigated in their normal healthy breast and subcutaneous fat before and after six weeks of tamoxifen therapy, premenopausal women during the menstrual cycle. Samples were initially screened using TaqMan array cards with subsequently absolute quantification. 124 miRNA were expressed in microdialysates. After absolute quantifications extracellular miRNA-21 was found to be significantly increased in breast cancer. In addition, the levels were significantly higher in pre-menopausal breast tissue compared with postmenopausal. In breast tissue of pre-menopausal women miRNA-21 exhibited a cyclic variation during the menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal women six weeks of tamoxifen treatment decreased miRNA-21 suggesting that this miRNA may be important for breast carcinogenesis. None of these changes were found in plasma or microdialysates from subcutaneous fat. Our data revealed tissue specific changes of extracellular circulating miRNAs that would be otherwise unraveled using blood samples.

  • 232.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Morad, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Saarinen, Niina M
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Estradiol, Tamoxifen, and Flaxseed Alter IL-1 beta and IL-1Ra Levels in Normal Human Breast Tissue in Vivo2012In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 97, no 11, p. E2044-E2054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sex steroid exposure increases the risk of breast cancer by unclear mechanisms. Diet modifications may be one breast cancer prevention strategy. The proinflammatory cytokine family of IL-1 is implicated in cancer progression. IL-1Ra is an endogenous inhibitor of the proinflammatory IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanObjective: The objective of this study was to elucidate whether estrogen, tamoxifen, and/or diet modification altered IL-1 levels in normal human breast tissue. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanDesign and Methods: Microdialysis was performed in healthy women under various hormone exposures, tamoxifen therapy, and diet modifications and in breast cancers of women before surgery. Breast tissue biopsies from reduction mammoplasties were cultured. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: We show a significant positive correlation between estradiol and in vivo levels of IL-1 beta in breast tissue and abdominal sc fat, whereas IL-1Ra exhibited a significant negative correlation with estradiol in breast tissue. Tamoxifen or a dietary addition of 25 g flaxseed per day resulted in significantly increased levels of IL-1Ra in the breast. These results were confirmed in ex vivo culture of breast biopsies. Immunohistochemistry of the biopsies did not reveal any changes in cellular content of the IL-1s, suggesting that mainly the secreted levels were affected. In breast cancer patients, intratumoral levels of IL-1 beta were significantly higher compared with normal adjacent breast tissue. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: IL-1 may be under the control of estrogen in vivo and may be attenuated by antiestrogen therapy and diet modifications. The increased IL-1 beta in breast cancers of women strongly suggests IL-1 as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer treatment and prevention.

  • 233.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Rzepecka, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Equal Pro-inflammatory Profiles of CCLs, CXCLs, and Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Extracellular Microenvironment In Vivo in Human Dense Breast Tissue and Breast Cancer2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 1994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inflammatory microenvironment affects breast cancer progression. Proteins that govern the inflammatory response are secreted into the extracellular space, but this compartment still needs to be characterized in human breast tissues in vivo. Dense breast tissue is a major risk factor for breast cancer by yet unknown mechanisms and no non-toxic prevention for these patients exists. Here, we used the minimal invasive technique of microdialysis for sampling of extracellular proteins in live tissues in situ in breast cancers of women before surgery and in healthy women having dense or non-dense breast tissue on mammography. Proteins were profiled using a proximity extension assay. Out of the 32 proteins assessed, 26 exhibited similar profiles in breast cancers and dense breast tissues; CCL-4, -7, -8, -11, -15, -16, -22, -23, and -25, CXCL-5, -8, -9, -16 as well as sIL-6R, IL-18, vascular endothelial growth factor, TGF-a, fibroblast growth factor 19, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2, -3, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator were all increased, whereas CCL-3, CX3CL1, hepatocyte growth factor, and MMP-9 were unaltered in the two tissues. CCL-19 and -24, CXCL-1 and -10, and IL-6 were increased in dense breast tissue only, whereas IL-18BP was increased in breast cancer only. Our results provide novel insights in the inflammatory microenvironment in human breast cancer in situ and define potential novel therapeutic targets. Additionally, we show previously unrecognized similarities of the pro-inflammatory microenvironment in dense breast tissue and breast cancer in vivo suggesting that anti-inflammatory breast cancer prevention trials for women with dense breast tissue may be feasible.

