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  • 201.
    Stenberg, Rebecca
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samverkansformer för räddning och respons: Exempel och förslag2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samverkan är central för att skapa tillfredställande säkerhet, trygghet och räddning framöver och den praktiknära kunskapen om möjliga och önskvärda samverkansformer för effektiv räddning behöver fördjupas. Syftet med studien var därmed att beskriva praktiska exempel på olika former av räddningstjänstsamverkan och visa på likheter och skillnader i förutsättningar, fördelar och nackdelar utifrån olika samverkansdimensioner, att utifrån dessa diskutera och föreslå olika samverkansprofiler för olika ändamål inom räddning och respons samt att föreslå informationstekniskt stöd till de föreslagna samverkansprofilerna.

    Studien är genomförd med multipla kvalitativa fallstudier av samverkan som har kontrasterats och jämförts utifrån organisationsteoretiskt perspektiv och variabler. Fallstudierna har gällt:

    • Samverkan mellan polisen, räddningstjänsten och kommunen för att motverka social oro i Södertälje
    • Samverkan mellan statlig sjöräddning och Sjöräddningssällskapet
    • Myndighetssamordning inom Trygghetens hus i Jämtland
    • Samverkan mellan räddningstjänst och privatpersoner i projektet ”Förstärkt medmänniska” i Medelpad.

    Var och en av fallstudierna har först beskrivits och därefter analyserats var för sig och har därefter jämförts med varandra. Därmed kunde tre sinsemellan mycket olika samverkansformer identifieras som dessutom hade olika förutsättningar att passa samman med olika typer av organisering. Samverkansformerna var myndighetssamordning på regional/nationell nivå, lokal integrativ samverkan och ad hoc-samverkan.

    Samverkansformerna presenteras och läggs till grund för tre förslag till samverkan för olika ändamål och diskuteras utifrån vad de lämpar sig för, hur man kan lägga upp samverkan, viktiga genomförandefaktorer, framgångsfaktorer, risker och utvecklingsmöjligheter samt förslag till informationstekniskt stöd.

    Regional/nationell myndighetssamordning Regional/nationell myndighetssamordning passar för ledningssamordning och koordinering på administrativ och policy-nivå mellan företrädare för offentliga myndigheter och organisationer för översiktlig samverkan om samhällsfrågor som exempelvis äldres trygghet, trafiksäkerhet, brottsförebyggande eller krisberedskap. Resultaten av samverkan ska kunna formaliseras och standardiseras till en struktur för gemensamma insatser eller att användas för ungefär samma ändamål och på ungefär samma sätt i hela regionen eller hela landet. Samverkan här bygger på att varje myndighet gör det som myndigheten är till för och har i uppdrag och att endast de myndigheter som berörs i varje process medverkar i den processen. Den här samverkansformen förmår därmed tillvarata det bästa av myndigheters kapacitet och resurser samt är betydelsefull som bakgrund och förankring till mer lokala satsningar.

    Potentiella informationstekniska stöd omfattar här t ex gemensamma IT-plattformar för delning av information och dokument samt databaser för digital lagring av information av olika slag. Stöd kan också inkludera beslutsstöd t ex i form av geografiska informationssystem, kartsystem och positioneringssystem, gemensamma lägesbilder och digitala ledningsbord. Dynamiska utalarmeringssystem är ett annat exempel. Flera av dessa system kan och bör finnas både i fast och mobil version.

    Lokal integrativ samverkan är urtypen för varaktig lokal utveckling av trygghet och säkerhet via dialog och förebyggande verksamhet som integreras i övrigt samhällsbyggande. Det underliggande motivet för denna samverkan är att den billigaste olyckan är den som inte händer. I denna samverkan adderas en säkerhets/trygghetsdimension till alla verksamheter kommunerna ansvarar för i stället för att lägga säkerhet/trygghet som en egen verksamhet. Därmed finns utsedda kommunansvariga med i många olika typer av diskussioner och planering inom kommunerna och lär känna dem väl. Lokal varaktig samverkan passar för samverkan mellan lokalt representerade välutvecklade verksamheter med möjlighet att delegera uppgifter och för både mycket enkla och mycket komplicerade verksamheter. Målet är att lösa lokala problem, uppfylla lokala behov av verksamhet/information eller att skapa lokal, operativ, varaktig verksamhet som exempelvis förebyggande verksamhet.

    Potentiella informationstekniska stöd omfattar här t ex gemensamma IT-plattformar för delning av information och dokument, databaser för digital lagring av aktörer, roller, uppgifter, kompetens, utbildning, ansvar, kontaktinformation, inte minst när det gäller frivilliga aktörer, samt sociala medier för dialog med och inhämtande av information från allmänheten.

    Gränsöverskridande Ad hoc-samverkan passar för multidisciplinära insatsverksamheter under en begränsad tid och kan förväntas vara ett koncept som utvecklas framöver för användning när räddningsresurser är svåra att komma åt, kräver speciella kunskaper, lokala förutsättningar eller helt enkelt är glesa. En utgångspunkt med denna samverkansform är att snabbt kunna mobilisera lokala resurser över olika samhällssektorer och att kunna leda och koordinera aktörer från olika sektorer i en gemensam insats. Därmed är det en samverkansform som passar för sammansatta insatser för trygghet, säkerhet, räddning och respons tillsammans med nya professionella eller friviliga aktörer.

    Informationstekniskt stöd för adhoc-samverkan omfattar både stöd för att leda och samordna adhoc-samverkan samt att samverka lokalt. Därmed omfattar det båda de ovanstående förslagen som exempelvis beslutsstödsystem, geografiska informationssystem, kartsystem och positioneringssystem, gemensamma lägesbilder och digitala ledningsbord samt gemensamma IT-plattformar för delning av information och dokument samt databaser för lagring, men också mobila applikationer i form av t ex sms utalarmering och help appar som stöd för agerande på skadeplats. Även de dynamiska utalarmeringssystem är tänkta att på sikt även omfatta frivilliga aktörer och lokala resurser.

    Alla tre samverkansformerna kan ses som framgångsrika eller med potential för att vara det. Den regionala myndighetssamordningen kommer med hög sannolikhet att öka eftersom den bygger på stordrift. Den integrativa samverkan är främst inriktad mot utvecklingen av förebyggande verksamhet tillsammans med andra samhällsverksamheter. Där kan trygghets- och säkerhetsskapande aktiviteter bidra också till andra samhällsviktiga processer utöver trygghet och säkerhet. Erfarenheter och kunskaper för mobilisering och ledning av gränsöverskridande ad hoc-samverkan inom räddning kan troligen utvecklas för att fungera framgångsrikt också på helt nya fält för trygghet och säkerhet samt för samverkan med nya aktörer i olika sammanhang där snabb respons är viktig. Sådan kan gälla glesbygdsräddning, äldres trygghet, kvinnofrid, rasism, skolmobbing, ensamarbete i skogen eller i jordbruket, friluftsliv och trygghet på skolgården eller bevakning av naturskydd. Avgörande är dels larmförutsättningarna, dels förutsättningarna för ledning av insatser. Här kan också sjö- och flygräddningsledarens roll i räddningsinsats till sjöss med fördel användas som utgångspunkt för en omdefinition av larmhantering i exempelvis glesbygd.

    Därmed är de sammanfattade slutsatserna av studien att samverkan ska uppfattas som ett selektivt organisationsverktyg där det gäller att anpassa och välja rätt verktyg med rätt strategi för rätt ändamål, och baserad på logiker som inte kolliderar för att samverkan ska bli effektiv och nå sina mål. Förslag till vidare forskning gäller bl.a. hur ledning av ad hoc-samverkan går till och kan utvecklas, olika organisatoriska tröskel- eller översättningsfenomen samt hur vidare utveckling av informationsteknik kan drivas och bör beforskas och projektanpassat och med förankring i respektive samverkansprofils behov.

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    Samverkansformer för räddning och respons: Exempel och förslag
  • 202.
    Stenborg, Vera
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Högren, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    “People analytics kan jämföras med tonårssex: alla pratar om det, ingen har gjort det och ingen vet hur man ska göra”: En kvalitativ studie om hur svenska praktiker upplever people analytics2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Teknisk utveckling har varit en drivande kraft för effektivisering av organisationer genom historien. I takt med denna effektivisering har även arbetssätt och krav på anställda förändrats vilket har lett till ett behov av att strukturerat hantera personalrelaterade frågor. Utifrån detta har human resources (HR) som organisatorisk funktion vuxit fram. Den tekniska utvecklingen fortsätter och idag används tekniska lösningar som verktyg för många av organisationens funktioner. Dock menar tidigare forskning att HR inte hänger med i denna utveckling vilket påverkar HR-funktionens roll i organisationen och är en utmaning idag och framöver. En uppmärksammad teknisk lösning idag, i form av en uppsättning teknikbaserade vertyg, aktiviteter och arbetssätt, som anses kunna hjälpa HR som funktion att ta nästa steg i utvecklingen är people analytics.

