liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Refine search result
2345678 201 - 250 of 455
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 201.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    En utredning om brevbärarpersonalens arbetsförhållanden och införandet av Bästa Metod2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utredningen har utförts på uppdrag av Servicenätet Posten vid Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap, inom forskningsområdet Kvalitet, Människa, Teknik vid Linköpings universitet. Syftet har varit:

    - dels att utvärdera den totala arbetssituationen för brevbärare med i huvudsak utdelning i flerfamiljshus,

    - dels att utvärdera hur införandet av den så kallade ”Bästa Metod” har fungerat, främst vad gäller införandeprocess, acceptans, delaktighet och manual.

    Utredningsarbetet har utförts under hösten 2001. Efter deltagande observation av brevbärare i flerfamiljshus under arbete, gjordes 60 djupintervjuer med såväl brevbärare, SEKO-ombud som postcenterchefer på femton av Posten utvalda utdelningskontor spridda över hela Sverige. Intervjumaterialet låg till grund för en enkät som distribuerades till samtlig personal på de femton utdelningskontoren. 525 enkäter har besvarats (en svarsfrekvens på 90 procent). Ergonomiska studier och fysiska mätningar har utförts på brevbärare under arbete för att identifiera belastningsergonomiska risker och prioritera mellan olika förbättringsförslag.

    Resultaten visar att brevbärarnas arbetsförhållanden i dag är krävande, framförallt i fysiskt avseende, något som understryks av en mycket hög besvärsfrekvens från rörelseorganen. Bästa Metod framstår som en principiellt bra arbetsmetod med stor utvecklingspotential. De flesta brevbärare bedömer metoden som arbetsbesparande och produktivitetsförbättrande men uttrycker farhågor för den fysiska arbetsbelastningen och framtida besvärsrisker samt kvalitetsbrister. Om utvecklingspotentialen skall kunna tas till vara för både verksamhetens och brevbärarnas bästa, erfordras en optimering av arbetssättet.

    Resultaten visar också att det finns stora skillnader i hur väl Bästa Metod fungerar vid de femton utdelningskontor som ingått i studien. Ett antal faktorer som försvårat införandet och tillämpningen av Bästa Metod har identifierats. Brist på delaktighet och lokal anpassning framträder särskilt. Arbetsledningens agerande på såväl lokal som central nivå har visat sig vara en kritisk faktor för hur väl arbetet med Bästa Metod har förlöpt.

    Vi bedömer att åtgärder som fokuserar på att öka brevbärarnas delaktighet och lokalt anpassa Bästa Metod, skulle resultera i bättre arbetsförhållanden för brevbärarna, en ökad effektivitet, bättre produktivitet och kvalitetsvinster. En infrastruktur som befrämjar god informationsspridning och kommunikation både horisontellt och vertikalt i organisationen är då avgörande.

    Med ett åtgärdsprogram och en plan för ständigt förbättringsarbete, skulle verksamheten med Bästa Metod och brevbärarnas arbetssituation på sikt kunna förbättras med åtgärder på såväl lokal som central nivå i organisationen. Utredningen har visat på ett antal önskvärda åtgärder och flera av dessa kan genomföras av Posten själva. De åtgärder som föreslås nedan genomförs av Posten i samarbete med Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap och de kan delas upp i två huvudkategorier:

    I. I rapporten preciserade förbättringsförslag som kan genomföras relativt omgående av Posten med stöd från Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap:

    KAMFACKEN

    • Förbättrad märkning av kamfacken och införande av kompletterande karta (prototyp finns redan klar), för att underlätta kamning på ny slinga samt förbättrad belysning vid kamfacken.

    • Justeringar och optimeringar av kamfacken där så är möjligt.

    • Förbättring av avlastningsytor vid kamfacken.

    SKOR

    • Införskaffande av lämpliga individuellt anpassade skor för både inomhus- och utomhusarbete.

    UTBILDNING

    • Utbildning i arbetsteknik av utvalda representanter från respektive utdelningskontor.

    ARBETSRUTINER

    • Fördelning av arbetsmoment, utveckling av arbetsrutiner som exempelvis slingors sammansättning och anpassad användning av cyklar och motordrivna fordon.

    UTRUSTNING

    • Utveckling av hjälpmedel och utrustning, som exempelvis centralpostfack.

    De ovanstående förändringarna testas på pilotkontor före breddinförande.

    II. Åtgärder som kräver ytterligare planering och utvärdering för att kunna genomföras och som innebär medverkan av Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap

    Lokala åtgärder genom utveckling av den lokala arbetsorganisationen mot välfungerande teambildningar på utdelningskontoren.

    Under sommaren 2001 började man på utdelningskontoren införandet av en teambaserad arbetsorganisation genom att tillsätta teamledare som ansvarar för den löpande verksamheten. En ytterligare utveckling av denna organisations-form föreslås. Man skulle därmed öka delaktigheten bland personalen, vilket på sikt skulle leda till bättre och effektivare arbetsformer med större påverkansmöjligheter över det dagliga arbetet, större ansvarskänsla, större arbetstillfredsställelse och högre yrkesstolthet. Denna arbetsform skulle kunna vidga synen på vad som är ”det egna distriktet” och skulle vidare minska känsligheten för störningar. I samband med detta skulle en plan för ”Ständiga Förbättringar” introduceras, för att bygga in ett kontinuerligt kvalitetstänkande och ökad delaktighet i det dagliga arbetet. Sammantaget skulle man kunna uppnå bättre lokal anpassning, högre produktivitet och bättre kvalitet.

    CENTRALA ÅTGÄRDER

    Utredningen har visat att det funnits kommunikationsglapp mellan de olika nivåerna i organisationen och att brevbärarpersonalen upplever bristande delaktighet, toppstyrning och otillräcklig flexibilitet i fråga om lokala anpassningar. Detta synes ha påverkat arbetet med Bästa Metod negativt.

    En analys behöver göras över hur kommunikationsglapp och delaktighets-brister uppstår, med syfte att utveckla åtgärdsförslag för att förbättra infrastrukturen och kommunikationen mellan de olika organisationsnivåerna. Därigenom skapas förutsättningar att från centralt håll öka delaktigheten och på så sätt skapa en bättre verksamhet. Resultaten matchas sedan mot erfaren-heterna på lokal nivå för vidare åtgärder.

    Framgången med Bästa Metod varierar på de femton utdelningskontor som ingått i studien. Rapporten visar att olika lokala förhållanden och förut-sättningar påverkat utfallet med Bästa Metod. Detta är något som kan utredas närmare.

    Behovet av lokala anpassningar måste vägas mot behovet av en standardisering av arbetet enligt Bästa Metod. Hur denna avvägning kan göras är förknippad med användningen av manualen för Bästa Metod och dess fortsatta nytta. Vi menar att en manual bör tydliggöra vad som är kärnan i det nya systemet och därmed ska gälla överallt, men manualen bör också tydliggöra vad som kan anpassas lokalt, och ge ett stöd för hur detta kan ske. Manualen behöver vidareutvecklas och omarbetas för detta syfte.

    Utredningen visar att det i vissa avseenden finns en bristande överens-stämmelse mellan den bärande tanken bakom Bästa Metod och den ökade flexibilitet som krävs av brevbärarna i praktiken. Det gäller bland annat hur snabbt nyanställda eller ovana brevbärare kommer upp i arbetstakt när man kammar upp post på en ny slinga, hur introduktion av nyanställda sker, vilka kvalifikationer brevbärare bör ha och vilka effekter detta har på yrkes-stoltheten. Den höga medelåldern på brevbärarna i dag kommer att medföra många nyanställningar inom en 10-15-årsperiod. Dessa frågor är då viktiga att utreda inte minst ur produktivitets- och kvalitetshänseende.

    Mot bakgrund av ovanstående föreslås följande åtgärder som hänför sig till punkt II ovan:

    • Att identifiera kommunikationsglapp och delaktighetsbrister för att skapa förbättringsförslag och ledningsstrategier i syfte att förbättra verksamheten.

    • Utbildning i Människa-Teknik-Organisation (MTO) och Life Cycle Cost analyser (LCC), för ökad systemsyn och möjligheter att analysera och utvärdera teknikval och alternativa åtgärder, utifrån konsekvenser för systemprestanda, ekonomi och människorna i systemet. Det finns ett flertal möjliga åtgärder som kan få positiv effekt på inte bara belastnings-situationen för brevbärarna utan också på produktivitet och kvalitet.

    • Att starta en tidsbegränsad kampanj som bygger på delaktighet genom brevbärarnas förslag till och utveckling av hjälpmedel och produkter med syfte att underlätta arbetet.

    • Utveckling av arbetsorganisationen med inriktning mot flexibla team med ansvar för sitt specifika område med syfte att:

    • öka delaktigheten hos personalen,

    • förbättra informationsspridning och kommunikation,

    • skapa utrymme för lokala anpassningar,

    • öka arbetstillfredsställelsen,

    • skapa förutsättningar för ökad yrkesstolthet,

    • minska den fysiska belastningsproblematiken samt stressrelaterade faktorer,

    • förbättra den arbetsrelaterade hälsan,

    • förbättra kompetensen genom att utveckla en kompetensutvecklingstrappa,

    • optimera förutsättningarna för nyanställda, vikarier och brevbärare som arbetar på nya slingor,

    • utbilda instruktörer i varje team både ergonomiskt och för handledning av nybörjare,

    • minska känslighet för störningar i systemet,

    • öka produktiviteten och kvaliteten i verksamheten.

  • 202.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluation of intervention measures: a methodological approach2006In: 16th World Congress on Ergonomics, Maastricht, the Netherlands 10-14 July, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is common for researchers to evaluate interventions by having the participants answer standardized questions before and after, and measuring the effect of the intervention as a statistical difference between the two. There is a risk that the results of such a calculation will be misleading due to the subject interpreting the response scales differently on each occasion. This risk has previously been observed by Golembiewski et al, who indicated that we are dealing with a psychometric problem set that is especially evident in interventions. The question is whether the individual’s own yardstick for assessing or valuing a certain circumstance/area is the same before and after the intervention, or whether the yardstick has changed due to the subject gaining new experience within the conceptual framework. Golembiewski calls this phenomenon beta change. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate empirically the occurrence of beta change and its possible consequences for the interpretation of the results, with the aid of a model devised by Terborg et al. The material is taken from a health-promoting intervention project in the mail distribution division of the Swedish Post Office.

  • 203.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forskarstött förändringsarbete i själva verket: Att förbättra arbetssituationen för 15 000 brevbärare2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation illuminates researcher-supported work for change within the “Postal Service Network”, the division within Posten Sverige AB with responsibility for mail distribution to customers. The intervention has been concerned with improving the work situation of 15,000 postmen.

    The theoretical foundation consists in a form of systems thinking in which the con-cept of Man-Technology-Organisation (MTO) is employed to scrutinise the intervention process.

    The overall aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the development of know-ledge in the arena of researcher-supported work for change. It proceeds on the basis of the following objectives 1) to illustrate how systems thinking in the change process

    influences understanding of how the system’s Man-Technology-Organisation (MTO) components interact in practice, 2) to exemplify how this knowledge can be transformed in practice through the development and implementation of MTO-adapted solutions into collaboration between researchers and practitioners, 3) to exemplify empirically how forms for participation can contribute to a successful change process through the analy-sis and synthesis of both process and results.

    The research project has been conducted interactively. The interactive approach has made it possible to illuminate collaboration between researchers and practitioners in a down-to-earth and realistic manner during four project phases spread over a five-year period.

    The introductory project phase involved diagnosis of the problem. A number of proposals for action were presented by the research team, which led on to researcher-supported developmental work during a second project phase when a basis for various improvement measures was created. This involved development of both a technical and work-organisational nature to achieve efficient and healthy work processes for postmen in mail distribution. At a third project phase the entire package of measures was tested and evaluated through implementation in a pilot office. At the fourth and final phase of the project the improvements were implemented in all 602 postal distribution offices in Sweden, and the researchers performed an evaluation.

    The results show how adopting an MTO perspective on work for change increases opportunities to obtain clarity with regard to which factors influence efficiency in a pro-duction system as a whole. The cross-disciplinary research approach, in combination with researcher/practitioner collaboration, proved to be a prerequisite for creating un-derstanding of the interaction between the MTO components. Further, the dissertation shows how different forms of participation in practice can contribute to successful work for change with regard to both process and results. The extensive reporting of the inter-vention process and accounts of the shifting nature of the researcher’s role and of hin-dering and promoting factors in researcher-supported work for change constitute other important contributions to knowledge.