  • 234.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Rzepecka, Anna
    Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Increased nutrient availability in dense breast tissue of postmenopausal women in vivo2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 42733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Nutrient availability in the tissue microenvironment determines cellular events and may play a role in breast carcinogenesis. High mammographic density is an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Whether nutrient availability differs in normal breast tissues with various densities is unknown. Therefore we investigated whether breast tissues with various densities exhibited differences in nutrient availability. Healthy postmenopausal women from the regular mammographic screening program who had either predominantly fatty breast tissue (nondense), n = 18, or extremely dense breast tissue (dense), n = 20, were included. Microdialysis was performed for the in vivo sampling of amino acids (AAs), analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectroscopy, glucose, lactate and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in breast tissues and, as a control, in abdominal subcutaneous (s.c.) fat. We found that dense breast tissue exhibited significantly increased levels of 20 proteinogenic AAs and that 18 of these AAs correlated significantly with VEGF. No differences were found in the s.c. fat, except for one AA, suggesting tissue-specific alterations in the breast. Glucose and lactate were unaltered. Our findings provide novel insights into the biology of dense breast tissue that may be explored for breast cancer prevention strategies.

  • 235.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Rzepecka, Anna
    Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Romu, Thobias
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Lundberg, Peter
    Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kihlberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Dense breast tissue in postmenopausal women is associated with a pro-inflammatory microenvironment in vivo2016In: Oncoimmunology, ISSN 2162-4011, E-ISSN 2162-402X, Vol. 5, no 10, article id e1229723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammation is one of the hallmarks of carcinogenesis. High mammographic density has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer but the mechanisms behind are poorly understood. We evaluated whether breasts with different mammographic densities exhibited differences in the inflammatory microenvironment.Postmenopausal women attending the mammography-screening program were assessed having extreme dense, n = 20, or entirely fatty breasts (nondense), n = 19, on their regular mammograms. Thereafter, the women were invited for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), microdialysis for the collection of extracellular molecules in situ and a core tissue biopsy for research purposes. On the MRI, lean tissue fraction (LTF) was calculated for a continuous measurement of breast density. LTF confirmed the selection from the mammograms and gave a continuous measurement of breast density. Microdialysis revealed significantly increased extracellular in vivo levels of IL-6, IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor, and CCL5 in dense breast tissue as compared with nondense breasts. Moreover, the ratio IL-1Ra/IL-1 was decreased in dense breasts. No differences were found in levels of IL-1, IL-1Ra, CCL2, leptin, adiponectin, or leptin:adiponectin ratio between the two breast tissue types. Significant positive correlations between LTF and the pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as between the cytokines were detected. Stainings of the core biopsies exhibited increased levels of immune cells in dense breast tissue.Our data show that dense breast tissue in postmenopausal women is associated with a pro-inflammatory microenvironment and, if confirmed in a larger cohort, suggests novel targets for prevention therapies for women with dense breast tissue.

  • 236.
    Abrahamsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Ljungberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Vad är en bantad balansräkning?2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Under senare år har det blivit vanligare att företagen i tidningsartiklar och årsredovisningar talar om att de har ”bantat” sin balansräkning. Företag använder begreppet i flera olika sammanhang och för att signalera att åtgärder som är positiva för företagen genomförts. Innebörden och konsekvensen av de åtgärder som vidtagits i företagen varierar dock kraftigt.

    Syfte: Syftet med vår magisteruppsats är att utreda vilken innebörd begreppet ”bantade” balansräkningar har för ett antal företag inom olika branscher.

    Genomförande: I undersökningen valde vi ut företag noterade på Stockholmsbörsen som offentliggjort att de genomfört bantningar av sina balansräkningar. Genom att studera tidningsartiklar och årsredovisningar har vi utrönt vilka åtgärder som vidtagits av företagen samt effekterna av de genomförda åtgärderna.

