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  • 201.
    Lundgren, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Swedish Studies and Comparative Literature. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    "Tvärvetenskaplig följeforskning inom försöksverksamheten med patientfokuserad och sammanhållen cancervård"2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 202.
    Lundgren, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Swedish Studies and Comparative Literature.
    Lagerfelt, Marie
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery UHL.
    Kommunikation och lärande i multidisciplinärt samarbete: exemplet CUUS2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 203.
    Lyberg, Bertil
    et al.
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    The Possible Use of Prosody in Spoken Language Translation Systems1995In: TELECOM 95, 1995, p. 9-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech recognition systems do not normally make use of information signalled by prosody, i.e. the segment duration and the fundamental frequency contour of the speech signal. Rather, in current statistical approaches to the speech recognition problem, the acoustic manifestations of prosody is more or less considered as disturbances. In more advanced applications for speech recognition, such as speech-to-speech translation systems, it is obvious that the information conveyed by prosody has to be detected in the source language, mapped onto the target language and then generated by the speech synthesizer of the target language. The linguistic information signalled by prosody is syntactic structure, semantic interpretation and sentence emphasis. Moreover, in languages such as Swedish, with tonal accents, there are word and phrase pairs that are only distinguishable by means of intonation contour. In pure tone languages, the inclusion of prosody is crucial for speech recognition systems. Besides syntactic and semantic information, prosody also mirrors para-linguistic properties such as sex and attitude etc. Speech-to-speech translation systems that will not transfer this type of information will be of limited value for person-to-person communication.

  • 204. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Magnusson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fokus ålder: betydelserelationer och betydelseförändring i användning2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to study how words denoting age are used in newspaper texts. I have chosen mainly to study the following Swedish focus words for females and males of different ages (flicka, kvinna, tjej, dam; pojke, man, kille and herre) as they relate to age. Furthermore, age lexemes – different variations of Swedish expressions of age – are investigated and finally also a number of new Swedish expressions that are used to describe age – kids, förtis, grups, tweenie, mappie, senior and what I call “plus gradings” – e.g. 50 +.

    The study is particularly concerned with where and how age is referred to and how the chosen focus words relate in different ways to age and sex – and finally also with how these things have changed over time. I have examined newspaper corpora from three separate years – 1965, 1987 and 2000. My theoretical perspective is social constructivist, age being understood as something that is constructed and negotiated in language use. As for method, I adopt a corpus linguistic approach – large corpora and quantitative language patterns in frequencies and lexical content. Thus, my investigation is aimed at the focus words, the age lexemes and the terms in their linguistic contexts, primarily as regards adjective attributes, lexical relations and collocations.

    My conclusion is that the examined expressions occur in different contexts and are used in different ways, but are not always related to age or age differentiation. I have noticed a couple of tendencies; one relates to vagueness when it comes to age and one relates to a semantic division of labour. The focus words are both used as synonyms and as oppositions, and they refer to referents belonging to different age groups. At the same time there is a clear division of labour between them in that variation in many contexts relates more to subject and contextual pattern than to different chronological ages. Ihave also noticed that chronological age is generally used when something is unusual, deviant or when the context has to do with crime, sports, (change of or debut in) a profession, birthday announcements etc.

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  • 205.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Broth, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emergent learnables in second language classroom interaction2012In: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, ISSN 2210-6561, E-ISSN 2210-657X, Vol. 1, no 3-4, p. 193-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how unplanned learnablesemerge in classroom interaction. A learnableis defined as whatever is interactively established as relevant and developed to become a shared pedagogical focus. A learnable can thus be related to any social practice. In the context that we are studying, a Swedish as a second language classroom, we show how interactive processes constructing something as a learnable may originate not only in the use of an unknown Swedish word whose meaning is then asked for (which amounts to a verbal source for a learnable), but also in an unknown name for an object (a material source for a learnable) or an unknown meaning of a gesture (a gestural source for a learnable). These last two sources have not been much described in the existing literature on objects of learning. Through detailed analyses of video recorded classroom interaction, focusing on the ways in which participants gradually accomplish learnables, we show how learnables can arise, step by step, in and for the relevant needs of an emergent learning project that may be quite different from the teacher's pedagogical agenda.

  • 206.
    Malmenholt, Ann
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Lohmander, Anette
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Mcallister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Childhood apraxia of speech: A survey of praxis and typical speech characteristics2017In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 84-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate current knowledge of the diagnosis childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) in Sweden and compare speech characteristics and symptoms to those of earlier survey findings in mainly English-speakers. Method: In a web-based questionnaire 178 Swedish speech-language pathologists (SLPs) anonymously answered questions about their perception of typical speech characteristics for CAS. They graded own assessment skills and estimated clinical occurrence. Results: The seven top speech characteristics reported as typical for children with CAS were: inconsistent speech production (85%), sequencing difficulties (71%), oro-motor deficits (63%), vowel errors (62%), voicing errors (61%), consonant cluster deletions (54%), and prosodic disturbance (53%). Motor-programming deficits described as lack of automatization of speech movements were perceived by 82%. All listed characteristics were consistent with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) consensus-based features, Strands 10-point checklist, and the diagnostic model proposed by Ozanne. The mode for clinical occurrence was 5%. Number of suspected cases of CAS in the clinical caseload was approximately one new patient/year and SLP. Conclusions: The results support and add to findings from studies of CAS in English-speaking children with similar speech characteristics regarded as typical. Possibly, these findings could contribute to cross-linguistic consensus on CAS characteristics.