    Syftet med denna studie är att öka förståelsen för people analytics i Sverige, vilka effekter som eftersträvas samt vilka möjligheter och utmaningar som finns för att uppnå dessa effekter. Detta grundar sig i att det finns ett behov av empiriskt grundad forskning i en svensk kontext eftersom det finns en avsaknad av detta idag. Genom tillämpning av en kvalitativ surveyundersökning av tolkande karaktär med semistrukturerade intervjuer framkommer ett empiriskt material som analyseras med hjälp av tidigare forskning och socioteknisk teori. Studien visar att people analytics är en uppsättning aktiviteter som är värdefulla för såväl organisationer som HR-funktioner eftersom det möjliggör evidensbaserat strategiskt arbete, med data och statistik som grund, i personalrelaterade frågor. Genom att använda people analytics kan organisationer följa upp sitt personalrelaterade arbete på ett mer strukturerat sätt och HR som funktion har även fått ökad legitimitet i organisationen på grund av detta. Däremot finns det ett antal komplext sammanflätade faktorer som idag agerar hindrande för att people analytics ska nå sin fulla potential i svenska organisationer, dessa faktorer återfinns både i sociala och tekniska aspekter av arbetet med people analytics. Genom att skapa förståelse för varför dessa faktorer påverkar användandet och effekterna av people analytics bidrar denna studie med värdefulla insikter för både praktiker och akademiker. Dessa insikter handlar om hur arbetet med people analytics kan uppnå de långsiktiga mål och syften som finns både inom forskning och hos svenska organisationer.

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  • 203.
    Storm, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Madelen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Något vi utvecklare är dåliga på är att testa dumma grejer som bara användarna gör: En studie av testande utvecklare i agila utvecklingsprojekt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Because testing today accounts for around 50% of the costs and resources in system development, it is of great importance that this is organized in an efficient manner. There are a number of different options regarding how to organize testing, but prior research mainly focuses on the separate roles of developers and testers. Therefore, the role of testing developer, where system developers and testers are combined into the same role, is of significant interest. The purpose of this study is therefore to investigate this role in more detail and to examine its pros and cons. The study has been carried out as a qualitative case study at a medium-sized system development company in Östergötland, Sweden, where the role of testing developer is utilized. Five semi-structured interviews were conducted with both testing developers and people in managerial positions, which helped to lift different perspectives on the role. The interviews were transcribed and related to the research previously presented in the literature review. Only a few studies have been conducted on the phenomenon of testing developers, which meant that the main focus of the literature review was on the separate roles of developers and testers. The purpose and research question of the study was answered with a number of advantages and disadvantages that the role of testing developer entails. Advantages are for example high quality awareness among people with this professional role, fewer conflicts arise among testing developers than what is usually observed when the roles are separate and furthermore, the role promotes knowledge transfer within the development teams. Examples of disadvantages are that the testing developers do not really enjoy the testing tasks, they find it difficult to adopt a user perspective when testing and, in addition, it is perceived as costly when the testing developers switch between different tasks and experience both a practical but also a mental changeover. Since there are obvious advantages and disadvantages to this role, the question of how the testing should be organized, is a trade-off that must be done on a case-by-case basis.

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  • 204.
    Strandqvist, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Abrahamsson, Camilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Kunskapshantering med wikis: En studie om användningen av wikis som kunskapshanteringssystem i ett distribuerat mjukvaruutvecklingsteam2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To seize and make use of knowledge in organizations is important for their competitiveness, amongst other things. To do this is, however, not entirely straightforward and therefore the use of so called knowledge management systems is common. There are different kinds of systems for managing knowledge, for example systems that are known as traditional knowledge management systems. However, a number of difficulties and problems with the traditional knowledge management systems has led to the usage of other systems, for example wikis, for knowledge management. We have, in this thesis, studied the role of a wiki as a knowledge management system in a distributed software development team. We have also studied how a wiki can relate to a traditional knowledge management system. A case study was conducted and five software developers were interviewed. The study showed that the usage of wikis can be versatile and that there are both similarities and differences to traditional knowledge management systems, both regarding the use and the content. The study also showed that wikis and traditional knowledge management systems can be used combined. The conclusions of the study shows that both wikis and traditional knowledge management systems can support and facilitate the management and dispersion of knowledge in organizations.

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  • 205.
    Svanberg, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Widman Börjesson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    An affordance based framework for information systems evaluation and redesign: A conceptual tool for development of user friendly systems2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Affordanser är ett kraftfullt verktyg för utvärdering och redesign av artefakter, mer specifikt informationssystem. Affordanser innefattar att identifiera vilka handlingsmöjligheter som informationssystem tillhandahåller för användarna. Dock är affordanskonceptet som sådant brett och i dagsläget finns det endas t begränsade affordansbaserade ramverk att tillämpa för design av informationssystem. Där med finns det ett behov att utveckla ett ramverk som specificerar affordanskonceptet för att kunna utvärdera och redesign a informations system. Ramverket bör samtidigt vara brett för att täcka upp för alla potentiella handlingsmöjligheter.

    Syfte Syftet med studien är att utforma ett affordansbaserat ramverk för utvärdering och redesign av informationssystem, som sedan testas genom en fall studie.

    Metod Studien bygger på en kvalitativ forskningsstrategi tillsammans med ett konstruktivistiskt perspektiv och en deduktiv ansats. Datainsamlingsmetoder innefattar intervjuer, observationer, samt loggbok. Metoden innefattas också av välgrundad metodutveckling samt en kriteriebaserad utvärderingsstrategi.

    Teori Teorikapitlet bygger på litteraturstudier av informationssystem, designvetenskap och affordanser.

    Resultat Det slutgiltiga resultatet bekräftar att affordanser är ett värdefullt verktyg vid utvärdering och redesign av informationssystem. Ramverket som sådant visade sig vara brett vilket resulterade i ett mer specificerat ramverk med riktlinjer för framtida studier.

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  • 206.
    Svensson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Outsourcing och backsourcing av IT-lösningar: Utveckling och bakomliggande faktorer2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Outsourcing, that is to say when an organization's services or products within a function or an activity are being contracted out to an external vendor, became increasingly noticeable during the 1990s. The trend has grown to represent the norm in today’s society and nowadays organizations outsource operations ranging from the management of information technology (IT) to whole functions. The outsourcing of IT is considered to be a growing and increasingly global phenomenon. However, problems with an outsourcing agreement or changes in a company's business situation can lead to backsourcing, a concept meaning that an organization chooses to bring back and re-implement activities within its own operations. Decisions regarding the outsourcing of IT solutions have been a central aspect in both research and practice while the decision to change supplier or backsource has received relatively little attention. Nevertheless, the drivers of backsourcing constitute an equally relevant topic to study. Hence, the aim of this study is to identify the motives underlying an organization’s decision to outsource, as well as backsource, IT related activities and functions and to examine how the conditions that applied when making the decision to outsource can change during an outsourcing process. 

    I have conducted a qualitative study where a case study design has been applied. A number of organizations that use IT and IT solutions in their day-to-day operations have been studied where the organizations previously have backsourced and/or now find themselves in the process of bringing back their IT. A literature review has been conducted and empirical data has been collected through the use of semi-structured interviews. In the analysis, the empirical data has been analyzed in relation to previous research regarding (1) outsourcing and (2) backsourcing. 

    The results of this study show that reasons and motives that can result in a firm's decision to outsource its IT include the possibility of achieving cost reductions, a greater flexibility and the possibility of gaining access to expertise. Examples of changes that can occur during an outsourcing process are within the management since the replacement of an organization’s management can bring new opinions and attitudes towards the firm’s sourcing strategy. The importance of IT to the operations can also change during an outsourcing process. Furthermore, a number of underlying factors that may affect an organization’s decision to backsource its IT have been identified. Examples of factors are that the outsourcing has resulted in no overall cost savings and that there’s a lack of compliance with the contract regarding, for example, the quality of the services being delivered.

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  • 207.
    Svensson, Oscar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Gunnarsson, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Affärssystems relation till organisationsprocesser: Utvecklandet av ett ramverk för processförbättring2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats utvecklar vi ett ramverk för verksamhetsförbättring genom attvisa på att vid organisering av en verksamhet strävar organisationer efter att uppnå flexibilitet och stabilitet. Flexibilitet syftar till förmågan att vara lättföränderlig, att kunna anpassa sig till nya situationer. Stabilitet innebär förmågan att kunna undvika osäkerhet och generera resurser som ingen annan kan efterlikna. Affärssystem är en del av organisering och viljan att uppnå stabilitet och flexibilitet. Vi relaterar den organisatoriska strävan till processförbättring som är ett viktigt inslag för organisationer. Då affärssystemet är starkt kopplat till processerna finns det ett värde att hämta genom att analysera relationen process och affärssystem. Därför skapar vi i denna uppsats ett ramverk som analyserar kopplingen mellan affärssystem och processer. Ett ramverk som förhoppningsvis kan vara till nytta för organisationer vid arbetet med processförbättring, men även resultera i ett bidrag till informatikämnet. För att kunna skapa ett ramverk har vi använt oss av modeller från andra områden främstinom marknadsföring. Vi identifierar olika teman från dessa modeller som vi ser som viktiga vid skapandet av ett ramverk. Vi gör samtidigt en särskiljning mellan ramverk och metodologi. Detta leder till framtagandet och byggandet av vårt egna ramverk. Ramverkets hållbarhet och validitet testas empiriskt hos Landstinget i Östergötland. Resultatet av studien visar på att det i organisationer kan finnas ett behov av ett ramverk för analys inför processförbättring och verksamhetsförbättring. Vi visar därför på hur vårt ramverk kan uppfylla behovet genom att fokusera på processerna och systemet vid effektivisering av verksamheten. Således visar vårt ramverk goda tendenser för att ligga till grund vid processförbättring och effektivisering.