    Resultat: En bantning av en balansräkning innebär att åtgärder för att minska tillgångsmassan skett. Vilka dessa åtgärder är och vilket syftet med dem är varierar dock kraftigt. Några exempel på åtgärder som företagen utfört är extra aktieutdelningar, sale and lease back, outsourcing, försäljning av dotterbolag och återköp av egna aktier. Användningen av begreppet sker mycket godtyckligt. Effekterna av åtgärderna varierar, några vi funnit är minskad skuldsättning, ökad skuldsättning, minskade tillgångar och ökad lönsamhet.

  • 237.
    Abrahamsson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Architectures for Multiplication in Galois Rings2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates architectures for multiplying elements in Galois rings of the size 4^m, where m is an integer.

    The main question is whether known architectures for multiplying in Galois fields can be used for Galois rings also, with small modifications, and the answer to that question is that they can.

    Different representations for elements in Galois rings are also explored, and the performance of multipliers for the different representations is investigated.

  • 238.
    Abrahamsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Security Enhanced Firmware Update Procedures in Embedded Systems2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many embedded systems are complex, and it is often required that the firmware in these systems are updatable by the end-user. For economical and confidentiality reasons, it is important that these systems only accept firmware approved by the firmware producer.

    This thesis work focuses on creating a security enhanced firmware update procedure that is suitable for use in embedded systems. The common elements of embedded systems are described and various candidate algorithms are compared as candidates for firmware verification. Patents are used as a base for the proposal of a security enhanced update procedure. We also use attack trees to perform a threat analysis on an update procedure.

    The results are a threat analysis of a home office router and the proposal of an update procedure. The update procedure will only accept approved firmware and prevents reversion to old, vulnerable, firmware versions. The firmware verification is performed using the hash function SHA-224 and the digital signature algorithm RSA with a key length of 2048. The selection of algorithms and key lengths mitigates the threat of brute-force and cryptanalysis attacks on the verification algorithms and is believed to be secure through 2030.

  • 239.
    Abrahamsson, Daysury
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture.
    Colombianer på bioduken: Representationen av tre Hollywoodproducerade actionfilmer2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis was to analyse three action films; Collateral Damage from 2002; Clear and Present Danger from 1994; and Scarface from 1983, in order to see how Colombians are represented in these movies.The action genre comprises of different stereotypes where the hero and the villain are represented in conjunction to each other. The analysis is about the way the films content and form are used to uphold the representation of Colombians, but also the villain and the hero more generally.

    Critical Discourse Analysis was used, as main method, and the concepts of denotation and connotation guided the analysis. . The main conclusion is that the three movies reproduced an already established collective stereotype of Latin Americans, stereotype that includes both Colombia and Colombians.

  • 240.
    Abrahamsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Larsson, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Media - makt att sätta företags agenda?: En kvantitativ studie om medias makt att påverka företags hållbarhetsredovisningar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Lately, there has been a significant increase in sustainability related issues in media, while companies increasingly are reporting on sustainability. Media has a central role in today's society, and sustainability is emerging as one of the most contemporary issues in the business industry. Studies with a combination of media and sustainability are a fruitful field for future research.

    Purpose The aim of this study is to explain the relationship between medias sustainability exposure of companies and these companies' establishment and extent of a sustainability report.

    Method This quantitative study is pursued through a deductive approach in which the hypotheses are formulated with a background in existing theories. A cross-sectional design is used to measure the presence and the variation of a given phenomena at a certain time. Secondary data is used as the empirical basis. The study focuses on companies listed at Nasdaq Stockholm.

    Conclusion The results of this study indicate that medias' sustainability exposure of companies affects companies' establishment and extent of a sustainability report. Size, industry, profitability and number of subsidiaries are also significant factors. We have found that media is a primary factor in explaining why companies choose to report on sustainability issues. For every news story about a given company in a sustainability context – the likelihood of that company establishing a sustainability report is increased by 2,491. This study also proves that increased media exposure leads to a more extensive sustainability reporting.

