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  • 201.
    Johansson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Oden, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Micro- and macrostress evolution in a duplex stainless steel during uniaxial loading2000In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 347-3, p. 603-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of micro- and macrostresses in a duplex stainless steel during uniaxial loading has been investigated in situ by X-ray diffraction. Due to differences in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the two phases, compressive residual microstresses were found in the ferritic phase and balancing tensile microstresses in the austenitic phase. The initial microstresses were almost two times higher in the transverse direction compared to the rolling direction. During loading the microstresses increase in the macroscopic elastic regime but starts to decrease slightly with increasing load in the macroscopic plastic regime. During unloading from the plastic regime the microstresses increases by approximately 35 MPa in the direction of applied load but remains constant in the other directions.

  • 202.
    Almer, Jonathan
    et al.
    IKP, Konstruktionsmaterial Linköpings universitet.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Håkansson, Greger
    Tixon Brukens Sverige AB Linköping.
    Microstructural evolution during tempering of arc-evaporated Cr-N coatings2000In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 121-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cr-N coatings were arc-deposited at 50 and 300 V. The changes in the coating microstructure and phase content during tempering were monitored. As a result, the phase stability and activation energies for defect diffusion were determined as a function of ion energy.

  • 203.
    Odén, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Almer, J.
    Håkansson, G.
    Olsson, M A
    Microstructure - property relationships in arc-evaporatedCr-N coatings2000In: Thin solid films : an international journal on the science and technology of thin and thick films, ISSN 0563-4652, p. 377-378-407-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 204. Almér, J.
    et al.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Håkansson, G.
    Microstructure, Stress and Mechanical Properties in Arc-evaporated Cr-C-N Coatings2000In: Thin solid films : an international journal on the science and technology of thin and thick films, ISSN 0563-4652Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 205.
    Odén, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Almer, J
    IKP, Konstruktionsmaterial Linköpings unversitet.
    Håkansson, Greger
    Bodycote Värmebehandling AB Linköping.
    Olsson, M
    Dalarna University .
    Microstructure-property relationships in arc-evaporated Cr-N coatings2000In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 377-378, p. 407-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromium nitride (Cr-N) coatings have received increased attention for tribological applications due to their favorable properties including wear resistance, toughness and oxidation resistance. These properties, in turn, can be strongly influenced by the coating microstructure and residual stress resulting from deposition and subsequent processing operations. In this study these microstructure-property correlations are investigated in Cr-N coatings grown by arc-evaporation. Prominent as-deposited features include formation of metastable amounts of the cubic d-CrN phase, and high levels of compressive residual stress and defect density. During annealing up to 650 ░C the residual stress and defect density decrease substantially, accompanied by a diffusion-based d-CrN to ▀-Cr2N phase transformation and equiaxed grain formation. The effects of these microstructural modifications on the hardness, fracture and wear properties of the coatings are evaluated using a combination of nanoindentation, scratch and pin-on-disk testing. Appreciable changes in these properties are found after annealing, and are correlated to the Cr-N microstructure. As-deposited coating hardness is enhanced by high levels of lattice defect density, with both decreasing concomitantly during annealing. Scratch results show that resistance to cohesive flaking is increased by annealing, suggesting ductility increases via defect annealing and equiaxed grain formation. Finally, the wear rate under dry sliding generally increased with annealing temperature, although wear rates of all Cr-N coatings significantly outperformed TiN tested under identical conditions.