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  • 208. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Introducing public sector eIDs: The power of actors’ translations and institutional barriers2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic identification (eID) is a digital representation of our analogue identity used for authentication in order to gain access to personalized restricted online content. Despite its limited and clearly defined scope, the eID has a unique role to play in information society as an enabler of public digital services for citizens as well as businesses and a prerequisite for the development of electronic government (eGovernment). This study shows a tendency of treating public sector eIDs like Information and Communications Technology (ICT) artefacts in general. Hence, a narrow focus on technology is often applied thus placing non-technical aspects in the background. Consequently, social and organizational implications are often unproblematized which in turn becomes problematic in the case of the public sector eID.

    This study puts forth a need for a broader focus in this area and contributes by focusing on the challenges related to the resistance to introductions of eIDs among affected actors in the public sector. This study assumes that affected actors’ perceptions (translations) of the eID have a potential impact on its introduction on organizational as well as operational level. Research questions focus on the influence of resistance on the introduction and the relationship between resistance and actors’ translations of the eID. The aim is to further develop existing concepts and bring new insights to research as well as practice. The analytical perspectives of sociology and institutionalism aim at developing a tentative analytical framework for investigations of this relationship. Introductions, therefore, become institutional pressures facing resistance as related to affected actors’ translations. The empirical basis consists of two interpretive case studies of eID introductions –a national eID to cover the entire public sector and a professional eID in health care.

    The result shows that resistance in the form of institutional barriers develops from actors’ negative translations of the eID and main coordinating actors’ tend to fail in their attempts to negotiate these barriers. This confirms a closer relationship between institutional pressures and barriers and a view of pressures, barriers and eIDs as translated institutions transferred across organizational settings is put forth. To facilitate future research and practice related to public sector eID introductions, three propositions are put forth. (1) The importance of acknowledging pressures to introduce eIDs as closely related to barriers. (2) The institutions involved in this process as all translated by the government, coordinating actors as well as affected actors. (3) The importance of a developed understanding of these institutions, translations and relationships in order to facilitate cooperative efforts shaping future public sector eIDs.

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    Introducing public sector eIDs: The power of actors’ translations and institutional barriers
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  • 209.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Weak Governance Leading to Success: Aspects of the National Electronic Identification in Sweden’s Public Sector2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to present a coherent overview of the emergence of the Swedish electronic identification and try to identify any opportunities and/or obstacles. As being a significant part of the public sectors delivery of secure electronic services, this seemingly small technical artifact has an interesting potential of either making or braking the public sectors strive for better and more secure electronic services. As this paper will show, the emergence as such has been successful but seems not to be the product of some kind of product of a long term strategy formulated by the state. It is rather a product of a fruitful synergy between actors in the public sector and market actors driven by a strong belief in its potential by the actors involved. However, this seemingly interest driven approach also seems to have its downside when the state is currently actively trying to bring the field together byforming a new authority strictly focusing on aligning the electronic identification area. Hence, it is obvious that a successful development of a national electronic identification can also be a troublesome one when the aim is to align the actors concerned for future development.

  • 210.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Creating Local Government Innovation: Lessons Learned From An Institutional Theory Perspective2019In: Electronic Government: 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Lindgren, I., Janssen, M., Lee, H., Polini, A., Rodríguez Bolívar, M.P., Scholl, H.J., Tambouris, E, Cham: Springer, 2019, Vol. 11685, p. 125-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The public sector is facing an equation that cannot be solved by continuingdoing business as usual. External demands of availability, quality andresilience of services, as well as internal demands of resource efficiency, areputting pressure on the public sector to seek for innovation. In this study, wefocus on local government innovation where high expectations are set on betterutilisation of employees’ creativity and innovative capacity. Based on a qualitativecase study of an innovation programme in a Swedish local governmentorganisation, this study applies institutional theory as a theoretical lens tofurther investigate and analyse the relationship between formal and informalstructures of local government innovation. The institutional structures related tonorms and values, legitimacy and decoupling as well as digital artefacts as institutionalcarriers are discussed. Implications for practice show that formal structures,processes and digital artefacts to support local government innovation areimportant in this work. However, to achieve government innovation, equal attentionshould also be given to informal institutional structures of innovation.For research, this implies that government innovation studies can benefit froman institutional theory perspective to develop a better understanding of how informalstructures affect related processes. We conclude by arguing that theneeded change towards the innovative bureaucracy is a transformative innovationin itself that needs to be acknowledged.

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  • 211.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Idé- och innovationsarbete i Linköpings kommun: analys och resultat av utvärdering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I nutid existerar en samsyn kring att den offentliga sektorns innovationsförmåga utgör en mycket viktig potentiell resurs för att möta såväl samtidens som framtidens utmaningar. Denna outnyttjade resurs i form av medarbetares idé- och innovationskraft kan, genom ett systematiskt och strukturerat främjande, stöd och utnyttjande hjälpa offentlig sektor att nå ytterligare förbättringar och effektiviseringar med hänsyn till resursutnyttjande. Genom att omsätta medarbetares förmåga i form av kreativitet och innovationskraft till reell nytta har, som fokuseras i denna utvärdering, den kommunala sektorn bättre förutsättningar att bemöta dagens och morgondagens utmaningar på ett effektivt och ändamålsenligt sätt. För att möta samtidens krav och utmaningar i det lokala samhället, måste därmed traditionella sätt att organisera och strukturera verksamhet utmanas och förändras för att i större utsträckning främja aktörs- och nätverksdrivna ansatser.

    Denna rapport presenterar utvärderingen av Linköpings kommuns arbete att introducera och etablera ett idé- och innovationssystem - en idé och innovationsfrämjande struktur och stödfunktion. Dessa insatser har erhållit positiv respons, men ett bredare genomslag i operativ verksamhet kan hittills anses vara begränsat. Följande analys fokuserar identifierade utmaningar inom områden som styrning och samordning, förankring av centrala begrepp samt förutsättningar och kultur. Utvärderingens resultat presenteras som tydliga åtgärder och strategiska ställningstaganden. Dessa framhåller vikten av en balanserad och nyanserad helhetssyn på idé- och innovationsprocessen. Med ökad proaktivitet, samverkan i nätverk, minskad distans till operativ verksamhet, tydlig förankring av centrala begrepp samt aktivt främjande av en kreativ arbetsmiljö och innovationskultur ser vi en god potential för fortsatt positiv vidareutveckling av kommunens idé- och innovationssystem.

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  • 212.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Galzie, Zara
    Linköping University.
    Coordinating Public E-services: Investigating Mechanisms and Practices in a Government Agency2018In: 17th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2018, Krems, Austria, September 3-5, 2018, Proceedings / [ed] Peter Parycek, Olivier Glassey, Marijn Janssen, Hans Jochen Scholl, Efthimios Tambouris, Evangelos Kalampokis, Shefali Virkar, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, Vol. 11020, p. 13p. 85-97Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordination is an important enabler when creating and managing coherent, integrated, secure and smart public electronic services (e-services). With an increased demand for such services, coordination as an internal organizational phenomenon is becoming increasingly important. Based on a qualitative case study, and informed by coordination theory, this paper investigates two different theoretical views applied on internal e-service coordination within a government agency in Sweden. At the outset, the agency is seeking one generic way to coordinate the current heterogeneous and fragmented internal e-service landscape in a more efficient way. Hence, our aim also includes investigating the prerequisites and potential for this type of coordination. We conduct this study in two stages. First, we apply a well-established theoretical lens from organizational theory on a set of coordination efforts, thereby perceiving coordination as a planned and anticipated activity based on a fixed set of mechanisms. Second, we apply a lens of coordinating as emergent practice, which allows for an in-depth investigation of more flexible and dynamic aspects of coordinating activities in daily work. By combining these two views, we argue that this approach can facilitate and increase understanding of the dynamics and flexibility needed to understand the type of coordination needed in public e-service contexts. This also implies that there is no single best practice or ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach to internal e-service coordination. Instead, organizations need to acknowledge the need for combined multi-dimensional views revealing the inherent complexity of coordination; as planned as well as emerging activities.

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    Coordinating Public E-services: Investigating Mechanisms and Practices in a Government Agency
  • 213.
    Tell, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Steen Lagerstam, Nicklas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nyckelfaktorer för en framgångsrik implementering av affärssystem: En granskning av en framgångsrik implementering av ett affärssystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ERP-systems is a relatively new system-solution in the corporate world. It was not until the 1990s that system vendors began to develop what we today refer to as an ERP-system. The foundation for the creation of ERP-systems was set 30 years earlier in the 1960s when MRP (Material Resource Planning System) systems began to handle complex business scheduling and planning of materials. An ERP-system, also known as Enterprise Resource Planning System, is an essential part of organizations and exists to facilitate and organize business processes and project planning within the organization. Investing in an implementation of an ERPsystem can often be an expensive and time-consuming project that easily exceeds both budget and timeframe.

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to analyse a specific implementation project of an ERP-system at ALTEN Sweden. The intention with this thesis is to identify the key factors that contributed to the successful implementation at ALTEN Sweden. We chose to conduct a total of three interviews at ALTEN Sweden. The respondents contributed with different views of the implementation project due to their different positions within the organization.

    This study resulted in seven key factors that contributed to the success of ALTEN Sweden's implementation project. We identified these key factors through a review of the empirical material and by comparing it to the literature.