  • 241.
    Abrahamsson, Heléne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Adolfsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Varför, och varför inte, integrerar NO-lärare ämnena i grundskolan?2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under vår skolförlagda utbildning har vi varit på olika skolor, där vi sett att lärarnas undervisning varierade stort i dessa skolor. Vi undrar varför det är så mycket ämnesstrukturerad undervisning ute på skolorna och varför inte lärarna undervisar mer ämnesintegrerat när vi ser att det finns möjligheter till detta. En av de viktigaste uppgifterna som verksamma lärare bör ha, är att ge eleverna möjligheter till överblick och sammanhang mellan ämnen. Syftet med vår studie var att undersöka varför lärarna integrerar och varför inte lärarna integrerar i skolorna. Vår undersökning grundar sig på telefonintervjuer med 25 lärare från två kommuner.

    Vår studie visar att lärarna integrerar ämnena för att eleverna ska förstå samband och se helheter. Flertalet av lärare undervisar utifrån ett arbetsområde där de utgår från den stora helheten för att sedan leda in undervisningen till delar och små bitar. Vid verklighetsrelaterad undervisning kan undervisningen bli integrerad och när eleverna känner igen sig, har eleverna lättare att ta till sig undervisningen, menar lärarna i vår studie.

    Svårigheter som kan uppstå vid integrerad undervisning är t ex olika lärarkategorier och att integrerad undervisning kräver en tidskrävande planering samt brist på integrerat läromedel. Det fanns lärare som deltog i studien som ansåg sig lägga ner mycket tid och kraft att skapa eget integrerat läromedel. 20 stycken lärare i studien undervisar huvudsakligen integrerat men de undervisar också ämnesstrukturerat. Med varierade undervisningsformer kan lärarna nå ut till fler elever då åsikterna gått isär om vilken undervisningsform som gagnar vem.

  • 242.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Carlson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robust Torque Control for Automated Gear Shifting in Heavy Duty Vehicles2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In an automated manual transmission it is desired to have zero torque in the transmission when disengaging a gear. This minimizes the oscillations in the driveline which increases the comfort and makes the speed synchronization easier. The automated manual transmission system in a Scania truck, called Opticruise, uses engine torque control to achieve zero torque in the transmission.In this thesis different control strategies for engine torque control are proposed in order to minimize the oscillations in the driveline and increase the comfort during a gear shift. A model of the driveline is developed in order to evaluate the control strategies. The main focus was to develop controllers that are easy to implement and that are robust enough to be used in different driveline configurations. This means that model dependent control strategies are not considered.A control strategy with a combination of a feedback from the speed difference between the output shaft speed and the wheel speed, and a feedforward with a linear ramp, showed very good performance in both simulations and tests in trucks. The amplitude of the oscillations in the output shaft speed after neutralengagement are halved compared to the results from the existing method in Scania trucks. The new concept is also more robust against initial conditions and time delay estimations.

  • 243.
    Abrahamsson, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ett försprång till skapande - en undersökning om förutsättningarna för Musikproduktion på Kulturskolan2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med rapporten är att undersöka förutsättningarna för en introduktionskurs i musikproduktion på Kulturskolan i Karlskrona, samt att utforma en övergripande plan för undervisningen. Arbetet omfattar även en mindre undersökning av eventuella liknande kurser på kulturskolor i tolv större svenska städer. För att besvara frågeställningarna har intervjuer genomförts med lärare och ledning på Kulturskolan i Karlskrona, anställda på kulturskolor på andra orter, musikgymnasium i Karlskrona samt på kommunens kulturförvaltning. Undersökningen visade att endast två av tolv städer har motsvarande eller liknande kurser på sina kulturskolor. De materiella förutsättningarna för en musikproduktionskurs på Kulturskolan i Karlskrona är goda, i form av lokaler med befintlig ljudutrustning och programvara. När det gäller ekonomiska förutsättningar kommer Kulturskolans intäkter från elevavgifter och kommunala medel. Kursen skulle innebära en utgift för lärarlön, men i övrigt går den att starta utan ytterligare kostnader. På kommunens kulturförvaltning menar man att det är viktigt med bredd i Kulturskolans kursutbud och att en musikproduktionskurs kan berika det lokala kulturlivet. Kursen är tänkt att fokusera på musik med datorn. Momenten bör kretsa kring inspelningsprogram, mjukvaruinstrument, plugin-program, med inslag av arrangering och mixning. Kursens målsättningar ligger i linje med Kulturskolans policydokument och är inspirerade av liknande kurser på andra kulturskolor.