  • 204.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lidingörapporten I: en utvärdering i närtid av brevbärarnas arbetssituation2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna utvärdering har utförts av en forskargrupp vid Avdelningen för Industriell arbetsvetenskap vid Linköpings universitet. Det övergripande syftet var att medverka till att förbättra brevbärarnas arbetssituation (BAS). Utvärderingen genomfördes på uppdrag av Servicenätet Leverans, Posten Sverige AB.

    Syftet var närmare bestämt att ge en samlad bild av de olika BAS-åtgärderna i tre avseenden, nämligen

    1) att utvärdera effekten av förbättringsåtgärder för främjande av brevbärarnas arbetssituation,

    2) att utvärdera hur själva införandeprocessen fungerat samt

    3) att dra lärdomar inför implementering av förbättringsåtgärderna vid övriga postutdelningskontor i landet.

    Arbetet med att ta fram konkreta lösningar påbörjades i fyra delprojekt inom BAS II våren 2003 och avrapporterades under tidig höst 2003. Samtidigt startade förberedelser för att utvärdera helhetseffekten från samtliga åtgärdsförslag enligt BAS II på ett ”pilotkontor”, där valet föll på ett utdelningskontor på Lidingö.

    En projektgrupp med representanter för personalen på pilotkontoret, medlemmar från BAS-projekten samt forskargruppen planerade tillsammans hur de olika förbättringsåtgärderna skulle införas och utvärderas.

    De övergripande förbättringsåtgärderna gällde huvudsakligen

    - införande av manual för organisering av inomhusarbetet,

    - införande av ny märkning av kamfacken,

    - införande av ny arbetsbelysning vid kamfacken samt

    - utbildning i arbetsteknik.

    Dessutom testades och utvärderades en motordriven konstruktion för höj- och sänkbarhet av kamfacken.

    Implementeringen och datainsamlingen genomfördes på Lidingökontoret under perioden oktober 2003 till och med maj 2004. Inledningsvis genomförde forskargruppen deltagande observation av arbetssättet på utdelningskontoret. Därefter deltog 35 brevbärare genom att dels besvara fem delenkäter och dels medverka i fyra gruppintervjuer. Intervjuer genomfördes även med de två teamledarna, dirigenten samt postcenterchefen. Utvärderingen av förändringsarbetet handlar om hur resultaten upplevts, hur själva förändringsarbetet eller införandeprocessen fungerat och vilka lärdomar som kan dras av detta.

    Resultaten visar att förbättringsåtgärderna i sin helhet upplevdes mycket positivt av såväl brevbärare som kontorsledningen. Förbättringen av belysning och märkning var de åtgärder som lättast lät sig utvärderas på kort sikt eftersom de upplevdes ge en omedelbar och påtaglig förbättring. Arbetet med Manualen fordrade däremot organisatoriska förändringar av arbetsprocesserna på utdelningskontoret. Denna typ av förändringar kräver mer tid för att nå rättvisande resultat än vad projektplanen medgav. Detsamma gäller utbildningen i arbetsteknik som kräver en förändring i arbetssätt, vilket tar längre tid att lära sig.

    Brevbärarnas åsikter varierade beträffande själva införandeprocessen men generellt upplevdes vissa brister. Dessa minskade deras positiva upplevelser av förbättrings-åtgärderna.

    I ett pilotprojekts natur ligger att man vill dra lärdomar inför framtiden, i det här fallet lärdomar som andra postutdelningskontor kan dra nytta av vid införandet av BAS-åtgärderna men också lärdomar för personer som har ledningsansvar i projekt- och förändringsarbete. Som grund för de råd som ges i det avslutande avsnittet ligger de erfarenheter som medarbetarna på Lidingökontoret har delat med sig av.

  • 205.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perceived Participation: a Key Factor for Successful Implementation of a New Working Concept2002In: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Congress of the Nordic Ergonomics Society, 1-3 of October 2002, Norrköping, Sweden, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling , 2002, p. 229-234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Post Office is undergoing large-scale restructuring including outsourcing of the mail service division to an independent market driven organisation. As a consequence of exposure to competition, the local delivery offices were rationalised by introducing a new working concept called “Best Method”. The implementation process varied substantially in terms of success at the local delivery offices. The aim of this paper is to identify factors crucial to the success of the process. The findings emerge from a study performed during autumn 2001 at fifteen local delivery offices in different parts of Sweden. It was carried out by participant observation, 60 in-depth interviews and a questionnaire answered by 524 postal personnel. A number of factors related to a successful implementation process have been identified as vital, such as participation, local and central managerial support and local adaptation of a managerial tool. In order to arrive at a more participative approach, an infrastructure is suggested that will improve information flow and communication both horizontally and vertically in the organisation. This calls for further research activities, which are planned in a second phase.

  • 206.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utvärdering av interventionsarbete med hälsofrämjande åtgärder: en metodologisk ansats2007In: Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 130-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Författaren arbetar som doktorand med en avhandling om förändringsarbete inom postutdelningsverksamheten, Servicenätet Leverans, Posten Sverige AB. Verksamheten har sedan mitten av 1990-talet har varit föremål för genomgripande omstrukturering och effektivisering för att möta kraven på konkurrens från andra aktörer på marknaden. För brevbärarpersonalen har detta medfört introduktion av ett nytt arbetskoncept, vilket har påkallat insatser för att främja brevbärarpersonalens hälsa och välbefinnande under arbetsutförandet.

  • 207.
    Karltun, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On Stage: Acting for development of businesses and ergonomics in woodworking SMEs2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis reports findings and results from studies of development work and change processes in the secondary woodworking industry. The purpose with the research is to increase the knowledge on how companies can initiate change and to increase their ability to change. The dual aim of improving both business and working conditions served as a guiding condition for the research. Case studies and action research were performed in small companies, mainly with less than 100 employees and in some cases less than 20 employees.

    The thesis encompasses six papers addressing different topics within the framework of development work and change processes. Topics elaborated are how performance concerning the ergonomic situation in a company can be measured and how the content and process of ISO 9000 implementation as well as standardisation influence system performance and working conditions. Furthermore, a framework for how change is enacted in SMEs and its effects on ergonomic considerations is suggested. A methodology for initiating change efforts in complex and ambiguous problem situations is presented. Finally the different expert and participant roles in an organisational change effort are elaborated and analysed with reference to experiences from previous case studies and theory.

    Together, the papers and the thesis emphasize the importance of action and work activities as a base for change. It is in the conflicting work activities or work conduct of differing perspectives where many of the drivers of change can be found. I also argue that this is a main reason to give good working conditions utmost importance for organisation performance. Further, I conclude that the six papers together contribute to a theoretical basis for developing small firms and attractive workplaces. It is indicated that the results are relevant to small manufacturing firms, while neither organisational structure nor resources available are the same as in larger companies. Moreover, the organisational size has a number of implications on aspects like visibility, available theoretical knowledge, vulnerability, formalisation, institutionalised organisational inertia etc. that will alter the demands on the change process. Many of the results are not limited to woodworking industry; the technical content of the ergonomics problems will however be different in other firms.

    List of papers
    1. Use of Key Variables for Improving the Ergonomic Situation in a Company
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of Key Variables for Improving the Ergonomic Situation in a Company
    1994 (English)In: Proceedings of Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management, 1994, p. 235-240Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14670 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-10-01 Created: 2007-10-01
    2. Working Conditions and Effects of ISO 9000 in Six Furniture-Making Companies - Implementation and Processes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Working Conditions and Effects of ISO 9000 in Six Furniture-Making Companies - Implementation and Processes
    1998 (English)In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 225-232Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    What effects will the implementation of the quality standard ISO 9000 have regarding working conditions and competitive advantages? Which are the most important change process characteristics for assuring improved working conditions and other desired effects? These are the main questions behind this study of six furniture-making companies which implemented ISO 9000 during the period 1991-1994. The results show that customer requirement was the dominant goal to implement ISO 9000. Five of the six companies succeeded in gaining certification. The influence on working conditions was limited, but included better order and housekeeping, more positive attitudes towards discussing quality shortcomings, a few workplace improvements, work enrichment caused by additional tasks within the quality system and a better understanding of external customer demands. Among the negative effects were new, apparently meaningless, tasks for individual workers as well as more stress and more physically strenuous work. The effects on the companies included a decrease in external quality-related costs and improved delivery precision. The study confirms the importance for efficient change of the design of the change process, and identifies ‘improvement methodology’ as the most important process characteristic. Improved working conditions are enhanced by added relevant strategic goals and by a participative implementation process.

    Keywords
    quality standard, change process, ergonomics, ISO 9000, furniture industry
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14671 (URN)10.1016/S0003-6870(97)00061-6 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-10-01 Created: 2007-10-01
    3. Standardisation - A Means for Creating Developing Work?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Standardisation - A Means for Creating Developing Work?
    1998 (English)In: Ergonomics for Global Quality and Productivity: Proceedings, 1998Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14672 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-10-01 Created: 2007-10-01
    4. Change processes and ergonomics improvements in SMEs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Change processes and ergonomics improvements in SMEs
    2004 (English)In: Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, ISSN 1090-8471, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 135-155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the question of how change processes can create ergonomic improvements in small- and medium-sized industrial enterprises. Drawing on experiences from two described and analyzed case studies in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and from ISO 9000 implementation processes previously studied, a hypothetical change framework is suggested through a theory generating approach. It separates change into action-driven change, which is an active experiential improvement process, and into vision-driven change, which is of a visionary design character. The ability to bring about problem solving into action was important for the success of the change processes. Furthermore, the nature of different hampering mechanisms concerning ergonomic improvements is discussed.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14673 (URN)10.1002/hfm.10055 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-10-01 Created: 2007-10-01
    5. SMECA - A methodology for organisational change in SMEs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>SMECA - A methodology for organisational change in SMEs
    2007 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14674 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-10-01 Created: 2007-10-01
    6. Deltagare, experter och förändringsagenter i hälsofrämjande utvecklingsarbete [Ergonomists, experts and participats in change: how do they relate?]
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deltagare, experter och förändringsagenter i hälsofrämjande utvecklingsarbete [Ergonomists, experts and participats in change: how do they relate?]
    2006 (English)In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, no 2, p. 156-175Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Keywords
    Health Promotion, Human Engineering, Extraction and Processing Industry, Humans, Intervention Studies, Theoretical Models, Occupational Health, Organizational Innovation, Professional Competence, Research Personnel
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14675 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-10-01 Created: 2007-10-01
  • 208.
    Kawczynski, Lukasz
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    The Design of a Packing Line in a Manufacturing Company2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s competitive global economy, the focus is on faster delivery of orders at lower total costs. In this paper we are interested in several aspects of order picking systems. We examine the influence of station layout, storage policy, picking policy and sorting solution on order picking system performance. On each of the analysis we consider a few solutions. We determine influence of different number of station in raw on picking system performance. We design the replenishment system supported by kanban philosophy with implemented economical order quantity (EOQ) and reorder point (ROP). The picking system is designed for assumed product’s demand values. The assessment of each of the solution is done through Arena simulation model. The results show that properly designed station with reasonable storage policy and implemented batching policy brings significant raise in order picking system productivity. In addition, we found that proper sortation system logic allows for more equal workload and reduction of maximum queue lengths. The results offer solutions to managers looking to implement improvements in order picking systems.

  • 209.
    Keller, Kristian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Lundberg, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Framtagning och miljömärkning av kvicksilverfri xenonstrålkastare2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project this report is handling has been implemented on NBB, Nordisk Bilbelysning AB in Linköping. The company produces and develops lightning and searchlights for all types of vehicles. Lately NBB´s supplier of electronics, OSRAM, has developed a mercuryfree xenon lightsource. Mercury is one of the most hazardous environmental waste and to get rid of the mercury entirely in the lightsource is a big step that means alot for the environment.

    This lightsource will be placed in one of NBB´s worksearchlights called My, and will be sold as an alternative to mercurycontaining searchlights. NBB wants to put an environmental label on this product and they want to have essential information about the product that is needed for the production. That is what the project has handled. A study of environmental labeling has been made witch has led to that an environmental declaration type II will be used as labeling and marketing for the environmental properties the serachlight has.

    The purpose of this master's thesis is to help and support NBB in environmental labeling and developing of a My searchlight with mercuryfree lightsource. A environmental labeled searchlight would mean a bigger place on the market and consequently lowered environmental affect.