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  • 214.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Spreco, Armin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Gursky, Elin
    National Strategies Support Directorate, ANSER/Analytic Services Inc, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Intentions to perform non-pharmaceutical protective behaviors during influenza outbreaks in Sweden: a cross-sectional study following a mass vaccination campaign2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 3, p. e91060-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Failure to incorporate the beliefs and attitudes of the public into theoretical models of preparedness has been identified as a weakness in strategies to mitigate infectious disease outbreaks. We administered a cross-sectional telephone survey to a representative sample (n = 443) of the Swedish adult population to examine whether self-reported intentions to improve personal hygiene and increase social distancing during influenza outbreaks could be explained by trust in official information, self-reported health (SF-8), sociodemographic factors, and determinants postulated in protection motivation theory, namely threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The interviewees were asked to make their appraisals for two scenarios: a) an influenza with low case fatality and mild lifestyle impact; b) severe influenza with high case fatality and serious disturbances of societal functions. Every second respondent (50.0%) reported high trust in official information about influenza. The proportion that reported intentions to take deliberate actions to improve personal hygiene during outbreaks ranged between 45–85%, while less than 25% said that they intended to increase social distancing. Multiple logistic regression models with coping appraisal as the explanatory factor most frequently contributing to the explanation of the variance in intentions showed strong discriminatory performance for staying home while not ill (mild outbreaks: Area under the curve [AUC] 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.82;0.89), severe outbreaks AUC 0.82 (95% CI 0.77;0.85)) and acceptable performance with regard to avoiding public transportation (AUC 0.78 (0.74;0.82), AUC 0.77 (0.72;0.82)), using handwash products (AUC 0.70 (0.65;0.75), AUC 0.76 (0.71;0.80)), and frequently washing hands (AUC 0.71 (0.66;0.76), AUC 0.75 (0.71;0.80)). We conclude that coping appraisal was the explanatory factor most frequently included in statistical models explaining self-reported intentions to carry out non-pharmaceutical health actions in the Swedish outlined context, and that variations in threat appraisal played a smaller role in these models despite scientific uncertainties surrounding a recent mass vaccination campaign.

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  • 215.
    Toll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Østergaard Madsen, Christian
    IT University of Copenhagen.
    Artificial Intelligence in Swedish Policies: Values, Benefits, Considerations and Risks2019In: Electronic Government: 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019 San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019 Proceedings / [ed] Lindgren, Ida; Janssen, Marijn; Lee, Habin; Polini, Andrea; Rodrígues Bolívar, Manuel Pedro; Jochen Scholl, Hans; Tamborious, Efthimios, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2019, Vol. 18, p. 301-310Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is said to be the next big phase in digital- ization. There is a global ongoing race to develop, implement and make use of AI in both the private and public sector. The many responsibilities of governments in this race are complicated and cut across a number of areas. Therefore, it is important that the use of AI supports these diverse aspects of governmental commitments and values. The aim of this paper is to analyze how AI is portrayed in Swedish policy documents and what values are attributed to the use of AI. We analyze Swedish policy documents and map benefits, considerations and risks with AI into different value ideals, based on an established e-government value framework. We conclude that there is a discrepancy in the policy level discourse on the use of AI between different value ideals. Our findings show that AI is strongly associated with improving efficiency and service quality in line with previous e- government policy studies. Interestingly, few benefits are highlighted concerning engagement of citizens in policy making. A more nuanced view on AI is needed for creating realistic expectations on how this technology can benefit society.

  • 216.
    Vallé, Troy
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Smarta elnät eller smarta användare?: En studie om användarens roll vid planering, utveckling och användning av smarta elnät2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att närmare studera användarnas roll vid planering, utveckling och användande av smarta elnät, vad man kan dra för lärdomar av pågående projekt inom utvecklingen av smarta elnät när det kommer till användarnas roll i projekten, samt ge rekommendationer för ett framtida arbete. Detta gjordes genom en fallstudie av två sammanhängande projekt inom en kommun i Sverige som för närvarande arbetar med smart stadsutveckling och smarta elnät. Empiriinsamling skedde med hjälp intervjuer av boende och ansvariga i projektet samt projektdokumentation.

     

    Resultatet visar att de boendes roll i planeringen av projektet inte var stor, och att de inte räknades in bland de viktiga intressenter som enligt rekommendationer skulle vara delaktiga i projektet. Vidare skedde användarmedverkan i en begränsad form vid utvecklingen av den teknik som skulle användas hemma hos de boende, och då främst i form av användartester efter det att systemen hade tagits fram.  Vidare visade intervjuerna på ett bristande engagemang hos användarna när det kommer till att använda tekniken som finns tillgängliga i det smarta nät som utvecklats inom kommunen. Dessa resultat utgör viktiga lärdomar för framtida projekt. 

     

    Rekommendationerna som togs fram för ett framtida arbete inom smarta elnät är främst att det bör ske en ökad involvering av användare under samtliga delar i projekt rörande smarta elnät för att säkerställa en relevant och demokratisk samhällsutveckling och att detta bör ingå i projektens målsättningar. Vidare bör framtida projekt undersöka möjligheterna med att studera och arbeta med sociala praktiker inom energianvändning, för att undersöka hur man kan skapa en övertygelse hos de boende som leder till en ökad vilja att spara energi, och utnyttja de tekniska verktyg som gör detta möjligt. Det krävs även arbete för att hitta ytterligare incitament till aktiv energibesparing för att optimal användning av de smarta näten ska kunna uppnås.

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    Smarta elnät eller smarta användare? -En studie om användarens roll vid planering, utveckling och användning av smarta elnät
  • 217.
    Veenstra, Anne Fleur van
    et al.
    TNO, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Theoretical and practical implications from the use of structuration theory in public sector information systems research2014In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) 2014, Tel Aviv, Israel, June 9-11, 2014 / [ed] Avital, Leimeister and Schultze, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To gain better understanding of the development, implementation and use of information technology(IT), many scholars in the field of information systems (IS) use structuration theory (ST). However, STis, so far, more seldom applied to, and reflected upon, in studies of public sector IS to account for(unexpected) outcomes of IT development and implementation. This paper creates an overview of theuse of ST in studies on public sector IT in order to identify theoretical and practical implications forthe digital public sector. Most (ten out of twelve) papers in this field apply ST to empirical studies,while three papers were found to adapt ST to fit public sector settings, and none were found tocritically address ST. While ST as a lens for studying public sector IT was thus seen to have practicalusefulness, theoretical usefulness is still underdeveloped regarding theory adaption andcontextualization. Based on this study we argue that there is a need to further investigate the risksassociated with the transfer to the public sector as it is important to achieve conscious adaptation anduse of ST in public sector IS in order to progress with using ST in that context.

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  • 218.
    Wahlström, Samuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Göransson, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Problem vid kravhantering: kravhantering i IT-projekt hos systemleverantörer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements engineering is essential to succeed in developing IT systems that meet the client's expectations and maintaining the budget, which should be considered the goal for an IT-project. Poor requirements engineering is one of the main reasons why IT projects fail. A poorly conducted requirements engineering process can result in several negative consequences, which is common. A well-functioning requirements engineering process can save a lot of money and facilitate achieving good results.In this qualitative case study, we examine how the system providers are using requirements engineering and the problems they experience with this. The aim is to contribute with knowledge about the problems in requirements engineering, what the consequences are and how these can be countered.This qualitative case study was conducted abductivly where empirical data were collected through interviews in two different organizations. The studied organizations are system suppliers within different areas and are in this study anonymous. The empirical data was analyzed and discussed based on relevant theories of requirements engineering and the problems that previous research surveyed. We have found problems and decided to categorize them under the headings; quality of requirements, change, traceability, communication, knowledge, methodology and resources. The results indicate that requirements engineering is a complex subject due to its inconsistent iterative nature and because it involves many different processes and actors. This makes it difficult, but not impossible to succeed in.When problem occurs, they lead to additional costs and delays. To avoid the pitfalls the study has identified, the key is awareness, experience and to follow the ways of work, adapting to situations and constantly try to improve the ways of working.The study's findings does confirm in many cases the difficulties mentioned in previous research, but also points to that there are ways to prevent, deter and prevent these. The importance of following work methods, processes and use appropriate tools becomes clear when the studied organizations emphasize that it is when they depart from these that the problems arise. The study shows that it is possible to achieve a good result with requirements engineering which both previous research and the studied organizations proves.

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  • 219.
    Walden, Alice
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Decision traceability in agile software projects: Enabling alignment between changing requirements and product goals2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agile project management emphasizes flexibility and adapting to change. Embracing change often means that specified requirements get changed, removed or replaced under the course of a software project. Another consequence of the nature of agile projects is that everything that does not directly contribute to the working software gets dropped from the product lifecycle. Traceability – the ability to trace requirements back to their origins and forward to design artifacts, code, and testcases – is one such thing that may be overlooked. At the same time, traceability may be crucial to making sure that the delivered product meets the product goals. This thesis investigates the concept of decision traceability – the ability to trace decisions that relate to the evolution of a software product, as well as the fulfillment of product goals. The purpose of this thesis is to understand the importance of decision traceability in relation to product goals and changing requirements in agile software projects. For this purpose, two research questions were developed. (1) What are the challenges of achieving decision traceability in agile projects? And (2) What are important aspects of achieving decision traceability in agile projects? An interpretive qualitative case study was conducted at an IT-consultancy firm. In the case study, two of the organization’s in-house projects were observed, and six informants were interviewed. In answer to the research questions, seven challenges and six important aspects of achieving decision traceability were identified. A conclusion that can be made from the findings is that other aspects than just well-defined processes– such as team engagement, value perception, and communication – may be essential to achieving decision traceability in agile software projects.