  • 244.
    Abrahamsson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science, Luleå univeristet.
    Abrahamsson, LenaDepartment of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science, Luleå univeristet.Björkman, TorstenDepartment of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science, Luleå univeristet.Ellström, Per-ErikLinköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Work and Working Life. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Johansson, JanDepartment of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science, Luleå univeristet.
    Utbildning, kompetens och arbete2002Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna bok är att ge en översiktsbild av forskning om samspelet mellan utbildning, yrkesverksamhet och lärande. Avsikten är också att överbrygga klyftan mellan en i huvudsak utbildningsinriktad forskning och en forskning med tonvikt på lärande, utveckling och förändring. Fokus är kompetensförsörjningen till och inom arbetslivet. Uppmärksamhet ägnas även överutbildning och underlärande, dvs. den klassiska frågan om matchning mellan utbud och efterfrågan. Innehållet belyser även yrkesbegreppet och hur kvalifikationskraven ändras eller är stabila över tid i olika verksamheter samt villkoren för lärande på arbetsplatsen.

    Förutom en översikt av aktuell svensk forskning syftar boken till att skapa underlag för policyutveckling och konkreta insatser när det gäller villkoren för kompetensförsörjning och lärande i arbetslivet. Boken riktar sig till utbildningar i högskolan i allmänhet och lärarutbildningar i synnerhet med syfte att skapa ökad insikt om hur kunskap utvecklas och nyttiggörs i utbildning och arbetsliv. En annan målgrupp är politiker, utbildningsplanerare och företrädare för arbetsmarknadspolitik och arbetsmarknadens parter med intresse för hur utbildning, arbetsmarknad och välfärd utvecklas i Sverige.

  • 245.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    A portal based system for indoor environs2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to document the development of the graphics part of an extremely pluggable game engine/lab environment for a course in advanced game programming. This thesis is one out of five, and concerns indoor, realtime computer 3D graphics. It covers state-of-the-art techniques such as GLSL - the OpenGL Shading Language - and more well known techniques such as portal based rendering.

  • 246. Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Gremyr, Ida
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Marcus
    Nilsson, Anders
    Rehn, Alf
    Segerstedt, Anders
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Öhman, Peter
    Industriell ekonomi och organisering2016Book (Refereed)
  • 247.
    Abrahamsson, Liselott
    Linköping University, Department of Educational Science (IUV).
    Fristående skolor1999Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete handlar bl.a. om hur man kan gå tillväga om man vill starta en fristående skola. Arbetet tar också upp några olika inriktningar en friskola kan ha, (t.ex. Waldorf och Montessori) och beskriver lite av deras bakgrund och pedagogik. Eftersom friskolor idag är ett hett debatteringsämne i både tidningar och tv finns även ett avsnitt med där lite olika inslag i debatten finns representerade. I arbetet redovisas också den enkätundersökning jag gjort med syftet att ta reda på om det möjligtvis finns några skillnader mellan friskoleelever och elever i den kommunala skolan när det gäller deras syn på lärande, kunskap och skolan. De resultat jag kan utläsa av undersökningen pekar mot att friskoleleverna i den här undersökningen är positivare och mer nöjda med sin skola och personalen där än vad eleverna från de medverkande kommunala klasserna är.