    Lifecycleanalysis with the program ECO-it shows that a mercuryfree lightsource in the searchlight would not involve a environmental profit compared to a mercurycontaining lightsource because the lifelenght of a mercuryfree lightsource is 500 hours shorter. This means that the lightsource has to be changed more frequently if you choose the mercury free alternative and that affects the environment.

    The lifecycleanalysis also shows that the transports of components affects the environment little in compare to the production of the product and therefore a change to Swedish suppliers has not been implemented.

    Temperatur and lightmeasures has been made and compared between the searchlight containing mercury with the searchlight not containing mercury. The results of the measurements shows that the flow of light from a mercury free searchlight is about 15% lower and the temperature inside 5°C higher. This means that the construction not has to be changed as the temperature is on a acceptable level.

    The use of mercury in lightsources will likely not be used forever as new law demands becomes stricter and stricter by time. The environmental declaration that was made contains among other things a list of materials of the product and information about the products lifecycle. A logotype has also been suggested as a environmental label logotype for the company to use. The environmental declaration will be used as marketing of the product on the company website for exemple.

  • 210.
    Kienzler, Mario
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Micro-foundations of value-based pricing and selling2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Enabling customer value creation is central to marketing theory and practice. Yet, doing so does not ensure that supplier firms profit from it. Value-based pricing and selling come with the prospect of translating customer value creation into greater profits for suppliers. However, despite sustained interest, only a limited number of firms emphasize value-based pricing and selling. Existing research has highlighted organizational challenges as potential reasons. Unfortunately, this focus on organizational challenges obscures the role of individuals within organizations (i.e., its micro-foundations), such as the fact that managers and salespeople determine and realize prices. The purpose of this thesis is thus to describe and analyze the micro-foundations of value-based pricing and selling in business markets.

    The thesis’ conceptual framework introduces bounded rationality and heterogeneity—two overlooked forces—to investigate the affective, cognitive, and motivational micro-foundations of value-based pricing and selling. The thesis’ empirical foundation consists of five papers that investigate the microfoundations suggested by the framework.

    The findings indicate that research would benefit from a wider variety of research approaches. Currently, insights into micro-foundations are lacking, in part due to the focus on research designs and theories aimed at the organizational level; experimental designs and theories from psychology would allow amendments to prior research. Furthermore, individual rationality and individual differences play a role. In this regard, managers’ cognitive biases impact upon the extent to which firms focus on value-based pricing. Moreover, price presentation impacts managers’ value perception and purchase intention. The findings also suggest that managers’ personalities and salespeople’s experience and learning orientation are important individual differences affecting the emphasis on valuebased pricing and selling. Consequently, affective, cognitive and motivational micro-foundations—arising due to bounded rationality and heterogeneity— explain some of the challenges associated with value-based pricing and selling.

    This thesis contributes with insights into several micro-foundations affecting value-based pricing and selling. In so doing, the thesis belongs to a growing stream of research that is shifting the focus from organizational processes to the individual foundations of value-based pricing and selling. The thesis also provides suggestions on how managers can use micro-foundations to the advantage of their firms.

    List of papers
    1. Pricing strategy: A review of 22 years of marketing research
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pricing strategy: A review of 22 years of marketing research
    2017 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 78, p. 101-110Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the development and current state of pricing strategy research by undertaking a content analysis of 515 articles published in leading academic journals between 1995 and 2016. The results suggest several developments in research focus and methodology; recent research has focused more strongly on services and applies more rigorous research designs. The results also indicate a persistent focus on consumer markets and economic theories, as well as an increasing consideration of demand-side respondents, at the expense of supply-side respondents. An important feature of this review is a set of actionable takeaways, with both theoretical and methodological implications for pricing strategy research.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    Keywords
    Pricing strategy; Literature review; Content analysis; Marketing; Takeaways
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137345 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.05.005 (DOI)000405053800010 ()
    Funder
    Torsten Söderbergs stiftelse, E24/14
    Note

    Funding agencies: Torsten Soderbergs Stiftelse, Sweden [E24/14]

    Available from: 2017-05-13 Created: 2017-05-13 Last updated: 2018-06-21Bibliographically approved
    2. Does managerial personality influence pricing practices under uncertainty?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does managerial personality influence pricing practices under uncertainty?
    2017 (English)In: Journal of Product & Brand Management, ISSN 1061-0421, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 771-784Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - While marketing and management research suggests that managers individual characteristics influence pricing decisions, the influence of personality traits in this context remains unclear. This study aims to explore the relationship between the five basic personality traits of the five-factor model (extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, agreeableness and neuroticism) and three basic pricing practices (value-, competition- and cost-informed).

    Design/methodology/approach - On the basis of a non-experimental decision-making scenario, the analysis examines the pricing decisions of 57 managers in relation to a new business service.

    Findings - The results suggest that managers conscientiousness and openness to experience are positively related to preference for value- informed pricing. Similarly, managers agreeableness is positively related to preference for competition- informed pricing and managers openness to experience and agreeableness are positively related to preference for cost-informed pricing.

    Research limitations/implications - The cross-sectional study design does not support causal inference, and the modest sample size may limit the external validity of the findings.

    Practical implications - By increasing awareness of the influence of personality on pricing preferences, the findings are of relevance to managers who are directly involved in pricing decisions. Additionally, the findings are informative for managers who must assign responsibility for pricing authority within firms.

    Originality/value - This empirical exploration of the relationship between certain personality traits and specific pricing practices contributes to the literature on psychological aspects of pricing theory by showing how managerial personality influences pricing preferences under uncertainty.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017
    Keywords
    Personality; Pricing; PLS modelling; Judgement and decision making
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143961 (URN)10.1108/JPBM-11-2016-1352 (DOI)000417505100009 ()2-s2.0-85038432657 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Torsten Söderbergs stiftelse, E24/14
    Available from: 2017-12-29 Created: 2017-12-29 Last updated: 2019-10-31
    3. Value-based pricing and cognitive biases: An overview for business markets
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Value-based pricing and cognitive biases: An overview for business markets
    2018 (English)In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 68, p. 86-94Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate how cognitive biases inhibit value-based pricing practices among managers in business markets, this article considers five different cognitive biases—perceived lack of control, herding, fixed-pie bias, ambiguity aversion, and egocentric fairness bias—and their effects on value-based pricing. Despite recent calls for more research on the psychological aspects of pricing, few studies have focused on business markets. Drawing on research in psychology and marketing for its theoretical foundation, this overview extends the limited body of existing research. The article's key contribution is to explain how psychological challenges affect value-based pricing practices, with implications and suggestions for further research.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2018
    Keywords
    Value-based pricing; Cognitive bias; Debiasing; Business market; Managerial decision-making
    National Category
    Business Administration Applied Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141951 (URN)10.1016/j.indmarman.2017.09.028 (DOI)000424310200008 ()2-s2.0-85031322039 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Torsten Söderbergs stiftelse, E24/14
    Available from: 2017-10-14 Created: 2017-10-14 Last updated: 2018-06-21Bibliographically approved
  • 211.
    Kienzler, Mario
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pricing value and selling value: A view on individuals within organizations2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At the heart of long-term success lies firms’ ability to provide customers with products and services that enable customer value creation and firms’ ability to capture value in the form of profits. To this effect, managers and salespeople have an impact on a firm’s value creation and value capture ability through their pricing and selling behavior and decisions. Value-based pricing and value-based selling are two practices that allow firms to create customer value and capture value for the firm that have witnessed a recent surge in interest. Despite this growing interest, many investigations reside on the firm level, and thus, factors influencing individual managers and salespeople in the usage of both practices have been rather overlooked. The purpose of this licentiate thesis is to investigate factors influencing those individuals’ practice of pricing and selling value.

    The research is based on three articles that investigate pricing and selling value from different vantage points. The articles include a literature review that shows developments in and the current state of pricing strategy research; a study investigating the effects of managerial personality on the usage of value-based pricing for a new industrial service; and a survey that explores salesperson’s usage of value-based selling in the steel industry.

    The thesis finds that pricing strategy research increasingly considers customer value by investigating strategies grounded in value-based pricing practices and increasing focus on customer value through more research on services. Further, the magnitude of internal and external factors influences managers and salespersons’ use of value-based pricing and selling. Finally, the research outlines approaches for managers responsible for pricing and selling to deal with the effects of the identified factors on value-based pricing and selling.

    The research contributes with an exploration and assessment of factors influencing managers and salespeople in using value-based pricing and selling and discusses how firms can deal with these factors. In doing so, the research contributes to pricing and selling literature and the evolving focus on individual aspects in pricing and selling value.

  • 212.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Affordable reconfigurable assembly tooling: an aircraft development and manufacturing perspective2002Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry has changed in recent years. Increased globalization has led to a situation where few manufacturers build their own complete products "in-house". This situation is no different in the aerospace industry. In fact, aircraft manufacturers who build their complete aircraft in­ house are uncommon today. Aircraft manufacturers have, more and more, become specialists in limited areas of development and manufacturing. As specialists, aircraft manufacturers have focused on a narrow field of product categories. It would be a great advantage if these manufacturers had an assembly system that could produce several kinds of product categories using the same production equipment, instead of having one dedicated piece of equipment for each assembly.

    Today, the most common solution for aircraft assembly is Conventional Tooling (CT). CT is based on the same principles used during the early days of aircraft assembly tooling. The main principle of CT is that the fixture/tool is fabricated according to the shape of the workpiece, and that every assembly to be built requires its own unique tool. The problem with this type of tooling, however, is that developing one tool for each assembly is expensive and takes up a lot of storage space.

    The next generation of aircraft will be more advanced than their predecessors as world-class aircraft manufacturer employ the newest technologies in every new aircraft they manufacture. Building an advanced product like an aircraft involves continuous changes, both in the development of new aircraft and in the development of manufacturing technologies for the serial manufacture of aircraft. One of the main challenges for tomorrow' s aircraft industry will be to develop assembly systems that can manage changes within one product. Aircraft manufacturers would also benefit from using the same flexible assembly equipment for many product types, since product volumes in the aircraft industry are much smaller than in other industries.

    This thesis presents the theory of Conventional Tooling and its advantages and limitations, as well as new solutions. Given the advantages from both Conventional Tooling and the new tooling methods, together with general aircraft assembly requirements, a synthesizes has been made which has resulted in a new concept called Affordable Reconfigurable (Assembly) Tooling (ART). ART is based on using a robot to reconfigure the moveable fixturing units, called Dynamic Modules. The Dynamic Modules can also be detached from the Static Framework and attached again in a new configuration. Reconfiguration enables the ART concept to make changeovers between product types within a product family, and modularity enables the tool to be rebuilt between product families. The conclusion of this thesis is that if the enabling technologies work, i.e. if the technical solutions for ART are feasible, then the ART concept could represent a promising solution for manufacturers striving to meet future requirements for aircraft manufacturing in a turbulent globalized marketplace.

  • 213.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reconfigurable tooling for airframe assembly: a state-of-the-art review of the related literature and a short presentation of a new tooling concept2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From the early days of aircraft manufacturing Dedicated Tooling has been used in the assembly process to ensure the attainment of assembly tolerances and product quality. Dedicated Tooling clamps the aircraft parts to be assembled into the jig to enable assembly by riveting. However, increased competition in the aircraft industry has driven the need to improve quality while reducing cost and in turn the need for innovative solutions to accomplish this.

    In this review paper the possibility of using metrology to increase the position accuracy in robotics will be examined. This is necessary to be able to use robotics in assembly of aircraft parts with the appropriate accuracy. Also, because of the small product volumes in the aircraft industry, the jigs must be flexible in order to assemble more than one structure in each jig. Solving these two problems could be the break through for starting to use robotics in aircraft assembly at a higher rate, and doing so in a cost-effective way.

    By then reviewing literature of today's flexible tooling technology in the aircraft industry, the conclusion indicates that there is a gap to fill in aircraft assembly tooling. Modular Tools is one solution where standard aluminium profiles are used to manufacture jigs with some degree of flexibility. Another way is pogo fixturing, which uses sticks to hold airframe parts together in the assembly process. The sticks can only be reconfigured in a limited range, and are not cost-effective. By using Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling, the jigs will not only have greater ability to be reconfigured, but by using robotics for the reconfiguration task as well as for drilling, riveting and other material handling tasks, the system will also be cost effective.

  • 214.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Ingvar
    Novator AB.
    Ennis, Mark
    Novator AB.
    Robotic orbital drilling of structures for aerospace applications2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes ongoing research into orbital drilling using standard industrial robots. The research is a part of an ongoing EU funded aircraft industry project - ADFAST*. Generally it is difficult to use standard industrial robots to automate drilling in the aerospace industry. The stiffness of the standard robotic device is not sufficient to resist the deflections caused by the cutting forces from the drilling process, therefore it is difficult to achieve the tight hole tolerance requirements. Orbital drilling creates lower axial cutting forces compared to conventional drilling and therefore allows the use of low-cost standard industrial robots for drilling holes within the required hole tolerances. This paper presents results from a study where forces, moments and dislocations produced during orbital- and conventional drilling have been measured.

  • 215.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Loser, Raimund
    Leica Geosystems AG.
    6DOF metrology-integrated robot control2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes ongoing research into Metrology-integrated robot control. The research is a part of an ongoing EU funded aircraft industry project – ADFAST*. The ADFAST project tries to implement the use of industrial robots in low-volume production, high-demand-on-accuracy operations and for dynamic force compensation. To detect and compensate deflection in industrial robots during a process, the robot uses a metrology system. The metrology system supervises the tool center point of the robot as it executes its processes. Leica has recently released a new metrology system; the LTD800, which measures distances with laser interferometry and can simultaneously measure orientation of targets, through photogrammetry, using an additional camera on top of the measuring unit. This paper will describe theory and results from tests performed on integrating the LTD800 with the robot.

  • 216.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Loser, Raimund
    Leica Geosystems AG, Metrology Division, Switzerland.
    Cooke, Andrew
    BAE Systems, Advanced Technology Centre, United Kingdom.
    Sunnanbo, Albin
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Von Arb, Konrad
    Leica Geosystems AG, Metrology Division, Switzerland.
    Metrology-integrated industrial robots: calibration, implementation and testing2004In: Proceedings of the 35th ISR (International Symposium on Robotics), 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents integration of a metrology system and an industrial robot. The metrology system consists of a laser tracker that measures the distance to a prism with high accuracy and a camera that through photogrammetry measures the orientation of a reflector. Both laser prism and camera reflector is integrated to a 6D-Reflector that is attached close to the TCP of an industrial robot. Tracker and robot is connected to a PC on a TCP/IP network. The PC takes measurements with the tracker, and thereby compensates the robot to reach high absolute accuracy in the robot positioning (+/-50 μm). The 6D-Reflector has multi-functionality and simplifies calibration procedures. This paper explains the architecture of the system and the methods for calibration.

  • 217.
    Kilbo, Per
    et al.
    Swerea IVF.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ström, Mikael
    Swerea IVF.
    OEM advantages to prosper on the remanufacturingand service market2011In: Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Remanufacturing: July 26-29, Glasgow, UK, 2011, p. 330-336Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 218.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    How World Leading Manufacturers Can Achieve Differentiation Through E-Business: New Services, Enhanced Relationships, and Reduced Costs2007In: 18th Information Resources Management Association International Conference, Vancouver, Canada: Managing Worldwide Operations and Communications with Information Technology, Hershey, New York: IGI Global , 2007, p. 502-506Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-business development is today driven by mature and established companies and is becoming an important tool to increase competitive advantage and to sustain profitability. This paper investigates how world-leading manufacturers can achieve differentiation through their use of e-business. Many companies use e-business as vehicles to launch new information-based service, as an important enabler to enhance and deepen customer relationships, and to reduce costs associated with customer management. Using e-business in this way will increase the opportunities for differentiation and create sustainable competitive advantage. Successful employment of e-business creates services that retain current customers and attract new ones as well as justifies premium prices and keeps low-cost competitors in check.

  • 219.
    Kjellgren, Carina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Larsson, Adéle
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Ledarskap och delaktighet: en fallstudie om ledarskapets betydelse för medarbetarnas delaktighet2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens övergripande syfte är att studera fenomenen ledarskap och delaktighet i en kommunal verksamhet, mer specifik avses att undersöka ledarskapets betydelse för medarbetarnas delaktighet. Avsikten med föreliggande studie är således att studera vad i ledarskapet som ledarna och medarbetarna uppfattar påverkar delaktigheten, och hur dessa faktorer påverkar delaktigheten, stödjande eller hindrande. Den teoretiska referensramen presenterar en forskningsöversikt över ledarskapsforskning, delaktighetsbegreppets komplexitet samt faktorer i ledarskapet som påverkar medarbetarnas delaktighet.

    Empirin har inhämtats genom tio kvalitativa intervjuer på två enheter inom en kommun belägen i Östergötland. Resultaten visar fler olika faktorer i ledarskapet som påverkar medarbetarnas delaktighet. Faktorerna som framkommit i studien som verkar stödjande är; visa intresse, förtroende, tillgänglighet, tillåtande, belöning och engagemang. De faktorer som påverkar både stödjande och hindrande är; relation och kommunikation. Även hur de intervjuade definierar begreppet delaktighet påverkar delaktigheten. Vi kan härleda alla faktorer förutom tillgänglighet till befintlig forskning. Undersökningen visar således att fler faktorer i ledarskapet har betydelse för medarbetarnas delaktighet.

  • 220.
    Kjellsdotter Ivert, Linea
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dreyer, Heidi
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Kaipia, Riikka
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Contingency between S & OP design and planning environment2015In: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 747-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand how companies design sales and operations planning (S&OP) contingent on the planning environment (PE).

    Design/methodology/approach – On the basis of the literature, the paper creates an analytical framework identifying the main constructs related to the PE and S&OP design, which is the basis for gathering and analysing qualitative data from eight cases in the food industry. The findings highlight the relations between S&OP and the PE, and are used for generating three propositions.

    Findings – Responding to the complex and uncertain PE, the companies set up S&OP on a stockkeeping unit (SKU) level, with the possibility of re-planning and a flexible planning horizon, thus differing

    from what has generally been suggested in the literature. In addition, the companies are aligning the inputs, activities, and outcomes of the S&OP process to the PE. Particularly important environmental contingencies are uncertainty connected to demand and supply, frequent product launches, and production network complexity. Product-related variables have a lower impact on the S&OP design.

    Research limitations/implications – The present study is limited to one industry only and a  comparison between industries with larger data sets would be valuable in future studies. The study selected cases based on their S&OP maturity; further studies need to explore the effect of the alignment of S&OP and the PE on the planning performance.

    Originality/value – In the literature, S&OP is presented as a generic process with a strict formal design that is equal for all companies. The study provides insights into how companies adjust S&OP according to the PE.

  • 221.
    Kollberg, Beata
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Balanced Scorecard and Learning in Organisations2002In: Arbete, Människa, Miljö och Nordisk Ergonomi, ISSN 1402-859X, no 1, p. 13-24Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 222.
    Kollberg, Beata
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Balanced Scorecard and Learning in Organisations2002In: Conference Proceedings: Nordic Ergonomic Society (NES), 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 223.
    Kollberg, Beata
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kammerlind, Peter
    Qulturum, Landstinget i Jönköping.
    Henriks, Göran
    Qulturum, Landstinget i Jönköping.
    Development of macro level performance measurementsystems in health care services2010In: 17th International Annual EurOMA Conference Managing Operations in Service Economies: Proceedings papers, Porto: Catholic University of Portugal , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increased interest for performance measurement in health care, few authorshave studied how top managers on a macro level develop performance measurement (PM)systems. The purpose is to identify factors that enable the development of macro level PMsystems in health care. Based on a case study in nine top management teams in Swedishhealth care, four enabling factors are identified: building an infrastructure, using tools forvisualizing measures, selecting useful macro level measures, and expressing the purpose asa means to improve clinical practice rather than the PM system per se.Despite the increased interest for performance measurement in health care, few authorshave studied how top managers on a macro level develop performance measurement (PM)systems. The purpose is to identify factors that enable the development of macro level PMsystems in health care. Based on a case study in nine top management teams in Swedishhealth care, four enabling factors are identified: building an infrastructure, using tools forvisualizing measures, selecting useful macro level measures, and expressing the purpose asa means to improve clinical practice rather than the PM system per se.

  • 224.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service productivity gains through information and communication technology applications: A service marketing approach2008In: International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies, ISSN 1743-8268, E-ISSN 1743-8276, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 96-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on examples from Information and Communication Technology- (ICT-) based improvements in service productivity in the service organisations of three manufacturing firms, this paper argues for a service-centred approach towards productivity. When improving the productivity of industrial services, one of the three profitability-generating strategies, cost-efficiency, revenue effectiveness and capacity utilisation – or a combination – can be used. Increased standardisation and automation is a consequence of technological development, making capacity less a constraint in services and even if ICT applications often primarily improve cost efficiency, the elements improved vary depending on the solution implemented. Thus, ICT can enhance existing service processes and enable new service offerings to increase overall profitability. A productivity model for ICT-based services is presented and it is suggested that central coordination is often required in order to develop ICT-based services.

  • 225.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Design Space Configuration for Minimizing Design Information Entropy2015In: ICoRD’15 - Research into Design Across Boundaries Volume 1: Theory, Research Methodology, Aesthetics, Human Factors and Education / [ed] Amaresh Chakrabarti, New Delhi, India: Springer India , 2015, p. 51-60Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper concepts for quantitative theory of design are developed. The design process is viewed as a process of increasing the information of the product/system using concept from information theory. The creation and evolution of design space and information entropy are central concepts that are studied in this paper. Furthermore, axiomatic design is discussed in relation to this, and it is shown that the two fundamental axioms are likely to be dependent.

    The design information entropy is used as a state that reflects both complexity and refinement, and it is argued that it can be useful as some measure of design effort and design quality. It provides a tool to describe the relation between a design, and the design space from which it is derived as well as for quantitative description for various aspects of design, both structural information regarding architecture and connectivity, as well as for parameter values, both discrete and continuous. In this paper it is also shown to be useful as a measure of quality when configuring design spaces, such as in  product platforms, and when setting up parameterization for design.

  • 226.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Henriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Denzler, Patrick
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Zachrisson, Mats
    Swerea IVF, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bjelkemyr, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Production system and material efficiency challenges for large scale introduction of complex materials2017In: Advanced Materials Proceedings, ISSN 2002-4428, Vol. 2, no 8, p. 492-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper links production system research to advanced material research for the vehicle industry. Facilitated by need for reduction of fuel use, the automotive industry is pushing a radical change from using steel structures to new mixed materials structures. In production systems optimised for steel, the changes will affect productivity and material efficiency. Four industrial case studies focusing on production economy and productivity give implications of production technology demands on the material selection regarding new joining techniques and additive or forming methods which has to be investigated when considering new materials. Material efficiency analysis shows that minimising spill in production operations and regulatory demand of recycling need to be considered in material development, which implies both design for disassembly, advanced separation processes and use of recycled raw materials. To be successful in new material introduction, new information flows and knowledge sharing moving from operations and manufacturing development to materials development and design are needed. The material developers could use axiomatic design strategies to structure the production system demands on the materials. State of the art lightweight producers in vehicle and automotive industry are likely early adopters to advanced lightweight structures with need of information flows between material development and operations.

  • 227.
    Kurilova, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Remanufacturing challenges and possible lean improvements2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 3225-3236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is a viable way to prolong the useful life of an end-of-use product or its parts. Despite its economic, environmental, and social benefits, remanufacturing is associated with many challenges related to core (used product or its part) availability, timing and quality. The aim of this paper is to study how lean production could be used to tackle remanufacturing process challenges and contribute to shorter lead times. To meet this aim, we conducted a literature review and case studies of four remanufacturing companies. The case companies remanufacturing challenges were: (1) a lack of material requirements planning system, (2) poor core information, (3) a lack of core material, (4) poor spare parts information, (5) a lack of spare parts material, (6) insufficient quality management practices, (7) large inventories, (8) stochastic remanufacturing processes, (9) a lack of supply-demand balance, and (10) insufficient automation. These challenges contribute to long and variable remanufacturing process lead times. To tackle remanufacturing challenges, seven lean-based improvements with a major effect on improvements in lead time were suggested: standard operations, continuous flow, Kanban, teamwork, employee cross-training, layout for continuous flow, and supplier partnership. Providing that the suggested improvements are implemented, a possible lead time reduction of 83-99 per cent was projected. 

  • 228.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lean Remanufacturing: addressing system challenges2015In: Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Environmental Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing (Eco-Design -15), 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with remanufacturing is emphasized through delivering same or better than original product quality and prolonging physical product performance. However, remanufacturing faces challenges related to complex material and information flows. Therefore in order to sustain competitive some remanufacturers investigate opportunity to improve through lean production.

    The aim with this paper is to define remanufacturing challenges from a system perspective and investigate how these challenges can be addressed by lean production principles. Data is collected via focus group interviews at three remanufacturing companies. In addition, a literature study on lean principles and practices to deal with the identified challenges was conducted.

    The lean principles in remanufacturing: value, value stream, flow, pull and perfection are described and five remanufacturing system challenges: uncertainty, complexity, variability, inflexibility, lean waste were defined. As a result, a generic lean approach to deal with remanufacturing system challenges is developed with a focus on pull-based remanufacturing.

  • 229.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lean Remanufacturing: Reducing Process Lead Time2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is a product recovery option in which used products are brought back into useful life. While the remanufacturing industry stretches from heavy machinery to automotive parts, furniture, and IT sectors, it faces challenges. A majority of these challenges originate from the remanufacturing characteristics of having little control over the core (the used product or its part), high product variation, low product volumes, and a high proportion of manual work, when compared to manufacturing. Some remanufacturing challenges appear to be process challenges that prolong process lead time, making remanufacturing process inefficient.

    Lean is an improvement strategy with roots in the manufacturing industry. Lean helps to increase customer satisfaction, reduce costs, and improve company’s performance in delivery, quality, inventory, morale, safety, and other areas. Lean encompasses principles, tools and practices to deal with e.g. inefficient processes and long process lead times. Therefore, in this thesis lean has been selected as an improvement strategy to deal with long remanufacturing process lead times.

    The objective of this thesis is to expand knowledge on how lean can reduce remanufacturing process lead time. This objective is approached through literature studies and a case study conducted at four remanufacturing companies. There are five challenges that contribute to long process lead time: unpredictable core quality, quantity, and timing; weak collaboration, information exchange, and miscommunication; high inventory levels; unknown number of required operations in process and process sequence; and insufficient employee skills for process and product upgrade. When analysing the case companies’ process lead times it was found that there is a need to reduce waiting times, which account for 95 to 99 per cent of process lead times at three of the four companies.

    To improve remanufacturing process efficiency and reduce remanufacturing process lead time six lean practices are suggested: product families; kanban; layout for continuous flow; cross functional teams; standard operating procedures; and supplier partnerships. The suggested lean practices have a key focus on reducing waiting time since it prolongs the process lead time. This thesis contributes to lean remanufacturing research with the case study findings on lean practices to reduce remanufacturing process lead time and increase process efficiency.

    List of papers
    1. Challenges and Opportunities of Lean Remanufacturing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges and Opportunities of Lean Remanufacturing
    2014 (English)In: International Journal of Automation Technology, ISSN 1881-7629, E-ISSN 1883-8022, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 644-652Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Lean philosophy, which promotes business excellence through continuous improvement, originates from the Japanese car manufacturer, Toyota’s Production System (TPS). An area where lean has not been fully explored is remanufacturing, a process that brings used products back to useful life. Remanufacturing is often a more complex process than manufacturing due to the uncertainty of process steps/time and part quality/quantity. This study explored remanufacturing by identifying its challenges and opportunities in becoming lean. The challenges of a lean remanufacturing system do not exceed its advantages. Although some researchers state that it is difficult or even impossible to apply lean principles to remanufacturing, this research utilizes lean as a continuous improvement philosophy that focuses on improving the remanufactured products’ quality, process lead times, and inventory levels. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Fuji Technology Press, 2014
    Keywords
    lean, remanufacturing, product life cycle, continuous improvement
    National Category
    Other Civil Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120764 (URN)
    Projects
    ÅterProdukt, KEAP
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer
    2014 (English)In: Proceedings of Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Material and information flows are often complex at remanufacturing companies. Minimum time for Material and Information Flows Analysis (MiniMifa) is a data collection workshop in which material and information flows’ challenges and improvement opportunities are investigated. By carrying the idea of Value Stream Mapping (VSM), MiniMifa turns to an act of cartography of industrial processes. After the workshop, companies have a holistic view of their processes, the current “pains” - challenges, and possible “painkillers” – improvement ideas, including lean-inspired solutions.

    This paper demonstrates a pilot MiniMifa at a forklift truck remanufacturer where a potential improvement in e.g. lead time reduction by 93% was discovered.

    Keywords
    Remanufacturing, Lean, Material and Information Flows, Data collection workshop, Process map
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118270 (URN)
    Conference
    Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), September 16-18, 2014, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer
    2015 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 26, p. 270-275Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Together with reuse and material recycling, remanufacturing has emerged as a sustainable approach for used products. Remanufacturing is more complex than manufacturing, due to the uncertainties in material and information flows inside the remanufacturing facility and along the product life-cycle. Therefore, some remanufacturers intend to use lean production principles and philosophies to deal with this complexity and to improve their operations. The aim of this paper is to identify reasons for possible material and information flow uncertainties and develop lean-inspired solution at a German engine remanufacturer. The empirical data were collected via a Material and Information Flow Analysis workshop. The reasons for missing, late, defective and non-available spare parts as well as disrupted, uneven, chaotic and inaccessible information flows are identified. Finally, a lean pull Kanban reordering system is suggested and recognized to be a proper solution to remanufacturing complexity.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Remanufacturing, Product life-cycle, Lean, Pull, Kanban
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118272 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2014.07.187 (DOI)000360931800048 ()
    Conference
    12th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing - Emerging Potentials, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, 22–24 September 2014
    Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Remanufacturing lead time reduction through a Just-in-time Lean strategy: a case study on Laptops
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remanufacturing lead time reduction through a Just-in-time Lean strategy: a case study on Laptops
    2017 (English)In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference onRemanufacturing (ICOR17), 2017, p. 47-56Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual accumulation of electronic equipment waste, including IT, in the European Union reached at least nine million tons in 2015. These products usually have a limited lifespan, and many consumers tend to buy new devices before their old ones stop working.

    Remanufacturing is one of the effective ways to contribute to IT waste reduction. Product life extension through remanufacturing gives the product one or several more users throughout its life cycle. When remanufacturing is applied to laptops, the extraction of virgin materials, the energy consumption for manufacturing and the amount of waste are all reduced. However, today many remanufacturers of IT face challenges associated with inefficient and complex processes due to uncertainties in core timing, volume and quality. Lean remanufacturing is typically treated as an operations improvement strategy that deals with the process challenges. Just-in-time is one of the lean strategies to address inefficient, long and stochastic operations. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate how just-in-time can help to reduce remanufacturing process lead time, and consequently increase process efficiency.

    The data was collected through a focus group interview and a simplified Value Stream Mapping lean method at an IT remanufacturing company. The company’s remanufacturing process is assessed regarding process lead time and efficiency. Based on the case company's process challenges, the following possible just-in-time solutions were developed for remanufacturers: cellular layout, distinct product family flows and Kanban reordering system.

    Keywords
    Recovering, Laptops, Lean, Just-in-time solutions, Process efficiency
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142345 (URN)
    Conference
    3rd International Conference on Remanufacturing ICOR-17, Linköping, Sweden, October 24-26, 2017
    Available from: 2017-10-27 Created: 2017-10-27 Last updated: 2019-04-02Bibliographically approved
    5. Lean improvements in remanufacturing: solving information flow challenges
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lean improvements in remanufacturing: solving information flow challenges
    2017 (English)In: QMOD proceedings, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - One efficient way to prolong the functional life of used products is remanufacturing. Compared to manufacturing, remanufacturing is a complex industrial process due to among other things high product variability, low production volumes and uncertain quality of returned used products. Remanufacturers are dependent on product information from Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM), but that information is often not shared. Remanufacturers struggle to access or develop lacking product information and need a strategy to address information flow challenges. Lean could be a suitable strategy to improve the information flow. Therefore, the purpose of the paper is to identify and suggest Lean improvements to address remanufacturer’s information flow challenges.

    Methodology/Approach - Based on a case study of a filling machine remanufacturer, this paper discusses the information flow challenges and Lean-based solutions. The data was collected through a three-hour focus group interview combined with a Value Stream Mapping (VSM) method with the participation of seven company employees representing sales, logistics, quality, maintenance and production departments.

    Findings - Two key information flow challenges were identified at the company: a lack of available product data and miscommunication with the OEM, and poor internal information sharing. The analysis of the identified challenges and improvement ideas created a platform for developing Lean-based solutions:1) developing standard operations through instruction checklists and kitting areas;2) boosting supplier and customer relations through six best partnering practices; and3) developing people and teams through teamwork and training.

    Originality/Value of paper – All industries have their own specific challenges and development needs. This paper focuses on information flow challenges in remanufacturing. Original product information is often not shared, even when the remanufacturer has a contract with the OEM. Only few remanufacturers work with Lean today, but Lean could be a strategy to address the information flow challenges. This paper contributes to the knowledge on how Lean could be applied in the remanufacturing context.

    Keywords
    Lean remanufacturing, Information flow, Challenges, Improvements
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142344 (URN)
    Conference
    20th QMOD conference, Copenhagen/Elsinore, Denmark and Helsingborg, Sweden, 5-7 August, 2017
    Available from: 2017-10-27 Created: 2017-10-27 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
    6. Towards facilitating circular product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards facilitating circular product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing
    2015 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 29, p. 780-785Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve a sustainable development, circular economy approaches and circular material flows are explored in industry. However, circular information flows remain essentially unestablished. The aim of this paper is to: 1) explore categories and types of product life-cycle information available for remanufacturing; 2) identify constraints for efficient product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing; and 3) propose initiatives to facilitate product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing.

    Data was collected through workshops and interviews at five remanufacturing companies. An accumulated Sankey diagram illustrates product life-cycle information flow, losses and bottleneck. Based on the analysis, possible initiatives to facilitate efficient product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing are presented.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Remanufacturing; Product life-cycle stackeholder; Feedback; Feed forward; Sankey diagram
    National Category
    Other Civil Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120761 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2015.02.162 (DOI)000356146100132 ()
    Conference
    22nd CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering (LCE), Univ New S Wales, Sydney, AUSTRALIA, April 7-9, 2015
    Projects
    Återprodukt, KEAP2
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
    7. Remanufacturing challenges and possible lean improvements
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remanufacturing challenges and possible lean improvements
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 3225-3236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is a viable way to prolong the useful life of an end-of-use product or its parts. Despite its economic, environmental, and social benefits, remanufacturing is associated with many challenges related to core (used product or its part) availability, timing and quality. The aim of this paper is to study how lean production could be used to tackle remanufacturing process challenges and contribute to shorter lead times. To meet this aim, we conducted a literature review and case studies of four remanufacturing companies. The case companies remanufacturing challenges were: (1) a lack of material requirements planning system, (2) poor core information, (3) a lack of core material, (4) poor spare parts information, (5) a lack of spare parts material, (6) insufficient quality management practices, (7) large inventories, (8) stochastic remanufacturing processes, (9) a lack of supply-demand balance, and (10) insufficient automation. These challenges contribute to long and variable remanufacturing process lead times. To tackle remanufacturing challenges, seven lean-based improvements with a major effect on improvements in lead time were suggested: standard operations, continuous flow, Kanban, teamwork, employee cross-training, layout for continuous flow, and supplier partnership. Providing that the suggested improvements are implemented, a possible lead time reduction of 83-99 per cent was projected. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2018
    Keywords
    Remanufacturing; Circular economy; Lean production; Lead time
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144880 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.11.023 (DOI)000423002500020 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems [2013-03333]

    Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2018-05-17
  • 230.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer2014In: Proceedings of Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Material and information flows are often complex at remanufacturing companies. Minimum time for Material and Information Flows Analysis (MiniMifa) is a data collection workshop in which material and information flows’ challenges and improvement opportunities are investigated. By carrying the idea of Value Stream Mapping (VSM), MiniMifa turns to an act of cartography of industrial processes. After the workshop, companies have a holistic view of their processes, the current “pains” - challenges, and possible “painkillers” – improvement ideas, including lean-inspired solutions.

    This paper demonstrates a pilot MiniMifa at a forklift truck remanufacturer where a potential improvement in e.g. lead time reduction by 93% was discovered.

  • 231.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Remanufacturing: Challenges and Opportunities to be Lean2013In: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2013 International Symposium, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The lean philosophy, which denotes business excellence through continuous improvement, originates from Japanese car manufacturer Toyota’s Production System (TPS). An area where lean is not fully explored is remanufacturing, a business that brings used products back to useful life. Remanufacturing is often a more complex process than manufacturing due to uncertainty of process steps/time and part quality/quantity.This paper has explored remanufacturing by revealing its challenges and opportunities to be lean. The identified challenges to work with lean do not overcome the advantages of a lean remanufacturing system. Even though some researches state that it is difficult or even impossible to apply lean to remanufacturing, this research recovers lean as a continuous improvement philosophy that not only works for manufacturing but also for remanufacturing.