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  • 220.
    Wallentin, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Att främja mogen IT governance: en studie inom svensk offentlig sektor.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien grundas i digitaliseringskommissionens krav på en ökad koppling mellan IT och verksamhet inom offentlig sektor samt att tidigare studier definierat en rådande problematik gällande IT-arbetet inom offentlig sektor. Vidare grundas studien även i en påvisad problematik gällande en otydlighet om vad organisationer kan arbeta med för att främja mogen IT governance. Studien har som syfte att identifiera faktorer som är viktiga att arbeta med för att en organisation ska nå en hög grad av IT governance-mognad. Med grund i detta formulerades forskningsfrågan ”vad arbetar organisationer inom offentlig sektor med för att främja mogen IT governance”.

    Data har empiriskt samlats in genom intervjuer och enkäter från 23 olika organisationer, samt teoretiskt genom en litteraturstudie. Det sammanställda materialet har analyserats via tematisk dataanalys. Resultatet är sammanställt i form av faktorer som beskriver vad organisationer kan arbeta  med för att främja en mogen IT governance.

    Resultaten visar att följande faktorer är viktiga att arbeta med: Engagemang, tydlig roll och ansvarsfördelning, IT integreras med andra enheter inom organisationen, IT governance finns med i organisationens framtidsvision, samspel mellan IT och verksamhet, medvetenhet av IT-relaterade risker, mätbarhet, beslutsprocesser gällande IT, tydlig kommunikation gällande IT, anpassad organisationsstruktur, tydligt definierade och uppdaterade ITstyrdokument samt uppföljning. Slutligen, påvisar resultaten även att  mogen IT governance är ett område som kräver ett aktivt engagemang över  längre tid för att nå sin fulla effekt.

    Studiens kunskapsbidrag är en tydlig definition av vad organisationer inom offentlig sektor kan fokusera på för att nå mogen IT governance. Detta kan främja den problematik som påvisats gällande IT governance och IT-styrning inom offentlig sektor.

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    wallentin2015
  • 221.
    Wassrin, Siri
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Innovation contests in IT design: How pressures for innovation may impede innovation2015In: Proceedings of the 38th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS 38) / [ed] Anssi Öörni, Netta Iivari, Kari Kuutti, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen and Mikko Rajanen, Oulu, Finland, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, publicly funded healthcare has started to arrange innovation contests to improve and transform its processes and technologies to meet the demands from a growing population. However, there are few empirical studies of innovation contests in healthcare as this is a fairly new phenom­en­on. Hence, the aim of this paper is to describe and analyze the innovation contest from an institutional perspective, with a focus on coercive isomorph­ism. The paper addresses two research questions: 1) What institutional pressures can be identified in the case? and 2) What were the results of the coercive isomorphism in the case? The empirical data collected during an innovation contest in Swedish healthcare were generated through participatory obser­v­­ations, semi-structured interviews and document studies. The identified coercive pressures were 1) the contest as a work form, 2) innovation as a goal and 3) scalability in the solution. These pressures led to ambiguity in the form of parallel sets of needs, problems, goals and problem owners. The pressures for contest and innovation inhibited collaboration and information and knowledge sharing, which in turn inhibited the possibility to find a solution, inno­vative or not, to the innovation contest’s problem. 

  • 222.
    Wassrin, Siri
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Understanding the Processes of Online Creative Interaction – Toward a Research Agenda2014In: IRIS Selected Papers of the Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, ISSN 1891-9863, E-ISSN 2387-3353, no 5, p. 95-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently a strong belief in Information and Communication Technologies’(ICT) ability to enable innovation. However, there is little knowledge about the creativeprocesses that may occur through the mediation of ICT and consequently lead to innovation.Prior studies have shown that creativity is central when studying innovation and that creativitycan be seen as a social process. Since computers often are used as mediators for humancommunication and as a social tool, ICT harbors a potential to enable the social processes ofcreative interaction. The aim of this paper is therefore to map key concepts and research thatrelate to online creative interactions. Hence, prior research in the IS field regarding creativityis presented, the concepts of computer-mediated communication and creativity are exploredand a possible case to study is suggested. Subsequently, a research agenda is outlined,followed by some methodological considerations and a reflection on the expected knowledgecontribution of the research.

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  • 223.
    Wassrin, Siri
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Understanding the Processes of Online Creative Interaction – a Thesis Proposal2014In: Proceedings of the 37th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS 37) / [ed] Ahmad Ghazawneh, Jacob Nørbjerg and Jan Pries-Heje, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently a strong belief in Information and Communication Technologies’ (ICT) ability to enable innovation. However, there is little knowledge about the creative processes that may occur through the mediation of ICT and consequently lead to innovation. Prior studies have shown that creativity is central when studying innovation and that creativity can be seen as a social process. Since computers often are used as mediators for human communication and as a social tool, ICT harbors a potential to enable the social processes of creative interaction. The aim of this thesis proposal is therefore to map key concepts and research that relate to online creative interactions. Hence, prior research in the IS field regarding creativity is presented, the concepts of computer-mediated communication and creativity are explored and a possible case to study is suggested. Subsequently, a research proposal is outlined, followed by some methodological considerations and a reflection on the thesis’ knowledge contribution.

  • 224. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Wassrin, Siri
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Why is it difficult to design innovative IT?: An agential realist study of designing IT for healthcare innovation2018Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It may seem strange to claim that it is difficult to design innovative information technology (IT) in a time when the technological progress leaps forward like never before. However, despite the numerous opportunities that this rapid progress provides, we often design IT that is similar to existing artifacts, making IT design incremental rather than radical. At the same time, IT innovations are pointed out as crucial to meet the societal challenges we are facing, not least in the public sector, including a growing and older population, increasing demands from citizens and reduced tax revenues. This calls for us to better understand why it is difficult to design innovative IT. Previous research on this topic have mainly focused on human and social aspects, not paying close attention to IT. In this thesis, it is suggested that the sociomaterial theory agential realism can help shed light on the role of IT in innovative IT design, acknowledging the sociomateriality of IT. Thus, the overarching aim of this thesis is to apply agential realism on an empirical case in order to explore and explain why it is difficult to design innovative IT. To fulfill the aim, a qualitative case study was conducted in publicly funded healthcare. The empirical case is an example of an attempt to design innovative IT in a healthcare context. The empirical material was generated through participant observations, including video recordings, and semi-structured interviews. The material was analyzed in several rounds, with and without a theoretical lens. In the agential realist analysis, IT has been viewed as entangled with the world. The analysis focused on what boundaries IT produced and how these boundaries were consequential for what was possible and impossible to design. The thesis illustrates how IT is produced and productive in terms of both matter and meaning, and thus, is agential – IT makes differences in the world. What is possible to design is not only constrained by social structures but by the materiality of IT, what boundaries IT helps produce and the material-discursive practices that enact IT. Innovative IT design means to design material configurations that produce boundaries that are different from what have been enacted before and, thus, deviate from existing material-discursive practices. However, it is difficult to deviate from these since material-discursive practices are agential and define what boundaries are meaningful and legitimate. Hence, it is difficult to design innovative IT since innovative IT design has to both enact boundaries that deviate from agential material-discursive practices and also gain legitimacy. Through this explanation, the thesis makes an explanatory knowledge contribution which differs from and adds to earlier explanations. It also makes a contribution to conceptualizing the IT artifact by emphasizing IT as sociomaterial and providing examples of how IT can be understood as produced, productive, agential and entangled. Finally, the thesis also makes an empirical and methodological contribution in the sense that it demonstrates how an agential realist case study can be conducted in the field of Information Systems.

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  • 225.
    Wassrin, Siri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Open Innovation Contests for Improving Healthcare - An Explorative Case Study Focusing on Challenges in a Testbed Initiative2015In: ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT (EGOV 2015), SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2015, Vol. 9248, p. 91-104Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working with innovation is important in several sectors and industries. One emerging arena for innovation is the arrangements of innovation contests. The aim of the paper is to describe and characterize an open innovation contest for improving healthcare, and to address the challenges involved. The research is a qualitative, explorative and interpretive case study of a Swedish region providing publicly funded healthcare. The conclusions show the need to generate and analyze data from actors with several perspectives in the contest. Challenges identified include defining and precisely expressing the problem, separating and delimiting the different problems and achieving a joint view. Other challenges were identifying and attracting knowledgeable participants, to consider incentives, and communicating the contest. In the collaboration stage, challenges involved the contest design, enabling knowledge sharing, managing various agendas, and being open-minded to new ideas; and finally, assessing whether the problem is suitable for open innovation contests at all.

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    fulltext
  • 226.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Mariana S
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedström, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Constructing identities: Professional use of eID in public organisations2015In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 143-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of the paper is to reveal how identities are constructed when electronic identification (eIDs) cards are introduced through information systems in public organisations. Design/methodology/approach– Through two case studies, the authors generate rich data on the construction of identities through use of eID within public organisations. The author’s analysis, based on actor network theory, focusses on the translation of eIDs in these two settings. Findings– ID can be viewed as an artefact where the public and private spheres meet. The authors found at least three mixed roles in employees’ use of eID: as a purely private person; as a private person in the work place; and as a professional in the work place. Research limitations/implications– There is a need for further research on how eID is translated into organisational contexts and how institutional settings define the openings for local translation processes. However, the results are based on two small cases, meaning that broad generalisations are difficult to make. Practical implications– EID is so much more than technology. The technical framing of the identification system appears to be subordinated to organisational arrangements and cultures, making it important to apply a socio-technical perspective when working with eID. Originality/value– The empirical cases have offered a unique chance to study implementation and use of eID in two very different public service organisations. The findings illustrate how eID translated into organisational contexts, and how identity management within an organisational setting is linked to the employees’ private and professional roles.

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  • 227.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson Krafve, Linus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Technology in Policy: An Exploratory Case Study of Information Systems in Merging Authorities2010In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Web Information Systems and Technology, INSTICC Press, 2010, p. 353-360Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows how e-government can, or might even have to, be considered as a public policy transformation. In the process of merging authorities into new organisations public policies on e-government appeared as a key activity. The case study presented in the paper is the formation of the new Swedish Transport Agency formed out of several formerly independent authorities. The Swedish case study is a mature public administration and basic democratic core values. The main contribution from the case study is to point out the importance of translation of policies into organizational practices.

  • 228.
    Winnberg, Lise-Lott
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jackléus, Mimmi
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    IoT användning inom kommunal verksamhet: – i Östergötland2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things is becoming more common and more common and is already included in someplaces such as city plans for new buildings, in smart offices and infrastructure. There is a wealth ofprivately-owned companies specializing in IoT solutions and application of this to different parts of society.A great example is installing IoT sensors in water pipes so that maintenance can be foreseen, thus reducingsupply deviations and reducing any losses.In this qualitative bachelor thesis, we have investigated how IoT is used in municipalities, what they thinkIoT has to offer the future of Sweden's municipalities and how they see IoT can be used to create utility inmunicipal activities, but also what may be an obstacle in the process of realizing this.After interviewing a few of the municipalities across Östergötland County we have found that currentlythere are few IoT solutions in the municipalities and that it is due to several reasons. One of them is thelack of regulations that deal with IoT, but also the lack of standardisation of IoT, and what the introductionof IoT solutions would entail in municipalities or towns. What to invest in? There is some uncertainty there.If there were concrete examples of direct municipial operation benefit that would probably be a difference.This might possibly be resolved by the Digitaliseringsmyndigheten which will be established in the autumnhowever it seems that their role is not so well-defined, which we noticed when we spoke to respondents.They had different hopes of what the government can assist with or what their work would result in.We have discovered that there is no requirement for the state to provide municipalities with a strategy thataddresses the IoT or a digitization strategy. Nevertheless, a couple of respondents already have a digitizationstrategy or were working on it.Another reason is that the funds the municipalities currently have is not enough for such a venture, thosefunds are necessary to maintain and keep the municipal operation running. A municipality's focus is alwaysthe business and the citizens. If limited funds force a choice between investment in technical capabilities,although they can generate greater profit in the long run, and operational development of other forms ormaintenance, the operation will always come first. As one of the respondents explained, if the choice isbetween building a new preschool or investing in a new technology project, it is obvious where the moneyends up.

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  • 229. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Information Systems Development for Emerging Public Sector Cross-sector Collaborations: The Case of Swedish Emergency Response2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems (IS) seem prevalent in modern societies and have resulted in the rapid digitalisation of different societal sectors. One application domain of IS is emergency response, which is responsible for delivering essential services to save lives and minimise environmental damage in both small , frequent and large-scale emergencies. Specific IS applications are in turn used in emergency response to support such aspects as decision-making, communication, information sharing and the dispatching of resources. Public-sector cut-backs and a lack of professional resources have affected emergency response at the same time as natural disasters (e.g. forest fires, tsunamis, storms, terror attacks, and wars in the Middle East leading to mass migration) have intensified in recent decades. At the same time, frequent, small-scale accidents continue to occur on a regular basis, both in urban and sparsely populated areas. As a result, emergency response actors, first responders, are often placed under severe pressure. An emerging trend in response to these challenges, both in Sweden and internationally, is to create cross-sector forms of collaboration, by combining alternative resources from various sectors. Such collaborations are relatively new and involve heterogeneous stakeholders.

    Therefore, the thesis objective is to explore IS-related opportunities, challenges and needs aimed at supporting heterogeneous actors in emerging cross-sector collaborations in emergency response in order to enable and facilitate future related IS development. To achieve this, a user-centred approach was applied. A baseline study was performed followed by three case studies on ‘co-location of actors’, ‘co-operative use of resources’ and ‘semi-professionals as first responders’ by performing interviews, focus groups, participant observation, Future Workshops, an exercise and an after-action review. The thesis is based on case study research and qualitative research methods. Sociotechnical systems theory, the sociotechnical ensemble view, and network governance were used as the analytical framework. As part of achieving the thesis objectives, experiences from applying user participation in the context of cross-sector collaboration are also presented as part of the results. A context-specific framework developed to systematise and explore various important aspects of cross-sector collaboration in emergency response is also described.

    The results of this thesis indicate that the needs for IS in cross-sector collaborations vary from simple smartphone applications to manage alarms, positioning and the dispatching of new resources, to more sophisticated tools for sharing and viewing incident data. The results also indicate that these collaborations have the potential (e.g. resource redundancy, pooled competencies to increase total capacity) to improve Swedish emergency response if supported by adequate IS/IT support. The major challenges are organisational, economic and juridical and the most prominent are ambiguities in actors’ tasks and responsibilities, and how to prioritise between ordinary work and ‘new’ first-response tasks. They must be addressed to enable certain IS-functions, e.g. information sharing and positioning of resources The results also highlight several institutional factors (e.g. mutual interest between members, collective problem-solving, secrecy aspects) which are believed to play a key role in the success or failure of the collaborations and which must be adressed in the development of IS-support. The actors also have substantial basic needs for training (e.g. fire extinguishing, first aid) and emergency supplies (e.g. fire extinguishers, healthcare kits).

    Applying user participation also faced challenges, the major one being the development of a future cross-sector collaboration in a context that does not yet exist, and involving stakeholders from resource-strained organisations in doing so. The stakeholders, and sometimes also the primary end-users, are partly unknown and tasks are undefined. As a response to these challenges, a combination of activities based on multiple design groups, scenario-based Future Workshops, focus groups, the context-specific framework, a practical exercise and an after-action-review was provided. The framework, which was used to support data collection and user participation, includes 15 dimensions each intended to represent important aspects of cross-sector collaboration.

    The thesis major contributions are the identified opportunities, challenges and need as a ’sociotechnical ensemble’ and generated and from several studies, thus being comparable. The thesis more theoretical contributions is the combined application of the sociotechnical ensemble view and network governance where the studied collaboration forms are characterised as a hybrid form of networks and more traditional government mechanisms and where it is pointed out that network governance lacks explicit IS/IT aspects. In a wider perspective, the research fields of IS and political science may cross-fertilise each other when studying emerging cross-sector collaboration in the public sector. Identified user participation challenges relevant to the cross-sector collaboration context, suggestions on how they can be handled and the context-specific framework are contributions that can be used in practical user-centred IS development in similar contexts. 

    List of papers
    1. A Framework for “New Actors” in Emergency Response Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Framework for “New Actors” in Emergency Response Systems
    2013 (English)In: ISCRAM2013. Conference Proceedings, Book of Papers, 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] T. Comes, F. Fiedrich , S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller, 2013, p. 741-746Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using actors from different societal sectors can improve the response operation quality in emergency management. The different roles, tasks and responsibilities these actors have in response operations and the legal frameworks they work within influence their needs for proper information system support. There is thus a substantial need to study and systemize the concept of “new actors” before providing them with technical solutions. In this study, a framework is constructed showing 14 dimensions of new actors that need to be considered when new actors are studied in more detail.

    Keywords
    Emergency response system, new actor, framework, first responder.
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95995 (URN)9783923704804 (ISBN)
    Conference
    10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2013), 12-15 May 2013, Baden-Baden, Germany
    Available from: 2013-08-12 Created: 2013-08-12 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
    2. Emerging communities of collaboration: co-location in emergency response systems in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emerging communities of collaboration: co-location in emergency response systems in Sweden
    2014 (English)In: ISCRAM2014 Academic Papers 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management , 2014, p. 546-555Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-location as a form of network governance is a way of organizing response teams when responding to an emergency situation. At the ‘Safety house’ in the province of Jämtland in Sweden main emergency response actors and supporting actors work together in a shared physical place in order to facilitate the process of cooperation and joint decision making. In order to identify the strengths, weaknesses, obstacles, needs and information system role, we explored this case by looking at how the involved actors experience this new working context. We applied an analytical framework developed specifically for new forms of emergency response. It was found that co-location of actors increases the efficiency in using professional response resources and shortens the emergency response time. Information systems can have a significant role in improving the collaboration between actors at the ‘Safety house’. However secrecy issues, the problem of control and politics and the evaluation of the performance of actors are major challenges which face further development of the co-location concept.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, 2014
    Keywords
    Emergency, Crisis Management, Network governance
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109496 (URN)9780692211946 (ISBN)
    Conference
    11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2014), University Park, Pennsylvania, USA, 18 May 2014
    Available from: 2014-08-20 Created: 2014-08-20 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Actor-centred emergency response systems: a framework for needs analysis and information systems development
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Actor-centred emergency response systems: a framework for needs analysis and information systems development
    2016 (English)In: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 403-434Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

     A new trend in emergency response systems (ERS) is to create new forms of collaboration, for example, by involving new resources in response operations, in order to compensate for the limited number of professional resources. However, the fact that the new resources may come from different organisational contexts and social sectors creates new challenges which directly affect information systems development for these resources. This study presents a framework including 15 dimensions to analyse the new forms of collaboration. Socio-technical system theory and participatory design approaches are applied to make the framework applicable in the information systems field. The framework might also address general problems such as the lack of formalisation and difficulties in identifying relevant stakeholders in participatory design. A comparison with international research showed a potential to adapt the framework to ERSs in other countries or even to other parts of the public sector that are undergoing similar changes.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    InderScience Publishers, 2016
    Keywords
    ERSs; emergency response systems; new actors; new collaborations; cross-sector collaboration; information systems; socio-technical systems; STS; participatory design; needs analysis; emergency management
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132400 (URN)10.1504/IJEM.2016.10000709 (DOI)
    Available from: 2016-11-08 Created: 2016-11-08 Last updated: 2018-09-28
    4. User Participation in Information Systems Development for Emerging Public Sector Initiatives
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>User Participation in Information Systems Development for Emerging Public Sector Initiatives
    2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a-posteriori analysis of information systems (IS) development in a cross-sector collaboration case to identify and address user participation challenges in emerging public sector initiatives. The major challenges in the studied case was to develop IS for future cross-sector collaboration in a setting that does not yet exist, i.e. where the tasks, stakeholders and end-users are undefined. To address identified challenges, we suggest a combination of activities based on multiple design groups, scenario-based Future Workshops, focus groups, context-specific frameworks, and practical exercises with after-action-review. We argue that while similar challenges have been discussed in relation to large-scale projects and, sometimes, cross-sector collaboration, IS development for emerging public sector initiatives pose specific issues that need to be addressed.

    Keywords
    User participation, future service design, cross-sector collaboration
    National Category
    Public Administration Studies Communication Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150956 (URN)
    Conference
    27th International Conference on Information Systems Development (ISD2018), August 22-24, Lund, Sweden
    Available from: 2018-09-06 Created: 2018-09-06 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
    5. Semi-professionals: emergency response as an additional task in current occupations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Semi-professionals: emergency response as an additional task in current occupations
    2019 (English)In: International Journal of Emergency Services, ISSN 2047-0894, E-ISSN 2047-0908, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 86-107Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to identify occupational groups who can act as semi-professional first responders, in order to shorten the response times to frequent emergencies, and second, to identify related opportunities, challenges and needs of training, emergency supplies and information technology (IT) support. Design/methodology/approach A case study approach was taken, combining future workshops, focus groups and an exercise. Network governance was used as an analytical lens. Findings The identified potential groups are security guards, home care personnel, fire services day personnel and facility service personnel. The results show that semi-professionals have a large potential to complement professional resources by carrying out first response or supportive actions vital to the emergency, partly by using already existing cars and equipment. The identified needs include additional basic equipment such as fire extinguishers and first-aid kits, training in basic firefighting, first aid and risk assessment, as well as mobile phone application-based IT support to manage alarms. The major challenges are organisational, economic and juridical, including ambiguities in responsibilities and related insurances. The analysis recognises the new collaboration as a hybrid form of hierarchical government and network governance. Social implications The study suggests that using semi-professional resources can be one of many innovative solutions to recent public sector challenges that have put a huge strain on professional emergency response organisations. Originality/value The study provides a novel view of using semi-professional resources in emergency response, based on the joint perspectives of various occupational groups, and the fire services.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019
    Keywords
    Network governance, Cross-sector collaboration with fire services, Semi-professionals
    National Category
    Communication Studies Public Administration Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150834 (URN)10.1108/IJES-11-2017-0059 (DOI)000476677000001 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Norrkoping municipality; Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, through the research centre CARER (Center for Advanced Research in Emergency Response)

    Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
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    Information Systems Development for Emerging Public Sector Cross-sector Collaborations: The Case of Swedish Emergency Response
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  • 230. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    New Forms of Collaboration in Emergency Response Systems: A framework for participatory design of information systems2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An emergency response systems (ERS) is usually responsible for delivering essential services to save lives and minimise environmental damage in case of small, frequent or large-scale emergencies. The ongoing global financial crisis, lack of professional resources, public sector cuts and rising public expectations are some of the challenges ERSs currently are facing. At the same time, societal trends in form of large-scale disasters such as tsunamis, storms, forest fires, terror attacks, and wars in the Middle East leading to mass migration have intensified recently and globally, increasing demand for these services in the public sector. As a result, emergency response actors are often under extreme pressure, and may need to seek assistance from and cooperate with other resources in society in order to become more effective. An emerging trend in ERSs in response to the challenges, in Sweden and internationally, is to create new forms of collaboration in emergency management (e.g., cross-sector collaboration, involving citizens in e-government, and involving volunteers). While research and practice have started to show the benefits of organising ERSs in new ways, the increasingly broad set of heterogeneous stakeholders involved in the collaborations introduce various challenges. Legal issues, unclear responsibilities of actors, difficulty in the categorisation of tasks, job insurance problems, diversity in education and background of actors, and difficulty determining actors’ specific needs for IS support are some examples. Analysis of collaborations thus becomes increasingly complex, and must incorporate many aspects. Rudimentary analyses may result in failure of related projects and IS development, and ultimately in less effective collaborations. New forms of collaboration must therefore be analysed and understood rigorously, generally and in each specific context in order to develop them for ERSs and the public sector and to support actors with effective IS tools.

    This thesis develops and presents a framework for analysing new forms of collaboration in ERSs. It also provides an initial suggestion on how to apply the framework with a specific focus on IS development. The study was carried out as a qualitative case study based on three kinds of collaboration in the Swedish ERS: co-operative, cross-sector use of resources, involving civil volunteers in response operations and co-location of actors. The framework has fifteen dimensions. They are: Type/Role, Attitude, Training, Background, Task and Responsibility, Availability/Accessibility, Incident Type, Communication Methods, Information Technology, Emergency Supplies, Organisational Structure, Leadership, Costs/Benefits, Environment, and Regulations and Legal Issues. Sociotechnical systems theory and participatory design principles were applied to make the framework usable in the IS field. The framework can be used generally to analyse new forms of collaboration in ERSs in order to understand its different aspects and emergent challenges, such as actors’ tasks, relevant laws, leadership and organisational factors, which may otherwise be overlooked, into the analysis process. As to IS development, the framework can contribute to organisational analysis and needs analysis in the participatory design of IS for ERSs, e.g. by helping to identify key stakeholders and involve them in the development process.

    The framework was initially tested at the co-location case and showed several promising benefits in terms of identifying and involving stakeholders in the development process. It was deemed helpful in determining and formulating interviews, observations, and future workshops in order to explore and study all relevant dimensions of the collaboration in the early phases of participatory design. It was also felt that the framework saved time and resources. It is argued that it may offer similar benefits in similar cases, although this will require further testing with more case studies. A standardised and developed version of the framework may also be adapted to be applicable to other public sector contexts such as e-government in which new forms of collaboration and governance are in focus. Such a framework may also help to address general challenges often associated with participatory design, add formalisation to it, and contribute to shift it from an academic to a practical approach in order to derive its benefits in complex environments. The next step will be to use the framework as a departure point for analysing the potential co-operative use of resources and cross-sector collaboration in the project ‘Efficient Communal Use of Municipal Resources for Increased Safety and Security’ (ESKORT) in the municipality of Norrköping.

    List of papers
    1. A Framework for “New Actors” in Emergency Response Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Framework for “New Actors” in Emergency Response Systems
    2013 (English)In: ISCRAM2013. Conference Proceedings, Book of Papers, 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] T. Comes, F. Fiedrich , S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller, 2013, p. 741-746Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using actors from different societal sectors can improve the response operation quality in emergency management. The different roles, tasks and responsibilities these actors have in response operations and the legal frameworks they work within influence their needs for proper information system support. There is thus a substantial need to study and systemize the concept of “new actors” before providing them with technical solutions. In this study, a framework is constructed showing 14 dimensions of new actors that need to be considered when new actors are studied in more detail.

    Keywords
    Emergency response system, new actor, framework, first responder.
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95995 (URN)9783923704804 (ISBN)
    Conference
    10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2013), 12-15 May 2013, Baden-Baden, Germany
    Available from: 2013-08-12 Created: 2013-08-12 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
    2. Emerging communities of collaboration: co-location in emergency response systems in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emerging communities of collaboration: co-location in emergency response systems in Sweden
    2014 (English)In: ISCRAM2014 Academic Papers 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management , 2014, p. 546-555Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-location as a form of network governance is a way of organizing response teams when responding to an emergency situation. At the ‘Safety house’ in the province of Jämtland in Sweden main emergency response actors and supporting actors work together in a shared physical place in order to facilitate the process of cooperation and joint decision making. In order to identify the strengths, weaknesses, obstacles, needs and information system role, we explored this case by looking at how the involved actors experience this new working context. We applied an analytical framework developed specifically for new forms of emergency response. It was found that co-location of actors increases the efficiency in using professional response resources and shortens the emergency response time. Information systems can have a significant role in improving the collaboration between actors at the ‘Safety house’. However secrecy issues, the problem of control and politics and the evaluation of the performance of actors are major challenges which face further development of the co-location concept.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, 2014
    Keywords
    Emergency, Crisis Management, Network governance
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109496 (URN)9780692211946 (ISBN)
    Conference
    11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2014), University Park, Pennsylvania, USA, 18 May 2014
    Available from: 2014-08-20 Created: 2014-08-20 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
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  • 231.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Framework for “New Actors” in Emergency Response Systems2013In: ISCRAM2013. Conference Proceedings, Book of Papers, 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] T. Comes, F. Fiedrich , S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller, 2013, p. 741-746Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using actors from different societal sectors can improve the response operation quality in emergency management. The different roles, tasks and responsibilities these actors have in response operations and the legal frameworks they work within influence their needs for proper information system support. There is thus a substantial need to study and systemize the concept of “new actors” before providing them with technical solutions. In this study, a framework is constructed showing 14 dimensions of new actors that need to be considered when new actors are studied in more detail.

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    A Framework for “New Actors” in Emergency Response Systems
  • 232.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Actor-centred emergency response systems: a framework for needs analysis and information systems development2016In: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 403-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     A new trend in emergency response systems (ERS) is to create new forms of collaboration, for example, by involving new resources in response operations, in order to compensate for the limited number of professional resources. However, the fact that the new resources may come from different organisational contexts and social sectors creates new challenges which directly affect information systems development for these resources. This study presents a framework including 15 dimensions to analyse the new forms of collaboration. Socio-technical system theory and participatory design approaches are applied to make the framework applicable in the information systems field. The framework might also address general problems such as the lack of formalisation and difficulties in identifying relevant stakeholders in participatory design. A comparison with international research showed a potential to adapt the framework to ERSs in other countries or even to other parts of the public sector that are undergoing similar changes.

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    fulltext
  • 233.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emerging communities of collaboration: co-location in emergency response systems in Sweden2014In: ISCRAM2014 Academic Papers 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management , 2014, p. 546-555Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-location as a form of network governance is a way of organizing response teams when responding to an emergency situation. At the ‘Safety house’ in the province of Jämtland in Sweden main emergency response actors and supporting actors work together in a shared physical place in order to facilitate the process of cooperation and joint decision making. In order to identify the strengths, weaknesses, obstacles, needs and information system role, we explored this case by looking at how the involved actors experience this new working context. We applied an analytical framework developed specifically for new forms of emergency response. It was found that co-location of actors increases the efficiency in using professional response resources and shortens the emergency response time. Information systems can have a significant role in improving the collaboration between actors at the ‘Safety house’. However secrecy issues, the problem of control and politics and the evaluation of the performance of actors are major challenges which face further development of the co-location concept.

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    Emerging communities of collaboration: co-location in emergency response systems in Sweden
  • 234.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sambruk: En studie om samverkan och sambruk i Nyköpings kommun.2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Behovet av att känna sig trygg och kunna få hjälp snabbt, när olyckan är framme, är en pågående samhällsfråga som berör de medborgare som behöver hjälp, och de organisationer som ger det(responssystem). En utmaning i dagens samhälle är att fortsätta förbättra responssystemet genom att minska responsinsatstiden och öka responsinsatskvalitet med knappa resurser och stigande offentliga förväntningar. ). Samtidigt är resurserna i responssystemet begränsade och lokaliserade till några få platser i samhället. Långa avstånd (som till exempel på landsbygden och i glesbygdområden) i kombination med nedskärningar (som t.ex. begränsade resurser) har tvingat vårt samhälle att utveckla nya sätt att organisera responssystemet för att behålla effektiviteten. Man tror att genom att engagera kompletterande resurser i samhället för att skapa nya samverkansformer, kan snabbare och mer effektiv larmrespons ske och därmed kan fler liv räddas och skadorna på miljön minskas.

    Att dela utrustning, larmcenter och brandstation har testats nyligen i syfte att skapa ett robust samarbete och kortare utryckningstider. I Nyköpings kommun i Sverige arbetar räddningstjänsten, divisionen för social omsorg och den tekniska divisionen med denna nya struktur. Vid Sambruk delar olika organisationer utrustning och larmcentral samt nyttjar varandras resurser i vissa situationer för att kunna svara på larm och larma ut resurser snabbare.

    Det verkar som om Sambruk i Nyköping i viss mån har lyckats förbättra responssystemet genom att förkorta responstider och även använda resurserna på ett effektivare sätt. Detta enligt uppgifter från intervju och ‘Future workshop’ med aktörer i Nyköping. Man tror dock att det fortfarande är möjligt att använda existerande resurser än effektivare genom bättre larmkategorisering och även tilldela uppgifter till exempelvis deltidsbrandmän.

    Att dela utrustning, bilar och larmcentral har visat på vissa fördelar för alla involverade aktörer. Att dela bilar eller byggnader har inte orsakat något problem, utan har istället upplevts ge ökad effektivitet i respons på larm eftersom aktörer har nära kommunikation och tillgång till varandra.

    Det största problemet som nästan alla intervjurespondenterna nämnde och som diskuterades i workshopen rörde otydlighet i uppgifter och arbetsprocesser. Det verkar som om det ännu inte är klart för samtliga involverade aktörer vad målen för Sambruk är och hur deras arbete kan förändras och varför. Det verkar också som om det saknas utbildning eller specifika metoder för att stödja sådan kunskapsutveckling. Lagmässiga problem såsom sekretess har orsakat en del problem i att dela information. Att fokusera på huvuduppgift samtidigt som man åläggs andra resurser är ett annat problem, eftersom aktörerna kan vara ifrågasättande till att avvika alltför mycket från sitt ordinarie arbete.

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    Sambruk: En studie om samverkan och sambruk i Nyköpings kommun.
  • 235.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Semi-professionals: emergency response as an additional task in current occupations2019In: International Journal of Emergency Services, ISSN 2047-0894, E-ISSN 2047-0908, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 86-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to identify occupational groups who can act as semi-professional first responders, in order to shorten the response times to frequent emergencies, and second, to identify related opportunities, challenges and needs of training, emergency supplies and information technology (IT) support. Design/methodology/approach A case study approach was taken, combining future workshops, focus groups and an exercise. Network governance was used as an analytical lens. Findings The identified potential groups are security guards, home care personnel, fire services day personnel and facility service personnel. The results show that semi-professionals have a large potential to complement professional resources by carrying out first response or supportive actions vital to the emergency, partly by using already existing cars and equipment. The identified needs include additional basic equipment such as fire extinguishers and first-aid kits, training in basic firefighting, first aid and risk assessment, as well as mobile phone application-based IT support to manage alarms. The major challenges are organisational, economic and juridical, including ambiguities in responsibilities and related insurances. The analysis recognises the new collaboration as a hybrid form of hierarchical government and network governance. Social implications The study suggests that using semi-professional resources can be one of many innovative solutions to recent public sector challenges that have put a huge strain on professional emergency response organisations. Originality/value The study provides a novel view of using semi-professional resources in emergency response, based on the joint perspectives of various occupational groups, and the fire services.

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    Semi-professionals: emergency response as an additional task in current occupations
  • 236.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    User Participation in Information Systems Development for Emerging Public Sector Initiatives2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a-posteriori analysis of information systems (IS) development in a cross-sector collaboration case to identify and address user participation challenges in emerging public sector initiatives. The major challenges in the studied case was to develop IS for future cross-sector collaboration in a setting that does not yet exist, i.e. where the tasks, stakeholders and end-users are undefined. To address identified challenges, we suggest a combination of activities based on multiple design groups, scenario-based Future Workshops, focus groups, context-specific frameworks, and practical exercises with after-action-review. We argue that while similar challenges have been discussed in relation to large-scale projects and, sometimes, cross-sector collaboration, IS development for emerging public sector initiatives pose specific issues that need to be addressed.

  • 237.
    Öhlund, Sten-Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. eHealth Institute, Linnaeus University , Kalmar, Sweden.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    eHealth Institute, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Petersson, Göran
    eHealth Institute, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Improving interoperability in ePrescribing2012In: Interactive Journal of Medical Research, E-ISSN 1929-073X, Vol. 1, no 2, article id e17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The increased application of eServices in health care, in general, and ePrescribing (electronic prescribing) in particular, have brought quality and interoperability to the forefront. The application of standards has been put forward as one important factor in improving interoperability. However, less focus has been placed on other factors, such as stakeholders involvement and the measurement of interoperability. An information system (IS) can be regarded to comprise an instrument for technology-mediated work communication. In this study, interoperability refers to the interoperation in the ePrescribing process, involving people, systems, procedures and organizations. We have focused on the quality of the ePrescription message as one component of the interoperation in the ePrescribing process. Objective: The objective was to analyze how combined efforts in improving interoperability with the introduction of the new national ePrescription format (NEF) have impacted interoperability in the ePrescribing process in Sweden, with the focus on the quality of the ePrescription message. Methods: Consecutive sampling of electronic prescriptions in Sweden before and after the introduction of NEF was undertaken in April 2008 (pre-NEF) and April 2009 (post-NEF). Interoperability problems were identified and classified based on message format specifications and prescription rules. Results: The introduction of NEF improved the interoperability of ePrescriptions substantially. In the pre-NEF sample, a total of 98.6% of the prescriptions had errors. In the post-NEF sample, only 0.9% of the prescriptions had errors. The mean number of errors was fewer for the erroneous prescriptions: 4.8 in pre-NEF compared to 1.0 in post-NEF. Conclusions: We conclude that a systematic comprehensive work on interoperability, covering technical, semantical, professional, judicial and process aspects, involving the stakeholders, resulted in an improved interoperability of ePrescriptions.

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