  • 206.
    Moverare, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Stress State Evolution Measured in situ during Cyclic Loading of a Duplex Stainless Steel2000In: Proc. 6th International Conference on Residual Stresses (ICRS-6), 2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 207.
    Larsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Thermal Residual Stresses in Functionally Graded WC-Co Composites Determined by X-ray Diffraction2000In: ICRS-6,2000, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 208.
    Johansson (Moverare), Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zeng, Xiaohu
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evolution of the residual stress state in a duplex stainless steel during loading1999In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 47, no 9, p. 2669-2684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of micro- and macrostresses in a duplex stainless steel during loading has been investigated in situ by X-ray diffraction. A 1.5 mm cold-rolled sheet of alloy SAF 2304 solution treated at 1050°C was studied. Owing to differences in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the two phases, compressive residual microstresses were found in the ferritic phase and balancing tensile microstresses in the austenitic phase. The initial microstresses were almost two times higher in the transverse direction compared to the rolling direction. During loading the microstresses increase in the macroscopic elastic regime but start to decrease slightly with increasing load in the macroscopic plastic regime. For instance, the microstresses along the rolling direction in the austenite increase from 60 MPa, at zero applied load, to 110 MPa, at an applied load of 530 MPa. At the applied load of 620 MPa a decrease of the microstress to 90 MPa was observed. During unloading from the plastic regime the microstresses increase by approximately 35 MPa in the direction of applied load but remain constant in the other directions. The initial stress state influences the stress evolution and even after 2.5% plastic strain the main contribution to the microstresses originates from the initial thermal stresses. Finite element simulations show stress variations within one phase and a strong influence of both the elastic and plastic anisotropy of the individual phases on the simulated stress state.

  • 209.
    Shin, C-S
    et al.
    Material Research Lab University of Illinois.
    Gall, D
    Material Research Lab University of Illinois.
    Desgardins, P
    Material Reseach Lab University of Illinois.
    Vailionis, A
    Materials Research Lab University of Illinois.
    Kim, H
    Materials Reseach Lab University of Illinois.
    Petrov, I
    Materials Reseach Lab University of Illinois.
    Greene, J E
    Materials Research Lab University of Illinois.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Growth and physical properties of epitaxial metastable cubic TaN (001)1999In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 75, no 24, p. 3808-3810Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 210.
    Moverare, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Micro-and Macrostreess Evolution in a Duplex Stainless Steel during Uniaxial Loading1999In: Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Residual Stresses : held September 28-30, 1999 in Delft-Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands / [ed] A.J. Böttger, R. Delhez and E.J. Mittemeijer, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 211.
    Odén, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Ericsson, Claes
    Tixon Brukens Sverige AB Linköping.
    Håkansson, Greger
    Tixon Brukens Sverige AB Linköping.
    Ljungcrantz, Henrik
    Tixon Brukens Sverige AB Linköping.
    Microstructure and mechanical behavior of arc-evaporated Cr-N coatings1999In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 114, p. 39-51Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Hultman, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Seco Tools AB Fagersta.
    Ljungcrantz, Henrik
    Impact Coatings AB Linköping.
    Review of the Themal and Mechanical Stability of TiN-based Thin Films1999In: Zeitschrift für Metallkunde, ISSN 0044-3093, Vol. 90, no 10, p. 803-813Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 213.
    Odén, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Almer, Jonathan
    IKP, Konstruktionsmaterial Linköpings universitet.
    Håkansson, Greger
    Tixon Brukens Sverige AB Linköping.
    The effects of bias voltage and annealing on the microstructure and residual stress of arc-evaporated CR-N coatings1999In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 120-121, p. 272-276Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 214.
    Lauridsen, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Knutsson, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mannerbro, R.
    ABB Components, Lyviksvägen 10, SE-771 41, Ludvika, Sweden.
    Andersson, A. M.
    ABB Corporate Research, Forskargränd 7, SE-721 78, Västerås, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    AgI as a solid lubricant in electrical contactsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    AgI coatings have been deposited by electroplating on Ag plated Cu coupons. Electron microscopy shows that the coatings consist of weakly agglomerated AgI grains. X-ray diffraction, differential scanning  calorimetry, thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry show that the AgI exhibits a reversible transformation from hexagonal to cubic phase at 150 °C. AgI starts to decompose at 150 °C with an accelerating rate up to the AgI melting temperature (555 °C), where a complex-bonded  hydroxide evaporates. Ag-pin-on-disk testing shows that the iodine addition to Ag decreases the friction coefficient from 1.2 to ~0.4. The contact resistance between AgI and Ag becomes less than 100 μΩ after ~500 operations as the AgI deagglomerates and Ag is exposed on the surface, and remains low during at least 10000 reciprocating operations. This makes AgI suitable as a solid lubricant in electrical contacts.

  • 215.
    Knutsson, Axel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ullbrand, Jennifer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rogström, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norrby, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Almer, Jonathan
    Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, USA.
    Johansson, Mats P.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, Bo
    Seco Tools AB, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Magnus, Odén
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Early stage spinodal decomposition and microstructure evolution in TiAlN: A combined in-situ SAXS and phase field studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes in detail the microstructure and phase evolution in Ti0.33Al0.67N and Ti0.50Al0.50N coatings during isothermal annealing, studied by in-situ small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), in combination with phase field simulations. We show that the isostructural spinodal decomposition occurs in two stages. During the initial stage, the phase segregation proceeds with a constant size of AlN- and TiN-rich domains with an experimentally measured radius of ~0.7 nm for 5 and 20 min at 900 and 850 °C respectively in the Ti0.50Al0.50N alloy. The length of  the initial stage depends on temperature as well as metal composition, and is shorter for the higher Al-content  coating. After the initial stage, the coherent cubic AlN- and TiN-rich domains coarsen. The coarsening process is kinetically limited by diffusion, which allowed us to estimate the diffusivity and activation energies of the metals to 1.4·10-7 m2s-1 and 3.14 eV at-1 respectively.

  • 216.
    Yalamanchili, Kumar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schramm, I.C.
    Functional Materials, Materials Science and Engineering Department (MSE), Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Jiménez-Piqué, Emilio
    Departament de Ciència del Materials i Enginyeria Metal·lúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.
    Rogström, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mücklich, F.
    Functional Materials, Materials Science and Engineering Department (MSE), Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth and Mechanical Behavior of Nanoscale Structures in ZrN/Zr0.63Al0.37N MultilayersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Structure and mechanical properties of monolithic and nanoscale multilayers of ZrN/Zr0.63Al0.37N are investigated as a function of Zr0.63Al0.37N layer thickness. ZrN/Zr0.63Al0.37N multilayers were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on MgO (001) substrates at a temperature of 700 °C. Monolithic Zr0.63Al0.37N film shows a chemically segregated nanostructure of cubic-ZrN and wurtzite-AlN rich domains with incoherent interfaces. Three dimensional atom probe measurements reveal comparable chemical segregation between monolithic and multilayer Zr0.63Al0.37N film. The multilayers show systematic changes in nanostructure as a function of Zr0.63Al0.37N layer thickness resulting in mechanical properties such as hardness and fracture resistance being tunable. A maximum hardness of 34 GPa is achieved with 10 nm Zr0.63Al0.37N layer thickness having semi-coherent interfaces between wurtzite-AlN and cubic-ZrN rich domains. Higher fracture resistance is achieved at 2nm Zr0.63Al0.37N where AlN rich domains are epitaxially stabilized in the metastable cubic phase.

  • 217.
    Forsén, Rikard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improved mechanical properties in oxidation resistant AlCrN coatings through Ti additionManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Quaternary cubic (c)-(TixCryAl~0.60)1N1 coatings with different x to y ratios have been grown using reactive cathodic arc evaporation. Results show that by adding Ti the high temperature mechanical properties are drastically improved with a retained hardness up to 1100 ºC. The coatings show an age hardening process caused by the formation of hexagonal (h)-AlN and cubic (c)-TiCrN precipitates surrounded by a TiCrAlN host matrix. The improved properties are discussed in terms of kinetics where the addition of Ti delays and suppresses the growth the h-AlN phase. The Ti atoms also generate incoherent crystallites within the h-AlN domains disrupting the hexagonal lattice during the coarsening process. Altogether the result is that the detrimental effects that are normally associated with the hexagonal phase are shifted to higher temperatures.

    The oxidation resistance is also investigated with different amount of Ti addition. The addition of Ti promotes the formation of a TiO2 oxide layer over Al2O3 resulting in a lower oxidation resistance. However, by tuning the composition it is possible to generate coatings having both high oxidation resistance and excellent high temperature mechanical properties.

  • 218.
    Yalamanchili, Kumar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Roa, J.J.
    Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Jiménez-Piqué, Emilio
    Departament de Ciència del Materials i Enginyeria Metal·lúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.
    Johansson Jöesaar, Matts P.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of microstructure and mechanical properties on the wear behavior of reactive arc deposited Zr-Si-N coatingsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Zr-Si-N coatings were grown over WC-Co substrates by an industrial reactive arc deposition technique. Si content of the coatings was varied between 0.2 and 6.3 at. % to cause a microstructural transition from a columnar to an equiaxed nanocomposite microstructure resulting in alterations of the mechanical properties such as hardness, elastic modulus, and fracture resistance. A reciprocating sliding wear test with a counter material of WC-Co shows a systematic change in wear rate as a function of Si content of the coatings. A maximum wear rate of 1.4x10-5 mm3/Nm is seen for the coating with 1.8 at. % Si (columnar microstructure), which then gradually decreases to 0.6x10-5 mm3/Nm at 6.3 at. % Si (nanocomposite structure). Electron microscopy observations of the wear track reveal tribooxidation as the dominating wear mode. The growth rate of the tribo-oxide layer is the wear rate determining mechanism. Higher growth rate of tribo-oxide layer in the columnar structured coating leads to layer delamination and high wear rate. While the lower growth rate of tribo-oxide layer in the nanocomposite coating results in reduced wear rate of the coatings. Nanocomposite coatings show superior resistance to both static and tribo-oxidation compared to the columnar structured coatings.

  • 219.
    Johansson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norrby, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ullbrand, Jennifer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    M’Saoubi, Rachid
    Seco Tools AB, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Odén, Magnsu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Microstructural anisotropy effects on the metal cutting performance of decomposed arc evaporated Ti1-xAlxN coatingsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The spinodal decomposition of cathodic arc evaporated cubic phase c-Ti0.34Al0.66N and c-Ti0.60Al0.40N coatings have been studied before and after continuous turning. By means of analytical transmission electron microscopy, we find that the evolving microstructure of c-Ti0.34Al0.66N, as simultaneously being exposed to high temperature of about 900 °C and high pressure of about 2.5 GPa, spinodally decompose into a spatially periodic, highly oriented and modulated interconnected array of coherent cubic AlN and cubic TiN rich regions along elastic compliant <100> crystal directions. Ti0.60Al0.40N instead decomposes into AlN and TiN rich domains in a more rounded and random microstructure. These effects are both explained by the elastic anisotropy which has earlier been shown to scale with Al content. The different evolving microstructure will lead to a different strengthening mechanism in the coatings during metal cutting and heat treatments, thus a different hardness and wear resistance behaviour.

  • 220.
    Ullbrand, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Grönhagen, Klara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tasnádi, Ferenc
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, Bo
    Seco Tools AB, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Microstructure evolution of TiAlN-a phase field studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work the phase field method has been applied to model the spinodal decomposition of TiAlN. Here we have used thermodynamic data from ab initio calculations that takes into account clustering effects, and experimental diffusivity data of TiAlN as an input to the model. The effect of alloy composition on microstructure and stresses, is studied in time and space. In addition, Young’s modulus evolution of the decomposing microstructure is reported. It was found that the microstructure changes from round AlN rich domains in a TiN matrix, to outstretched TiN rich domains in the {100} crystallographic directions in an AlN matrix, as the composition was changed from x=0.3 to x=0.75 in Ti1-xAlxN. The microstructure evolution was observed to undergo different stages. In short; first elongated structures enriched of the majority element in random directions evolve. Thereafter round AlN rich domains evolve, independent of composition studied, and a completely segregated microstructure forms that finally coarsens. The initiation, decomposition, and coarsening rate was found to increase with Al content due to the increase in driving force with Al content. Al rich domains purify fastest, independent of composition studied. The evolving compositional wavelength decreases with Al content resulting in a finer microstructure for alloys rich in Al. During decomposition high local strains and stresses develop, which reach maximum values of 6·10-3 and 12 GPa respectively.

  • 221.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johnson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Self-organized Labyrinthine Nanostructure in Zr0.64Al0.36N Thin FilmsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-organization of functional ceramics on the nanometer scale drives scientific and technological research in such diverse fields as cutting tools and light-emitting diodes. A classic example is spinodal decomposition in TiAlN thin films, which yields intricate nanostructures from the isostructural decomposition into cubic-structrure (c) AlN and TiN domains, resulting in age hardening [1]. Here, we explore the ZrN-AlN system, which has one of the largest positive enthalpies of mixing among the systems combining a transition metal nitride and a wide-band gap nitride [2]. Interestingly, an original nanolabyrinthine structure evolves during thin film synthesis of Zr0.64Al0.36N. It consists of the non-isostructural phases c-ZrN and wurtzite-AlN with standing {110}‖{112̄0} planes.The selforganization in this system is discussed in terms of a competition between interfacial and surface elastic energy, which produces a structure with a well-defined length scale. This effective nanostructural design yields films with hardnesses of 36 GPa, 44 % higher than comparable ZrN films.

  • 222.
    Engberg, David L. J.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johnson, Lars J. S.
    Sandvik Coromant, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson-­‐Jöesaar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SECO Tools AB, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thuvander, Mattias
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Solid Solution and Segregation Effects in Arc-Deposited Ti1-xSixN Thin Films Resolved on the nanometer scale by 15N Isotopic Substitution in AtomP robe TomographyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanostructured TiSiN is an important material in wear--‐resistant coatings for extending the lifetime of cutting tools. Yet, the understanding regarding the structure, phase composition, and bonding on the detailed nanometer scale, which determines the properties of TiSiN, is lacking. This limits our understanding of the growth phenomena and eventually a larger exploitation of the material. By substituting natN2 with 15N2 during reactive arc deposition of TiSiN thin films, atom probe tomography (APT) gives elemental sensitivity and sub-nanometer resolution, a finer scale than what can be obtained by commonly employed energy dispersive electron spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy. Using a combination of analytical transmission electron microscopy and APT we show that arc-deposited Ti0.92Si0.0815N and Ti0.81Si0.1915N exhibit Si segregation on the nanometer scale in the alloy films. APT composition maps and proximity histograms from domains with higher than average Ti content show that the TiN domains contain at least ~2 at. % Si for Ti0.92Si0.08N and ~5 at. % Si for Ti0.81Si0.19N, thus confirming the formation of solid solutions. The formation of relatively pure SiNy domains in the Ti0.81Si0.19N films is tied to pockets between microstructured, columnar features in the film. Finer SiNy enrichments seen in APT possibly correspond to tissue layers around TiN crystallites, thus effectively hindering growth of TiN crystallites, causing TiN renucleation and thus explaining the featherlike nanostructure within the columns of these films. For the stoichiometry of the TiN phase, we establish a global under stoichiometry, in accordance with the tendency for SiNy films to have tetrahedral bonding coordination towards a nominal Si3N4 composition.

  • 223.
    Larsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thermal residues stresses and microstructural characterisation of functionally graded WC-Co compositesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray diffraction was used to determine the thermal residual stresses that develop in a functionally graded WC-Co composite. The gradient was continuous within a distance of about 40 Jlm below the surface and consisted of varying WC and Co phase volume fractions. The composite was characterised by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Thermal residual stresses develop due to the thermal mismatch between the WC and the Co phase during cooling from the liquid-phase sintering temperature (1450°C). Pole figures were obtained in order to determine optimal sample orientations that provided adequate intensity for measurements in the Co phase. Stresses were measured in both WC and Co phases at various depths. For WC, the in-plane compressive residual stresses varied approximately between -300 MPa to -500 MPa with depth below the surface. For the low volume fraction Co phase, the tensile residual stresses were approximately 600 MPa. The changes in the magnitude of the residual stresses can be related to the changes in the Co phase content through the graded zone. Microstresses in the graded zone are attributed to the thermal mismatch between WC and the Co phase. The compressive macrostresses were determined to be a result of the compositional gradient. This conclusion is strongly supported by the result that almost no macrostresses were measured in a similar homogenous sample i.e., without the corresponding compositional gradient. Therefore, varying the composition gradient during fabrication is expected to directly affect the macrostresses.

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