  • 232.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Remanufacturing lead time reduction through a Just-in-time Lean strategy: a case study on Laptops2017In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference onRemanufacturing (ICOR17), 2017, p. 47-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual accumulation of electronic equipment waste, including IT, in the European Union reached at least nine million tons in 2015. These products usually have a limited lifespan, and many consumers tend to buy new devices before their old ones stop working.

    Remanufacturing is one of the effective ways to contribute to IT waste reduction. Product life extension through remanufacturing gives the product one or several more users throughout its life cycle. When remanufacturing is applied to laptops, the extraction of virgin materials, the energy consumption for manufacturing and the amount of waste are all reduced. However, today many remanufacturers of IT face challenges associated with inefficient and complex processes due to uncertainties in core timing, volume and quality. Lean remanufacturing is typically treated as an operations improvement strategy that deals with the process challenges. Just-in-time is one of the lean strategies to address inefficient, long and stochastic operations. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate how just-in-time can help to reduce remanufacturing process lead time, and consequently increase process efficiency.

    The data was collected through a focus group interview and a simplified Value Stream Mapping lean method at an IT remanufacturing company. The company’s remanufacturing process is assessed regarding process lead time and efficiency. Based on the case company's process challenges, the following possible just-in-time solutions were developed for remanufacturers: cellular layout, distinct product family flows and Kanban reordering system.

  • 233.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer2015In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 26, p. 270-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Together with reuse and material recycling, remanufacturing has emerged as a sustainable approach for used products. Remanufacturing is more complex than manufacturing, due to the uncertainties in material and information flows inside the remanufacturing facility and along the product life-cycle. Therefore, some remanufacturers intend to use lean production principles and philosophies to deal with this complexity and to improve their operations. The aim of this paper is to identify reasons for possible material and information flow uncertainties and develop lean-inspired solution at a German engine remanufacturer. The empirical data were collected via a Material and Information Flow Analysis workshop. The reasons for missing, late, defective and non-available spare parts as well as disrupted, uneven, chaotic and inaccessible information flows are identified. Finally, a lean pull Kanban reordering system is suggested and recognized to be a proper solution to remanufacturing complexity.

  • 234.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poksińska, Bonnie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lean improvements in remanufacturing: solving information flow challenges2017In: QMOD proceedings, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - One efficient way to prolong the functional life of used products is remanufacturing. Compared to manufacturing, remanufacturing is a complex industrial process due to among other things high product variability, low production volumes and uncertain quality of returned used products. Remanufacturers are dependent on product information from Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM), but that information is often not shared. Remanufacturers struggle to access or develop lacking product information and need a strategy to address information flow challenges. Lean could be a suitable strategy to improve the information flow. Therefore, the purpose of the paper is to identify and suggest Lean improvements to address remanufacturer’s information flow challenges.

    Methodology/Approach - Based on a case study of a filling machine remanufacturer, this paper discusses the information flow challenges and Lean-based solutions. The data was collected through a three-hour focus group interview combined with a Value Stream Mapping (VSM) method with the participation of seven company employees representing sales, logistics, quality, maintenance and production departments.

    Findings - Two key information flow challenges were identified at the company: a lack of available product data and miscommunication with the OEM, and poor internal information sharing. The analysis of the identified challenges and improvement ideas created a platform for developing Lean-based solutions:1) developing standard operations through instruction checklists and kitting areas;2) boosting supplier and customer relations through six best partnering practices; and3) developing people and teams through teamwork and training.

    Originality/Value of paper – All industries have their own specific challenges and development needs. This paper focuses on information flow challenges in remanufacturing. Original product information is often not shared, even when the remanufacturer has a contract with the OEM. Only few remanufacturers work with Lean today, but Lean could be a strategy to address the information flow challenges. This paper contributes to the knowledge on how Lean could be applied in the remanufacturing context.

  • 235.
    Kurilova-Pališaitienė, Jelena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Toward Lean Remanufacturing: Challenges and Improvements in Material and Information Flows2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is an environmentally sound material recovery option which is essential to compete for sustainable manufacturing. The aim with remanufacturing at a majority of companies is to prolong physical product performance by delivering the same or betterthan-original product quality. In general, remanufacturing is an industrial process that brings used products back to useful life by requiring less effort than is demanded by the initial production process. Consequently, from a product life-cycle perspective, remanufacturing generates great product value.

    Remanufacturers lag behind manufacturers since they often face complex and unpredictable material and information flows. Based on a review of remanufacturing research, remanufacturing challenges in material and information flows can be classified into three groups: insufficient product quality, long and unstable process lead times, and an unpredictable level of inventory. While some remanufacturing researchers state that manufacturing and remanufacturing are significantly different, they have more in common than many other processes operations. Therefore, to sustain competitive remanufacturing, companies investigate an opportunity for improvement through the employment of lean production that generates significant benefits for manufacturers.

    In order to investigate the potential to address remanufacturing challenges by lean production, a Minimum time for material and information flow analysis (MiniMifa) method was developed. This method originates from the value stream mapping (VSM) method, broadly practiced to bring lean to manufacturing companies. The focus of MiniMifa was to collect empirical data on the identified groups of remanufacturing challenges from the remanufacturing perspective, and to provide a basis for the development of improvements originating from lean principles.

    Lean production was selected for this research due to its system perspective on material and information flows. Among the defined lean principles in remanufacturing, a pull principle was investigated at the case companies. The suggested principle demonstrated a reduction in lead time, followed by improvements in inventory level and product quality. However, in order to become lean, remanufacturers have to overcome three levels of lean remanufacturing challenges: external and internal challenges as well as lean wastes.

    Finally, this research reduces the gap between academia and industry by contributing with a possible solution to the identified remanufacturing challenges in material and information flows.

    List of papers
    1. Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer
    2014 (English)In: Proceedings of Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Material and information flows are often complex at remanufacturing companies. Minimum time for Material and Information Flows Analysis (MiniMifa) is a data collection workshop in which material and information flows’ challenges and improvement opportunities are investigated. By carrying the idea of Value Stream Mapping (VSM), MiniMifa turns to an act of cartography of industrial processes. After the workshop, companies have a holistic view of their processes, the current “pains” - challenges, and possible “painkillers” – improvement ideas, including lean-inspired solutions.

    This paper demonstrates a pilot MiniMifa at a forklift truck remanufacturer where a potential improvement in e.g. lead time reduction by 93% was discovered.

    Keywords
    Remanufacturing, Lean, Material and Information Flows, Data collection workshop, Process map
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118270 (URN)
    Conference
    Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), September 16-18, 2014, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer
    2015 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 26, p. 270-275Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Together with reuse and material recycling, remanufacturing has emerged as a sustainable approach for used products. Remanufacturing is more complex than manufacturing, due to the uncertainties in material and information flows inside the remanufacturing facility and along the product life-cycle. Therefore, some remanufacturers intend to use lean production principles and philosophies to deal with this complexity and to improve their operations. The aim of this paper is to identify reasons for possible material and information flow uncertainties and develop lean-inspired solution at a German engine remanufacturer. The empirical data were collected via a Material and Information Flow Analysis workshop. The reasons for missing, late, defective and non-available spare parts as well as disrupted, uneven, chaotic and inaccessible information flows are identified. Finally, a lean pull Kanban reordering system is suggested and recognized to be a proper solution to remanufacturing complexity.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Remanufacturing, Product life-cycle, Lean, Pull, Kanban
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118272 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2014.07.187 (DOI)000360931800048 ()
    Conference
    12th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing - Emerging Potentials, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, 22–24 September 2014
    Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Challenges and Opportunities of Lean Remanufacturing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges and Opportunities of Lean Remanufacturing
    2014 (English)In: International Journal of Automation Technology, ISSN 1881-7629, E-ISSN 1883-8022, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 644-652Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Lean philosophy, which promotes business excellence through continuous improvement, originates from the Japanese car manufacturer, Toyota’s Production System (TPS). An area where lean has not been fully explored is remanufacturing, a process that brings used products back to useful life. Remanufacturing is often a more complex process than manufacturing due to the uncertainty of process steps/time and part quality/quantity. This study explored remanufacturing by identifying its challenges and opportunities in becoming lean. The challenges of a lean remanufacturing system do not exceed its advantages. Although some researchers state that it is difficult or even impossible to apply lean principles to remanufacturing, this research utilizes lean as a continuous improvement philosophy that focuses on improving the remanufactured products’ quality, process lead times, and inventory levels. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Fuji Technology Press, 2014
    Keywords
    lean, remanufacturing, product life cycle, continuous improvement
    National Category
    Other Civil Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120764 (URN)
    Projects
    ÅterProdukt, KEAP
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
  • 236.
    Källmar, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson Sundqvist, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integration of Environmental Aspects in Product Development and Ship Design2013In: Re-engineering Manufacturing for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 20th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Singapore 17-19 April, 2013 / [ed] Andrew Y. C. Nee, Bin Song and Soh-Khim Ong, Singapore: Springer, 2013, p. 41-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ship recycling is a pressing issue to handle due to bad conditions in South Asian countries. The objective of this paper isto explore how to integrate environmental aspects, especially recycling, in the product development process of ships atKockums AB by developing and proposing an implementation of a tool, document and/or method. As a result, a Long-termEnvironmental Action Plan (LEAP) including 18 actions was developed. The proposed way of implementing LEAP wasthrough plan-do-act-check methodology by a systematic integration of ecodesign. LEAP includes tools, documents andmethods that are to be used in daily work and product development.

  • 237.
    Lakemond Ebbers, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Ingenjörshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Ingenjörshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    From product development to production - on the complexity of geographical and organizational dispersion2006In: R and D Management Conference,2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 238.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Johansson, Glenn
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    A model for managing interfaces between technology development, product development and production2007In: RD Management Conference,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 239.
    Landgren, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Tjernström, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Förbättrat informationsflöde för ökad synkronisering och kostnadseffektivitet i försörjningskedjan – en fallstudie2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Slut i hyllan-problematiken är en fråga som aktualiserats i dagligvaruhandeln i allt högre grad det senaste året. I takt med att konkurrensen ökar och marginalerna minskar måste lagernivåer pressas. Det här sker så småningom på bekostnad av servicegraden. Problemet har visat sig särskilt stort i samband med kampanjer. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att kartlägga informationsflödet i försörjnings-planeringen mellan en leverantör och en grossist i dagligvarubranschen samt att se hur detta flöde kan förbättras för att hög servicegrad ska kunna uppnås utan alltför höga lager. Arbetet är utfört som en fallstudie på Findus och Ica med Findus laxfilé naturell som modellprodukt.

    Kartläggningen av informationsflödet i planeringsprocessen har visat på ett komplext flöde där många personer och funktionella enheter från båda företag är inblandade. Undersökningen har också identifierat ett antal svagheter som gör att servicegrad och kostnadseffektivitet försämras.

    De problem vi ser grundar sig främst i de ingående aktörernas bristande medvetenhet om försörjningskedjans förutsättningar och begränsningar. Detta leder till att förståelse för vilken information som är viktig att förmedla saknas. Vidare saknar processen en tydlig struktur där flera prognoser görs oberoende av varandra med olika underlag och med olika syften. Resultatet blir en hög osäkerhet vilken måste hanteras med säkerhetslager. Undersökningen har visat att kostnadsfokus är svagt i förhållande till servicegrad vilket riskerar försörjningskedjans kostnad-seffektivitet

    Vi tror att en ökad integration i en enkel och tydligt strukturerad planeringsprocess skulle kunna förbättra servicegraden och kostnadseffektiviteten. En ökad medvetenhet om försörjningskedjans förutsättningar och kostsamma flexibilitet skulle göra fördelarna med informationsdelning tydligare. Att använda balanserade styrmått som belyser försörjningskedjans synkronisering såväl som kostnads-effektivitet minskar risken för att problem döljs med höga lager.

    Våra slutsatser visar att det finns en klar förbättringspotential i informationsflödet; förändringar skulle bidra till en högre servicegrad till en lägre kostnad.

  • 240.
    Landstedt, John
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics.
    Karlsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics.
    Transportation through the Scandria Corridor: A sustainable transport concept between the Adriatic Sea and Scandinavia2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Scandria Corridor is the shortest way between the Adriatic Sea and the Baltic Sea and stretches from the harbors in the Adriatic Sea to Scandinavia, with branches to Stockholm and Oslo. By offering the shortest route it should be an area in focus for transporting goods. But a large share of European freight traffic goes through the western parts and most main development routes are in east-west connections. Indications have however been made that higher amounts of goods will enter the European market through the harbors in the Mediterranean Sea. As Western Europe is already crowded and congestion is a problem the Scandria Corridor offers new routes with free capacity and shorter south-north connections.

    An immediate problem of European freight traffic is the large use of trucks as means of transportation. As trucks causing large negative environment affects such as high emission levels, congestion on roads and deterioration of the infrastructure the European Union promotes use of other transport concepts. But the alternatives, railway and inland waterway transports, faces different kinds of barriers making them less competitive which obstructs their implementation.

    The information above leads to the thesis purpose “to suggest a sustainable and innovative concept for transporting goods applicable in the Scandria Corridor.” To be sustainable the concept should be future considerate (consider changes in transport conditions), feasible (achieve competitive customer service at reasonable costs) and environmentally friendly (less negative environmental affects than the alternatives). Innovative translates as being open-minded when it comes to combining and implementing ideas, concepts and methods.

    Through a mapping of the infrastructure in the corridor, conditions for the transport methods and customer values the conclusion can be drawn that railway transportation is the best option for transportation in the Scandria Corridor. There are however some barriers that obstruct the set-up of the concept and what route that should be used. A large barrier is the complexity of cross-border transport in Europe because of several different railway electrification systems. Another large barrier is different train control systems that calls for large investments in trains compatible with all systems crossed and staff educated in each system. Another barrier is the low standard of railway tracks in Eastern Europe.

    A mapping of customer values informs that the price is the most important aspect followed by the delivery dependability, given that the lead time is similar to the alternatives. Flexibility is important to some but for most the aspects above are more important. Low environmental affects is important to all parties but no one wants to pay to achieve it. Through analysis of the mapping with support of the theories train needs to offer a lower price than truck alternatives offer to be competitive due to trucks flexibility and ability to reach all destinations. Furthermore train has better possibilities in profitable the longer the distance is.

    Goods flows are studied for the northern Adriatic ports which give that Trieste, Venice and Koper handles the largest volumes. But the amounts of goods between the ports and northern parts of the corridor are probably too low to use one port as the south end point of the concept. Instead a strategic location like Villach (Austria) or Verona (Italy) is better suited as they can work as funnels for larger areas. The solution with a funnel seems to be the best solution for Scandinavia where Trelleborg can be the north end point as a rail ferry from Rostock, suitable for the transport from Germany to Sweden, enters the port of Trelleborg. From Trelleborg goods can be spread to other parts of Scandinavia mainly through branches to Oslo and Stockholm.

    To be sustainable a train concept needs a high fill rate in both directions. To get a high fill rate loading points can be used between the end points. Through a mapping of goods flow between Sweden and regions in the corridor suitable loading points tend to be Berlin (Germany), Munich (Germany) and Vienna (Austria). It is the demand of transport that decides how many loading points that should be used but the fewer the better since they increases the costs and lead time.

    The suggested concept is a train line with green trucks as back-up to irregular demands and problems on railway tracks. Three different concept routes are presented in the thesis.

    The concepts could be arranged in order of implementation. Concept 1 probably has the best chance of getting a high fill rate but the competition is hard on the route. If concept 2 is ready for implementation depends on the demand of transport on this route. When the goods flows are large enough it would probably be a better option because of the few electrification systems and train control systems crossed. Concept 3 is more of a concept for the future, due to many barriers. By using this route bottlenecks and congestion can be avoided.

  • 241.
    Langstrand, Jostein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An introduction to value stream mapping and analysis2016Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Value stream mapping (VSM) is a method for illustrating and analyzing the logic of a production process. The terminology stems  from the metaphor of the production process as a steady stream of products where value is added for each step that the products take down stream. This metaphor and the  terminology also strengthen the notion of continuous flow as the ultimate form of production–at least in terms of efficiency...

  • 242.
    Langstrand, Jostein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring organizational translation: A case study of changes toward Lean Production2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean Production has received massive attention during recent years, and many organizations attempt to introduce it with an ambition to reach the radical improvement effects that are promised in the popular management literature. However, introducing a management concept can be a very challenging task, and research has shown that the majority of such initiatives fail. A common observation is that the outcome of a change initiative differs from its initial intentions, which indicates that the content of the change is somehow transformed during the process. This kind of transformation can be described as organizational translation.

    The purpose of the thesis is to provide an account of how processes of organizational translation transpire and to analyze and identify the main determinants of their outcome.

    The thesis is based on a longitudinal case study that has focused on the introduction of the management concept Lean in a large Swedish manufacturing company. The study has been performed in two phases. In the first phase, a series of retrospective interviews have been performed with employees at all hierarchical levels within the company. The second phase of the study has been based on a prospective approach. This phase has comprised a combination of interviews, observations and document studies, with focus on a pilot project within the company. The study was performed between 2007 and 2011 and covers events between 2003 and 2011.

    By analyzing the changes from a translation perspective, the thesis contributes to explore the meaning of organizational translation and the mechanisms through which Lean is materialized and developed into organizational practice.

    Three types of organizational translation are presented in the thesis. These are defined as the activities and processes through which Lean is translated to a local set of ideas, practices and objects, respectively. It is suggested that these three entities and the corresponding forms of translation interact and together influence how people behave, which in turn will affect the results of the change initiative. This implies that all three types of organizational translation need to be addressed for a change initiative to be successful. Further, the suggested change must be translated so that it is represented in physical objects, people’s understanding and organizational practice. Lack of alignment between these three entities will create tension, which will likely hinder change and increase the risk of failure.

    List of papers
    1. Defining lean production: some conceptual and practical issues
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defining lean production: some conceptual and practical issues
    2009 (English)In: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, E-ISSN 1754-274X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 127-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the definition of lean production and the methods and goals associated with the concept as well as how it differs from other popular management concepts. '

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a review of the contemporary literature on lean production, both journal articles and books.

    Findings – It is shown in the paper that there is no consensus on a definition of lean production between the examined authors. The authors also seem to have different opinions on which characteristics should be associated with the concept. Overall it can be concluded that lean production is not clearly defined in the reviewed literature. This divergence can cause some confusion on a theoretical level, but is probably more problematic on a practical level when organizations aim to implement the concept. This paper argues that it is important for an organization to acknowledge the different variations, and to raise the awareness of the input in the implementation process. It is further argued that the organization should not accept any random variant of lean, but make active choices and adapt the concept to suit the organization's needs. Through this process of adaptation, the organization will be able to increase the odds of performing a predictable and successful implementation.

    Originality/value – This paper provides a critical perspective on the discourse surrounding lean production, and gives an input to the discussion of the implementation of management models.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2009
    Keywords
    Lean Production, Quality Management, Definition
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18419 (URN)10.1108/17542730910938137 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-05-26 Created: 2009-05-26 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Quality Improvement activities in Swedish industry: drivers, approaches and outcomes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality Improvement activities in Swedish industry: drivers, approaches and outcomes
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 206-216Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to present and discuss the current state of quality-improvement activities in Swedish companies. The paper focuses on the drivers for quality improvement; types of approaches, tools and techniques, and organizational aspects influenced by quality improvement; and potential areas for improvement.

    Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents results from a survey on quality improvement work in Swedish industry. Data for this paper were collected using a web-based questionnaire that was distributed to 800 production managers working in Swedish service and manufacturing organizations. Of the 800 questionnaires sent, a total of 118 questionnaires were filled out, which resulted in a response rate of 16 percent.

    Findings – The result shows that the major drivers for quality improvement work in Swedish industry are economical aspects as the need for cost reduction, the need to become more competitive and the wish to increase market share. Drivers such as pressure from shareholders and trends in management have a minor role. The underlying approaches for quality improvement work are standards such as ISO 9000 and ISO 14000. A total of 72 percent of respondents stated that they work with quality management systems; 59 percent, with environmental management systems. The aspects that were most positively influenced by the improvement work were employee motivation, customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, product/service quality, and flow in internal processes.

    Research limitations/implications – Empirical results obtained in Sweden may differ to some extent in other countries.

    Practical implications – This paper is intended as a source of inspiration for researchers, consultants, and managers who are interested in the current trends and future developments in the quality field.

    Originality/value – The paper provides valuable insights into the current state of quality improvement activities in Swedish industry, as seen from the perspective of the production manager.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald, 2010
    Keywords
    Quality improvement, Quality standards, Total quality management
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-62694 (URN)10.1108/17566691011057366 (DOI)
    Available from: 2010-12-02 Created: 2010-12-02 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Non-human resistance in changes towards lean
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-human resistance in changes towards lean
    2012 (English)In: Journal of Organizational Change Management, ISSN 0953-4814, E-ISSN 1758-7816, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 853-866Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The importance of social issues is well established in the literature on resistance to change. However, much can be gained by including physical objects in the analysis. Using actor-network theory, this paper aims to explore the resistance of non-human actors in organizational change and contribute to an expanded understanding of resistance to change. Design/methodology/approach: The article is based on a longitudinal case study of the introduction of lean in a large Swedish manufacturing company. The empirical basis consists of interviews, observations and document studies. Actor-network theory is used as a theoretical lens to identify non-human resistance to change. Findings: The paper proposes that non-human actors can inhibit change through a lack of alignment with the overall change initiative. This may cause large variation in the interpretation of the proposed change and a lengthy process of construction and negotiation. The paper provides examples of four different types of non-human resistance that result from this lack of alignment. Practical implications: It is proposed that change initiatives need to be aligned with existing practice and anchored in objects that are integrated in organizational routines. The four types of non-human resistance presented in the paper may be used as a checklist to reduce the risk of failure. Originality/value: The predominant focus on social issues tends to disregard the impact of the physical environment in change processes. Actor-network theory and the inclusion of the physical environment will help to expand and improve the understanding of resistance to change.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012
    Keywords
    Actor-network theory; Change; Change management; Lean production; Manufacturing industries; Resistance; Sociotechnical change; Sweden
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75353 (URN)10.1108/09534811211280609 (DOI)
    Note

    On the day of the defence day the status of this article was: Manuscript

    Available from: 2012-02-27 Created: 2012-02-27 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    4. Balanced Scorecard as Organizational Practice: A multi-perspective analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Balanced Scorecard as Organizational Practice: A multi-perspective analysis
    2010 (English)Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Much academic attention has been directed towards management models, but there is limited research into the details of how these models are put to use in organizations. In this paper, we employ a multi-theoretical process perspective on the introduction of Balanced Scorecard in a Swedish healthcare organization. Through the application of actor-network theory, behavior setting theory and distributed cognition, we have identified a set of complementary observations and conclusions. First, we claim that a critical mass of actors is needed to support the change effort. We also emphasize the need for a problematization process in which critical voices are given room to influence the introduction. Further, we stress the importance of aligning the physical environment with organizational goals, and argue that well-designed feedback mechanisms may prevent undesired decoupling of managerial practice.

    Place, publisher, year, pages
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010
    Keywords
    Management models, change, process studies, multiple interpretations
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75049 (URN)
    Note
    Working paper.Available from: 2012-02-16 Created: 2012-02-15 Last updated: 2015-02-05Bibliographically approved
  • 243.
    Langstrand, Jostein
    et al.
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cronemyr, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Practise what you preach: Quality of education in education on quality2012In: : How may organizations use Learning, Creativity and Innovation in realizing their dreams of excellence and recover from the economic crisis? / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park, Jens J. Dahlgaard & Adam Hamrol, 2012, p. 855-867Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 244.
    Larsson, Andréas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Lönnberg, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Utveckling av metod för mätning av Overall Equipment Effectiveness vid Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB (SIT AB) in Finspong is a company dedicated to the production of gas- and steam turbines mainly for industrial applications. The company has around 2 100 employees and is a part of Siemens AG based in Germany. There have previously been different opinions regarding what the largest causes of losses within the company’s production are. Today a number of different ways to follow up on the production is used, a problem with these are however that they are not synchronized to give a clear view of the losses on any specific machine. As a result the production managers at SIT AB now want to look into the possibility of measuring the machines´ effectiveness by introduction of the technique Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). A method for measuring OEE at SIT AB will be developed through a pilot study, this will then be implemented and tested on two of the company’s multifunctional machines. The pilot study is to be performed in the form of a master’s thesis, the paper will be the basis for recommendations regarding how the results of the measurements shall be used and how SIT AB should go about making the measurements usable on a grander scale.

    OEE is used to show a resource’s total effectiveness with a single parameter. The calculations are aimed at illustrating to which extent the six big losses defined within Total Productive Maintenance affect the production. After the losses have been analysed improvement measures can be taken in order to increase the previously measured resource effectiveness.

    Within this thesis it is concluded that OEE is developed mainly for use in mass-producing industries. Since SIT AB conducts production with similarities closer to a work-shop some adjustments have to be made in order to make OEE more applicable in the company. Such adjustments are supported by the literature where it is stated that it is more important to achieve a measurement which can be used as a basis for improvement rather then to strictly follow the original definition of OEE. As a support for the work with these adjustments a case study was conducted at Kongsberg Terotech AS (KTT), one of the leading companies regarding maintenance of tooling machines in the Nordic countries. KTT has gained a lot of experience when it comes to measuring OEE since they have worked as counsellors at approximately 15-20 different companies ranging from production of single units to mass-production and from metalwork to the food industry.

    The method developed for the measurement of OEE at SIT AB is completely based on the entity time. The information is gathered by means of time being registered within a discrete number of predefined loss-categories designed specifically for the studied resources. Since a specially designed form is used the gathering of information can be performed by the operators during regular work. Exact registration of losses is hindered by the measurements being performed manually, however this allows the concept to be introduced with short notice and without the need of expensive investments regarding advanced equipment.

    For manual data collecting KTT advised that the measurements should be performed for a period of four weeks in each machine. Data containing the losses could be gathered from 95 out of 96 shifts, which means observation of 564 and 576 planned production hours respectively in each machine. Despite the identical features of the multifunctional machines they presented different losses. This leads to the conclusion being drawn that all machines must be treated individually when it comes to deciding improvement measures.

    Measuring OEE should only be carried out when the purpose is to create a basis for continuous improvement of the company’s production processes. The developed measuring technique can aid SIT AB in evaluating the potential for improvement of the studied equipment, the data can also be used to prioritize where improvement measures should be taken first. The main part of the technique can be used for measurements on a grander scale, the loss categories should however be chosen in accordance with the specific machine being studied. A clear down side is that the method in its current state does not secure good quality data, this can potentially mean that decisions are made based on false information. The method is suited for an introduction to OEE or if a company wants to avoid extensive investments. For the best possible result an automatic data collecting system is advised.

    Improvement activities based on the OEE measurements should be carried out in groups appointed for the task. These groups should consist of staff with different areas of expertise, a cross functional composition will hopefully mean that the work with improvements can be undertaken in a versatile manner. The most important prerequisite for successful work with improvements is that all decisions are based on facts, measuring OEE can be used as a tool to present the reality. In order to be able to control and improve important production processes these must be constantly evaluated. In this context the introduction of OEE measurements can play an important role for the production system at SIT AB.

  • 245.
    Larsson, Ann-Christine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Empowermentprocesser – ett sätt att öka långtidssjukskrivna kvinnors resurser?: En studie om att återta balansen i arbetslivet att återta balansen i arbetslivet2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to understand and explain how a group of women have ended up on the long-term sick-list and how a return to working life can be brought about. Support for their return is organized within the framework of a R&D project within the EU-program EQUAL, where empowerment is one of the key principles.

    The research has been carried out using an interactive approach in close collaboration with the women in the project who have been signed-off long-term on medical grounds. Group discussions, questionnaires and individual interviews have provided the basis for collective analyses. This learning process, which is the central core in the interactive research, has, resulted in a deeper and more valid understanding of the reasons leading to ill-health and of the return to working life.

    The empirical part of the study and the analyses are divided into three parts. The first part I call the powerlessness process, namely tha which the women describe as a contributory factor to ill-health, caused by diminishing resources and increasing demands both in working life and in private life, and which eventually initiates a long-term signing-off on medical grounds. The second part is concerned with regaining and/or changing the resources that have been lost during the powerlessness process. The third part illustrates the return to working life, which is described in different steps.

    The thesis shows the worth of looking at the interplay between individual, organizational and community levels when trying to understand the reasons underlying ill-health and how changes at these different levels can affect the individual.

    The thesis shows also the importance of looking at ”life as a whole” and not just working life, where a return to work is concerned. In order to achieve a sustainable working life, attention must also be paid to gender structures and work-life balance.

  • 246.
    Laurinsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Produktionsutveckling av cylinderrörs tillverkning2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This examination-work was performed at Stacke Hydraulik AB. They are manufacturing and selling hydraulic systems.

    The commission was to update theirs excisting layout of the industry and to study if there are some possibilities to improve the flow of “small and medium-sized” pipes. To optimize the flow you had to identify which process that could be a bottleneck. And after that try to give some proposals on changing that could lead to a better flow and a faster lead-time.

    This study of bottlenecks was based on 50 pieces cylinder pipes of that type they mostly manufactured and also the pipes that got the highest volume value. Production group 117 (lathe) was identified as a bottleneck because it took the most of the time in the process, but the production group 118 (lathe) was also a bottleneck. 26 % of the cylinder pipes had production group 117 as a bottleneck while the production group 118 had 24%.

    To optimize the production flow of those pipes it will demand that they should use the production groups more effective with a smaller waste of resources.

    An alternative to improve manufacturing process could be to invest in a bigger machinery plant of those pipes.

  • 247.
    Lee, H. M.
    et al.
    Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Swedish WEEE system – Challenges and Recommendations2012In: Sustainable Systems and Technology (ISSST), 2012, IEEE , 2012, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The directive in WEEE has been in effect since 2001 in the European Union (EU) and Sweden has been the best performance since it was launched. This study looks into how the various stakeholders are playing their role in the system, why was it successful and what are the challenges ahead for the system to further improve and the bring up the rate of WEEE recycling in the country. This work is done by interviewing and visiting the various stakeholders involved in the Swedish WEEE system including the Swedish EPA, Swedish Waste Management, El-Kretsen which is the association representing the manufacturers, the recyclers that are providing the EoL services in the system and consumers of the recycling centres. The study revealed that the system had performed well by virtue of the common understanding and general awareness of the public adding on to the fact that the consumption rate of EEE is also high in Sweden. All the stakeholders displayed a sense a responsibility towards pushing for higher volume to be collected. Many issues that are occurring in collecting WEEE are inherited from the earlier life cycle stages particularly in design and manufacturing. It was also found out in the study that it is more economically viable for the EoL stakeholders to operate WEEE collection as compared to the past due to the growing demands of resources. The processing capacity at times is lagging behind the collection rate. Recommendations for improving the system from both the system level and technical level are also mentioned subsequently in the paper.

  • 248.
    Lee, Hui Mien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nasr, Nabil
    Golisano Institute of Sustainability, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, USA.
    Review of End-of-Life Management Issues in Sustainable Electronic Products2011In: CIRP 9th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing, 2011, p. 121-131Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns about climate change and other related environmental challenges have prompted increased interest in sustainable development. In industry, many manufacturers such as the electronics manufacturers have strived to improve their environmental footprints through sustainable manufacturing while also making sure that the bottom line is being met. Electronic products, while bringing technological progress to mankind, generate numerous environmental challenges, especially at their End-of-Life (EoL) stage.

     

    This paper review and discuss the current situation and issues in designing, manufacturing, collecting and marketing of electronic products with respect to the EoL stage. Certain decisions about electronic products made in the early production stages can have serious implications in the management of the products at EoL. For example, a product designed such that it is difficult to disassemble in order to remove hazardous substances can be very inefficient to manage at the EoL stage. Discussion of electronic products’ EoL management approaches is presented in this paper. Subsequently, suggestions for the stakeholders to address the complexities in making electronic products more sustainable are proposed.

  • 249.
    Leppälampi, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Krantz, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Värdekedjeanalys av returflöden på Scania: Fallstudie på marknaderna i Sverige, Tyskland och Benelux2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today Scania give a high priority to the continuous improvements on the quality of their vehicles. To follow up the flaws in product quality, which are recognized by the repairs at the local workshops, material requests are carried through to be able to analyze the defects at the plant in Södertälje – in purpose to improve the product quality. The material requests are also carried through to compensate the workshop for their expenses and to check that they are working according to the company’s warranty manual.

    Due to local routines and different distribution structures at the different markets the lead times and the costs caused by the flow of material are hard to estimate. Furthermore the lead times are in many cases unjustified long, which imply that the information about quality problems reaches Scania at a late stage. The variations in lead times moreover results in problems with planning the activities.

    This study has, in the light of the background described above, aimed to map and analyze the lead times and costs which are caused by the flow of warranty material, from the company’s workshops to the plant in Södertälje. Based on the results of the analysis a range of alternative solutions also have been prepared in purpose to reduce the lead times in a cost efficient way.

    The mapping, which took place on the Swedish, German and Benelux markets, has mainly been carried out through visits at the workshops and the distributors at respective markets. Apart from the qualitative aspects in collected data the performance of the studied markets, in the form of costs and lead times, has been compiled and calculated. The observed characteristics were later on analyzed together with relevant logistics management theory to point out strengths and weaknesses with different solutions.

    Based on the mapping and the analysis the second part of the study could be completed, which aimed to formulate a range of recommendations. The recommendations, which are presented below, are principally formulated in correspondence with the priorities of Scania – namely to achieve high product quality and rapid information.

    1. Improved and more concrete management at factory level. This can be achieved through clarified targets which include explicit measurements and directives towards all actors.
    2. Reduce the waiting time between activities. This can be achieved by a combination of incentives and demands on the distributors as well as on the workshops.
    3. Change the transport strategies. On the Benelux market the transport solutions are well designed and are therefore both cost effective and quite fast, which implies short lead times. On the Swedish market a consolidation of goods is proposed to decrease the delivery rate in Södertälje to just once a week. On the German market merged deliveries are proposed, the same transport that delivers spare parts to the workshop will through this recommendation also pick up the warranty material. The warranty material will in this solution also be merged in a collection point and thereafter be transported to the distributor once a week.
    4. Change the transport frequencies. The different markets will send in material on predefined days once a week, which will contribute to keep the lead times short and the quantities at a more manageable level.
    5. Even out the inflow of material to Södertälje and avoid handling in Building 220X, to reduce the problems with stress, mishandling and lack of recourses which occur because of the uneven inflow at the receiving area today. Clear information should in according to this be given to each market concerning for instance shipping date and quantities.
    6. Improve the integration of the information systems, to facilitate the spreading of information and administrative activities related to claims and material requests. This also implies that forecasting and management is facilitated.

     

    Through the recommendations the lead time for the Swedish market is estimated to be reduced from 21 to 13 days, for the German market from 60 to 21 days and from 39 to 21 days for the Benelux-market. Apart from reduced lead times the more straight demands, incentives and improved routines will imply that the variations in lead times are reduced.

    Due to the changes according to the recommendations the costs will be reduced, both through the reduced lead times, which affect the capital costs, as well as more efficient structures that reduce the handling costs and the costs of transportation.

  • 250.
    Li, Congdong
    et al.
    School of Management, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China / College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.
    Zhang, Fanshun
    School of Management, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.
    Cao, Cejun
    Institute of Physical Internet, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Jinan University (Zhuhai Campus), Zhuhai, 519070, China / College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Institute of Physical Internet, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Jinan University (Zhuhai Campus), Zhuhai, 519070, China / Department of Production, University of Vaasa, 65200 Vaasa, Finland.
    Qu, Ting
    Institute of Physical Internet, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Jinan University (Zhuhai Campus), Zhuhai, 519070, China.
    Organizational coordination in sustainable humanitarian supply chain: an evolutionary game approach2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 219, p. 291-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable humanitarian supply chain has a great impact on saving lives, decreasing human suffering and contributing to development. Organizational coordination plays an important role in it, although it is uncommon to be established due to the conflicting interests and expectations. To cope with the problem and achieve the sustainability of humanitarian supply chain, the coordination between private sector and humanitarian organization was further discussed with the help of sustainable principle regarding stakeholder approach. Different from the existing literature that elaborated the drivers and the advantages of coordination, this paper aims to explore the coordination mechanism regarding whether to coordinate, when to adopt the optimal coordinated strategy and how such a strategy can perform well. To analyze the tendency of the coordinated decisions, evolutionary game models concerning traditional and trust mechanisms were developed. Then, computational studies based on hypothetic data were simulated to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model. Results indicated that the coordination decision was affected by coordinated returns and costs, normal returns and extra returns in terms of the traditional mechanism. Several situations in regard to the coordinated decisions were analyzed by adopting evolutionary stable strategies. Moreover, trust had a significantly positive impact on coordination promotion under the support of potential returns and high-level trust. Finally, managerial insights for achieving the sustainable humanitarian supply chain were given from the perspective of organizational coordination and strategy.

2345678 201 - 250 of 455
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf