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  • 201.
    Boberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hållbara fonder: Ett möjligt attitude-behaviour gap och orsakerna bakom2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The interest in sustainable mutual funds and the supply of them has rapidly grown in Sweden during the last years. It is previously known that there is a problem with the definition of what a sustainable mutual fund is, which adds a layer of complexity to the market. Indications shows that there might be a discrepancy between the number of people that are interested in sustainable mutual funds and those who buys them.

    Purpose: The aim with this study is to determine whether an attitude-behaviour gap exists on the market for sustainable mutual funds. Furthermore, the study intends to estimate the amount of capital invested in the Swedish market for sustainable funds, that is to broader the perspective of the market and its size. Finally, if there is an existing attitude- behaviour gap, the authors want to examine the factors behind the gap.

    Completion: To be able to carry out the study, both quantitative and qualitative methods have been used. The quantitative parts were made with both a survey to determine whether there is an attitude-behaviour gap and data collection concerning the amount of capital allocated to Swedish sustainable mutual funds. The qualitative part has been carried out with the help of semi-structured interviews with mainly private savers but also an expert in the field.

    Conclusion: The study has established that there is an attitude-behaviour gap in the Swedish market for sustainable funds. Furthermore, the conclusion has been drawn that it is not possible to determine the amount of capital invested in Swedish sustainable mutual funds, the reason being that the definition problem and the lack of accepted third- party labels make it too uncertain. Finally, the study has come up with several different factors that form the underlying reasons of the attitude behaviour gap, concerns about yield, definition problems, knowledge and information as the most crucial.

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  • 202.
    Bogered, Gustaf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rundquist, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Management Control Systems as a Package and the Impact on Organizational Ambidexterity: A Case Study of a R&D Organization in a Swedish Medical Technology Company2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The idea of MCSs operating together in a package is not a new concept. However, not many empirical studies have been made where MCSs have been studied as a package despite studies showing the importance in doing so. The assessment of the performance implications of MCSPs has traditionally been limited to financial measures. Theory suggests that the performance of a MCSP ought to be assessed on a broader scale than conventional output measures. Organizational ambidexterity has been positively associated with a broad variety of performance measures and thus it is used as an assessment tool in this study in response to the need for performance measurement on a broader scale than financial output.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the MCSP in two different phases in the case organization and assess how the MCSP in these two phases promotes the organization’s ability to achieve organizational ambidexterity.

    Methodology: This study uses a qualitative research strategy and is limited to a single case study in a R&D organization within a Swedish medical technology company. Semistructured qualitative interviews have been used to collect empirical data.

    Conclusion: The MCSP in the two phases is composed of different MCSs that were found to be used differently. Within the MCSP in both phases, several linkages were revealed between control elements and that some MCSs function to achieve the purposes of other MCSs. This study further concludes that the MCSP of the current phase was found to promote organizational ambidexterity better than the MCSP in the previous phase due to it promoting a better balance between exploitation and exploration.

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  • 203.
    Bolin, Theodor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sellman, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    En analys av effekterna som uppstår när lågprisvarumärken samarbetar med lyxvarumärken inom modebranschen: Är co-branding lösningen för framtidens modebransch?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since 2004 when H&M collaborated with Karl Lagerfeld has co-branding become a well-known phenomenon that now serves as a marketing strategy for clothing brands in different segments. These collaborations often generate positive aspects for the partners who are involved. There are however risks if the collaborations are not executed properly. The fashion industry has evolved in the last years and the consequences of collaborations have affected it to some extent.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to research and create a developed understanding of the effects that may arise when a low-budget brand and a luxurious brand create a clothing collection together. The study also wants to examine potential synergies that a collaboration may generate, how these collaborations are influenced by todays fashion industry, as well as what the future might look like.

    Methodology: This study applies a qualitative research method where empirical data has been gathered through semi-structured interviews with seven experts who have knowledge about the subject areas that are relevant to the study. The empirical data has been analyzed with the help of previous studies in order to fill the knowledge gaps that exist for collaborations within the fashion industry.

    Conclusions: The study establishes that collaborations can indeed affect both the low-budget brand and the luxurious brand’s brand equity. It also found that the positive effects outweigh the negative. Low-budget brands however, tend to be more rewarded than luxurious brands in these collaborations. Influences from pop culture and new types of consumers have gained an increased power on both the fashion industry and the collaborations within it. The future is deemed uncertain by the experts but co-branding is however portrayed as a possible solution for the complicated fashion market that exists today.

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  • 204.
    Bolinder, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    CSR – nyckeln till framgång avseende anställdas motivation?: En kvalitativ undersökning om den upplevda motivationen i en kontext med CSR2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Due to increasing external demands corporate social responsibility has been adapted more frequently by companies in their daily activities. In recent years, researchers have started to develop an interest in CSR’s importance regarding the motivation of employees. In order to succeed with CSR-activities and increase employee motivation, information is required to be continuously communicated in a consistent, clear and interesting way. An industry where motivated employees are known to be important is the service industry, since employees are a big part of the service provided. Therefore, it is relevant to study how CSR-activities can be used to increase motivation of employees working in the service sector.

    Aim The aim of this study is to explore how CSR affects the motivation of employees working at companies within the service industry in Sweden. Furthermore, the internal communication of CSR is examined and how this contributes to motivation. Thus, the purpose of the study is to investigate and identify the factors that are perceived to be important for employees in order to be motivated by the company's CSR efforts.

    Methodology The study adopts a case study design since the goal of the study has been to perform a detailed examination of a specific case. The method used is a qualitative method and an iterative approach has been used, combining an inductive and deductive approach, and the authors have been shifting between theory and empirical evidence during the process. Data has been collected through interviews and questionnaires.

    Conclusions Through our empirical data collection we have been able to identify a number of factors in the field of CSR that could lead to success in terms of employee motivation. Furthermore, the challenges that exist to make CSR a motivating factor for employees are the choice of communication channels and adapting leadership between different individuals. In summary, CSR has been shown to influence employee motivation positively if combined with efficient communication and leadership.

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  • 205.
    Bolling, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bucan, Nikolina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Revisionsriskmodellen: En studie i hur revisorer uppfattar användandet av modellens olika delar2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Criticism has been leveled at the design of theaudit risk model, even though it is an importantpart of the assessment of audit risk in the planningphase. As a result of this, it is relevant to studyusers’, namely auditors’, approach to the audit riskmodel and its use.

    Purpose The purpose of this thesis is to explain auditors'interpretation of the use of the various risks in theaudit risk model.

    Method The study uses a quantitative approach. The datahas been collected through a survey usingSurveyMonkey and then analyzed with SPSS.

    Conclusions Our results show that the auditors who participatedin the survey felt that inherent risk was mostimportant, followed by control risk, and thereafterdetection risk. However, we see that theassessment of inherent and control risks iscombined and that they are influenced by eachother, which strengthens several previous studies.

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    Revisionsriskmodellen - En studie i hur revisorer uppfattar användandet av modellens olika delar
  • 206.
    Bolton, Ruth N.
    et al.
    Arizona State Univ, AZ 85287 USA.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Cheung, Lilliemay
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Gallan, Andrew
    Depaul Univ, IL 60604 USA.
    Orsingher, Chiara
    Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Zaki, Mohamed
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Customer experience challenges: bringing together digital, physical and social realms2018In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 776-808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore innovations in customer experience at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. It explicitly considers experiences involving new technology-enabled services, such as digital twins and automated social presence (i.e. virtual assistants and service robots). Design/methodology/approach Future customer experiences are conceptualized within a three-dimensional space - low to high digital density, low to high physical complexity and low to high social presence - yielding eight octants. Findings The conceptual framework identifies eight dualities, or specific challenges connected with integrating digital, physical and social realms that challenge organizations to create superior customer experiences in both business-to-business and business-to-consumer markets. The eight dualities are opposing strategic options that organizations must reconcile when co-creating customer experiences under different conditions. Research limitations/implications A review of theory demonstrates that little research has been conducted at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. Most studies focus on one realm, with occasional reference to another. This paper suggests an agenda for future research and gives examples of fruitful ways to study connections among the three realms rather than in a single realm. Practical implications This paper provides guidance for managers in designing and managing customer experiences that the authors believe will need to be addressed by the year 2050. Social implications This paper discusses important societal issues, such as individual and societal needs for privacy, security and transparency. It sets out potential avenues for service innovation in these areas. Originality/value The conceptual framework integrates knowledge about customer experiences in digital, physical and social realms in a new way, with insights for future service research, managers and public policy makers.

  • 207.
    Bolton, Ruth
    et al.
    ASU.
    Tarasi, Crina
    Eastern Michigan.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstads universitet.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstads universitet.
    What drives the drives of customer satisfaction? Understanding how across-channel participation and country of origin affect the drivers of customer satisfactioin2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 208.
    Bonnevier, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nyman, Lowisa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    European Market Infrastructure Regulation: En institutionell analys av implementeringsproblematiken och dess kostnader2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to the financial crisis of year 2008. European Market Infrastructure Regulation, EMIR, was introduced to increase transparency and reduce the counterparty risk on the European derivatives market. The market demonstrates that the implementation has been problematic and an indistinct designing is expressed. According to studies, increased transaction costs have occurred due to the regulation. Operators that usually not are included by oversight by the Swedish FSA, now are due to EMIR which contributes to an implementation problem essential to analyse.

    Aim: The aim with the study is to investigate and by institutional theory analyse what costs and problems that occurs at the implementation of EMIR and to discuss solutions for these.

    Completion: To accomplish the aim of the study, the writers have used institutional theory and a qualitative approach. The empirical data is treated with focus on the implementation problems that affected parts experienced due to EMIR. The empirical data will be concluded with semi – structured interviews. The affected parts, in the study, are different stakeholders on the market that has developed because of the implementation of EMIR. With the theory as background different solutions to the implementation problems will be discussed in the analysis.

    Conclusion: The regulation is considered to be unclear and complex which results in increased transaction costs. Several costs and problems have been identified in conjunction with the implementation of EMIR. The different solution provided is explained to depend on if the participant is considered a small or a big contestant on the market. The writer can ultimately se a long – term utility with EMIR.

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  • 209.
    Booson, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Swahn, Lowe
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Popularitet på aktiemarknaden: En undersökning av aktiers popularitets effekt på risk och avkastning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Over the past few decades it has been generally accepted that market premiums come with an associated level of risk. Even the most widely used pricing model today, CAPM, leans on this assumption. In an article written by Ibbotson and Idzorek (2014) this assumption is challenged as the main driver of market premiums and returns. The article contains evidence that relatively high returns have been earned through buying less  popular stocks on the U.S. stock market. Surprisingly the risk-return dimension exhibited an inverse relationship. This evidence from the U.S. stock market motivates us to investigate to what extent this effect can also be seen on the Swedish stock market.

    Aim: The aim of this thesis is to identify and analyze the effect of a stock`s popularity on the risk and return.

    Completion: In this quantitative study, share turnover and market capitalization have been used as approximations for popularity. The effects of stocks popularity on risk and return have been are examined by evaluating the performance of portfolios when categorizing the stocks by share turnover and market capitalization. The statistical relationship between popularity and return is analyzed using regression analysis. This study has both studied the effect of last year's popularity, as well as the effect of the popularity of the same year.

    Conclusion: When various approximations for the popularity dimension are studied and compared, this study shows no marked effect of stock`s popularity from the previous year on risk and return. The study finds no statistically significant relationship between the previous year ́s popularity and return. However, there is a positive statistically correlation between popularity and return when measured during the same year as when the popularity was measured. In addition, the results establish evidence for the stock turnover as a good measure of popularity.

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  • 210.
    Borg, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Persson, Sabine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Remitteringar - ett tvåvägsflöde: En flerfallsstudie om hur finansieringsformen hos invandrarföretagare i Sverige påverkar deras vilja att remittera2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Given that the labor market for immigrants in Sweden has high unemployment and that immigrants to a large extent start businesses, makes it interesting to see how they finance the start-up. It also makes it interesting to try to understand the reasons that may lay behind the choice of funding source. However, many immigrants who want to start a business in Sweden encounter problems early in the process since banks tend to discriminate immigrants and not grant them loans to the same extent as to those born in Sweden. The constraints in access to capital through formal options open up for more informal alternatives. One solution could be to go through friends and family who still live  in their country of origin, through so-called reverse remittances. The reason behind the choice of funding source was studied through interviews with immigrant entrepreneurs divided into two groups; one group that received reverse remittances as funding source and one group that used bank loans and/or other funding sources. Additionally this study also looked at the linked relationship between entrepreneurs receiving and sending remittances. Since the greater part of the immigrant entrepreneurs that where interviewed had not been in contact with the bank before choosing source of funding, discrimination cannot be said to be the reason behind funding by reverse remittances. This study shows that the main reason for the use of reverse remittances rather is because the immigrant entrepreneurs belong to strong transnational networks built up by a high level of trust. No specific differences in the remittance pattern between the two sample groups have been found. It is rather the culture within the transnational network, strong ties to the remittance receiver and an expressed need for money that seem to decide whether immigrant entrepreneurs send remittances or not. This study has not either been able to point out whether there is a relationship between receiving and sending remittances among immigrant entrepreneurs in Sweden, apart rom some insinuations that the entrepreneurs funded by reverse remittances tend to remit to a slightly larger extent.

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  • 211. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Borg, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Liminality at Work: Mobile Project Workers In-Between2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis addresses how mobile project workers; technical consultants working in projects, experience and deal with project-based work. The thesis consists of a compilation of five papers and an extended summary. It is based on three qualitative studies including methods like interviews, diaries, and observations. The thesis adopts and develops the conceptual lens of liminality.

    The results of this thesis show that mobile project workers use four different practices to deal with liminality at work. Furthermore, the thesis develops the framework of “liminality competence,” indicating that some mobile project workers are better at utilizing their liminal positions than others. The thesis also studies how liminality competence is developed and how formal training programs influence the liminal position for mobile project workers.

    List of papers
    1. Moving in, moving on: liminality practices in project-based work
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Moving in, moving on: liminality practices in project-based work
    2014 (English)In: Employee relations, ISSN 0142-5455, E-ISSN 1758-7069, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 182-197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the practices mobile project workers rely upon to deal with their liminal work situation, i.e. a work situation in which they are “in-between” and do not have a clear long-term belonging to any specific organisation or project.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study employs a qualitative approach and draws upon in-depth interviews with 24 engineers working for one of Scandinavia's leading technical consultancies. The aim of the qualitative data analysis was to identify a set of commonalities and differences in their experiences and ways of dealing with liminality.

    Findings – The data indicate that mobile project workers experience their liminality in two separate dimensions; one which is primarily technical and task related, and one that is predominantly group related and social. These types of liminality are dealt with either actively, to lower or handle the ambiguity in the situation, or passively when the individual waits for the situation to be dealt with by others. Based on these two dimensions and types, the paper identifies and discusses four kinds of liminality practices.

    Research limitations/implications – The paper demonstrates the importance of focusing on individuals in project-based work, and specifically how they deal with work in-between. The paper shows when and how individuals make use of different liminality practices in their work, and calls for further research on the different skill sets and competencies that are needed to deal with liminality.

    Originality/value – By identifying four liminality practices applied in situations signified by the experience of being in-between, this study offers an important contribution to the literature on flexible and mobile work conditions. Thus, the paper contributes to the knowledge of threshold-like employment positions that denotes the everyday work situation for an increasing number of individuals engaged in knowledge-intensive and project-based work.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2014
    Keywords
    Employee attitudes, Employee involvement, Employee relations, Flexible labour, Labour mobility, Qualitative methods
    National Category
    Work Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103345 (URN)10.1108/ER-11-2012-0081 (DOI)000346112000005 ()
    Available from: 2014-01-17 Created: 2014-01-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Liminality competence: An interpretative study of mobile project workers’ conception of liminality at work
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Liminality competence: An interpretative study of mobile project workers’ conception of liminality at work
    2015 (English)In: Management Learning, ISSN 1350-5076, E-ISSN 1461-7307, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 260-279Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on individuals working under transient and mobile conditions and the specific competences that they develop to deal with such work conditions. The article examines a specific type of knowledge worker, namely, the mobile project worker who is employed by a technical consultancy but who performs work on various client projects together with members from client organizations. The overall aim of this article is to improve our understanding of the differences among people’s abilities to handle fluid and flexible work conditions. We elaborate on the notion of “liminality” to denote a particular element of flexible work conditions, which consists of continuous movement among assignments and of simultaneous engagement with several organizations. Based on qualitative and interpretative research involving a combination of interviews, diaries, and workshops, this article identifies three levels of specific “liminality competence” that mobile project workers develop to deal with liminality at work.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2015
    Keywords
    Liminality competence, flexible work, project work, technical consultants, narrative diaries
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105477 (URN)10.1177/1350507613516247 (DOI)000356423300002 ()
    Note

    Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsradet); Riksbankens Jubileumsfond; Handelsbankens forskningsstiftelser

    Available from: 2014-03-25 Created: 2014-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-05
    3. The nature and development of liminality competence: Narratives from mobile project workers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The nature and development of liminality competence: Narratives from mobile project workers
    2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper describes and analyzes the nature and development of liminality competence among mobile project workers. It draws on an interpretative approach documenting how mobile project workers develop their conceptions of work performed in liminal (in-between) positions. The overall aim is to extend the knowledge on how people in time-limited and ambiguous work positions develop competencies to address their specific work conditions.

    Design: This research relies on two in-depth narratives of mobile project workers drawn from a larger longitudinal study. The data include diaries and interviews. The study seeks to identify similarities and differences in the development of liminality competence over time.

    Findings: Three processes were identified as important in developing higher liminality competence: (1) understanding the value of in-betweenness, (2) understanding the role of the liminar as different and (3) translating liminal experience through reflexivity. The paper generally demonstrates the importance of context and critical events in progressing through these three processes.

    Practical implications: The paper demonstrates the need for employers to support individuals in passing through the three identified processes and to support thoughtful mobility across different project settings.

    Originality/value: In the dual ambition of offering insights based on interpretative research on competence and putting greater emphasis on people working in in-between positions, this study enhances the understanding of how individuals develop their conceptions of work in general and their conceptions of liminality at work in particular.

    Keywords
    Liminality, liminality competence, competence development, consultant, engineer, project work
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105478 (URN)
    Conference
    EURAM 2012. 12th Conference on Social Innovation for Competitiveness Organisational Performance and Human Excellence, 6th-8th June, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Available from: 2014-03-25 Created: 2014-03-25 Last updated: 2014-03-25Bibliographically approved
    4. Enhancing liminality through formal training: creating alterities through rites of passage
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancing liminality through formal training: creating alterities through rites of passage
    2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Liminality is gaining a greater importance in contemporary organizations. Workers’ organizational membership is often ambiguous and their assignments are often temporary and boundary-crossing. The aim of this study is to investigate how an introductory development program (IDP) for newlyhired consultants addresses the liminal positions of mobile project workers, and whether IDP can aid the participants in dealing with positions of liminality at work. The findings suggest that, unlike “traditional” organizational introduction programs, the studied IDP does not emphasize socialization of the participants into such that they identify with the company; instead, their alterity is emphasized – thereby enhancing the workers’ liminal position. Moreover, the study shows how distancing techniques used to reflect on liminality at work can broaden the liminars’ scope of action.

    Keywords
    Liminality, development program, rite of passage, consultants, project work, alterity
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105479 (URN)
    Conference
    IRNOP XI. The Project Research Conference, June 16-18, Oslo, Norway
    Available from: 2014-03-25 Created: 2014-03-25 Last updated: 2014-03-25Bibliographically approved
    5. The concept of liminality in management and organizational studies: Past accomplishments and future challenges
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The concept of liminality in management and organizational studies: Past accomplishments and future challenges
    2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a systematic literature review of studies of liminality in management and organization studies. The attempts by studies in this field to develop knowledge on contemporary organizations and organizing, as well as the effects it has on the people who dwell in them, has led to the emergence of new or renewed conceptualizations and constructs. One such concept is that of liminality. The present paper provides a foundation for future explorations by untangling different applications of liminality in management and organization research. The paper also provides suggestions for future research inquiries that rely on the liminality metaphor.

    Series
    Nordic Academy of Management, ISSN 2298-3112
    Keywords
    Liminality, systematic literature review, rites of passage, contingent work
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105480 (URN)
    Conference
    Nordic Academy of Management (NFF), Reykjavik, Island, August 21-23, 2013
    Available from: 2014-03-25 Created: 2014-03-25 Last updated: 2014-03-25Bibliographically approved
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    Liminality at Work: Mobile Project Wo rkers In-Between
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  • 212.
    Borg, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The concept of liminality in management and organizational studies: Past accomplishments and future challenges2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a systematic literature review of studies of liminality in management and organization studies. The attempts by studies in this field to develop knowledge on contemporary organizations and organizing, as well as the effects it has on the people who dwell in them, has led to the emergence of new or renewed conceptualizations and constructs. One such concept is that of liminality. The present paper provides a foundation for future explorations by untangling different applications of liminality in management and organization research. The paper also provides suggestions for future research inquiries that rely on the liminality metaphor.

  • 213.
    Borg, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Work Liminality and Liminality Competence: a study of mobile project workers2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about people engaged in project-based work, a work context that is becoming increasingly common since more and more firms are relying on project-based forms of organization. More specifically, the thesis deals with a specific condition arising in projectbased work, namely that of ‘work liminality’. The thesis aims at enhancing the understanding of work liminality and of individuals who hold liminal positions. More specifically it aims to investigate how liminality could be understood in the context of project-based work, what practices project workers rely on to deal with work liminality. The thesis also deals with how project workers perceive their work and what competencies they have in relation to their perceptions.

    The concept of liminality stems from anthropology, in which it denotes a transition phase from one social position to another, e.g. the transition from being a boy to becoming a man. The notion of liminality has been brought into organization studies to depict a position of ambiguous belonging and temporality. It has been used to describe the position for e.g. contingent workers, who simultaneously work and affiliate with different firms and work in temporary assignments. This thesis, however, focuses on liminality in project-based work, and it introduces the notion of ‘work liminality’ to describe a specific work situation with inherent organizational ambiguity and transiency. Project workers hold a liminal position since they simultaneously belong to a line division and one or several projects, and moreover, projects are time-limited, and can be viewed as a transition for the individual, who continuously moves from one project to the next. In that respect, project-based work constitutes a particularly interesting empirical context for the study of work liminality, and compared to other liminality situations, this context has received relatively little scholarly attention in previous research.

    The study presented in this thesis focuses on a particular kind of mobile project worker, namely technical consultants. These are workers who move from project to project, often across client organizations, on a continuous basis. They thus work under liminal conditions, both in terms of having several organizational belongings, and in terms of continuously switching assignments. The thesis is based on altogether 37 interviews, 13 narrative weekly diaries written under a period of three months and a number of workshops and both formal and informal meetings, mainly with technical consultants but also with managers at one of Scandinavia’s leading technical consultancy firms (which is anonymous in the thesis).

    Based on how liminality has been used in previous organization studies it is rather unclear what it implies, the more objective liminal position and how this is perceived by individuals who hold it, is not clearly separated in these studies. This thesis therefore suggests the analytical distinction between on the one hand ‘work liminality’, as a work situation in which the individual holds a position that is  characterized by organizational ambiguity and transiency, and on the other hand how work liminality is experienced by people who engage in it. Results from this study indicate that mobile project workers experience work liminality largely in two types of situations, one primarily technical and the other foremost social. Moreover it indicates that individuals approach these situations, here denoted as social and technical liminality, either actively or passively. This leads to the proposition that the mobile project workers rely on predominantly four different ‘liminality practices’ to deal with social and technical liminality, namely ‘reputation reliance’, ‘role carving’, ‘relaxation’ and ‘redefinition’. Furthermore, an interpretative approach is used to study mobile project workers’ ‘liminality competence’. The empirical investigation shows three different conceptions of work held by the mobile project workers: ‘work as assignment handling’, ‘work as a learning platform’ and ‘work as knowledge transfer’, which are linked to three levels of liminality competence, respectively. Liminality competence concerns how the mobile project workers deal with working in a position of work liminality, while liminality practices rather concerns how the mobile project workers deal with specific situations that arises due to work liminality.

    List of papers
    1. Liminality Practices in Project-Based Work: A Study of Mobile Engineers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Liminality Practices in Project-Based Work: A Study of Mobile Engineers
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Project-based work is, to an increasing extent, carried out in ‘knowledge collectivities’ – groups of diversely skilled individuals with limited common experience from previous collaborations. A special case of such work involves technical consultants who travel across project teams and client organizations, recurrently entering and leaving project teams. To advance our understanding of project-based work, this paper suggests that the work of these ‘mobile engineers’ could be viewed as a condition of liminality. Based on an in-depth study comprising 20 engineers and four managers employed at one of Sweden’s leading technical consultancies, we identify two different types of liminality: social liminality and technical liminality. In addition, we discern four situations with special reference to liminality and, based on a thematic content analysis, elicit four liminality practices that workers participating in our study rely upon to handle their liminal situation.

    Keywords
    Project-based organization, collectivity, liminality, interviews, engineers
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73973 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-01-18 Created: 2012-01-18 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved
    2. Dealing with Work Liminality, Developing Liminality Competence: An Interpretative Study of Mobile Project Workers in Advanced Engineering
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dealing with Work Liminality, Developing Liminality Competence: An Interpretative Study of Mobile Project Workers in Advanced Engineering
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research focuses on individuals who are highly affected by the ongoing ‘flexibilization’ of work, namely mobile project workers. These workers are temporarily hired to take part in high-tech projects together with both employees in the client’s organizations and other technical consultants. Since they are affected by both structural and manpower-related flexibilization, their situation can be denoted as one of liminality; characterized by temporality, ambiguity and unclear loyalties. This interpretative study, based on diary entries and interviews, takes on a holistic view on how mobile project workers perceive their work and it furthermore identifies specific competencies they develop to deal with work liminality. The study suggests there are three primary liminality conceptions that mobile project workers hold and that the three conceptions exhibit varying degrees of liminality competence.

    Keywords
    Liminality, Project members, Competence, Technical consultants, Engineers, Mobility
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73974 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-01-18 Created: 2012-01-18 Last updated: 2012-01-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Work Liminality in Project-Based Work: Liminality Competence and Liminality Practices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work Liminality in Project-Based Work: Liminality Competence and Liminality Practices
    2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an exploratory paper focusing on people who are engaged in work characterized by ‘work liminality’. Work liminality denotes certain types of work in which organizational ambiguity is significant and which is performed in loosely-knit teams. Building on prior research, such situations call for individual to hold liminality competence. However, so far, research has only marginally addressed the nature and development of such competence. This paper seeks to fill this void by studying in further depth individuals who hold high liminality competence. Based on a qualitative study of two mobile project workers, the findings indicate that high liminality competence to a great extent is associated with reflexivity and more specifically the ability to reflect over current conditions and ones role in them. The paper furthermore offers ideas for future research.

    Series
    Nordic Academy of Management, ISSN 2298-3112
    Keywords
    Work liminality, Project worker, Liminality competence
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73975 (URN)
    Conference
    Nordic Academy of Management (NFF), Reykjavik, Island, August 21-23, 2013
    Available from: 2012-01-18 Created: 2012-01-18 Last updated: 2014-03-25Bibliographically approved
    Download (pdf)
    omslag
  • 214.
    Borg, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Work Liminality in Project-Based Work: Liminality Competence and Liminality Practices2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an exploratory paper focusing on people who are engaged in work characterized by ‘work liminality’. Work liminality denotes certain types of work in which organizational ambiguity is significant and which is performed in loosely-knit teams. Building on prior research, such situations call for individual to hold liminality competence. However, so far, research has only marginally addressed the nature and development of such competence. This paper seeks to fill this void by studying in further depth individuals who hold high liminality competence. Based on a qualitative study of two mobile project workers, the findings indicate that high liminality competence to a great extent is associated with reflexivity and more specifically the ability to reflect over current conditions and ones role in them. The paper furthermore offers ideas for future research.

  • 215.
    Borg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bredin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo Norway.
    Understanding the challenges of HRM in project-based organisations: A study of 'Liminality Problems' and Coping Strategies in advanced engineering.2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 216.
    Borg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pantic-Dragisic, Svjetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Enhancing liminality through formal training: creating alterities through rites of passage2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Liminality is gaining a greater importance in contemporary organizations. Workers’ organizational membership is often ambiguous and their assignments are often temporary and boundary-crossing. The aim of this study is to investigate how an introductory development program (IDP) for newlyhired consultants addresses the liminal positions of mobile project workers, and whether IDP can aid the participants in dealing with positions of liminality at work. The findings suggest that, unlike “traditional” organizational introduction programs, the studied IDP does not emphasize socialization of the participants into such that they identify with the company; instead, their alterity is emphasized – thereby enhancing the workers’ liminal position. Moreover, the study shows how distancing techniques used to reflect on liminality at work can broaden the liminars’ scope of action.

  • 217.
    Borg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dealing with Work Liminality, Developing Liminality Competence: An Interpretative Study of Mobile Project Workers in Advanced EngineeringManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research focuses on individuals who are highly affected by the ongoing ‘flexibilization’ of work, namely mobile project workers. These workers are temporarily hired to take part in high-tech projects together with both employees in the client’s organizations and other technical consultants. Since they are affected by both structural and manpower-related flexibilization, their situation can be denoted as one of liminality; characterized by temporality, ambiguity and unclear loyalties. This interpretative study, based on diary entries and interviews, takes on a holistic view on how mobile project workers perceive their work and it furthermore identifies specific competencies they develop to deal with work liminality. The study suggests there are three primary liminality conceptions that mobile project workers hold and that the three conceptions exhibit varying degrees of liminality competence.

  • 218.
    Borg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Ingenjörer i gränslandet: ingenjörskunnande, kompetenta teknikkonsulter och liminalitetskompetens2012In: Management of Innovation and Technology, ISSN 2001-208X, no 2, p. 5-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad krävs för att lyckas som teknikkonsult? Vilken typ av kunskap krävs? Vad skiljer de bra teknikkonsulterna från de mindre bra? Det är några av frågorna som diskuteras i denna artikel.

  • 219.
    Borg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    BI Norwegian Business School, Norway.
    Liminality competence: An interpretative study of mobile project workers’ conception of liminality at work2015In: Management Learning, ISSN 1350-5076, E-ISSN 1461-7307, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 260-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on individuals working under transient and mobile conditions and the specific competences that they develop to deal with such work conditions. The article examines a specific type of knowledge worker, namely, the mobile project worker who is employed by a technical consultancy but who performs work on various client projects together with members from client organizations. The overall aim of this article is to improve our understanding of the differences among people’s abilities to handle fluid and flexible work conditions. We elaborate on the notion of “liminality” to denote a particular element of flexible work conditions, which consists of continuous movement among assignments and of simultaneous engagement with several organizations. Based on qualitative and interpretative research involving a combination of interviews, diaries, and workshops, this article identifies three levels of specific “liminality competence” that mobile project workers develop to deal with liminality at work.

  • 220.
    Borg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.
    Moving in, moving on: liminality practices in project-based work2014In: Employee relations, ISSN 0142-5455, E-ISSN 1758-7069, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 182-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the practices mobile project workers rely upon to deal with their liminal work situation, i.e. a work situation in which they are “in-between” and do not have a clear long-term belonging to any specific organisation or project.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study employs a qualitative approach and draws upon in-depth interviews with 24 engineers working for one of Scandinavia's leading technical consultancies. The aim of the qualitative data analysis was to identify a set of commonalities and differences in their experiences and ways of dealing with liminality.

    Findings – The data indicate that mobile project workers experience their liminality in two separate dimensions; one which is primarily technical and task related, and one that is predominantly group related and social. These types of liminality are dealt with either actively, to lower or handle the ambiguity in the situation, or passively when the individual waits for the situation to be dealt with by others. Based on these two dimensions and types, the paper identifies and discusses four kinds of liminality practices.

    Research limitations/implications – The paper demonstrates the importance of focusing on individuals in project-based work, and specifically how they deal with work in-between. The paper shows when and how individuals make use of different liminality practices in their work, and calls for further research on the different skill sets and competencies that are needed to deal with liminality.

    Originality/value – By identifying four liminality practices applied in situations signified by the experience of being in-between, this study offers an important contribution to the literature on flexible and mobile work conditions. Thus, the paper contributes to the knowledge of threshold-like employment positions that denotes the everyday work situation for an increasing number of individuals engaged in knowledge-intensive and project-based work.

  • 221.
    Borg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Styrning i gränslandet: teknikkonsulter och konflikterande styrningslogiker2012In: Styrning: med projekt och kunskap i fokus / [ed] J. Söderlund & F. Tell, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, p. 291-311Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 222.
    Borg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    BI Norwegian Business School, Norway.
    The nature and development of liminality competence: Narratives from mobile project workers2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper describes and analyzes the nature and development of liminality competence among mobile project workers. It draws on an interpretative approach documenting how mobile project workers develop their conceptions of work performed in liminal (in-between) positions. The overall aim is to extend the knowledge on how people in time-limited and ambiguous work positions develop competencies to address their specific work conditions.

    Design: This research relies on two in-depth narratives of mobile project workers drawn from a larger longitudinal study. The data include diaries and interviews. The study seeks to identify similarities and differences in the development of liminality competence over time.

    Findings: Three processes were identified as important in developing higher liminality competence: (1) understanding the value of in-betweenness, (2) understanding the role of the liminar as different and (3) translating liminal experience through reflexivity. The paper generally demonstrates the importance of context and critical events in progressing through these three processes.

    Practical implications: The paper demonstrates the need for employers to support individuals in passing through the three identified processes and to support thoughtful mobility across different project settings.

    Originality/value: In the dual ambition of offering insights based on interpretative research on competence and putting greater emphasis on people working in in-between positions, this study enhances the understanding of how individuals develop their conceptions of work in general and their conceptions of liminality at work in particular.

  • 223.
    Borg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo Norway.
    Bredin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Where to next? Human Resource Management in Project-based Firms.2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 224.
    Borhan, Yazan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fogenstad Renard, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Förvärvsupplysningars beslutsanvändbarhet i årsredovisningar respektive integrerade rapporter: En studie av noterade europeiska bolags förvärv från och med 2013 till och med 20162018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study has been conducted to investigate possible differences in how integrated reports and traditional annual reports provide information about acquisitions for European listed companies from 2013 to 2016. Previous studies on integrated reporting have mainly focused on investigating whether these reports serve as a base for decision-usefulness for investors and how reporting companies' stock returns are subsequently improved after the issuance of annual reports as integrated reports, where results have varied.

    Aim: The purpose of our study is to investigate differences in how well integrated reports and annual reports from listed European companies serve as a basis for investors in companies that have completed acquisitions. In addition, the purpose is to investigate and analyse the extent to which integrated reports are more decision-useful than traditional annual reports.

    Completion: The study is based on a quantitative approach where we measure how stock price and return on equity react to acquisition information in annual reports. This is preceded by a content analysis of the annual reports, which is ultimately included in our regression analysis.

    Results: We find that integrated reports are generally better in acquisition disclosures than traditional annual reports. Furthermore, we find that stock prices of companies with integrated reports receive a more significant reaction in response to the disclosure of acquisition information than traditional annual reports. Such significance does not exist for the stock returns of both types of reporting companies. Lastly, we find that share prices of both types of reporting companies significantly respond to goodwill and intangible assets disclosures.

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    fulltext
  • 225.
    Bottecchia, Raphaël
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Slavin, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Overcoming Gender Bias Through Marketing: How to enhance the public perception of female ice hockey through marketing to generate more popularity?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect gender bias has in sports and howmarketing can be used to challenge gender bias.

    Design/methodology/approach – This paper will use data collected from 188 surveys from registered fans of the Linköping Hockey Club.

    Findings – This paper targets why female ice hockey is not as popular as male ice hockey. Theories such as marketing mix are used to identify the differences and similarities between thetwo teams as if they were products.

    Practical implications – Sports leagues and clubs with male and female teams could use the results to limit gender bias against women in sports.

    Originality/value – This will help limit gender bias through a marketing perspective, by specifically addressing gender bias in sports marketing.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 226.
    Bouvrain, Stanislas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sarka, Darius
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Compatibility of Corporate Sustainability with a Cost Leadership Strategy2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    BACKGROUND

    Exploring literature about corporate sustainability and cost leadership strategy and to study the collusion of the two concepts through the case of Ikea.

    AIM

    Researching whether firms can align corporate sustainability approach to doing business on the imperatives of a cost leadership strategy. The contribution aims to provide guidance on choosing appropriate sustainability activities within the context of cost leadership strategy. Furthermore, it should be noted that this paper sets out to analyze the compatibility between sustainability and cost leadership remaining/gaining competitiveness.

    METHODOLOGY

    The study regards Ikea’s implementation of sustainable business practices through a mixed method, via informal interview, bottom-employees survey and secondary data.

    FINDINGS

    Companies having a deep understanding of sustainability can achieve to conciliate their efforts toward sustainability with their cost leadership strategy.

    KEYWORDS

    Corporate sustainability, cost leadership strategy, triple bottom line, maturity phase, challenges, competitive advantage

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    fulltext
  • 227.
    Boy, Ellinore
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hultman, Jessica
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lönsamt att ta ansvar?: En kvalitativ studie om Private Equity-bolagens arbete med hållbarhet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sustainability has become an increasingly important and current topic, where sustainable investments have increased tenfold in the last decade. PE accounts for an extensive amount of capital for Swedish companies, giving them great opportunities to impact the sustainable development of the Swedish economy.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to analyze the extent to which PE-firms are incorporating sustainability as part of their business, how they have been affected by the heightened awareness surrounding sustainable development and if they believe that it can create value in their portfolio companies.

    Method: In order to attain the aim of the study, a qualitative method was used. Semi-structured interviews were held with seven PE-firms and one interest association representing Sweden’s PE-sector.

    Conclusion: The results indicate that PE-firms specializing in LBO-investments, generally, incorporate sustainability as part of their business to a greater extent than VC-firms. Moreover, sustainability is almost exclusively considered in the pre-investment phase, also known as the screening-phase. The value retrieved from sustainable activities does not seem to have a direct connection to a monetary reward and should therefore rather be considered in terms of becoming more attractive as an employer and in the face of investors.

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    fulltext
  • 228. Brady, T
    et al.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Special Issue on Projects in Innovation, Innovation i Projects2008In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 26, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 229.
    Brady, Tim
    et al.
    Brighton University, UK.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Projects in innovation, innovation in projects: selected papers from the IRNOP VIII conference2008In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 465-468Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 230.
    Bragee, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jansson, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Overconfidence bland svenska privata investerare: Om det finns samband mellan ”the better than average effect”, omsättning, investeringserfarenhet och informationssökning samt om det finns könsskillnader i overconfidence2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem: CAPM and EMH is seen as the norm in the economy while behavioral finance is seen as an accepted theory, which means that there are contradicting positions. Different areas has evolved from behavioral finance where overconfidence is one of these areas. In contrast to CAPM and EMH, overconfidence is still in its initial phase even though there are several previous studies in the area. Our study is based on previous studies which show that overconfidence leads to more frequent trading, which leads to reduced returns.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate whether overconfidence occurs among Swedish private investors, because overconfidence leads to reduced returns. We also want to investigate whether there is any connection between "the better than average effect", turnover, investment experience and information choices, and if there are any differences between men and women when it comes to overconfidence.

    Method: Our study has a deductive approach since we use the theoretical framework to formulate hypotheses which says that there are relationships between variables that indicate overconfidence. The aim with the hypotheses is to explain overconfidence among Swedish private investors. These hypotheses were then tested with a quantitative method where we published our survey in various Internet forums, whereupon our convenience sample gave us 267 respondents.

    Conclusions: The result of our study show that overconfidence occur among Swedish private investors. It also shows that a relationship between "the better than average effect", turnover and investment experience exists, and that gender differences exists although there is no distinct direction. Our results have thus created an overall perspective of behavioral patterns and explanations. Swedish private investors therefore know what behavior they should avoid in order to reduce the likelihood of being overconfident and thus reduce the risk of reduced returns.

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    fulltext
  • 231.
    Brandon, Jana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Lehtinen, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    No Man is an Island: A Case Study of the Oresund Region from a Hub Perspective2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The world of today is immensely interconnected. Over the past decades, national economies have been de-bordered and the promoting of the flows of goods, people, capital and services across the borders is evident, as opposed to when flows only moved within national economies. Former vertical structures of old nations have been replaced by a horizontal flow structure in a complex and intertwined global economy. Attracting flows is essential for the growth and survival of cities. Hubs functions as important connection points for these flows and are therefore highly important.

    Research procedure: The purpose of this thesis is to describe how city regions function from a hub perspective by mapping the most important hubs in the Oresund Region, and investigating the connectivity and collaboration between these hubs. This study has a qualitative and inductive approach with a case study design and the empirical findings is based on twelve interviews with representatives of different fields.

    Results: The most important hubs were divided into three categories: transport, economic and infrastructure hubs, illustrated in the hub categorization model. The results indicate that there is a interconnectivity issue with interdependencies between the different hubs in the Oresund Region. This is illustrated through the hub relationship model. Collaboration seems to take place mostly within sectors and through the municipalities..

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 232.
    Bredin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Developing people capability in project-based organisations: a study of the change of HRM in two engineering intensive firms2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 233. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Bredin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Human Resource Management in Project-Based Organisations: Challenges and Changes2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about human resource management (HRM) in project-based organisations. Firms have over the last decades tended to rely increasingly on project-based structures. This process of projectification implies a changed work situation for individuals in modern organisations. Researchers from the project field of research as well as from the HRM field of research have pointed to possible implications that projectification might have for HRM. This thesis explores this area through a combination of multiple, comparative, and single case studies of project-based organisations. The studies aim at identifying and analysing the changes and challenges for HRM in this particular context.

    The studies are presented in four separate papers. The findings suggest a number of important and empirically nested challenges related to Competence, Trust, Change, and Individuals. Moreover, the changing roles of HR departments and line managers in the overall HR organisation are discussed and analysed. The thesis proposes alternative roles for line managers, depending on the organisational context, and it also proposes two ’ideal types’ of HR-departmental structures.

    List of papers
    1. Perspectives on Human Resource Management: An explorative study of the consequences of projectification in four firms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perspectives on Human Resource Management: An explorative study of the consequences of projectification in four firms
    2006 (English)In: International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, ISSN 1465-6612, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 92-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Various forms of project-based organisational structures are on the rise. A number of recent empirical studies have emphasised the important role of Human Resource Management (HRM) in the understanding of the modern projectified firm. However, previous research has not analysed in any greater detail what implications projectification have for HRM. In our attempt to contribute to the intersection between project-based firms and human resource management, this paper zeros in on the challenges facing HRM in four large Swedish firms. We address the following questions: How has HRM changed due to the increasing projectification observed in the firms under study? What are the major challenges to the HRM practice observed in the case studies? We suggest a four-perspective model for the analysis of the identified changes of, and challenges for, current HRM practice. The perspectives include competence, trust, change and individuals. Based on these perspectives, we identify some key questions for HRM and suggest an analytical framework for the analysis of the change of HRM and the new roles of HRM given the increased projectification observed in the case-study companies.

    Keywords
    human resources management, projects, change, competence, trust, individuals, projectification, project-based firms
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14104 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-11-14 Created: 2006-11-14 Last updated: 2015-09-22
    2. HRM and project intensification in R&D-based companies: A study of Volvo Car Corporation and AstraZeneca
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>HRM and project intensification in R&D-based companies: A study of Volvo Car Corporation and AstraZeneca
    2006 (English)In: R & D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 467-485Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Projects have become the standard mode of organising R&D activities. The main focus of this paper is to analyse the relationship between the project operations of the R&D-based firm and its Human Resource Management (HRM). This paper draws on a comparative case study of AstraZeneca and Volvo Car Corporation. It is argued that the project intensification currently under way has some important structural and content effects on the HRM practice of the firms. As to the content effects, we identify five critical areas within the HRM practice where special attention is needed due to project intensification. As to the structural effects, we identify two separate logics for HR specialists: the HR-based logic and the task-based logic. These logics give new knowledge about the design of the HR organisation and how the HR departmental structures should be adapted in a project-intensive setting. The case studies also illustrate three alternative roles for line managers when they assume increased HR responsibility.

    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13170 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9310.2006.00448.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-04-10 Created: 2008-04-10 Last updated: 2015-09-22
    3. New roles in the projectified firm: The professional Human Resource Agent
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>New roles in the projectified firm: The professional Human Resource Agent
    2005 (English)In: V Workshop on Human Resource Management, Seville. Spain, 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14106 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-11-14 Created: 2006-11-14 Last updated: 2015-09-22
    4. The design of the HR organisation and types of HR departments: A study of project-based firms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The design of the HR organisation and types of HR departments: A study of project-based firms
    2004 (English)In: EIASM Workshop, Paris, France, 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Economics and Business Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14107 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-11-14 Created: 2006-11-14 Last updated: 2015-09-22
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 234. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Bredin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Human Resource Management in Project-Based Organisations: Challenges, Changes, and Capabilities2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis addresses human resource management in project-based organisations. The aim is to explore the challenges for HRM in project-based organisations and the changes in people management systems to meet these challenges. The thesis consists of a compilation of six papers and an extended summary. The research reported in the thesis is based on a combination of multiple, comparative, and single case studies of project-based organisations. The core case studies have been conducted at Saab Aerosystems, AstraZeneca, Volvo Car Corporation, and Tetra Pak. The results indicate central challenges regarding competence development and career structures, performance review processes and reputation of project workers, and the increased responsibility and pressured work environment for project workers. They further indicate that many of these challenges are handled through a more HR-oriented line manager role, while HR departments are downsized and centralised. The thesis hence emphasises the need to understand HRM as a dimension of management in which various players share the responsibility for its design and performance. To conclude, the thesis applies a capabilities perspective on project-based organisations and develops a conceptual framework that embraces people capability: the organisational capability to manage the relation between people and their organisational context. In this framework, people management systems improve people capability when they integrate it with strategic, functional, and project capabilities. It is suggested that the people capability framework provides new possibilities to analyse HRM in project-based organisations and to explain the changes in people management systems that are needed to align them to the project-based context.

    List of papers
    1. Perspectives on Human Resource Management: An explorative study of the consequences of projectification in four firms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perspectives on Human Resource Management: An explorative study of the consequences of projectification in four firms
    2006 (English)In: International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, ISSN 1465-6612, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 92-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Various forms of project-based organisational structures are on the rise. A number of recent empirical studies have emphasised the important role of Human Resource Management (HRM) in the understanding of the modern projectified firm. However, previous research has not analysed in any greater detail what implications projectification have for HRM. In our attempt to contribute to the intersection between project-based firms and human resource management, this paper zeros in on the challenges facing HRM in four large Swedish firms. We address the following questions: How has HRM changed due to the increasing projectification observed in the firms under study? What are the major challenges to the HRM practice observed in the case studies? We suggest a four-perspective model for the analysis of the identified changes of, and challenges for, current HRM practice. The perspectives include competence, trust, change and individuals. Based on these perspectives, we identify some key questions for HRM and suggest an analytical framework for the analysis of the change of HRM and the new roles of HRM given the increased projectification observed in the case-study companies.

    Keywords
    human resources management, projects, change, competence, trust, individuals, projectification, project-based firms
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14104 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-11-14 Created: 2006-11-14 Last updated: 2015-09-22
    2. HRM and project intensification in R&D-based companies: A study of Volvo Car Corporation and AstraZeneca
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>HRM and project intensification in R&D-based companies: A study of Volvo Car Corporation and AstraZeneca
    2006 (English)In: R & D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 467-485Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Projects have become the standard mode of organising R&D activities. The main focus of this paper is to analyse the relationship between the project operations of the R&D-based firm and its Human Resource Management (HRM). This paper draws on a comparative case study of AstraZeneca and Volvo Car Corporation. It is argued that the project intensification currently under way has some important structural and content effects on the HRM practice of the firms. As to the content effects, we identify five critical areas within the HRM practice where special attention is needed due to project intensification. As to the structural effects, we identify two separate logics for HR specialists: the HR-based logic and the task-based logic. These logics give new knowledge about the design of the HR organisation and how the HR departmental structures should be adapted in a project-intensive setting. The case studies also illustrate three alternative roles for line managers when they assume increased HR responsibility.

    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13170 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9310.2006.00448.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-04-10 Created: 2008-04-10 Last updated: 2015-09-22
    3. Reconceptualising line management in project-based organisations: The case of competence coaches at Tetra Pak
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reconceptualising line management in project-based organisations: The case of competence coaches at Tetra Pak
    2007 (English)In: Personnel review, ISSN 0048-3486, E-ISSN 1758-6933, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 815-833Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the article is to analyse HR devolution from HR departments to the line. Two important problems are addressed. The first problem concerns the disregard for the changes in line management that comes with HR devolution. The second problem addressed deals with the lack of studies of organisational contingencies.

    Design/methodolgy/approach: The paper presents and analyses an in-depth case study of a radically projected firm within the Tetra Park group where a new HR-oriented management role has been created to replace the traditional line management role. Based on the case study findings, the paper elaborates on the new approach to line management and how a new management role is moulded in the context of project-based organisations.

    Findings: Based on literature studies, the paper identifies four key challenges for HRM in project-based organisations that are critical for the development of the new approach to line management in such settings. Based on case study observations, it analyses the creation of a new management role – the so called “competence coach” – in project-based organisation within the Tetra Park group. It argues that the new approach adopted points to the need of breaking out of traditional conceptions of line management, and of developing the concept of an HR-oriented management role that is a legitimate player in the HR organisation of a firm.

    Originality/value: The paper provides a rich case description of a project-based firm in a HRM perspective. The descriptions and the analysis give practical as well as theoretical implications of HRM issues that arise in project-based firms, and of changes in line management as a way of developing the capabilities to handle these issues.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2007
    Keywords
    Devolution, Human resource development, Human resource management, Line management
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13171 (URN)10.1108/00483480710774061 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-04-10 Created: 2008-04-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Fit for purpose?: Designing HR organisations and HR departments in project-based organisations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fit for purpose?: Designing HR organisations and HR departments in project-based organisations
    2010 (English)In: International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, ISSN 1465-6612, E-ISSN 1741-5160, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 327-361Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper makes three contributions: 1) it suggests a conceptual separation between HR organisation and HR departments to better comprehend the challenges facing HRM in project-based firms, 2) it identifies two configurations of HR departments to advance the comparative analysis across project-based organisations, and 3) it offers a model and a set of propositions to determine the organisational conditions influencing the design of the HR organisation and the HR department. The paper emphasises the importance of the character of functional coordination and type of project participation for the design of the HR organisation and HR department.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    InderScience Publishers, 2010
    Keywords
    HRM, HR department, HR specialist, project organisation, project-based firms, projectification, configuration, structure, HR organisation
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13172 (URN)10.1504/IJHRDM.2010.036087 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-04-10 Created: 2008-04-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    5. People capability of project based organisations: A conceptual framework
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>People capability of project based organisations: A conceptual framework
    2008 (English)In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 566-576Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a conceptual framework intended to increase the understanding of human resource management (HRM) in project-based organisations. Drawing on the capabilities perspective on project-based organisations, it makes two main contributions. First, it proposes the concept of ‘people capability’ to broaden the conceptualisation of HRM in project-based organisations. Secondly, building on the framework proposed by Davies and Brady [Davies A, Brady T. Organisational capabilities and learning in complex product systems: towards repeatable solutions. Res Policy 2000;29(7–8):931–53], an extended conceptual framework for people capability of project-based organisations is suggested. In this framework, people management systems are conceived as the expression of an integration of people capability with strategic, functional and project capabilities. Based on this framework, three sets of activities for the people management system in project-based organisations are identified. Finally, the paper discusses possible avenues for future research within the area of organisational capabilities of project-based organisations.

    Keywords
    People capability, Projects, Project-based organisations, Human resource management, People management systems, Organisational capabilities, Project capabilities
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13173 (URN)10.1016/j.ijproman.2008.05.002 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-04-10 Created: 2008-04-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    6. Improving people capability of project-based organisations: A study of the change of HRM in two engineering-intensive firms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving people capability of project-based organisations: A study of the change of HRM in two engineering-intensive firms
    2008 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13174 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-04-10 Created: 2008-04-10 Last updated: 2015-09-22
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
    Download (pdf)
    COVER01
  • 235.
    Bredin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Improving people capability of project-based organisations: A study of the change of HRM in two engineering-intensive firms2008Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 236.
    Bredin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Improving people capability of project-based organisations: A study of the change of HRM in two engineering-intensive firms.2010In: International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, ISSN 1740-2891, E-ISSN 1740-2905, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 328-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to the research into HRM in project-based organisations. Drawing on a capabilities perspective on project-based organisations, the paper elaborates on a conceptual framework for people capability of project-based organisations. This framework is used for a comparative analysis of the efforts made by two engineering-intensive, project-based organisations to change their people management systems in order to improve their people capability. The comparison demonstrates important activities that the firms undertake to improve their people capability, and it also indicates similarities and differences that are discussed based on the framework. Finally, the paper discusses suggestions for future research.

  • 237.
    Bredin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    People capability: A central organisational capability for project-based organisations2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 238.
    Bredin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    People capability of project based organisations: A conceptual framework2008In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 566-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a conceptual framework intended to increase the understanding of human resource management (HRM) in project-based organisations. Drawing on the capabilities perspective on project-based organisations, it makes two main contributions. First, it proposes the concept of ‘people capability’ to broaden the conceptualisation of HRM in project-based organisations. Secondly, building on the framework proposed by Davies and Brady [Davies A, Brady T. Organisational capabilities and learning in complex product systems: towards repeatable solutions. Res Policy 2000;29(7–8):931–53], an extended conceptual framework for people capability of project-based organisations is suggested. In this framework, people management systems are conceived as the expression of an integration of people capability with strategic, functional and project capabilities. Based on this framework, three sets of activities for the people management system in project-based organisations are identified. Finally, the paper discusses possible avenues for future research within the area of organisational capabilities of project-based organisations.

  • 239.
    Bredin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Projektarbejdsformen stiller nye krav till HR.2010In: Børsen LedelseshåndbøgerArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Projekter, fleksibilitet, tværfunktionelle team, fokus og deadlines er “hotte” ord i dagens arbejdsliv. Projekt skaber fokus, og mange oplever det som en spændende, udfordrende og udviklende arbejdsform, hvor man som medarbejder får mulighed for at få stort selvstændigt ansvar. Den ideelle projektmedarbejder er vidende, kompetent, dynamisk og fleksibel, en holdspiller og ansvarlig for at holde sine kundskaber ved lige, så man er attraktiv for frem­tidige projekter. Projekter er dagligdagen for disse individer, og det er deres erfaringer fra deltagelse i forskellige projek­ter, som opbygger deres kompetence og karriere. Det er deres præstationer i tidligere projekter, som skaber deres renommé og gør dem attraktive for fremtidige spændende projekter. Projektintensive og vidensbaserede organisatio­ner er afhængige af talentfulde projektdeltagere og deres kompetencer. Samtidig skaber den projektorienterede virk­somhed udfordringer for HR-opgaven. Derfor må organisa­tioner, som vil forbedre deres evne til at arbejde projekto­rienteret, også udvikle deres evne til at håndtere HRM på en måde, som møder den projektbaserede organisations udfordringer.

  • 240.
    Bredin, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Rethinking HRM: Improving People Capability2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 241.
    Bredin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The HR quadriad: delivering HR value in project-based organisations2009In: VII International Workshop on HRM: New Scenarios in Human Resource Management, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 242.
    Bredin, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Utveckla förmågan till HRM för långsiktigt hållbar projektverksamhet2007In: Management of technology / IMIT - Institute for Management of Innovation and Technology, ISSN 1102-5581, Vol. 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 243.
    Bredin, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Solutions for sustained expertise in project-based organizations : Organizing for disciplinary leadership or disciplinary community2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A prerequisite for effective knowledge integration is access to differentiated and specialized knowledge bases. Knowledge integration often takes place in interdisciplinary project teams, where members spend most of their time working closely with members of opposing disciplinary domains in problem-solving processes. The disciplinary knowledge of individual team members is therefore key to the quality and outcome of the knowledge integration in organizations relying on interdisciplinary project work. This paper returns to a challenge well-described in previous research into project-based organizing, namely how to sustain and develop disciplinary expertise in the long run in an organization that promotes dispersal of disciplinary peers and an increased cross-learning across disciplines. So far, only a few studies have contributed to developing insights into how these challenges can be met, and how different organizational solutions might counteract the risks of losing disciplinary depth. Based on a comparative study of three cases, this study sets out to identify and analyze solutions that emerge in project-based organizations as a response to the challenge of sustaining and developing disciplinary expertise. The paper centers on structural solutions, and identifies two main types of expert structures that in different ways support disciplinary expertise: Expert structures for disciplinary leadership or for disciplinary community. These two types are further analyzed in relation to how they support disciplinary expertise.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 244.
    Bredin, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Niss, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för industriell utveckling, IT och samhällsbyggnad, Centrum för Logistik och Innovativ Produktion .
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Knowledge Integration at Work: Individual Project Competence in Agile Projects2017In: Managing Knowledge Integration Across Boundaries / [ed] Fredrik Tell, Christian Berggren, Stefano Brusoni, Andrew Van de Ven, New York: Oxford University Press, 2017, p. 206-226Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses individual project competence as a key element in the process of knowledge integration in research and development projects. It argues for an individual and contextual turn in knowledge integration research based on two observations: that individuals play an increasingly important role in knowledge integration processes, and that knowledge integration processes change with new kinds of project contexts. Hence, it argues for a more fine-grained analysis of different kinds of project contexts. More particularly, requirements on individual project competence (for knowledge integration in traditional and agile projects respectively) are elicited. It is suggested that in a traditional project context, liminality competence, planning competence and a focus on swift socialization are needed, along with T-shaped skills. In an agile project context, on the other hand, flexibility competence, managerial competence and a focus on building long-term relations, together with M-shaped skills, are required.

    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 245.
    Bredin, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Niss, Camilla
    Akademin för teknik och miljö, Industriell ekenomi, Högskolan i Gävle.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Specialist med bredd eller flerbent generalist: vad utmärker en kunskapsintegrerande projektmedlem?2015In: Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi: slutrapport från ett forskningsprogram / [ed] Hans Andersson och Christian Berggren, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2015, p. 72-83Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att arbeta i projekt är vardag för många i dagens arbetsliv, framför allt i ingenjörstunga utvecklingsorganisationer där verksamheten nästan uteslutande organiseras i projektform. Utveckling och problemlösning sker genom att individer från olika kunskapsområden möts och brottas med problemen tillsammans. Genom integration av olika kunskapsområden utvecklas nya produkter, nya system, ny teknik – och ny kunskap genereras. I denna utveckling står kunskapsintegrerande individer i centrum. Tidigare forskning har belyst utmaningar med samarbete över kunskapsgränser, där till exempel studier av projektbaserat arbete framhävt de svårigheter som kan uppstå på grund av att projektarbete innebär tillfälliga uppdrag och tillfälliga samarbeten. Man har också försökt beskriva vilka förmågor som individer behöver utveckla utöver sitt specifika kunskapsområde för att bli effektiva kunskapsintegratörer. Våra forskningsresultat tyder på att olika typer av projektarbete också ställer olika krav på individernas kunskapsprofil. I spåren av nya former av projektorganisering väcks nya frågor kring djup specialistkunskap kontra bred generalistkunskap, och i detta kapitel ger vi en inblick i framväxande idéer om olika kunskapsprofiler hos kunskapsintegrerande individer.

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    Specialist med bredd eller flerbent generalist: vad utmärker en kunskapsintegrerande projektmedlem?
  • 246.
    Bredin, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo Norway.
    Exploring the careers of project managers: Contrasting career models in Swedish project-oriented firms2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 247.
    Bredin, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fit for purpose?: Designing HR organisations and HR departments in project-based organisations2010In: International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, ISSN 1465-6612, E-ISSN 1741-5160, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 327-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper makes three contributions: 1) it suggests a conceptual separation between HR organisation and HR departments to better comprehend the challenges facing HRM in project-based firms, 2) it identifies two configurations of HR departments to advance the comparative analysis across project-based organisations, and 3) it offers a model and a set of propositions to determine the organisational conditions influencing the design of the HR organisation and the HR department. The paper emphasises the importance of the character of functional coordination and type of project participation for the design of the HR organisation and HR department.

  • 248.
    Bredin, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    HRM and project intensification in R&D-based companies: A study of Volvo Car Corporation and AstraZeneca2006In: R & D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 467-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Projects have become the standard mode of organising R&D activities. The main focus of this paper is to analyse the relationship between the project operations of the R&D-based firm and its Human Resource Management (HRM). This paper draws on a comparative case study of AstraZeneca and Volvo Car Corporation. It is argued that the project intensification currently under way has some important structural and content effects on the HRM practice of the firms. As to the content effects, we identify five critical areas within the HRM practice where special attention is needed due to project intensification. As to the structural effects, we identify two separate logics for HR specialists: the HR-based logic and the task-based logic. These logics give new knowledge about the design of the HR organisation and how the HR departmental structures should be adapted in a project-intensive setting. The case studies also illustrate three alternative roles for line managers when they assume increased HR responsibility.

  • 249.
    Bredin, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    HRM och styrning: kollektiv styrning i det projektbaserade företaget2012In: Styrning: med projekt och kunskap i fokus / [ed] Jonas Söderlund, Fredrik Tell, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, p. 263-289Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 250.
    Bredin, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Human resource management in project-based organizations: the HR quadriad framework2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many companies today, people spend most of their time working in various types of projects. This book addresses the important question of what this means for the management of human resources at the operational level in the firm. The authors address questions such as: How do first-line managers handle their HR responsibilities when people work in co-located project teams most of the time? What role do project managers have in performing HRM activities? What strategies do individual project workers use to manage their own development while moving from project to project? And, what role do HR specialists have in adding value to the HRM system where operative HRM is really performed?

    This book summarizes empirical research in a number of industries and firms, most notably in engineering and development contexts. The authors introduce a framework for HRM – the HR quadriad – that expands traditional views on the important relationships that are at the core for HRM activities at the operational level. The framework builds on the idea that HRM is carried out in interplay among four actors in the organization, namely line managers, project managers, individual workers and HR specialists. Accordingly, it seeks to identify the major challenges for each one of these players and illustrates the value of the framework to explain how some of the world's leading companies have responded to these challenges.

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