  • 207.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    University of Central Lancashire, England; University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Crawford, Jessica C.
    University of Central Lancashire, England.
    Pilgrim, Lea K.
    University of Central Lancashire, England.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Hughes, Robert W.
    Royal Holloway University of London, England.
    Trouble articulating the right words: Evidence for a response-exclusion account of distraction during semantic fluency2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 367-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely held that single-word lexical access is a competitive process, a view based largely on the observation that naming a picture is slowed in the presence of a distractor-word. However, problematic for this view is that a low-frequency distractor-word slows the naming of a picture more than does a high-frequency word. This supports an alternative, response-exclusion, account in which a distractor-word interferes because it must be excluded from an articulatory output buffer before the right word can be articulated (the picture name): A high, compared to low, frequency word accesses the buffer more quickly and, as such, can also be excluded more quickly. Here we studied the respective roles of competition and response-exclusion for the first time in the context of semantic verbal fluency, a setting requiring the accessing of, and production of, multiple words from long-term memory in response to a single semantic cue. We show that disruption to semantic fluency by a sequence of to-be-ignored spoken distractors is also greater when those distractors are low in frequency, thereby extending the explanatory compass of the response-exclusion account to a multiple-word production setting and casting further doubt on the lexical-selection-by-competition view. The results can be understood as reflecting the contribution of speech output processes to semantic fluency.

  • 208.
    Martín-Bylund, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    The matter of silence in early childhood bilingual education2018In: Educational Philosophy and Theory, ISSN 0013-1857, E-ISSN 1469-5812, Vol. 50, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between silence as non-speech and bilingualism in early childhood education is intricate. This article maps this relationship with the help of diverse theoretical entrances to a video-recorded everyday episode from a bilingual (Spanish–Swedish) preschool in Sweden. Though this, three alternative readings of silence are produced. Thinking with Deleuzian philosophy, the aim is to consider how the different readings of silence require different understandings of both time and language and allow different bilingual child subjectivities. The different readings present silence as development, strategy and intensity. Thinking with different dimensions of language as well as Chronosand Aion as different notions of time, the article shows that silence as development and silence as strategy are individually, chronologically and linguistically oriented readings. These allow viewing the bilingual child as more or less competent, active and powerful in relation to adults. Furthermore, silence as intensity is collectively produced as well as temporally unbounded, and produces the bilingual child, as involved in several material–semiotic relations capable of amazement. It is discussed whether, due to the evasive and inconsistent nature of silence, all three readings are equally (im)possible. Nevertheless, they produce different effects and raise different questions concerning bilingual educational practice in the early years.

  • 209. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Martín-Bylund, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Towards a minor bilingualism: Exploring variations of language and literacy in early childhood education2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this compilation thesis is to explore variations in bilingualism with the help of everyday specific situations at a Spanish-Swedish early childhood institution in Sweden, and by means of a ‘material-semiotic theorizing’. This means that material and semiotic elements are treated equally and entwined. Through studying a bilingual preschool practice, theory and politics as three interwoven practices, the thesis produces knowledge on language and literacy as socially and materially divergent, transformative occurrences. The research process is a commitment with Deleuzio-Guattarian philosophy, theory and politics, and is defined as a becoming in and of the three practices (education, theory, politics). Ethical and methodological undertakings are described as results of the interaction of these practices. Processes of data production include a yearlong fieldwork with all year groups (1-5) at a bilingual preschool in Sweden with a Spanish-Swedish language policy. The materials of data (approx. 59 hours of video-recordings and additional field-notes of everyday activities) are extended and developed upon in interaction with theoretical concepts and political concerns in terms of an analytical process that ‘puts theory to work’. The results are phrased as three temporal suggestions: 1) Bilingualism is a plural, collectively produced, both transitory and specific phenomenon 2) Bilingualism emerges with different, simultaneous dimensions of language and literacy (language as both code and material intensities) 3) Bilingualism is shared and public but also private and inconclusive. The thesis also shows the interconnectedness and continuity between different constructions of bilingualism (i.e. separate – flexible, public - private) as well as the productivity of the unknown and of what is labelled as (il)literate expertise. The impact that these suggestions may have in working with bilingualism in early childhood education is discussed. At the same time the discussion inspires to thinking towards a minor bilingualism also in more general terms.

    List of papers
    1. Playing the game and speaking the right language: Language policy and materiality in a bilingual preschool activity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Playing the game and speaking the right language: Language policy and materiality in a bilingual preschool activity
    2017 (English)In: Multilingua - Journal of Cross-cultural and Interlanguage Communiciation, ISSN 0167-8507, E-ISSN 1613-3684, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 23p. 477-499Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    What are the material-semiotic relationships between a language policy and a table game activity in a bilingual preschool? Using Actor-Network Theory (ANT), the aim of this article is to explore this question, working with both human and nonhuman aspects of the activity, symmetrically, at the same level. The game playing activity takes place at a bilingual, Spanish-Swedish preschool in Sweden, which adopts a 50-50 approach in daily interaction. In interplay with video recordings, field notes and Actor-Network Theory, four different actor-network scenes of the activity are produced. Children, teacher, game pieces, die, cards, linguistic and other elements are described in the same language, as well as symmetrically drawn together in material-semiotic relations. The results indicate that the activity revolves mainly around two different, multilayered, and sometimes conflicting interests: to play the game and to speak the right language. The article describes the interrelatedness between these interests and how bilingualism emerges, transforms and becomes temporarily different in the relations of the actor-network. The approach opens up new avenues for understanding different constructions of bilingualism not in terms of a flexible-separate dichotomy but as entangled with one another in material-semiotic relations, which may illuminate creative potentials in the relations of policy and practice rather than implementation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2017. p. 23
    Keywords
    language policy, bilingualism, flexible-separate, Actor-Network Theory (ANT), material-semiotic, human and nonhuman, early childhood education
    National Category
    Specific Languages
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139851 (URN)10.1515/multi-2016-0021 (DOI)000412873300006 ()2-s2.0-85026677165 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2017-08-17 Created: 2017-08-17 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Multilingual becoming in reading: a picture storybook-reading-assemblage in early years education
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multilingual becoming in reading: a picture storybook-reading-assemblage in early years education
    2015 (English)In: Early Years Second Language Education: International perspectives on theory and practice / [ed] Sandie Mourão and Mónica Lourenco, Abingdon och New York: Routledge, 2015, 1, p. 78-92Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Abingdon och New York: Routledge, 2015 Edition: 1
    Series
    Routledge research in early childhood education
    Keywords
    multilingualism, preschool, literacy, Multiple Literacies Theory
    National Category
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117976 (URN)978-0-415-70527-1 (ISBN)978-1-315-88994-8 (ISBN)
    Projects
    Språkpolicy i flerspråkiga förskolor och familjer: institutionella och vardagliga praktiker
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 721-2011-5842
    Available from: 2015-05-19 Created: 2015-05-19 Last updated: 2017-08-17
    3. The matter of silence in early childhood bilingual education
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The matter of silence in early childhood bilingual education
    2018 (English)In: Educational Philosophy and Theory, ISSN 0013-1857, E-ISSN 1469-5812, Vol. 50, no 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between silence as non-speech and bilingualism in early childhood education is intricate. This article maps this relationship with the help of diverse theoretical entrances to a video-recorded everyday episode from a bilingual (Spanish–Swedish) preschool in Sweden. Though this, three alternative readings of silence are produced. Thinking with Deleuzian philosophy, the aim is to consider how the different readings of silence require different understandings of both time and language and allow different bilingual child subjectivities. The different readings present silence as development, strategy and intensity. Thinking with different dimensions of language as well as Chronosand Aion as different notions of time, the article shows that silence as development and silence as strategy are individually, chronologically and linguistically oriented readings. These allow viewing the bilingual child as more or less competent, active and powerful in relation to adults. Furthermore, silence as intensity is collectively produced as well as temporally unbounded, and produces the bilingual child, as involved in several material–semiotic relations capable of amazement. It is discussed whether, due to the evasive and inconsistent nature of silence, all three readings are equally (im)possible. Nevertheless, they produce different effects and raise different questions concerning bilingual educational practice in the early years.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Abington: Routledge, 2018
    Keywords
    Silence and bilingualism, Deleuze, Chronos and Aion, different dimensions of language
    National Category
    General Language Studies and Linguistics Specific Languages Pedagogy Pedagogical Work Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139852 (URN)10.1080/00131857.2017.1361820 (DOI)000427698300004 ()2-s2.0-85026892648 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2017-08-17 Created: 2017-08-17 Last updated: 2019-12-04Bibliographically approved
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  • 210.
    Maschler, Yael
    et al.
    University of Haifa, Israel.
    Pekarek Doehler, Simona
    University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
    Lindström, Jan
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emergent Syntax for Conversation: Clausal Patterns and the Organization of Action2020 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume explores how emergent patterns of complex syntax – that is, syntactic structures beyond a simple clause – relate to the local contingencies of action formation in social interaction. It examines both the on-line emergence of clause-combining patterns as they are ‘patched together’ on the fly, as well as their routinization and sedimentation into new grammatical patterns across a range of languages – English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Mandarin, and Swedish. The chapters investigate how the real-time organization of complex syntax relates to the unfolding of turns and actions, focusing on: (i) how complex syntactic patterns, or routinized fragments of ‘canonical’ patterns, serve as resources for projection, (ii) how complex syntactic patterns emerge incrementally, moment-by-moment, out of the real-time trajectories of action, (iii) how formal variants of such patterns relate to social action, and (iv) how all of these play out within the multimodal ecologies of action formation.The empirical findings presented in this volume lend support to a conception of syntax as fundamentally temporal, emergent, dialogic, sensitive to local interactional contingencies, and interwoven with other semiotic resources.

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  • 211.
    Mata, Iracema
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kodväxling och intersubjektivitet  i tolkmedierade domstolsförhandligar2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reaching shared understanding during court hearings is a prerequisite to ensure a fair trial and maintaining legal certainty. Every month between 2,000 and 3,000 court hearings in Sweden make use of interpreters. Interpreter-mediated conversations involve an extra discourse compared to monolingual conversations which increases the risk of misunderstandings.

    Using methodology of conversation analysis the study explores how bilingualism is expressed during interpreter-mediated court hearings, at which occasions the Spanish-speaking laymen switch to Swedish and what function the codeswitching fulfills. The study identifies patterns in codeswitching and categorizes them into six different types. Furthermore the ideology of monolingualism in court is challenged and the advantages and disadvantages of codeswitching is discussed.

    The analysis concludes that even though certain types of codeswitching lead to delays in the conversation, the interaction is mostly favored by the Spanish-speaking party understanding some Swedish. Court proceedings would benefit from being more permissive toward bilingualism and the types of codeswitching that favor intersubjectivity.

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  • 212.
    McAllister, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    An acoustic analysis of the cattle call “kulning”,performed outdoors at Säter, Dalarna, Sweden2015In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2015. Working Papers 55/2015, 8–10 June 2015, Centre for Languages and Literature, General Linguistics/Phonetics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Lund, Sweden: Lund University , 2015, p. 81-84Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes recent research on ‘kulning’, a surprisingly understudiedSwedish cattle call singing style. In a previous study (Eklund, McAllister & Pehrson, 2013), we compared kulning and head voice (‘falsetto’) as recorded in a normal room and in an anechoic chamber. This paper reports from an analysisof the same “kulning” song recorded outdoors on location in Säter, Dalarna (Sweden), close to the singer’s home, which makes the data more ecologically validand allows comparisons between “clean” indoor recordings and more authentic outdoor recordings. Several recordings were made, but the present article analysesrecordings made simultaneously at 1 meter and 11 meters from the singer. Results indicate that for the vowels [a] and [u] partials in kulning, as compared to head voice, are visible at both higher frequencies and at a longer distance, which provides an acoustic rationale for the development of the singing style, intended to be heard at a long distance.

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  • 213.
    Melin, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature.
    Petersson, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature.
    Minoritetsspråk för majoriteten: En undersökning av hur undervisning om minoritetsspråk legitimeras2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom ramen för svenskundervisningen på gymnasiet är svensklärare skyldiga att undervisa om de nationella minoritetsspråken. Detta är en följd av att Sverige ratificerat två styrdokument från Europeiska rådet vilka syftar till att skydda europeiska minoritetsgruppers rätt att behålla och bevara sitt språk och sin kultur. I denna uppsats undersöks hur forskning legitimerar de kopplingar som de europeiska styrdokumenten drar mellan minoritetsspråk, kultur och identitet samt hur undervisning om minoritetsspråk bidrar till språkens bevarande. Detta görs genom att undersöka hur kopplingarna mellan minoritetsspråk, kultur och identitet ser ut, vilka statusskillnader som finns mellan olika språk och vad de kan bero på samt vilken roll den svenska skolan har i bevarandet av de nationella minoritetsspråken. Enligt den forskning som presenteras i denna uppsats finns det ett känslomässigt och symboliskt samband mellan minoritetsspråk, kultur och identitet. Exakt på vilket sätt relationen mellan dessa faktorer ser ut är forskningen inte helt ense om. Forskningen visar att majoritetssamhällets attityder gentemot minoritetsspråk har en avgörande betydelse i bevarandet av minoritetsspråken. Skolan har till uppgift att undervisa elever om de nationella minoritetsspråken som ett sätt förbättra majoritetens attityder och därmed främja de nationella minoritetsspråken. Denna undervisning är dock något som i dagsläget brister och många lärare väljer att inte undervisa om minoritetsspråken på grund av brist på kunskap om dem. En nackdel med att undervisa om de nationella minoritetsspråken kan, beroende på hur undervisning sker, vara att de nationella minoriteterna beskrivs på ett stereotypiskt sätt och bidrar till kategorisering och stigmatisering. En fördel med en sådan undervisning är att språken då uppmärksammas som en del av den svenska kulturen och därmed främjas.

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    Minoritetsspråk för majoriteten
  • 214.
    Minarro-Gimenez, Jose Antonio
    et al.
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Martinez-Costa, Catalina
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schulz, Stefan
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Goeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck
    Aalborg Univ, Denmark.
    Qualitative analysis of manual annotations of clinical text with SNOMED CT2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 12, article id e0209547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SNOMED CT provides about 300,000 codes with fine-grained concept definitions to support interoperability of health data. Coding clinical texts with medical terminologies it is not a trivial task and is prone to disagreements between coders. We conducted a qualitative analysis to identify sources of disagreements on an annotation experiment which used a subset of SNOMED CT with some restrictions. A corpus of 20 English clinical text fragments from diverse origins and languages was annotated independently by two domain medically trained annotators following a specific annotation guideline. By following this guideline, the annotators had to assign sets of SNOMED CT codes to noun phrases, together with concept and term coverage ratings. Then, the annotations were manually examined against a reference standard to determine sources of disagreements. Five categories were identified. In our results, the most frequent cause of inter-annotator disagreement was related to human issues. In several cases disagreements revealed gaps in the annotation guidelines and lack of training of annotators. The reminder issues can be influenced by some SNOMED CT features.

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  • 215.
    Moradi, Shahram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals: Effects of Adding Visual Cues to Auditory Speech Stimuli2016In: TRENDS IN HEARING, ISSN 2331-2165, Vol. 20, article id 2331216516653355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users (n = 20) with elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners (n = 20) in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus) and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences) presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context.

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  • 216.
    Musk, Nigel
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bilingualisms-in-Practice at the Meso Level. An Example from a Bilingual School in Wales.2010In: International Journal of the Sociology of Language, ISSN 0165-2516, E-ISSN 1613-3668, Vol. 202, p. 41-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bilingualism is to be seen as dynamic bilingualisms-in-practice, which are continually being ‘‘performed,’’ that is, shaped, valued, and constituted, both through discourses which (re)contextualize the notion, as well as through the everyday language practices of bilinguals. To shed light on bilingualisms-in-practice, primarily in the context of one bilingual school in Wales, a range of data is examined to identify prevalent discourses on bilingualism. It is argued here that the meso level of society, especially educational institutions, constitute a key site for the recontextualization of these discourses and thereby play an important mediating role between the micro and macro levels of society.

  • 217.
    Musk, Nigel
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Code-switching and code-mixing in Welsh bilinguals' talk: Confirming or refuting the maintenance of language boundaries?2010In: Language, Culture and Curriculum, ISSN 0790-8318, E-ISSN 1747-7573, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 179-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article closely examines the bilingual talk emerging from informal discussions among young people attending a bilingual school in Wales. In contrast to the common focus on issues of bilinguals' linguistic competence in the literature, this paper advocates a speaker's perspective and considers bilingualism to be the sedimentation of social and linguistic practices of bilinguals, where code-alternation is often prevalent. Using a conversation analytic approach to code-switching, I distinguish between two different kinds of code-alternation: unmarked code-mixing and marked code-switching on the basis of speakers' own orientations. When these bilinguals speak Welsh, for most of the time the language boundary between Welsh and English is only loosely maintained. However, on occasion code-switching is used as a meaning-making resource, e.g. for the purpose of quoting others. It is this marked code-switching that requires bilinguals to separate and distinguish between the two language mediums, and thereby also maintain the language boundary. At the same time, these findings disclose a gap between informal language practices and the ideological insistence on maintaining strict language boundaries, for example, in educational contexts.

  • 218.
    Musk, Nigel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cromdal, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Analysing bilingual talk: Conversation analysis and language alternation2018In: Conversation Analysis and Language Alternation: Capturing Transitions in the Classroom / [ed] Anna Filipi & Numa Markee, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, p. 15-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifting focus from monolingual to multilingual talk within conversationanalysis has offered new, radically social and post-cognitivist understandingsof bilingualism, especially through the empirical study of language alternation.This chapter presents some central ideas in the literature on language alternationand traces the emergence and development of the organisational approach. Thisprioritises a participant perspective, whereby bilinguals mobilise their linguisticresources to organise their actions in mundane and institutional settings.While languaging rather than the linguistic concept of “language” is advocatedto capture the nature of bilingual talk, extending the analysis to include multimodalaspects of social interaction is put forward as a promising directionfor future inquiry.

  • 219.
    Musk, Nigel John
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Identitet som dynamisk process: Exemplet tvåspråkiga ungdomar i Wales2010In: Flerspråkighet, identitet och lärande / [ed] Nigel Musk, Åsa Wedin, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, p. 55-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här kapitlet avvisar synen på identitet som något man har och som återspeglas i individens handlingar. I stället framställs identiteten som en följd av en mängd handlingar som sker i socialt samspel med andra.

    Kapitlet börjar med en redogörelse av begreppet identitet och den teoretiska ramen. Efter en kort bakgrund till den walesiska kontexten, följer flera exempel på identitetsskapande handlingar i tvåspråkiga elevers samtal. I den avslutande diskussionen jämförs den tvåspråkiga skolmodell som gäller i Wales med den i Sverige och det diskuteras hur den svenska modellen eventuellt kan begränsa ungdomars två- eller flerspråkiga identitetsutveckling.

  • 220. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Musk, Nigel John
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Performing Bilingualism in Wales with the Spotlight on Welsh: A Study of Language Policy and the Language Practices of Young People in Bilingual Education2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The recently established National Assembly for Wales (with the vision of a “truly bilingual Wales”) and bilingual schools are but two major sites in which bilingualism is reconstituting and repackaging Welsh.

    By close examination of the discourse(s) of language policy texts, the public discourse of one bilingual secondary school and the discussions of four focus groups composed of pupils from the same school, this study identifies three types of discourse which are particularly salient in contemporary Wales: a globalising discourse, a nationalist discourse and an ecology-of-language discourse.

    By collating the data from focus group discussions, language use questionnaires and language diaries, this study also identifies three categories of bilinguals based on their reported language use: Welsh-dominant bilinguals, English-dominant bilinguals and ‘floaters’ (balanced bilinguals). These three categories correlate with how individuals discursively construct Welsh and bilingualism. However, the medium of the focus group discussions (English or mixed-medium Welsh) correlates more closely with the category that is dominant in each focus group.

    With performativity theory as a framework, bilingualism is to be seen as a dynamic phenomenon, which is constantly being performatively (re)constituted through the situated practices of bilinguals.

    In short, this study examines how bilingualism in Wales is being performed, i.e. both how it is discursively constructed by various players in various sites, and how it is formed through everyday bilingual practices, not least those of young people in bilingual education.

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  • 221.
    Musk, Nigel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wedin, ÅsaHumUS-akademin, Örebro universitet.
    Flerspråkighet, identitet och lärande2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens samhälle karakteriseras av ökad språklig, etnisk och kulturell mångfald. Takten i dessa förändringar har medfört nya krav på skolan att möta barn med olika bakgrund på ett professionellt sätt. Det visar sig ofta att invanda föreställningar om elevernas förkunskaper inte alls stämmer.

    I mötet med heterogena klasser ställs lärare ofta inför utmaningar av annat slag än dem de utbildats för. Detta blir särskilt tydligt när eleverna ännu inte hunnit utveckla sin svenska i den utsträckning som krävs i skolan. I det här läget blir det lätt att se på barnens språkbakgrund som innehållande olika brister och problem snarare än resurser och möjligheter.

    I den här antologin ifrågasätter författarna gängse synsätt och ger en mer nyanserad bild av flerspråkighet. Genom olika exempel från aktuell svensk forskning om elevers vardag belyser de olika aspekter av flerspråkighet i skolsammanhang och problematiserar begrepp som etnicitet, identitet, lärande och makt.

    Boken riktar sig till blivande och verksamma lärare i grundskola och gymnasium samt till dem som arbetar med skolutveckling och frågor som rör flerspråkighet.

  • 222.
    Musk, Nigel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wedin, Åsa
    HumUS-akademin, Örebro universitet.
    Inledning2010In: Flerspråkighet, identitet och lärande / [ed] Nigel Musk, Åsa Wedin, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 1, p. 9-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens samhälle karakteriseras av ökad språklig, etnisk och kulturell mångfald. Takten i dessa förändringar har medfört nya krav på skolan att möta barn med olika bakgrund på ett professionellt sätt. Det visar sig ofta att invanda föreställningar om elevernas förkunskaper inte alls stämmer. I mötet med heterogena klasser ställs lärare ofta inför utmaningar av annat slag än dem de utbildats för. Detta blir särskilt tydligt när eleverna ännu inte hunnit utveckla sin svenska i den utsträckning som krävs i skolan. I det här läget blir det lätt att se på barnens språkbakgrund som innehållande olika brister och problem snarare än resurser och möjligheter. I den här antologin ifrågasätter författarna gängse synsätt och ger en mer nyanserad och balanserad bild av flerspråkighet. Genom olika exempel från aktuell svensk forskning om elevers vardag belyser de olika aspekter av flerspråkighet i skolsammanhang och problematiserar begrepp som etnicitet, identitet, lärande och makt. Boken riktar sig till blivande och verksamma lärare i grundskola och gymnasium samt till dem som arbetar med skolutveckling och frågor som rör flerspråkighet.

  • 223.
    Myrberg, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Different approaches in aphasia assessments: a comparison between test and everyday conversations2018In: Aphasiology, ISSN 0268-7038, E-ISSN 1464-5041, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 417-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When it comes to aphasia assessments, many speech and language pathologists (SLPs) rely heavily on norm-referenced language tests, even though they are aware that certain important language skills can only be evaluated by analysis of conversational discourse. The formalized aphasia test situation is a typical example of institutional interaction, which differs in systematic ways from everyday conversations. This article examines conversations between persons with aphasia (PWAs) and SLPs in the two different contexts, a topic where previous research is limited. Aims: The aim is to compare the interactions between PWAs and SLPs in test conversations and in more everyday-like conversations and to relate the interactional data to the participants performance on the aphasia test battery. Methods amp; Procedures: Ten PWAs and three SLPs participated in the study. Each PWA participated in two conversations with an SLP, a test conversation, while performing tasks targeting the ability to produce sentences and narratives from an aphasia test battery, and a more everyday-like conversation. The conversations were audio and video recorded and thereafter transcribed. Three main observations considered to be important mechanisms for interaction organization were identified and calculated in the transcriptions. The test results were summarized and analyzed. Outcomes amp; results: The results demonstrated that there were a larger number of turns produced by the PWAs in the everyday conversations compared to the test conversations. Furthermore, there were more communicative initiatives and nonverbal contributions in the everyday conversations. The number of repairs initiated by the PWAs were equivalent, but looking at repair characteristics, it was found that repairs resolved within the same turn were found in the test conversations while repairs stretching over several turns were more frequent in the everyday conversations. Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrated differences of the interaction between PWAs and SLPs in test conversations and in more everyday-like conversations. Furthermore, there seemed to be no obvious relationship between the participants actual test scores on the aphasia test battery and aspects of conversation that can be related to being a competent speaker.

  • 224.
    Myrberg, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) from a language perspective: an analysis of test interaction2019In: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of language and cognitive abilities are associated with clinical challenges. The aim of the present study was to learn more about the MMSE test process from a language perspective by looking in detail at the interaction between patient and tester. In addition, we aimed to further explore the relationship between linguistic and cognitive difficulties. The study was based on an analysis of 20 MMSE test dyads, 10 persons with aphasia and 10 persons with dementia, in interaction with speech and language pathologists. All conversations were audio and video recorded and transcribed verbatim according to Conversation Analytical principles. The thorough analysis of the interactions highlighted some main findings that affected the communicative project of the test interactions. Finally, the test results were summarized and analyzed. Through the analysis, some particularly challenging aspects emerged; the understanding of the verbal instructions, the handling of the instructions and the evaluation of the answers. The test results demonstrated that there were no significant differences between the two groups of participants MMSE results. The results in the language category did not seem to capture the language disorders among many of the participants more than the remaining test items. By qualitative analyses of the interactional aspects of test situations, information about both cognitive and linguistic abilities that otherwise would have been overlooked may be revealed.

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  • 225.
    Mårback, Sebastian
    et al.
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Gustav
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute/Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uhm... What’s going on? An EEG study on perception of filled pauses in spontaneous Swedish speech2009In: Proceedings of FONETIK 2009, Stockholm University, 10–12 June 2009, 2009, p. 92-95Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Filled pauses have been shown to play a significant role in comprehension and long-term storage of speech. Behavioral and neurophysiological studies suggest that filled pauses can help mitigate semantic and/or syntactic incongruity in spoken language. The purpose of the present study was to explore how filled pauses affect the processing of spontaneous speech in the listener. Brain activation of eight subjects was measured by electroencephalography (EEG), while they listened to recordings of Wizard-of-Oz travel booking dialogues. The results show a P300 component in the Primary Motor Cortex, but not in the Broca or Wernicke areas. A possible interpretation could be that the listener is preparing to engage in speech. However, a larger sample is currently being collected.

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  • 226.
    Müller, Nicole
    et al.
    University of Louisiana, Lafayette, USA.
    Ball, Martin J.University of Louisiana, Lafayette, USA.
    Research methods in clinical linguistics and phonetics: A practical guide2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The only volume to offer hands-on information about the wide range of research philosophies, methods and tools used across linguistics, phonetics, and speech science, as applied to disordered speech and language.

    • Covers core topics for students undertaking their own research, including experimental and qualitative methods, sociolinguistics, corpus construction and analysis, data recording, transcription and digital analysis of speech, and speech imaging.
    • Considers the research ethics associated with working with people who have speech, language or other communication difficulties.
    • Includes a detailed discussion of the dissemination of research results, and advice on the writing of theses and dissertations, and on the writing and publishing of journal articles, as well the peer review process.
    • Offers students and researchers from a variety of entry points – such as linguistics, education, psychology, and speech pathology – an introduction to the scope of research in clinical linguistics and phonetics, and a practical guide to this interdisciplinary field
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  • 227.
    Müller, Nicole
    et al.
    University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
    Guendouzi, Jacqueline
    Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond.
    Transcribing discourse: Interactions with Alzheimer's disease2002In: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 345-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates the use of a 'discourse line' in transcribing spoken interaction between a person with Alzheimer's disease, and a visitor. Discourse is here interpreted as a metacategory, or an analytic level of interaction. We view transcribing as an integral part of 'doing discourse', and use two sub-layers of the discourse line, dedicated to speech acts and conversation analysis, respectively. The prosody and voice layer is used to show the analysis of a speaker's use of a specific voice quality in discourse terms.

  • 228.
    Norén, Niklas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture.
    Pronominella returfrågor i tre vardagliga svenska samtal.2010In: Språk och interaktion 2 (Nordica Helsingensia 19), ISSN 1795-4428, p. 29-71Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel presenteras resultat från en studie av hur pronominella returfrågoran vänds av deltagare för att lösa olika typer av kommunikativa uppgifter i några vardagliga svenska samtal. De pronominella returfrågorna är excerperade ur videoinspelade, naturligt förekommande och vardagliga flerpartssamtal i hemmiljö, med kvinnliga del tagare i pensionsåldern. Deltagarna (3 till 4 stycken) är i huvudsak sysselsatta med samtal och fika i de sekvenser som analyserats. Totalt 37 belägg av typiska pro nominella returfrågor (basvarianter 1–2) har excerperats ur tre samtal om samman lagt 4 tim och 9 min.

     

    Analysen visar att deltagare använder prono minella returfrågor för att å ena sidan respondera på vissa typer av lokala kon texter eller handlingar, och å andra sidan att frågorna är sekventiellt implikativa på olika sätt beroende på vilken lokal aktivitet deltagarna är involverade i, samt hur frågornas syntaktiska, prosodiska och lexikala design bidrar till dessa båda dialogiska aspekter av frågeyttrandena.

     

    Returfrågor används för att respondera på informationsrapporter i föregående tur eller föregående minimala tur sekvens. De kan inleda reparation i en sekvens där returfrågan följs av en förklaring eller redovisning som sätter fokus på något problematiskt i turen/turerna som föregår returfrågan. Returfrågor kan bekräfta ett föreslaget samtalsämne, samt respondera på en nyetablerad opposition mellan talare (som sedan reds ut) så att både en full konflikt och ett fullt uppgivande av den egna ståndpunkten/åsikten undviks. Returfrågor används i materialet även för att respondera på lokala kontexter där det blivit uppenbart att returtalaren och en eller flera andra deltagare inte längre delar en ömsesidig social värld här-och-nu.

     

    Analysen har påvisat skillnader mellan de olika lokala interaktionella kontexterna beträffande hur returfrågeyttrandena ut formas (främst prosodiskt) och behandlas i efterföljande samtal. Det finns dock även många likheter mellan returfrågeyttrandena i materialet i stort, och mellan de returfrågor som behandlats i uppsatsen. Förutom de återkommande pragmatiska villkor som beskrivits, t.ex. beträffande informations organisation, har likheterna med stor sannolikhet även att göra med yttrandenas formella grammatiska och prosodiska konfigurationer, samt de funktionella potentialer att utföra kommunikativa uppgifter i samtal som kan knytas till dessa.

  • 229.
    Norén, Niklas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, ChristinaLinköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.Plejert, CharlottaLinköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aided Communication in Everyday Interaction2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book argues for the importance of the participants' perspective within both theory and practice on the function of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) aids in everyday talk-in-interaction. Interactional approaches such as Conversation Analysis (CA) and Topical episode analysis are used to analyze and demonstrate.

  • 230.
    Nyman, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Utvärdering av kustväderuppläsning: Vilken språkprofil förstår användaren bäst?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektets syfte är att ta reda på ifall det är någon skillnad mellan två olika språkprofiler vid kustväderuppläsning. Hur ger man användaren en tydlig och relevant förståelse av kustvädret? Finns det en språkprofil som är bättre än den andra? För att svara på frågeställningarna har en utvärdering utförts med hjälp av en enkät innehållande både frågor och uppgifter, detta för att få en tydlig bild över lyssnarens förståelsegrad samt upplevelse. Resultaten visar på att språkprofil A baserat på ledigt språk är bättre än språkprofil B som är baserat på strikt språk. Dessutom indikerar resultaten på att tydlig struktur, långsam talhastighet, tydliga pauser, ett enkelt språk och att mottagaren har ett bra sätt att lyssna på är faktorer som påverkar hur kustväderuppläsningen förstås.

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  • 231.
    Nyström, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zweigenbaum, Pierre
    Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Inserm U729, Inalco CRIM.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Creating a medical English-Swedish dictionary using interactive word alignment2009In: Lexicography: The Changing Landscape / [ed] Salonee Priya, Hyderabad, India: The Icfai University Press , 2009, 1, p. 131-157Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lexicography is a realm of growing academic specialization. Dictionaries map meaning onto use. We have innumerable dictionaries on different subjects and for different purposes which we keep referring to, time and again. Despite the frequency with which dictionaries are unquestioningly consulted, many have little idea of what actually goes into making them or how meanings are definitively ascertained. We have become so accustomed to using dictionaries that we fail to take notice of the effort and time spent in their making. Understanding the finer nuances of the art of dictionary-making will be of interest to everyone. With changing times and the penetration of technology, the bulkier forms of dictionaries have given way to softer forms. This book updates the reader to the changing notions of the lexicon and dictionary-making in the new realm of modern technology and newer electronic tools. The book introduces us to lexicography and leads us to dictionaries for general and specific purposes. It examines dictionary compilation and research and enables compilers, users, educators and publishers to look anew at the art of lexicography. It duly takes into account the fact that dictionaries are meant to fulfill the needs of specific user groups and reflects the same in the chapters devoted to various professional dictionaries, which have recently achieved widespread recognition in the lexicographical literature. A good read for students of linguistics, teachers and translators apart from general readers interested in knowing the intricate art of making a dictionary.

  • 232.
    Osvaldsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cromdal, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Persson Thunqvist, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pranks or accidents?: Problematic calls to the emergency services2011In: Abstracts: 12th International Pragmatics Conference, 2011 / [ed] IPRA, 2011, p. 280-280Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 233.
    Osvaldsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies.
    Persson-Thunqvist, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cromdal, Jakob
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att säkra förståelse i larmsamtal: Förtydliganden och korrigeringar i SOS-samtal med personer som har svenska som främmandespråk2007In: Språklig mångfald och hållbar samhällsutveckling / [ed] Jarmo Lainio, Annaliina Leppänen, Uppsala: Swedish Science Press , 2007, p. 241-264Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 234.
    Parsons, Dave
    et al.
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    A Randomised Controlled Trial of an Information Communication Technology Delivered Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Living in Regional Australia2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 569-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory randomised controlled trial tested the effectiveness of a tablet-based information communication technology early intervention application to augment existing therapy with the aim of improving visual motor, imitation, language and social skills in young children with ASD who reside in regional areas. Fifty-nine participants were recruited and randomised to either a therapy-as-usual group or intervention group. With the exception of the expressive language subscale on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, no significant between-group differences were recorded for visual motor, imitation, receptive language and social skills of participants between baseline and post-intervention. When all participants were pooled and measured over time, improvements were shown in receptive and pragmatic language and social skills; these gains were maintained, thus suggesting skill acquisition.

  • 235.
    Pekarek Doehler, Simona
    et al.
    University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
    Maschler, Yael
    University of Haifa, Israel.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Interaction and Professional Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindström, Jan
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Complex syntax-in-interaction: Emergent and emerging clause-combining patterns for organizing social actions2020In: Emergent Syntax for Conversation: Clausal Patterns and the Organization of Action / [ed] Yael Maschler, Simona Pekarek Doehler, Jan Lindström, Leelo Keevallik, Amsterdam Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2020, 1, p. 1-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 236.
    Pelikan, Hannah
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature.
    "A Stubborn Child" - How Robot Sounds are Oriented to in Everyday Situated Interaction at Home2019In: Mensch und Computer 2019 - Workshopband: Workshop on Interacting with Robots and Virtual Agents, Bonn, Germany, 2019, p. 364-365Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans make sense of robot actions in the situated context that these actions occur in. This paper takes a conversation analytic approach in studying how the social robot Cozmo is received in a family home, focusing on the non-lexical sounds that the robot uses to communicate. Preliminary findings suggest that participants treat the robot similar to a young child or pet and orient to the robot’s sounds in the local context of the interaction.

  • 237.
    Pelikan, Hannah R. M.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature.
    Tackling Interactional Challenges in Social Robots: A Multimodal Conversation Analytic Approach2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of social robotics has grown considerably in recent years and social and collaborative robots have entered the consumer market. However, communicative aspects such as timing of utterances and correct interpretation of actions remain a major challenge for social robots. In this position paper I argue that to build collaborative robotic systems that act in socially and interactionally appropriate ways, we need to focus on humans as "the other" in robot-human interaction, whom robotic utterances should be designed for. I present multimodal conversation analysis (CA), a video-based approach that focuses on how actions are interpreted by participants in the context of the ongoing interaction. Identifying three different scales at which CA can be applied, I demonstrate how this approach can support various stages of robot interaction design, making social robots easier to collaborate with from a human perspective.

  • 238.
    Persson, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of York, UK.
    Fill-in-the-blank questions in interaction: Incomplete utterancesas a resource for doing inquiries2017In: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 227-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on the use of syntactically incomplete utterances in talk-in-interaction as a resource for doing two sorts of inquiries: seeking information and initiating repair. The element inquired about is made relevant next, and typically given by the addressee, in the form of a completion fitted to the incomplete utterance. Using a vernacular term, the practice could be referred to as “asking a fill-in-the-blank question,” where syntactic structure is distributed across question and answer. It is shown how transition-relevance places can be set up in the absence of syntactic completion and how fill-in-the-blank questions thereby differ from other types of collaborative productions. The particular import and usefulness of incomplete utterances is demonstrated relative to other resources. The phenomenon shows that syntactic completion and turn completion need not coincide and illustrates how questions can constrain the form of answers through projection. Data are in French with English translation.

  • 239.
    Persson, Rasmus
    Department of Language and Linguistic Science, University of York, Heslington, York, United Kingdom; French Studies, Centre for Languages and Literature Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Indexing one’s own previous action as inadequate: On ah-prefaced repeats as receipt tokens in French talk-in-interaction2015In: Language in society (London. Print), ISSN 0047-4045, E-ISSN 1469-8013, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 497-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers a practice in French talk-in-interaction, formally characterized as other-repeats prefaced by the change-of-state particle ah. The target practice accomplishes a claim of receipt, while at the same time indexing as somehow inadequate a previous turn by the receipt speaker. Evidence drawn upon includes: (i) the sequential locations of the examined phenomenon; (ii) ensuing developments of the sequence, wherein the indexed inadequacy is more explicitly acknowledged; and (iii) the discriminability of the focal practice with respect to alternative practices. Two phonetically distinguished variants of the practice, and their respective sequential projections (‘problematizing’ topicalization or ‘accepting’ closure), are discussed. This article contributes to the study of how intersubjectivity is managed and administered by participants, and to research on the management of accountability for producing ‘adequate’ turns and actions. Finally, it addresses ongoing discussions concerning the analysis of multiple actions (first- and second-order) conveyed simultaneously in single turns. (French, talk-in-interaction, repetition, receipts, particles, indexicality, intersubjectivity, prosody, phonetics)

  • 240.
    Persson, