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  • 201.
    Gustafsson (former Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sharifian, Ladan
    n/a.
    Managing environmental impact from organisations in the service sector2009In: Greening of Industry Network, 8-10 June 2009, City of allborg, North Denmark: Joint Actions on Climate Change, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 202.
    Gustafsson, Isabel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Rönnblom, Agnes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Life Cycle Assessment of a surface radar system: A case study at Saab Electronic Defence Systems2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis was performed with the main purpose of evaluating the environmental performance of a surface radar system with the means of a life cycle assessment, LCA. Saab Electronic Defence Systems, EDS, was the initiator and driver of the project, and is also owner of the radar system evaluated. Apart from the environmental performance the project was carried out with the intention of EDS wanting to gain knowledge about working with LCA, both in terms of methodology and to get an insight into whether and how well they can work with the tool in their current situation.

    In order to assess the radar systems environmental impact through its entire life cycle there was emphasis on the use phase since the object can be used in several different ways under various circumstances. Eight different operational profiles were thus addressed in order to compare these variations in use scenarios. In addition, studies were performed on whether there exist any guidelines on how use phase scenarios can or should be defined when conducting an LCA. The LCA was performed in accordance with the ISO 14040 family and the database Ecoinvent has been used for mapping the in- and outflows. To calculate the potential environmental impacts ReCiPé was used, where three out of 18 impact categories were chosen to focus upon in agreement with EDS, namely climate change, fossil depletion and mineral resource depletion.

    Apart from within some business areas, conclusion could be drawn that no general guidelines exist for the definition of the use phase in an LCA. Besides being described in order to increase transparency in the assessment, no further requirements are set by ISO. Found through the assessment is that the use phase shows a major contribution to the overall environmental impacts from the entire life cycle, by being accountable for roughly 85 %. Depending on impact category, the cause lies with either the radar operation due to its large amount of diesel consumption or with the extraction of materials needed to provide for the replacement of faulty components during maintenance.

    In accordance with their share of the object’s weight, aluminium, copper and iron stand for about 77 % of the materials environmental impact. Noticeable is though that gold takes place on the top ten list of contributing materials with its 0.0001 % of the total weight, meaning that not only do the large amounts of a material matter, more important is the relation between weight and environmental impact. Regarding the eight operational profiles, out of the two parameters compared the radar operation proved to have significantly larger impacts in all three impact categories than the vehicle operation. Interestingly enough, it was found that if the radar and vehicle would have the same amount of operating hours, the vehicle would have larger impacts than the radar. In conclusion, from an environmental perspective it is more important to keep the vehicle operating hours low. However, since the radar operating hours are high at this point it would make a significant difference in reducing the radar fuel consumption.

    Lastly, for EDS to be able to continue in working with LCA, conclusions are drawn that a more qualified information base needs to be built up within the organization to avoid as much assumptions as possible, this in order to achieve more reliable results.

  • 203.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Staden som gruva: I fäders spår för framtids segrar2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Earth’s natural mineral resources have, to some extent, already been used and depleted, and the future is both uncertain and debated. No one knows for certain exactly how much metal there is left in Earth’s crust, how much we can extract or for how long the resources are going to last. Meanwhile, we have installed ores of metal in our cities, in the form of electric cables, telecom cables and district heating pipes. Many of these are of course in use, but many have also reached end of life and been disconnected, and are thus available for recycling.The purpose of this study is to clarify barriers, drivers and enablers for metal recycling of disconnected underground infrasystems within the local electricity, telecom and district heating networks in Sweden. In order to do this, ten of Sweden’s largest owners of local underground electricity networks were asked e.g. about their routines and about projects where cables were taken up. The same companies were also asked about their district heating networks. Apart from these, the study included the telecom network owner Skanova, municipalities with connections to the ten electricity network companies, metal recycling companies, contractors and authorities. Furthermore, a literature study on metal recycling was conducted.The main drivers for taking up and recycling disconnected underground infrasystems proved to be economy, conflicts of space in the ground, rules and regulations in terms of legislations, contracts or company policies, and environmental impact risks. All of these, except for conflicts of space, could also, depending on the circumstances, be barriers for recycling. One important enabler is to know the exact position of the cables or pipes and that they don’t risk being confused with other cables or pipes.Presently, cables and pipes are commonly left in the ground for some time after they have been taken out of service. When they are eventually taken up, it is often done simultaneously with other digging operations along the cable or pipe. Environmental risks, conflicts of space and rules and regulations can force the excavation of cables and pipes, while economy, with current metal prices, is more of a barrier. If recycling of underground infrasystems is to become norm, the profitability needs to increase. This can occur through increased metal prices, use of alternative excavation methods, a wider view that takes into account that increased recycling can decrease the need for primary metal resources, or perhaps through subsidization of recycled metals. Tougher legislations could force a higher recycling rate, but in order to include all involved parts and not upset anyone, it is better to let the market drive and base it all on free will.If the recycling of underground infrasystems is to increase, efforts must be made on several different levels. New methods, developed by independent entrepreneurs, could make recycling more profitable. National goals and guidelines should be presented by the Swedish EPA, to guide and direct network owners and landlords. If financial instruments are needed, these must be decided upon by the parliament. Business associations and county administrations can coordinate the work among their members and within their regions. The landlords and the network owners must then agree on what is appropriate and applicable for their specific areas.

  • 204.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cruz, Igor
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Technologies for production of liquefied biogas for heavy transports: Energy, environmental, and economic analysis2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The heavy transport sector is facing a growth within technology and infrastructure for use of natural gas. This opens an opportunity for the biogas market to grow as well, especially in the form of liquefied biogas (LBG). This study presents an investigation of the energy balance, environmental impact and economic aspects of current technologies for production of LBG: mixed refrigerant cycle, nitrogen cycle, pressure reduction and cryogenic liquefaction. Calculations are based on a review of recent literature and data from the biogas industry. The results show that mixed refrigerant cycle is the most economic and energy efficient technology for liquefaction of upgraded biogas, followed by nitrogen cycle. The lowest electricity use and environmental impact is achieved if the liquefaction process is preceded by amine scrubber upgrading. Pressure reduction liquefaction is inexpensive and can be an alternative in areas connected to a high-pressure gas grid, but as a method for liquefaction it is not very efficient as only about 10% of the incoming gas is liquefied and the rest remains in its gaseous form. Moreover, addition of propane for distribution in the natural gas grid increases the environmental impact compared to other distribution pathways. The cryogenic technology has a higher energy use than other liquefaction technologies but compensates by also including CO₂ separation, which could make it suitable if there is no existing upgrading facility in place. However, there are technical difficulties to overcome and it is not widely implemented.

  • 205.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindfors, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biogaslösningar i Norrköping: Potential för produktion och marknad2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the municipal Energy plan for 2030, Norrköping has set the goal to increase its energy efficiency by at least 30 % compared to 2005, and that 100 % of the energy sources and fuels used within the geographical area of Norrköping (not including sea and air) will be renewable. Locally produced biogas could contribute towards these goals, and the possibility to produce biogas has previously been investigated in pre-studies on individual facilities in the municipality. While the neighboring municipality of Linköping has had a continuous large-scale biogas production for many years, Norrköping has only had a small production of biogas, despite a similar number of inhabitants and several large industries with waste streams that could potentially be used as substrate for biogas.

    This report presents the results of a project with the goal of mapping and quantifying the potentials for production and use of biogas in Norrköping, to elucidatehow these can  be realized, and what importance  this would have for Norrköping. The project was conducted through a workshop series with participants from BRC partners as well as Region Östergötland, Östgötautmaningen, Biogas Öst, Norrköping Water and Waste, Holmen Paper and Kolmården Zoo. The research questions were approached with a “bottom-up” methodology, departing from the local conditions, and estimates of the potential production and use of biogas were made with focus on different substrate streams and markets, respectively.

    The results show a great, unexploited potential for biogas production in Norrköping, mainly in the agricultural sector and in local pulp and paper mills. There is also a large potential market for biogas in Norrköping. The estimated production potential could, if actualized, cover around 10 – 15 % of the energy demand road transport and shipping as well as the industrial energy gas demand in Norrköping.

    One of the main obstacles to develop the production of biogas in Norrköping is the fact that the substrates, except for at individual industrial plants, are scattered among a large number of facilities and actors. In addition, many potential producers lack the knowledge to produce and sell biogas. Thus, cooperation between different actors is required, for example between substrate owners and biogas producers. Cooperation between different substrate owners for large-scale co-digestion and upgrading to vehicle gas could give economic advantages compared to small-scale facilities.

    Norrköping municipality could be a key actor in the development towards increased local production and use of biogas through strategic infrastructure planning, procurement strategies and mediation of knowledge about biogas to potential producers and users. One way for the municipality to make the work in this area more efficient and effective can be to employ a biogas- or biofuel-coordinator.

  • 206.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindfors, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Local potential production, use and conditions for implementation of biogas solutions in Norrköping, Sweden2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is expected to make an important contribution to the vision of fossil-free transports in Sweden. However, estimates of the national production potential have taken a top-down perspective, without detailing where the potential exists and how to realise it. This study is made with a bottom-up perspective, investigating the potential for production and use of biogas within different sectors and individual industries in the municipality of Norrköping. Moreover, critical factors and driving actors for realising these potentials are raised and analysed.  The study was conducted with a participatory approach involving 22 representatives from the municipality, biogas producers, interest organisations and companies dealing with potential biogas substrates. The results indicate a potential biogas production of 500 GWh/year by 2030, out of which 60% would come from the agricultural sector and 30% from local pulp and paper industries. A more modest estimate indicate that the production would cover 10 – 15% of the local energy demand for road transport and shipping as well as industrial energy gas.  Substrates are distributed over a large geographical area and between several actors, requiring cooperation between substrate owners to reach an economically feasible scale. In addition, collaboration with biogas companies could provide the substrate owners with necessary specialist knowledge. In order to realise the biogas potential, Norrköping municipality has a central role to play as coordinator and knowledge hub, as well as by directing procurements towards biogas and plan for biogas fuelling stations.

  • 207.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy performance indicators as policy support for public bus transport: The case of Sweden2018In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 65, p. 697-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The share of renewable fuels in Swedish public transport is steadily increasing, in line with European energy and climate goals as well as a national goal of a fossil-free vehicle fleet by 2030. However, the progression towards this goal is quite different among the Swedish regions, and efforts have been made on a national level to compare the public bus transport systems and provide a foundation for policymaking. This paper investigates different ways of assessing and presenting the energy performance of public bus transport systems. The analysis includes use of renewable and fossil fuels as well as energy efficiency and its underlying factors. Various energy performance indicators are presented and discussed with regards to practical implications and applicability for policy support.

    A life cycle perspective on fuels (“well-to-wheel”) is found to have clear advantages when it comes to global reductions of fossil energy use and emissions. This requires detailed information about the fuel use, which is not always the case with the existing reporting system. Setting the energy use in relation to number of passengers transported rather than just the distance covered would better reflect the function of the transport system, but is also more uncertain with the current data available.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-10-24 12:11
  • 208.
    Gustafsson, Moa Swing
    et al.
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden; Malardalen Univ, Sweden.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Malardalen Univ, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Life Cycle Cost of Building Energy Renovation Measures, Considering Future Energy Production Scenarios2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 14, article id 2719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common way of calculating the life cycle cost (LCC) of building renovation measures is to approach it from the building side, where the energy system is considered by calculating the savings in the form of less bought energy. In this study a wider perspective is introduced. The LCC for three different energy renovation measures, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and two different heat pump systems, are compared to a reference case, a building connected to the district heating system. The energy system supplying the building is assumed to be 100% renewable, where eight different future scenarios are considered. The LCC is calculated as the total cost for the renovation measures and the energy systems. All renovation measures result in a lower district heating demand, at the expense of an increased electricity demand. All renovation measures also result in an increased LCC, compared to the reference building. When aiming for a transformation towards a 100% renewable system in the future, this study shows the importance of having a system perspective, and also taking possible future production scenarios into consideration when evaluating building renovation measures that are carried out today, but will last for several years, in which the energy production system, hopefully, will change.

  • 209.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andréen, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Local Spatial Planning Processesand Integration of Sustainability Perspective Through a Broad Systems Perspective and Systematic Approach2018In: Handbook of Sustainability Science and Research: World Sustainability Series, / [ed] Walter Leal, Springer Publishing Company, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities play an important role in forwarding sustainability. In Sweden,municipalities have a monopoly on spatial planning and are, therefore, keyactors for developing sustainable cities. Through integrating sustainabilityconcerns early in the planning processes they have a significant possibility tohave an impact on other actors’ towards increased sustainability. The aim of thispaper is to discuss a process for how sustainability concerns can be addressed inmunicipalities’ spatial planning. It is based on experiences from an on-goingplanning process in Linköping, Sweden. There is a rapid increase in the numberof index-based assessment and planning tools for sustainable cities (e.g.BREEAM communities, LEED neighbourhood, CASBEE-City). In Sweden,there is a newly developed tool: Citylab action, which has clear connections tothe UN sustainable development goals. However, from a city planningperspective the existing tools are often complex and lack conformity with othermunicipal processes. There is therefore a need for municipalities to reflect onwhich tools that are useful, what the local needs for support are, and to developinclusive and broad planning processes with a broad systems perspective inwhich actor involvement is key, and where the city’s overall strategies andpolicies, as well as national and international goals, are clearly disseminated.

  • 210.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hermelin, Brita
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Smas, Lukas
    Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Integrating environmental sustainability into strategic spatial planning: the importance of management2019In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 62, no 8, p. 1321-1338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic spatial planning has been suggested as a means for environmental sustainability. However, there are significant challenges with operationalising and integrating policy-driven strategic spatial planning within the standardised and process-oriented management systems of local authorities. This aspect has motivated discussions on how implementation of strategic spatial planning with a focus on environmental sustainability is conditioned by management systems. The empirical case is local planning and management practices in a local authority in Sweden. Interviews with planners, together with planning and policy documents, make up the empirical material. The analysis proposes that the integration of environmental perspectives into strategic spatial planning processes depends on (i) the overall concerns for environmental issues in local policy, and (ii) how administrative management systems can facilitate transformative practice in planning. In conclusion, this article illustrates how environmental sustainability in strategic spatial planning is formed and conditioned through interplay between local policy and administrative management procedures.

  • 211.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Region Östergötland.
    Implementing the Global SustainableGoals (SDGs) into Municipal Strategies: Applying an Integrated Approach2018In: Handbook of Sustainability Science and Research: World Sustainability Series, / [ed] Walter Leal, Springer Publishing Company, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The UN emphasises the importance of collaboration and integrated approachesto effectively implement the SDGs. Much of the action will have to take placelocally where municipalities will play an important role in coordinating theefforts towards SDG fulfilment. They are constant local actors close to citizensand they can also influence other actors through their strategies. This paperreflects on how the SDGs can be integrated into existing strategies in order toavoid parallel non-effective processes and to avoid the risk of the SDGs tobecome marginalised. Furthermore, the paper discusses roles and preconditionsof municipalities in the SDG implementation process. This study focuses theimplementation of the SDGs into a regional municipality’s strategic planningand management, Region Östergötland, Sweden. The challenges and opportunitiesconnected to implementing the SDGs will be problematized, and the papergives recommendations on how this type of organisations can implement theSDGs taking advantage from qualities in already existing management andworking procedures.

  • 212.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Översiktlig kartläggning av kommuners erfarenheter kring energi- och klimatstrategiarbete: en enkätstudie2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Local authorities play several important roles when it comes to promoting sustainable energy systems and can have a significant impact on the local development as planners, real estate owners, communicators and owners of local energy companies. According to Swedish legislation all local authorities establish a local energy plan; however several studies show that this law is poorly followed. Therefore, it is interesting to study and analyze whether and how the local strategic energy efforts could be designed in order to make a difference in local energy planning processes.

    This report presents the results from a telephone questionnaire survey that was performed in the winter 2010/2011 and serves as a pre-study in a research project aimed at studying and developing methods for developing and implementing local energy strategies. The survey was addressed to the local authorities within the Swedish Energy Agency’s program Sustainable Cities. The purpose of this report is to create a general overview and a snapshot of the selected local authorities approaches to energy strategies, and cover issues such as whether an energy plan or strategy is present, what issues it addresses, who took part in the development, which actors actuate work with energy issues at the strategic level, and whether follow-up is pursued. The survey was addressed to each local authority’s contact person for the Sustainable City program and it resulted in a response rate of 92 percent.

    A little more than 75 percent of the local authorities in the study had adopted local energy strategies. This figure is surprisingly low; given that one of the requirements for participation in the program Sustainable City was that the local authority should have an energy strategy in place. The results also show that the energy planning process generally included several parts of the local authority and municipal companies and had resulted in concrete measures. The most common theme in the respondent organization’s energy strategies were related to the real estates owned and run by the local authority, while the most common measures were related to transports. Almost all local authorities in this study claimed that the performed follow-ups of the energy strategy work and that this was planned for when the plan was designed and set up.

    The energy strategies used in the local authorities have been labeled differently and the focus varies. These varieties can be explained by the need to adopt the work to existing local conditions and working procedures. This may however lead to difficulties to compare energy strategies between local authorities and may inhibit collaboration with other local authorities. This will be analyzed further in the next part of the project.

    The respondents of the survey, who also were the local contact persons of Sustainable City, had a wide variety of titles of which the most common was related to manager or strategist. This means that they have a central role in the organization. Men were overrepresented in this group, even though there was an even share between male and female respondents. The next most common title was coordinator (environmental-, energy-, climate-) and this group was dominated by women. The respondents were asked who the key persons or functions were regarding the energy strategy efforts and ten out of sixty answered that they alone were the main pushers. However, the most common reply to this question was that it was a combination of officials and politicians that pushed this work forward.

  • 213.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Municipalities as intermediaries for the design and local implementation of climate visions2019In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to a sustainable society requires the development of visions paving the way for socio-technical changes. In recent years, the literature on sustainable transitions and urban planning has highlighted the intermediation role of municipalities to implement international and national goals and visions at a local level. Yet, empirical research studying municipalities from the lens of the intermediation theory are sparse. This paper aims at contributing to a better understanding of what strategies municipalities use when intermediating between and within different scales of governance (i.e. local, national and international), and what factors influence the choice of strategies. Through semi-structured interviews and document studies, three Swedish municipalities are studied. Results show that these municipalities translate the visions through local experiments, task delegation and coalitions. Additionally, the analysis indicates that the local circumstances, rather than the relations between the local level and the higher levels of governance or the guidance of national policies, influence the choice of intermediation strategy. Particularly, whether the management approach is centralized or decentralized, result- or process-oriented, participative or exclusive, is determinant. Results also indicate that municipalities perform both top-down and bottom-up intermediation, i.e. closing the loop from the local to the national and/or international levels.

  • 214.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Päivärinne, Sofia
    ÅF infrastructure, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Strategic spatial planning -a missed opportunity to facilitate district heating systems based on excess heat2019In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic spatial planning is important for developing long-termvisions and strategies towards regional and local sustainability.This paper explores if and how strategic spatial planning could beuseful for overcoming some barriers related to new sustainableways of heating residential areas, using district heating systemsbased on industrial excess heat. This longitudinal study builds oninterviews with municipal and private actors in six Swedishmunicipalities. It highlights that important barriers can beovercome by influencing the design and location of residentialdistricts and industrial activities. Further, it identifies missedopportunities in local spatial planning practice as stakeholders areinvolved late in the planning when much is set, leaving littlespace for stakeholders to have an impact. Consequently, theremight be a lack of knowledge and expertise in how such issuescould enhance planning. Strategic spatial planning could facilitateconditions for excess heat-based systems of district heating as itimplies a broader systems perspective which could enhance abroader planning scope. Plan programs could bring about morestrategic spatial planning processes as these require earlystakeholder involvement. If taking stakeholder involvement onestep further to stakeholder collaboration or co-production, aneven broader planning scope would be achieved.

  • 215.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Win-win - att använda pågående samhällsutvecklingsprocesse som levande labb i ingenjörsutbildningen2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbar stadsutveckling förutsätter ett integrerat och gärna tvärvetenskapligt förhållningssätt. Dessutom fordras en helhetssyn inte bara i beträffande de för städernas hållbarhet helt centrala tekniska systemen utan även vad gäller de aktörer som har möjlighet att påverka stadens utformning. Hur väver en samman dessa aspekter till en kurs om hållbar stadsutveckling för studenter inom ingenjörsutbildningar? Och hur får en studenterna att tänka visionärt och utanför lådan utan att tappa förankringen till deras redan existerande kunskapsbas? Detta vill vi byta erfarenheter och reflektera kring under diskussionerna i rundabordssamtalet.

  • 216.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reflecting on Collaborative Networking and the Roles of Municipalities in Local Sustainable Development2016In: THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABILITY POLICY AND PRACTICE, ISSN 2325-1166, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 13-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development must be addressed locally; therefore, local governments and municipalities play acritical role in most states, having different formal responsibilities and potentials to be accountable for outcomes.However, municipalities are far from the sole owners of sustainable development. This paper considers various aspectsof actor collaboration for sustainable development by conceptualizing who has responsibilities and opportunities tocollaborate with whom, regarding what, and when. This paper synthesizes results of earlier case studies of municipalsustainability policy and praxis as well as theoretical considerations regarding networked governance andaccountability. The empirical basis is derived from interviews, surveys, observations, and document studies of Swedishcases, but has more general implications as well. This examination interprets the meanings of local resources andconstraints in the networked governance of sustainable urban development. It contributes to local actors’ reflections oneach other’s “worlds” and collaboration agendas. Our analytical conceptualization distinguishes between groups ofactors and their relationships with the local community and specifies spheres of responsibility by identifying these actors’perceptions of their action space. By providing this analytical framework, the conceptualization can encourage moresustainable collaboration and practices.

  • 217.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reflecting on collaborative networking and the roles of municipalities in local sustainable development2016In: International Journal of Sustainability policy and Practice, ISSN 2325-1166, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 12-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development must be addressed locally; therefore, local governments and municipalities play acritical role in most states, having different formal responsibilities and potentials to be accountable for outcomes.However, municipalities are far from the sole owners of sustainable development. This paper considers various aspectsof actor collaboration for sustainable development by conceptualizing who has responsibilities and opportunities tocollaborate with whom, regarding what, and when. This paper synthesizes results of earlier case studies of municipalsustainability policy and praxis as well as theoretical considerations regarding networked governance andaccountability. The empirical basis is derived from interviews, surveys, observations, and document studies of Swedishcases, but has more general implications as well. This examination interprets the meanings of local resources andconstraints in the networked governance of sustainable urban development. It contributes to local actors’ reflections oneach other’s “worlds” and collaboration agendas. Our analytical conceptualization distinguishes between groups ofactors and their relationships with the local community and specifies spheres of responsibility by identifying these actors’perceptions of their action space. By providing this analytical framework, the conceptualization can encourage moresustainable collaboration and practices.

  • 218.
    Gustavsson, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Wasell, Ellen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Torrötning och våtrötning av avvattnad gödsel: Biogasproduktion i labskala och systemanalys av en torrötningsanläggning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den dominerande tekniken vid framställning av biogas från organiskt avfall är idag att använda kontinuerlig våtrötning. Utöver våtrötning finns också ett fåtal torrötningsanläggningar i Sverige. Torrötning skapar möjlighet att införa fler substrat på marknaden, substrat som annars kan vara problematiskt att röta i en våt process. Jordbrukssektorn har stor potential att bidra med organiskt avfall som kan nyttjas som substrat vid biogasproduktion. Förutom att öka den totala användningen av torra substrat från jordbrukssektorn är en möjlig åtgärd att öka biogasproduktion från gödsel, varför en lösning är avvattning. Efter separation erhålls en fast fraktion som kan spädas in i en våt process, eller användas som substrat vid en ny central torrötningsanläggning. Som slutprodukt erhålls biogas och biogödsel. Att avvattna gödseln innan rötning ger en annan gödselhantering än den konventionella. Detta eftersom att lägre volymer kan transporteras vid varje tillfälle jämfört med transport av flytgödsel som innehåller mycket vatten. 

    Syftet med examensarbetet var att analysera avvattnad gödsel som substrat till produktion av biogas, samt att studera effekten av att lägga till avvattning som ett alternativ till hanteringen av gödsel. För att klargöra hur mycket metangas som kunde bildas från avvattnad gödsel utfördes experiment i labskala med kontinuerlig våtrötning och satsvis torrötning. Parallellt med laborationsförsöken genomfördes en teoribaserad systemstudie med syfte att utreda central storskalig produktion med avvattnad gödsel som substrat. Utöver biogasproduktion analyserades gödselhantering med ett livscykelperspektiv där de olika systemalternativens direkta utsläpp av växthusgaser studerades. Systemmodellen innehöll tre scenarier vilka involverade olika system för att hantera gödseln (konventionell gödselhantering, våtrötning av flytgödsel samt våtrötning och torrötning med avvattnad gödsel som substrat).

    Laborationsförsöket visade att avvattnad gödsel är lämpligt som substrat vid biogasproduktion. Kontinuerlig våtrötning kunde genomföras med stabil process och liknade storskalig produktion. De kemiska analyser som utfördes under försöksperioden (pH, alkalinitet, VFA och kväve) uppvisade alla stabila värden utan processtörningar. Efter tre uppehållstider hade i medeltal 246 Nml CH4 per/g VS producerats från avvattnad gödsel vilket var i nivå med uppgifter från litteratur (200-300 Nml CH4/g VS). Vidare visade det satsvisa torrötningsförsöket varierande resultat beroende på val av ymp, samt hur stor mängd ymp som blandades in i testflaskorna. Vid inblandning av ymp från Tekniska verkens samrötningsanläggning i Linköping bildades i genomsnitt 222±8,6 Nml CH4/g VS (5 % VS ymp) respektive 236±10,8 Nml CH4/g VS (10 % VS ymp). Bildad metan 3 var inom rimligt intervall för välfungerande process, om än med lång uppehållstid (83 dagar). Försöksuppställningen för satsvis torrötning utformades så att laborationsförsöket skulle simulera så kallad garagerötning. Dock saknades utrustning för recirkulering av vätska, istället vändes testflaskorna dagligen. Då recirkulering av vätska ofta förekommer i storskaliga torrötningsanläggningar som drivs enligt garage-koncept är det önskvärt att utveckla laborationsförsöket vidare, med målet att bättre efterlikna en verklig process.

    I förhållande till konventionell hantering av gödsel visade systemstudien miljöfördelar för central torrötningsanläggning som använder avvattnad gödsel som substrat vid biogasproduktion. Miljönyttan var dels i händelse av att den bildade biogasen uppgraderas till fordonsbränsle och används som substitut till fossila drivmedel, men också om hantering av vätskefasen kan förbättras. Avvattnad gödsel ger en vätskefas som vid spridning och lagring ger upphov till emissioner av växthusgaser (lustgas, metan och koldioxid) som har negativ påverkan på miljön. Att skapa lösning för hantering av vätskefasen som reducerar emissioner innebär att biogassystem med avvattnad gödsel som substrat kan vara fördelaktigt ur ett miljöperspektiv jämfört med våtrötning av flytgödsel. Systemstudien inkluderade även en osäkerhetsanalys som visade att resultatet varierade beroende på vilket antagande som valdes för systemets parametrar. Den parameter som påverkade resultatet i störst utsträckning var antaganden kring metankonverteringsfaktorn (MCF). Sammanfattningsvis visade systemmodellen att det saknas tillräckligt underlag för att avgöra vilken rötningsteknik som är mest gynnsam vid produktion av biogas från avvattnad gödsel, varför fler studier är att rekommendera. 

  • 219.
    Gyllenbreider, Emelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Odencrants, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    En miljö- och kostnadsjämförelse av insamlingssystem för källsortering närmare hushållen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve the stricter material recycling goals in Sweden in 2020 plastic-, metallic- and paper packages need to be better sorted from the household waste. Household waste might have the highest environmental impact compared with other sorts of waste but household waste has the highest potential to lower its impact. Waste pick-up analysis from 67 percent of Sweden's municipalities between 2013 and 2016 show that a Swedish household waste contains 34.5 percent packaging and recycled paper that could be sorted for recycling. The producers of that material have the responsibility to collect it but it does not work as well as planned because of different circumstances. One way to increase the recycling of the material from the household waste and then achieve the material recycling goals is that municipalities offer simpler and increased service in the form of source sorting closer to the households.

    Previous studies have compared the systems of optical sorting and multi compartment bin, which offer separation at sources closer to the households. Moreover, those systems have been compared with the most common system in Sweden today, two bins, which do not involve increased service. The systems have not been compared with quantitative methods based on economics or the environment, nor with a new concept called district collection. This report has compared the four systems. The aspects that have been compared are the environmental aspects and economical aspects by using the tools lifecycle assessment and lifecycle cost assessment. Moreover, the systems have been fictive studied in an area in the municipality of Kristinehamn, in order to get closer to reality.

    The results indicate that the collection system district collection had the lowest environmental impact followed by multi compartment bin and then optical sorting. Moreover, the system with two bins has the highest impact in the studied environmental impact categories according to the assumptions that have been applied in the study. The lifecycle assessment indicates that the benefits with material recycling is higher than the environmental impacts of increased transportation. The system with lowest lifecycle cost is the system with two bins and then the district collection. The system with highest lifecycle cost is the system optical sorting and the system with the second highest cost is multi compartment bin according to the assumptions that have been applied in the study. One conclusion from the study is that it is important to investigate more aspects than environmental impact and costs when to decide collection system. It is because the results depends on the other aspects as well like the users experience about the system.

  • 220.
    Haber, Nicolas
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, ‘Sapienza’ University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Fargnoli, Mario
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, ‘Sapienza’ University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Integrating QFD for Product-Service Systems with the Kano model and fuzzy AHP2018In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper proposes a systematic procedure for the development of Product-ServiceSystems (PSSs) by focusing on the analysis of customer requirements, and theselection of those that can practically enhance the offerings’ value. With this goal inmind, the Quality Function Deployment for Product Service Systems (QFDforPSS)method was augmented by means of the Kano model to filter the customers’ needsand transform the attractive ones into Receiver State Parameters (RSPs), as thecornerstone of QFDforPSS. Then, to properly assess these parameters and theirinherent uncertainty, the Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) method wasalso integrated into the procedure. To validate the proposed procedure, it wasimplemented in a case study in the medical devices sector, in collaboration with ahaemodialysis equipment manufacturer, which operates in a regulated market ofproduct-oriented services.

  • 221.
    Haglund, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Systematisk bedömning av våtmarksväxter som substrat för biogasproduktion2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two environmental problems today are the increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and eutrophication.  Therefore, two challenges are reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fluxes of nutrients. Another challenge is to secure the energy supply in a world where energy demand is increasing. New renewable energy sources need to be developed both to secure the energy supply, but also to reduce the use of fossil energy. A renewable energy source is biogas that can be used for electricity, heating and as vehicle fuel. It is predicted that substrate for biogas production will be a limitation in the future, therefore, new substrate need to be evaluated. Wetland plants are an alternative substrate for biogas production and evaluated in this study.  Wetlands and it is plants are interesting to study because they can reduce the concentration of nutrients and therefore help to reduce the problem of eutrophication.  The study was performed within a project at Biogas Research Center and was a literature study with the study of a case. The method used has been developed in the project and is a Multi Criteria Assessment (MCA), which means that there are several different areas being studied. Areas taking into account the biological, economic, chemical, environmental and technological aspects. In order to structure the data, a matrix consisting of the different key areas was used. To clarify the opportunities and obstacles a semi-qualitative assessment was done for each key area. The case studied was a wetland in an agricultural landscape. The wetland is 5 ha and was constructed a few years ago to work as nitrogen and phosphorous trap. There is no vegetation in the wetland because it is relatively new. The plants that were studied during the study was therefore plants that are potential to grow in the wetland in the future. The studied plants were reed, reed canary grass and cattail. In the wetland it is possible to regulate the water and thereby drain the water to facilitate harvesting.   The results showed that the technology available today for the harvesting and chopping needs to be developed because it does not meet the required standards. There are various techniques for digestion, but since the dry matter is high for the plants dry fermentation is preferable, or a two-stage system in which the first step is dry digestion. A wetland provides a relatively small amount of biomass and therefore it is better to co-digest the plants on a farm biogas plant.  Wetland plants are not approved substrates for certification of bio fertilizer, which can be an obstacle. The bio fertilizer also has a low value because the plants contain low levels of nutrients.Wetlands reduce the amount of nutrients and harvest of wetland plants contributes to the retention of phosphorus increases. Wetlands emit methane and nitrous oxide that affect global warming.Today, there is no economic viability of harvesting wetlands. A system in which compensation is obtained for the environmental benefit that harvest provides is an option to increase profitability.

  • 222.
    Hagman, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    How do biogas solutions influence the sustainability of bio-based industrial systems?2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass is a valuable and limited resource that should be used efficiently. The potential of replacing fossil-based products with bio-based ones produced in biobased industrial systems is huge. One important aim of increasing the share of biobased products is to improve the sustainability of systems for production and consumption. Therefore, it is important to evaluate what solutions are available to improve the sustainability performance of bio-based industrial systems, and if they also bring negative impacts. The thesis focuses on assessing the role of biogas solutions in developing sustainable bio-based systems. Such assessments are often quite narrow in their scope and focus on quantitative environmental or economic aspects. This thesis aims at also including feasibility related aspects involving the contextual conditions that are assessed more qualitatively. Biogas solutions are identified as a versatile approach to treat organic materials which are generated in large volumes in bio-based industrial systems. The results show that biogas solutions in bio-based industrial systems (i) improve circular flows of energy and nutrients, (ii) are especially viable alternatives when the quality of the by-product streams become poorer, and (iii) may improve the profitability of the bio-based industrial system. To perform better assessments of these systems, it seems valuable to broaden the set of indicators assessed and include feasibility-related indicators, preferably through the involvement of relevant stakeholders as they contribute with different perspectives and can identify aspects that influence the sustainability in different areas. Future studies could benefit from applying those broader assessments on more cases to build on a more generalisable knowledge base.

    List of papers
    1. The role of biogas solutions in sustainable biorefineries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of biogas solutions in sustainable biorefineries
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 3982-3989Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Biorefineries strive to maximise product mix and value while contributing to the bioeconomy. Circularityand waste valorisation are some important but often neglected concepts in this context. As such, biogassolutions in biorefineries could be a key technology to improve sustainability. This study has, through aliterature review and investigation into three Swedish case studies, analysed this relationship betweenbiogas solutions and biorefineries by assessing the added value and development potential to whichbiogas solutions may contribute. This analysis across agricultural, forest, and marine sectors indicatesthat biogas solutions contribute with several added values, including through making the biorefinerymore sustainable and competitive. The study also shows that biogas solutions can be an enabler ofbiorefinery development through making the system more resilient and versatile, as well as throughimproving the value of the product portfolio.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2018
    Keywords
    Biorefinery, biogas, bioeconomy, valorisation, anaerobic digestion, waste management, Bioraffinaderi, biogas, bioekonomi, avfallshantering
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143022 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.03.180 (DOI)000423002500084 ()2-s2.0-85016415075 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Note

    Funding agencies: Biogas Research Center (BRC); Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
  • 223.
    Hagman, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blumenthal, Alyssa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of biogas solutions in sustainable biorefineries2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 3982-3989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorefineries strive to maximise product mix and value while contributing to the bioeconomy. Circularityand waste valorisation are some important but often neglected concepts in this context. As such, biogassolutions in biorefineries could be a key technology to improve sustainability. This study has, through aliterature review and investigation into three Swedish case studies, analysed this relationship betweenbiogas solutions and biorefineries by assessing the added value and development potential to whichbiogas solutions may contribute. This analysis across agricultural, forest, and marine sectors indicatesthat biogas solutions contribute with several added values, including through making the biorefinerymore sustainable and competitive. The study also shows that biogas solutions can be an enabler ofbiorefinery development through making the system more resilient and versatile, as well as throughimproving the value of the product portfolio.

  • 224.
    Hagman, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of biogas solutions in the circular and bio-based economy2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a literature review over the values connected with anaerobic digestion and biogas production. After mapping all values found in scientific literature the values are used in an analysis based on the UN sustainability goals. The idea is to show how biogas solutions contribute to sustainability. The results show that biogas solutions contribute to all of the UN sustinability goals in one way or another. 

  • 225.
    Hagman, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessment of By-product Valorisation in a Swedish Wheat-Based Biorefinery2019In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorefineries are examples of industries striving towards a circular and bio-based economy through valorising natural raw materials to a spectrum of products. This is a resource-efficient process which also decreases overall environmental impact, as the products from a biorefinery can replace fossil-based products such as plastics or fuels. To become even more resource efficient, an optimisation of the by-product use can increase the performance. This study will evaluate different scenarios for the valorisation of stillage coming from a wheat-based biorefinery. The alternatives range from the direct use of the stillage for fodder, fertiliser or incineration to three different biogas production-based scenarios. The biogas scenarios are divided into the production of fuel at a local or distant plant and the alternative of creating heat and power at the local plant. The results show how locally produced biogas for vehicle fuel and fodder usage are the better alternatives regarding greenhouse gas emissions, the finances of the biorefinery, energy balance and nutrient recycling. The results also indicate that biorefineries with several high-value products may receive lower quality by-product flows, and to these, the biogas solutions become more relevant for valorising stillage while improving value and performance for the biorefinery.

  • 226.
    Hara, Tatsunori
    et al.
    University of Tokyo.
    Arai, Tamio
    University of Tokyo.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Service CAD System to Integrate Product Behavior and Service Activity for Total Value2008In: 15th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering,2008, Sydney: CIRP , 2008, p. 482-487Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Good combination of product and service is one of key issues toward environmental conscious business. This paper aims at demonstrating a design method and a CAD tool to integrate products and service activities for total value. Service Blueprint from marketing field is extended to cover product behavior by utilizing physical feature from engineering field. View model, which describes function structure of service for the receiver state, works as a bridge between product behavior and service activity. Both the above method and the CAD tool are demonstrated through an example presented herein.

  • 227.
    Hara, Tatsunori
    et al.
    The University of Tokyo.
    Arai, Tamio
    The University of Tokyo.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University .
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service CAD System to Integrate Product Behavior and Service Activity for Total Value2009In: CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science & Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 262-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Good combination of product and service is a key issue to balance economic growth with environmental concerns. This paper aims at demonstrating a design method to integrate products and service activities for total value. Our design method differs from Traditional Engineering and Concurrent Engineering in that products and service activities are designed in parallel according to customer value. To establish such design method, the service blueprinting method from marketing field, which describes service delivery processes, is extended to include product and its behavior. Function structure of service for the receiver state works as a bridge between product behavior and service activity. Both the above method and the CAD tool are demonstrated through an example presented herein.

  • 228.
    Hara, Tatsunori
    et al.
    Research into Artifacts, Center of Engineering (RACE), The University of Tokyo.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fukushima, Ryo
    Research into Artifacts, Center of Engineering (RACE), The University of Tokyo.
    Customization of product, service, and product/service system: what and how to design2019In: Mechanical Engineering Reviews, ISSN 2187-9753, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-20, article id 18-00184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Customizing offerings to match customers’ specific needs is a common practice for manufacturers striving to maintain their competence in markets. Despite Product/Service Systems (PSSs) having developed substantially in industry and academia for the last two decades, no scientific review of PSS customization has been published. This prompted us to conduct a review of scientific papers relating to products, services, and PSS customization with a focus on design, with the aim of clarifying future research directions in PSS customization. In particular, distinct design models and methods were individually examined, with a special focus on service aspects, in terms of what to design and how to design it. The population of papers included in the review was those included in the Web of Science. Even though service customization has been utilizing the knowledge generated by product customization, which has been researched extensively for decades, there are differences between them, such as the difficulty associated with modularity. The same or even larger differences apply to PSS customization, because, apart from service characteristics, PSS also has product characteristics and thus is more complex. Results also include that the module-based platform strategy used in service customization can also be used for PSS. Although several papers concerned with PSS customization have been published thus far, their focus has been on the service aspect of PSS, providing further research opportunities. Existing methods to design PSS can be also applied to develop a method for PSS customization.

  • 229.
    Hasan, A S M Monjurul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    The biogas potential from municipal waste and agricultural residues in Hazaribagh, Dhaka city, Bangladesh: - a possible strategy to improve the energy system2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy is considered as the foremost significant factor towards socio-economic growth. Due to the rapid growth of industrialization in Bangladesh, the need of energy is increasing day by day. Considering the environmental issues, sustainable solutions are needed to address the energy crisis. Energy generation from waste through biogas can be a good solution that can address both the energy demand as well as the waste management issue.   

    The overall aim of this master thesis is to analyze Hazaribagh’s biogas potential from municipal waste and agricultural residues and estimate how much electricity that can be generated from the produced biogas. The feasible sources of Hazaribagh were considered in order to get the information that would be later on analyzed to estimate possible biogas production. The potential sources include wastes from two markets, six slaughterhouses, domestic wastes, three large-scale tanneries and two small scale tanneries, one poultry farm and three crop lands.

    The calculations made in this thesis to roughly estimate the amount of biogas and electricity from the described sources are done in a simple way, just to illustrate the potential. The result shows that the tannery waste has the highest potential followed by slaughterhouse waste. Furthermore, the calculations show that the tannery waste contributes most for electricity generation also followed by slaughterhouse waste. In order to implement biogas solutions, several actors should be involved like government, future owners, local people etc. Different tools like legislation, financial support etc. are also important for implementing the biogas solutions.  

    In summary, there is a good potentiality of biogas production and electricity generation from municipal wastes and agricultural residues of Hazaribagh. Biogas solutions from waste and agricultural residues can be beneficial from both the energy and the waste management perspective.

  • 230.
    Hatefipour, Saeid
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Facilitation of Industrial Symbiosis Development in a Swedish Region2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, sustainability of industrial regions and industrial networks is a challenge for business developers, policy makers, regional planners, local and governmental authorities and academic researchers. Because growing cities and industrial regions worldwide are intertwined with social, environmental, and economic advantages/disadvantages and challenges, in recent decades the ambition of industrial development and economic growth without environmental destruction has become a worldwide topic. To address this issue, a number of theories and pathways such as Industrial Ecology (IE) and its subfield Industrial Symbiosis (IS) toward sustainability of industrial regions and networks are being researched, examined and implemented.

    The overall aim of this thesis is to explore how local connectedness amongst locally distributed firms in industrial areas can be facilitated using industrial symbiosis theory and tools. To address the overall aim, the facilitation of IS development in this thesis includes three focus areas: 1) using IS theory and tools for categorization, characterization, and definitions of different lines of IS development; 2) matching the supply and demand potential of regional CO2 resources through industrial collaboration; and 3) using geographic information systems (GIS).

    Based on the research findings it is concluded that one approach for facilitating IS development is to apply IS theory and tools in an industrial region to find out whether any forms of IS already exist and what definitions of IS fit the area. Furthermore, it is also concluded that another approach for facilitating IS development could be matching the supply and demand potential of resources within industrial collaborations. However, availability and provision of relevant data and information plays an important role. In addition, it is seen that handling and developing existing regional data and information into a GIS-based format could contribute to facilitation of IS development. In general, it is seen that facilitating mechanism and facilitating organization are available, and should be coordinated.

    List of papers
    1. Understanding the industrial network in Händelö/Norrköping, Sweden by applying Industrial Symbiosis theory and tools
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the industrial network in Händelö/Norrköping, Sweden by applying Industrial Symbiosis theory and tools
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, industrial areas play an important role in sustainable development projects. One of the big challenges for societies today is to meet ambitious goals for industrial development and economic growth without destroying the environment, leading to both economic and environmental sustainability. To address this issue, several theories, pathways and approaches such as Industrial Ecology/Industrial Symbiosis (IE/IS) toward sustainability of industrial regions are researched, investigated, implemented, and practiced. The overall aim of the current paper is to describe, understand and analyse a specific industrial area and its development using IS theory and tools. The paper develops a literature review on different definitions, categorizations, and characterizations of IS development. In the empirical part, a description of the Händelö industrial area of the city of Norrköping concerning how this area has been developed, together with an industrial inventory including the processes and exchanges of energy, material and by-products, flows and streams into and out of Händelö/Norrköping is presented. This leads to better understanding of the existing and embedded potential in the region. Lastly, by utilizing and applying definitions, categorization, and characterization of industrial symbiosis the paper tries to recognize and pinpoint the industrial activities already formed in Händelö/Norrköping.

    Keywords
    Industrial symbiosis/network, Händelö/Norrköping, Sweden, sustainable industrial region
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85822 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-11-29 Created: 2012-11-29 Last updated: 2012-11-29Bibliographically approved
    2. Utilization of industrial CO2 emissions by matching the supply and demand potential within industrial collaboration/symbiosis in a Swedish region
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utilization of industrial CO2 emissions by matching the supply and demand potential within industrial collaboration/symbiosis in a Swedish region
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A substantial amount of research is being done on environmental problems spotlighting climate change, ozone depletion and global warming caused by greenhouse gases (GHG) in general and CO2 emissions in particular. To tackle the problem a variety of reduction/prevention/utilization measures and approaches such as end-of-pipe technologies and proactive solutions are available. Collaborative pathways such as Industrial Ecology/Industrial Symbiosis (IE/IS), the core intention of which is engaging and collaborating in industrial activities toward minimizing waste, circular economy, resource efficiency, and “win-win” business opportunities, is approved as a proactive approach toward sustainable development. This article is about industrial CO2 emissions, specifically utilization of industrial CO2 emissions in Östergötland County in Sweden by matching the supply and demand potential through industrial collaboration. To do this, several steps are taken. First, the paper introduces several different pathways and approaches for combating the issue together with a short description of each. However, the approach of balancing the supply and demand potential in a collaborative and sustainable pathway such as industrial symbiosis will be the core of the paper. Then a description of IS together with a few worldwide practical and operational examples of industrial symbiosis leading to mitigating CO2 emissions is presented. In the next stage, which forms the empirical part of the paper, an attempt is made to map and enhance the potential of industrial CO2 emissions (supplying segment) together with the demand market. On the supply side, an inventory of the major regional emitters, including their respective industries and municipalities, the amount of CO2 emissions in “biogenic” and “fossil”  scenarios, the processes involved (incineration/combustion, fermentation, gas cleaning) and types of resources (renewable [biomass] or fossil) used are presented, while from the demand side the average amount of required CO2 in a Scandinavian perspective is given. Matching the total supply and demand potential revealed a major mismatch between the segments in which total country requirement can be fulfilled within just a small fraction of the regional supply.

    Keywords
    Industrial Symbiosis, Östergötland/Sweden, Utilization, Industrial CO2 emissions, matching supply and demand potential
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85823 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-11-29 Created: 2012-11-29 Last updated: 2012-11-29Bibliographically approved
    3. Using geographic information systems (GIS) to facilitate industrial symbiosis development in a Swedish region
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using geographic information systems (GIS) to facilitate industrial symbiosis development in a Swedish region
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable regional development and sustainability of industrial networks are key issues for business developers, policy makers, regional planners, and local governments/authorities. Theories such as industrial ecology/symbiosis (IE/IS) have addressed the sustainability of industrial networks. Recent studies, however, show the vital role of geographic information systems (GIS) in facilitating IS development. GIS is applied to eco-industrial development for the purpose of spatial planning, decisionmaking, visualization, analysis and data management. This article is about using GIS to facilitate IS development in a Swedish region, with the goal of analyzing how GIS can be used to facilitate regional eco-industrial development. The article contains a literature review on how GIS has been applied in IS development by categorization and characterization along different lines of GIS and IS. The empirical part analyzes the Östergötland region by giving an overview of the region’s current situation and how existing systems, information, and organizations can be used in developing GIS for regional IS development. By matching the lessons learned from applications of GIS in IS with existing regional data and structure, the article discusses and analyzes what steps and procedures should be taken toward developing GIS systems to facilitate IS development, and if there are any probable gaps or omissions.

    Keywords
    Facilitation, Industrial Symbiosis, GIS, Sweden
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85824 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-11-29 Created: 2012-11-29 Last updated: 2012-11-29Bibliographically approved
  • 231.
    Hatefipour, Saeid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Händelö area in Norrköping, Sweden Does it fit for Industrial Symbiosis development?2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, sustainable cities/regions are playing an important role in sustainable development projects. The overall aim of the current paper is to demonstrate an Industrial Symbiosis development in the Händelö area of Norrköping city in the Östergötland county of Sweden. It is part of a research program called “Sustainable Norrköping” focusing on developing links between the industrial and the urban part of the city. As analysis of the current situation is important for understanding the future development, the paper tries to map the current industrial symbiosis links and symbiotic network to identify potentials exist. To achieve this, paper gives a general view of how this area has been developed, constructed, and grown. The next stage is devoted to an inventory of different actors, stakeholders, and companies, their processes and relationships in the form of energy, materials and by-products exchanges, flows and streams into and out of the Händelö area considering the Händelö/Norrköping as system boundaries. In addition, by describing different tools, elements and approaches of industrial symbiosis and considering and applying two main key tools as industrial inventories and input/output matching the paper also tries to show that whether the already industrial activities formed inside the Händelö fits for an industrial symbiosis development.

  • 232. Hedberg, C.-J.
    et al.
    von Malmborg, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    The global reporting initiative and corporate sustainability reporting in Swedish companies2003In: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, E-ISSN 1535-3966, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 153-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With empirical evidence from Swedish companies, this paper analyses the phenomenon of corporate sustainability reporting (CSR) in general and the use of CSR guidelines developed by the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) in particular. The main questions at issue are why companies have chosen to use the GRI guidelines and how this has affected corporate social responsibility and environmental management. From interviews with all Swedish companies that use the guidelines, we have found that companies produce CSRs mainly to seek organizational legitimacy, and that the main reason for use of the GRI guidelines is an expectation of increasing credibility of the CSR, but also that it provides a template for how to design a report. Moreover, we have found that the CSR report and the GRI guidelines are of more help for internal than external communication at this stage of development. It could help corporations to learn about themselves and to see what has actually been done in the organization. In all, the GRI guidelines would have the potential for gaining visibility and control of the triple bottom line on a corporate level, but they are in need of further development, not least in relation to the issue of verification. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

  • 233.
    Hedberg, Erika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Danielsson, Helén
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Potential for Absorption Cooling Generated from Municipal Solid Waste in Bangkok: A Comparison between Waste Incineration & Biogas Production with Combustion2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis has been performed in Bangkok, Thailand at the company Eco Design Consultant Co., Ltd. The aim is to investigate the possibilities to generate absorption cooling from municipal solid waste in the Bangkok area. The investigation includes a comparison between waste incineration and biogas production with combustion to see which alternative is preferable. During the investigation, a Swedish perspective has been used.

    The research for the report mainly consisted of published scientific articles from acknowledged sources as well as information from different Thai authorities. Also, experts within different areas were contacted and interviewed. In order to determine which of the two techniques (waste incineration or biogas production with combustion) that is best suited to generate absorption cooling, a model was designed. This model involved several parameters regarding e.g. plant efficiency, amount of treated waste and internal heat usage. As for the results of the model, three parameters were calculated: the generated cooling, the net electricity generation and the reduced greenhouse emissions.

    The overall Thai municipal solid waste generation in Thailand is estimated to approximately 15 million tons per year and the majority of the waste ends up at open dumps or landfills. There are only two to three waste incinerators in the country and a few projects with biogas generation from municipal solid waste. The main electricity is today generated from natural gas which makes the majority of the Thai electricity production fossil fuel based. As for absorption cooling, two applications of this technique has been found in Thailand during the research; one at the Naresuan University and one at the Suvarnabhumi airport in Bangkok.

    The model resulted in that the best alternative to power absorption cooling technique is waste incineration. This alternative has potential to generate 3200 GWh cooling per year and 1100 GWh electricity per year. Also, this alternative resulted in the largest decrease of greenhouse gas emissions, ‐500 000 tons per year. The model also showed that the same amounts of generated cooling and electricity can never be achieved from biogas production with combustion compared to waste incineration. Regardless, waste incineration has an important drawback: the citizens of Thailand seem to oppose further development of waste incineration in the country. The biogas technique seems more approved in Thailand, which benefits this alternative. Due to the high moisture and organic content in the municipal solid waste, a combination between the two waste handling alternatives is suggested. This way, the most energy can be withdrawn from the waste and the volume of disposed waste is minimized.

    Our overall conclusion is that the absorption cooling technique has great potential in Thailand. There is an increasing power‐ and cooling demand, absorption cooling generated from either or both of the alternatives can satisfy these demands while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We also believes that the cost for using absorption cooling has to be lower than for the current compression cooling if the new technique is to be implemented further.

  • 234.
    Helldal, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Tenne, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Positiva miljöeffekter i kölvattnet av Lean produktion: Kan en integrering av miljöaspekter och Lean produktion bidra till att nå synergieffekter och minska risken för suboptimering?2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the result of a master thesis written at the Department of Management and Engineering at Linköping University commissioned by the consultancy firm Sustainia AB.

    Lean production, also known as Lean, has during the last decade increasingly become a more attractive production philosophy for decreasing costs and increasing customer satisfaction by improving customer service and obtaining more efficient production flows. Several authors have pointed out that Lean has the potential to directly improve the environmental performance of a company, mostly by decreasing waste generation. Further, there are studies showing that some possibilities for improvement and cost savings risk not being discovered if the operations are seen strictly from a Lean perspective. When an environmental perspective is included there is a chance that these improvements and cost savings are discovered. This indicates that both environmental and cost related advantages might be achieved by integrating the Lean approach with that of the environment.

    The purpose of this master thesis was to investigate how the work with Lean and environmental aspects affect one another. If applying the two principles together was shown to be both possible and beneficial from a business point of view, the authors would propose how these two concepts could be integrated into a single model. A combination of literature studies and interviews were used to fulfill the purpose. Four Swedish enterprises, which work according to the Lean principles and also have an active environmental profile, were interviewed about their way of working with the two approaches, as well their views on an integration of these.

    From the findings in this study the authors concluded that several of the fundamental concepts concerning Lean and environmental aspects support each other. Within both, continuous improvements and waste elimination are seen as important components, and they both support an organisational culture where the personnel are encouraged to solve problems and improve the performance of the company. Conversely the authors found that there is a risk that certain of the Lean tools risk having a negative influence on the company’s environmental performance. However, in many cases this can be avoided by proactive planning.

    Lean can contribute to a company’s environmental work by its proactive approach, structured way of operating and long-term way of thinking. In general the interviewed companies regarded Lean as having a positive influence on their environmental work, even though none of them had carried out an evaluation on how their work with Lean affected their environmental key performance indicators. The quantitative data obtained from the literature study indicates that Lean can lead to a direct decrease of a company’s environmental impact within several areas. As a result of these qualitative and quantitative data the authors of this thesis have found clear indications showing that Lean might have a positive impact on environmental key performance indicators. An active environmental work can also contribute to the work with Lean. Potential cost saving, which might not have been discovered with the Lean perspective, can be revealed when the organisation is studied from an environmental point of view.

    The study further showed that it not only is possible to integrate Lean and environmental work, but that it also has potential to be beneficial from both a business and an environmental standpoint. An integration of Lean and environmental issues can reduce the risk of sub optimisations, and synergies can be achieved, meaning that the two systems can accomplish more together than they would in isolation. With this knowledge, the authors composed a model for how Lean and environmental work can be practised and integrated. In consultation with Sustainia AB it was decided that this model should be called Green Lean, which hence refers to an environmentally favourable, “green”, version of Lean.

  • 235.
    Helldal, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tenne, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental benefits riding the coattails of lean production: can an integration of environmental aspects and lean production result in synergies and a reduced risk of sub-opimisation2009In: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2009: 6th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, Sapporo, Japan, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how work with Lean and environmental aspects affect one another, and if possible and beneficial from a business point-of-view, how they could be integrated into a single model.

    It was found that several of the fundamental concepts concerning Lean and environmental aspects support one another. Further, Lean has the potential to improve the environmental performance of a company, and can contributeto the environmental work by its proactive approach, structured way of operating and long-term way of thinking. The environmental perspective can contribute to Lean with its more holistic view; additional cost savingsand improvements might be found when looking at the operations from an environmental point-of-view.

    The study showed that it is not only possible to integrate Lean and environmental work, but that it also has the potential to be beneficial from both a business and an environmental standpoint. Integration can reduce the risk of sub-optimization, and synergies can be achieved. With this knowledge, the authors composed a model for how Lean and environmental work can be practised and integrated.

  • 236.
    Henriksen, Kristian
    et al.
    Ministry of Business and Growth, Norway.
    Bjerre, Markus
    Danish Enterprise and Construction Authority (EBST), Denmark.
    Damgaard Grann, Emil
    Danish Business Authority, Copenhagen Area, Denmark .
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Suortti, Tuomo
    Tekes, Finland.
    Friðriksson, Karl
    Innovation Center Iceland, Iceland.
    Mühlbradt, Tor
    Innovation Norway, Norway.
    Sand, Henrik
    COWI on behalf of Danish Business Authority, Denmark.
    Green Business Model Innovation: Business case study compendium2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Business Case Studies collection is one of the reports completed within the Green Business Model Innovation project for Nordic Innovation from august 2011 to august 2012. The work is a continuation of a previous project called Green Business Models in the Nordic Region – A key to promote sustainable growth, completed for in 2010.

    The purpose of this compendium is to identify next practice among front runner companies and provide insights into how companies have implemented Green Business Model Innovation.

    The business case companies were identified through experts on business models and green innovation in the private sector. The experts were asked to recommend companies that they perceived as having a green business model with innovative elements. They were also asked to provide initial information on the companies and their business model. Interviews with 41 companies were conducted and business case studies completed for each interview.

    The work has been made possible thanks to funding from Nordic Innovation and the others partners on the project; The Danish Business Authority, VINNOVA, TEKES, Innovation Norway and Innovation Centre Iceland. The Nordic working group which has undertaken the work of this project has representatives of the Nordic innovation agencies and experts working with framework conditions, performance and funding green growth. We would also like to thank the group of experts whom have been interviewed and participated in workshops and discussions.

    The Danish Business Authority has been the project lead, and the team at the Danish Business Authority consisted of: Kristian Henriksen, Special Advisor and project owner, Markus Bjerre, Head of section, Jakob Øster, Head of section, Alexandra-Maria Almasi, research assistant, and Emil Damgaard, research assistant. In addition the consultants Casper Høgenhaven from Hoegenhaven Consult and Tanja Bisgaard from Novitas Innovation have participated in the work, as well as the consultancy COWI. Tanja from Novitas Innovation took on the project management from January 2012.

  • 237.
    Henryson, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beräkning av växthusgasutsläpp vid odling av raps för biodieselproduktion: Tillämpning av EU:s förnybartdirektiv för alternativa jordbruksmetoder2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapsmetylester (RME), även kallat biodiesel, är ett biobränsle som produceras av rapsolja. Trots att RME är förnybart är växthusgasutsläppen i ett livscykelperspektiv inte försumbara, eftersom odlingen av raps ger upphov till utsläpp. Jordbruket är en av Sveriges största källor till klimatpåverkande gaser. Utsläppen sker framförallt i form av den högpotenta äxthusgasenlustgas som härrör från produktion och användning av gödsel, men även utsläpp som beror på användning av fossila bränslen är signifikanta. År 2009 antogs EU-direktivet 2009/28/EG, som bland annat syftade till att säkerställa de förnybara bränslenas klimatprestanda, det så kallade förnybartdirektivet. I detta direktiv anges kriterier för att biodrivmedel och flytande biobränslen ska få klassas som förnybara, framförallt krav på växthusgasutsläppen i bränslets livscykel. Direktivet innefattar även riktlinjer för hur dessa växthusgasutsläpp ska beräknas. Kriterierna har inneburit ett incitament för att förbättra klimatprestandan hos biobränslen. För att minska sin klimatpåverkan och beroende av fossila bränslen har tre gårdar i Östergötland ändrat sina odlingsmetoder. Förändringarna innebär att dieseln för drift av jordbruksmaskiner och in- och uttransporter bytts ut mot biodiesel (RME), att torkningen av skörden nu sker med trädbränslen istället för olja, samt att en del av handelsgödseln ersatts av organiskt gödsel. Gårdarna har själva myntat begreppet Östgötamodellen, som beskriver ett odlingssystem där de fossila bränslena bytts ut mot förnybara, och ibland även andra alternativa jordbruksmetoder tillämpas. Om den raps som odlas enligt Östgötamodellen sedan används som råvara för biodieselproduktion påverkar det bränslets klimatprestanda.

    Syftet med denna studie är att beräkna växthusgasutsläppen från odling av raps enligt Östgötamodellen, jämfört med konventionellt odlad raps. Eftersom rapsen ska användas till att producera biodiesel har beräkningarna gjorts genom att tillämpa riktlinjerna för beräkning som anges i EU:s förnybartdirektiv. Metodiken som beskrivs har ett livscykelperspektiv, och kan beskrivas som en förenklad livscykelanalys. Beräkningarna visar att byte av bränsle till förnybara alternativ ger en minskad klimatbelastning på knappt 6 % i odlingsledet. Att ersätta drygt 20 % av handelsgödseln med slam gav drygt 30 % högre utsläpp från odlingen, medan reducerad jordbearbetning gav en något lägre utsläppsreduktion än användning av förnybara bränslen. Förutom utsläppen får även utsläppsbesparing räknas med för vissa åtgärder som ger ökad kolinlagring i jorden och därmed förhindrar utsläpp av koldioxid. I denna studie har kolinlagring inkluderats för reducerad jordbearbetning, vilket gav en inlagring motsvarande 9051 g CO2eq/kg raps, jämfört med odlingsutsläppen 434 g CO2eq/kg raps. Denna stora inlagring är orimligt hög jämfört med tidigare studier. Dessutom visar tidigare studier att även slam har en hög kolinlagringspotential, trots att slam för närvarande inte täcks in av definitionerna i riktlinjerna för beräkningen. Vidare konstateras att Östgötamodellen inte minskar lustgasutsläppen, som är de utsläpp som kraftigt dominerar växthusgasutsläppen från rapsodlingen. Den enda möjligheten att minska de beräknade lustgasutsläppen enligt den rekommenderade metoden är dock att minska mängden applicerad kvävegödsel per mängd raps, vilket begränsar möjligheterna att tillgodoräkna sig andra åtgärder som minskar lustgasutsläppen.

    Förutom beräkningsmetoderna för kolinlagring och lustgasutsläpp så synliggör denna rapport många av de problem som uppmärksammats i tidigare studier. Framförallt handlar det om att riktlinjerna är otydliga och begränsande, vilket i många fall leder till missvisande resultat. Det innebär att resultaten ska tolkas med försiktighet.

  • 238.
    Hermelin, Brita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ragnarsson, Terje
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Infrastrukturinvesteringar, kommunal planering och hållbar samhällsutveckling – erfarenheter från BanaVäg Motala-Mjölby2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien ”Infrastrukturinvesteringar, kommunal planering och hållbar samhällsutveckling” som presenteras i denna rapport riktar intresset mot mindre kommuners och orters förutsättningar att ta del av stora infrastrukturprojekt. 

    Studien har undersökt hur kommunerna Motala och Mjölby genom planeringsinsatser, initiativ och samarbeten har verkat för att stärka nyttan och effekterna av tillgängligheten till ny- och ombyggd fysisk infrastruktur i samband med genomförandet av BanaVäg Motala-Mjölby. Det empiriska underlaget utgörs av kommunala planeringsdokument och intervjuer med representanter för kommunerna och andra lokala organisationer.

    BanaVäg Motala-Mjölby genomfördes 2008-2013 och innebar ny sträckning av Riksväg 50 mellan Motala och Mjölby, ny genomfart i Motala med ny bro över Motalaviken samt utbyggnad av järnvägen till dubbelspår mellan Motala och Mjölby. Motala och Mjölby kommuner tillhör Östergötlands län och ligger i omlandet för Linköping som utgör ett viktigt centrum för den regionala arbetsmarknadsregionen. Mjölby har en befolkning på knappt 30 000 invånare, medan Motalas befolkning uppgår till knappt 43 000 invånare. Studien har geografisk fokus till Motala och Mjölby centralorter och till Skänninge tätort.

    Kommunernas planering för att stärka nyttan av  infrastruktursatsningen sker integrerat med olika planeringsområden och avgränsningen av vilka planeringsinsatser som berörts i studien har diskuteras med kommunerna. Studien visar att planerna för tätorterna Motala, Mjölby och Skänninge delar en rad utvecklingsmål som exempelvis förtätning och funktionsintegrering i stadskärnan, att bygga bostäder i stationsnära områden, att förlägga störande verksamheter i nära anslutning till riksvägar och motorväg och att värna centrumlokaliserad detaljhandel genom att vara restriktiv till sådan lokalisering i externa lägen. Båda kommunernas planering präglas av ambitionen att förstärka respektive kommuns centralort. Svårförenade intressen och utmaningar diskuteras i planeringsdokumenten; exempelvis avvägningen mellan strandskydd och exploatering, samt bullernivåer i infrastrukturnära områden. Båda Motala och Mjölby kommuner framhåller betydelsen av visionsarbete och att utveckla sina platsvarumärken. Det har samband med att lokal utveckling sker genom att olika aktörer samarbetar och visioner kan vara ett stöd till att utveckla gemensamma mål och samverkansinsatser. Samverkan med byggbolag, företag, detaljhandel, organisationer och lokalbefolkningen är en förutsättning för att planeringsmålen ska kunna omsättas i praktiken.

    Många av de som intervjuades för studien instämmer med den breda uppfattningen att infrastruktur har djupgående effekter för lokal utveckling. Flera av respondenterna uttrycker dessutom förvåning över att effekterna av BanaVäg Motala-Mjölby har uppstått väldigt snabbt och till och med innan den nya infrastrukturen var byggd. Effekterna av infrastruktursatsningen blir olika för de tätorter som står i fokus för studien. Mjölby tätort arbetar i hög grad med att fortsätta att utnyttja en god infrastruktur man haft tillgång till sedan en tid tillbaka. Motala och Skänninge, däremot, har hamnat i radikalt förbättrade infrastrukturlägen via BanaVäg-projektet. Alla studerade orter rapporterar stark efterfrågan på pendeltåget.

    Mer generella slutsatser av studien formuleras som tre lärdomar och råd. För det första är det en stor fördel att inleda planeringsinsatser för fysisk och för strategisk planering tidigt, även om inte förutsättningarna för kommande infrastrukturutbyggnad är kända i detalj. Med utgångspunkt i att fysisk planering är nödvändigt men inte tillräckligt för att stödja lokal utveckling betonar lärdom nummer två betydelsen av strategisk planering och samverkan över samhällssektorer. Lärdom nummer tre handlar om behovet av att förstärka insatser för hållbara transporter. Generellt sett är detta inte så tydligt utvecklat samtidigt som det är viktigt att notera att det är en närvarande fråga i kommunernas planeringsdokument och respondenternas reflektioner.

  • 239.
    Hermelin, Brita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ostlänken och hållbar regional utveckling: förstudie med utgångspunkt i erfarenheter av höghastighetsjärnväg i EU2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport presenterar resultaten från en förstudie och har sin upprinnelse i planering och organisering inför utbyggnaden av Ostlänken, som är en höghastighetsjärnväg (HHJ) med sträckning från Järna strax söder om Stockholm till Linköping. Titeln för förstudien har varit ”Ostlänken och regional utveckling – en kunskapsöversikt”. De rådande tidsplanerna enligt Trafikverkets hemsida (vid tiden för denna rapports färdigskrivande) anger att Ostlänken beräknas vara färdig mellan 2033 och 2035. Detta är den första etappen i planer för ytterligare framtida investeringar för HHJ i Sverige som knyter ihop de tre största städerna; Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö.

    Rapporten redovisar en kunskapsöversikt vad gäller utbyggnad av HHJ med avseende på regionala e.ekter. Det bakomliggande motivet till att genomföra en sådan översikt är att den ska ligga till grund för att utforma framtida insatser för att den nya infrastrukturen ska stödja en hållbar regional utveckling. Ett särskilt intresse riktas mot hur strategisk planering och samverkansinsatser sker regionalt.

    Det studerade bakgrundsmaterialet berör Sverige och andra länder inom EU. För EU har utbyggnaden av HHJ genom programmet ”The Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) varit ett framskrivet projekt sedan en tid tillbaka. Sett till EU:s medlemsländer är utbyggnaden av HHJ ojämn. De största systemen finns i Spanien, Frankrike och Tyskland. De länder som tidigast byggde ut sina nät för höghastighetståg var Frankrike, Spanien, Tyskland, Italien, Belgien och Nederländerna (Trafikverket uå). Ingen av de nordiska länderna har ännu någon byggd HHJ. Det har dock skett viss annan utbyggnad av banor i Sverige sedan 1990-talet. Erfarenheter från utbyggnaden av Botniabanan visar att omfattade miljöe.ekter uppstår vid byggnation av nya tågbanor. Det påminner om att miljövinsterna som uppstår genom att det är mer hållbart med resande på tåg behöver balanseras med de miljökostnader som byggandet innebär.

    Med utgångspunkter i EU:s storskaliga och långsiktiga program för utbyggnad av HHJ och planeringen av den första etappen av HHJ i Sverige genom Ostlänken samt målsättningar om hållbar regional utveckling syftar denna rapport till att sammanställa en kunskapsöversikt som kan utgöra underlag för strategisk planering och samverkansinsatser som sker regionalt i anslutning till utbyggnad av HHJ.

    Denna kunskapsöversikt utvecklas i rapporten utifrån två övergripande teman:

    1. Policy och planering som sker i samband med investeringar och utbyggnad av HHJ.
    2. Erfarenheter som finns med avseende på e.ekter av HHJ på hållbar regional utveckling.

    De stora investeringarna som genomförts och planeras för att bygga HHJ reflekterar stora förhoppningar på att detta stödjer hållbar regional utveckling. En viktig lärdom från tidigare forskning är emellertid att regionala och lokala e.ekter av HHJ varierar och att detta behöver förstås i ett kontextuellt perspektiv. Generellt sett uppstår positiva e.ekter för de största städerna. Vad gäller e.ekter för andra nivåer i de nationella systemen av städer visar sammanställningen i den här rapporten på högst varierande utvecklingsvägar. Några underliggande faktorer som skapar ojämna e.ekter av HHJ har samband med strukturella villkor som tidigare framvuxen fysisk struktur, de regionala näringslivsstrukturerna samt den relativa geografiska positionen för olika städer. Forskningen visar även att strategisk planering och policy för HHJ-investeringarna har e.ekter på hur investeringar för HHJ påverkar hållbar regional utvecklingen (Henriksson och Summerton 2016).

    Rapportens slutsatser utgår från att strategisk planering för HHJ behöver ske i samverkan, att planering och byggnationer i relation till HHJ-utbyggnad sker utifrån förväntade e.ekter samt att tidsperspektivet behöver beaktas vad gäller hur infrastruktur för transporter kan nyttjas i ett längre framtidsperspektiv. I den avslutande resultatdiskussionen lyfts några fokusområden fram som angelägna med avseende på hur utbyggnad av HHJ kan nyttiggöras för hållbar regional utveckling.

    • Att utveckla och konsolidera regionala samverkansstrukturer som en resurs för ändamålsenlig regional planering och andra regionala insatser.
    • Att stödja kunskapsspridning och kännedom om förväntade skärpta krav på miljöhänsyn vid byggnation.
    • Att organisera för kompetensförsörjning för att förstärka möjligheter att sysselsättningstillväxten vid byggnationen kan påverka arbetsmarknaden strukturellt.
    • Att organisera för policyintegrering i samband med planeringen av bostadsbyggandet för att stödja en sammanhållen utveckling.
    • Att integrera organisering och planering för resor och kollektivtrafik i relation till HHJ för att uppnå hållbar regional utveckling sett till dess olika dimensioner.

    Avslutningsvis är det viktigt att påminna om att denna rapport är en förstudie och det har varit nödvändigt att avgränsa diskussionen inom det breda fält som utbyggnad av HHJ relaterar till. Temat är stort och genom att inkludera flera studier, fördjupningar och policydokument skulle diskussionen ytterligare kunnat fördjupas.

  • 240.
    Hermelin, Brita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Norrköpings kommun.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Förväntningar på megaprojekt: Kommunala strategier i Norrköping för Ostlänken2015In: Plan, ISSN 0032-0560, Vol. 69, no 5, p. 24-27Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När staten rullar ut sin matta av infrastruktursatsningar ställer det höga krav på de angörande kommunerna. Men det skapar också förväntningar som utgör en helt ny och omfattande grund för planering. I Norrköping förbereds nu för Ostlänken vilket innebär djupgående effekter på såväl organisation som processer, även om många ideal för samtidens stadsutveckling känns igen. Brita Hermelin, Fredrik Wallin och Sara Gustafsson beskriver projektet och de lokala planeringsförberedelserna.

  • 241.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The SIMPLE methodology for supporting innovations in the field of renewable energy and energy efficiency2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress – Sweden, 8–13 May, 2011, Linköping, Sweden: Volume 10: Policy Issues / [ed] Moshfegh, Bahram, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I present my experiences stimulating development of new products and services in small companies in the environmental arena. The focus on small companies is justified since many new innovations originate from such companies and they often have special needs compared to larger companies. In the region of Östergötland Sweden, we have developed a model called SIMPLE (Successful implementation of eco-design in small enterprises) to support small companies’ environmental innovations. SIMPLE uses the Triple Helix approach. Triple Helix is often used to describe the interaction between university, government, and industry to promote innovation by building on active participation and interaction between regional actors. In short, the SIMPLE methodology uses coaching, network activities and education, and financial support to encourage development of new ideas. Three cases are presented to illustrate the diversity of innovations that can be supported using the SIMPLE methodology. Observations suggest that individual company’s needs must be the main concern of any methodology and networks can significantly stimulate individuals and organizations to speed up the development process and time to market.

  • 242.
    Hjelm, Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cherp, Aleh
    The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, Lund.
    From tool technique to tool practice: Experiences from the project SEAMLESS: Strategic Environmental Assessment and Management in Local authoritiES in Sweden.2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains the results from the project SEAMLESS, Strategic Environmental Assessment and Management in Local authoritiES in Sweden. The aim of SEAMLESS was to explore conceptual foundations as well as feasibility of establishing better operational and methodological linkages between tools for strategic environmental planning, assessment and management, especially between SEA (according to the EG directive 2001/42/EC and EMS based on the main principles of ISO 14001/EMAS) in local authorities. The rationale for the study was that local authorities are important actors on the environmental arena, which make and implement a large number of decisions directly and indirectly affecting the environment. A multitude of different systems and tools have been developed to support environmental management at local authorities and an integrated use of different tools can have various benefits.

    The SEAMLESS project has been realized through five main steps. First, a literature review and a survey of international practice were performed. Second, in parallel to the first step, an initial conceptual framework was constructed. The third step in the research process was to carry out case studies in six selected Swedish local authorities in order get a better understanding of how SEA and EMS are dealt with in practice. In the fourth step, the results from the previous steps in the research process were compiled and analyzed in order to develop and conduct a pilot study. Finally in the fifth step, general recommendations for integrated use of strategic planning, assessment and management tools were formulated.

    Theoretically, local sustainable development strategies could benefit from having influence from some of the main approaches and principles in SEA and EMS methodologies. Achieving this in practice, however, is a challenge that requires a wide systems perspective and a certain degree of maturity in the organization. At the time of SEAMLESS an integrated approach of SEA and EMS was not possible nor asked for by the studied local authorities.

    The SEAMLESS project’s core concepts tool technique and tool practice were used for explaining and analyzing the preconditions, possibilities and difficulties in integrating SEA and EMS. Tool technique addresses the more technical aspects of the tools use and integration, neglecting the context in which it is to be used. Applying a tool technique perspective there are several possible linkages between the studied tools that could enhance each tool, e.g. widening the scope of EMS and facilitating follow up of SEA. It is important to understand the context, since it influences the feasibility of tool integration; therefore a tool practice perspective is needed.

    Furthermore tool integration is another important concept in the SEAMLESS project, where three different stages of integration were identified: formal integration, learning integration and interactive integration. A too strong focus on formal integration (which is closely connected to tool technique) might lead to that potential linkages are not realized. To make such integration possible the focus should be more on learning integration. Interactive integration is hard to achieve and it can be questioned if it is desired. Too much focus on interactive integration might lead to complex resource demanding tool causing ineffectiveness and tool fatigue.

    The SEAMLESS project resulted in a set of recommendations based on that integration should not be seen as a goal in itself; that attempts of tool integration should focus on bridging the different professional cultures; and that a wide systems perspective is needed.

  • 243.
    Hjelm, Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Roles of Academia in Supporting Eco-Design in Small Companies for Better Environmental and Economic Performance2016In: 26TH CIRP DESIGN CONFERENCE, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 50, p. 745-750Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development and diffusion of new or improved products and services is key to solve sustainability challenges such as climate change, resource depletion and loss of biodiversity. Small firms are important for developing these new solutions, but because of resource constraints they normally have to seek external support from e.g. academia and consultancy firms. This paper discusses how academia can provide such support (e.g. knowledge transfer, assessments and new perspectives) in an effective and efficient manner. To illustrate this, three examples of firms, two monitored over a long period of time, are described using interviews, previous evaluations and project reports for data collection. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 244.
    Hjelm, Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Nyquist, Josefin
    Rehnmark, Henric
    Regional Environmental Technology Centres in Sweden, organization and working procedures2008In: Facilitating Sustainable Innovations: Sustainable Innovation as a Tool for Regional Development,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 245.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Glaas, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of knowledge in climate transition and transformation literatures2017In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 29, p. 26-31Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rooted in different theories and focusing on different elements of the socio-ecological fabric, climate transitions and transformations are conceived to have various forms. Although these literatures recognize the significance of learning and boundary spanning, systematic reviews of the role of knowledge in climate transitions are lacking. We review how targets of transformation, functions, types, and intermediaries of knowledge are conceptualized in five types of literature. We highlight that knowledge has a role as: the motor of transition in Transition Management literature, a consultant supporting transition in Transformational Climate Adaptation literature, an emancipator of transition in Transform Political and Economic Systems literature, the beacon guiding transition in Social-Ecological Transformation literature, and an Ad Hoc Committee motivating transition in Grassroots Transitions literature.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-11-23 14:55
  • 246.
    Hojer, M.
    et al.
    Höjer, M., Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, SE 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahlroth, S.
    Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, SE 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dreborg, K.-H.
    Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, SE 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekvall, T.
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, PO Box 5302, SE-400 14 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Finnveden, G.
    Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, SE 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Hochschorner, E.
    Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, SE 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, M.
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Kräftriket 2B, SE 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palm, V.
    Environmental Accounts, Statistics Sweden, Box 24300, SE-104 51 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Scenarios in selected tools for environmental systems analysis2008In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, no 18, p. 1958-1970Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of different tools for analysing environmental impacts of different systems have been developed. These include procedural tools such as strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and environmental management systems (EMS) as well as analytical ones such as life cycle assessment (LCA), life cycle costing (LCC), cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and the system of economic and environmental accounts (SEEA) including input-output analysis (IOA). Descriptions or scenarios of the future are typically relevant elements in these tools, since they are often used to describe impacts in the future. For futures studies a number of different approaches and techniques have been developed. In an earlier paper we have presented a typology of different types of scenarios that respond to different types of questions. These include predictive scenarios, explorative scenarios and normative scenarios. The aim of this paper is to explore connections between selected tools for environmental systems analysis and different scenario types. Although there is a clear need for futures studies in several tools for environmental systems analysis, it is interesting to note that the literature on methodologies for and case studies of combinations of futures studies and environmental systems analysis tools is rather limited. This suggests that there is a need for further research in this area including both methodology and practical case studies. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 247.
    Hosseini Taklimi, Seyed Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Influential Factors in Long-term Product Service System Contracts2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation presents different aspects of long-term contract for product service system (PSS); also different issues that companies are dealt for implementation of PSS. The study consists of literature review for understanding factors which can affect long-term PSS contracts. Different generic categories of green business models which are used in PSS contracts have been addressed and in addition, various models of contracts for PSS in industries have been identified too. The important factors which can influence these types of contracts are categorized in six major aspects organizational, social, economic, technological, legal and environmental.

    Each of these factors separately has been analyzed by reviewing related literature. Moreover a general evaluation about effect of each factor in other influential factors has been presented. In respect of long duration of contract, the rate of uncertainty is higher than traditional method of buying a product. Here, problems which are related to each of these factors have been addressed. Moreover, different approaches of companies for these problems have been discussed which these solutions can be useful for other providers in similar situation.

  • 248.
    Ibem-Ezera, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Environmental Control in Oil & Gas Exploration & Production: A Case Study of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, West Africa2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to examine the environmental impacts of oil and gas exploration and production (E&P), the roles of legislation, and the environmental management strategies in the petroleum industry with respect to the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study seeks to suggest sustainable solutions to the endemic economic, social, and environmental problems associated with oil and gas E&P in the region. The focus is on the environmental control in the upstream (E&P) operations of the oil and gas industry as it affects the Niger Delta region of Nigeria with a view to proffering sustainable solutions.

    The heavily polluting activities and environmental impacts of the upstream oil and gas operations in the Niger Delta have over the years taken a routine dimension and are endemic as a result of inadequate environmental legislations and ineffective enforcements. Sequel to these environmental impacts is militancy, adoption of expatriates, communal conflicts, inter-ethnic conflicts, human right abuses, restiveness and other social vices as the study reveals. These social and environmental impacts of oil and gas activities in this region bring impoverishment, abject poverty, hunger, squalor, birth disease, gene mutation, and death while exposing inhabitants of the region to afflictions and diseases as the study explicitly documents.

    The study also reveals that the persistence rate of unrest, restiveness, militancy and other social vices is as a result of non-dialogue status between the different stakeholders, lack of infrastructural development, lack of basic amenities, high rate of unemployment, poor policy construct, federalized mineral right / resource ownership structure, and the monopolistic nature of Nigeria’s foreign exchange earning in petroleum resources.

    In this dissertation, both proactive and corrective measures to curb the menace of the social, economic and environmental impacts of oil and gas exploration & production operations in Nigeria are presented and discussed with suggestions to sustainable solution and development, better environmental legislation, and better resource policy construct while advocating for good industrial practices in the petroleum industry with emphasis on the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

  • 249.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Do decision-making tools lead to better energy planning?2009Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article evaluates the effectiveness of decision-making tools originally designed for environmental issues in an energy planning process in a Swedish municipality. The tested tools include a citizen’s panel, a combination of external scenarios and backcasting, life cycle assessment, and qualitative checklists for environmental assessment. This study concludes that the tools contributed to a broader scope, more comprehensive environmental assessments, and better legitimacy of the energy planning.

  • 250.
    Ivner, jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Guidelines för energi- och klimatstrategiskt arbete enligt lagen om kommunal energiplanering2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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