  • 248.
    Abrahamsson, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change.
    Improving methane production using hydrodynamic cavitation as pre-treatment2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To develop anaerobic digestion (AD), innovative solutions to increase methane yields in existing AD processes are needed. In particular, the adoption of low energy pre-treatments to enhance biomass biodegradability is needed to provide efficient digestion processes increasing profitability. To obtain these features, hydrodynamic cavitation has been evaluated as an innovative solutions for AD of waste activated sludge (WAS), food waste (FW), macro algae and grass, in comparison with steam explosion (high energy pre-treatment). The effect of these two pre-treatments on the substrates, e.g. particle size distribution, soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biodegradability rate, have been evaluated. After two minutes of hydrodynamic cavitation (8 bar), the mean fine particle size decreased from 489- 1344 nm to 277- 381 nm (≤77% reduction) depending of the biomasses. Similar impacts were observed after ten minutes of steam explosion (210 °C, 30 bar) with a reduction in particle size between 40% and 70% for all the substrates treated.  In terms of BMP value, hydrodynamic cavitation caused significant increment only within the A. nodosum showing a post treatment increment of 44% compared to the untreated value, while similar values were obtained before and after treatment within the other tested substrates. In contrast, steam explosion allowed an increment for all treated samples, A. nodosum (+86%), grass (14%) and S. latissima (4%). However, greater impacts where observed with hydrodynamic cavitation than steam explosion when comparing the kinetic constant K. Overall, hydrodynamic cavitation appeared an efficient pre-treatment for AD capable to compete with the traditional steam explosion in terms om kinetics and providing a more efficient energy balance (+14%) as well as methane yield for A. nodosum.

  • 249.
    Abrahamsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A platform for third-party applications on the web2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A trend seen on the web today is to create a platform where externally developed applications can run inside some kind of main application. This is often done by providing an API to access data and business logic of your service and a sandbox environment in which third-party applications can run. By providing this, it is made possible for external developers to come up with new ideas based on your service. Some good examples on this are Spotify Apps, Apps on Facebook and SalesForce.com.

    Ipendo Systems AB is a company that develops a web platform for intellectual properties. Currently most things on this platform are developed by developers at Ipendo Systems AB. Some interest has though risen to enable external developers to create applications that will in some way run inside the main platform.

    In this thesis an analysis of already existing solutions has been done. These solutions were Spotify Apps and Apps on Facebook. The two have different approaches on how to enable third-party applications to run inside their own service. Facebook’s solution builds mainly on iframe embedded web pages where data access is provided through a web API. Spotify on the other hand hosts the third-party applications themselves but the applications may only consist of HTML5, CSS3 and JavaScript.

    In addition to the analysis a prototype was developed. The purpose of the prototype was to show possible ways to enable third-party applications to run inside your own service. Two solutions showing this were developed. The first one was based on Facebook’s approach with iframing of external web pages. The second was a slightly modified version of Spotify’s solution with only client-side code hosted by the main application. To safely embed the client side code in the main application a sandboxing tool for JavaScript called Caja was used.

    Of the two versions implemented in the prototype was the Iframe solution considered more ready to be utilized in a production environment than Caja. Caja could be seen as an interesting technique for the future but might not be ready to use today. The reason behind this conclusion was that Caja decreased the performance of the written JavaScript as well as adding complexity while developing the third-party applications.

  • 250.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Affärsmodeller för citylogistik & samordnad varudistribution: Handbok för kommuner och privata aktörer2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här handboken är resultatet av forskningsprojektet ”Affärsmodeller för citylogistik” som har finansierats av Vinnova och genomförts av forskare på Linköpings Universitet vid avdelningen Logistik- & Kvalitetsutveckling under perioden 2015 – 2017. Projektet är en direkt uppföljning av Färdplan Citylogistik – Godstransporter i urbana miljöer som visade att citylogistik och samordnad varudistribution behövs för att kunna driva utvecklingen mot mer hållbara och attraktiva städer med emissionsfria godstransporter. Den här boken presenterar en modell som syftar till att hjälpa kommuner och företag att komma igång med citylogistik och samordnad varudistribution – En affärsmodell som också fungerar som ett beslutsunderlag. Projektet grundar sig också i Forsknings- och innovationsagenda för framtidens logistik, där citylogistik lyfts fram som ett av de viktigaste utvecklingsområdena inom logistikområdet i framtiden.

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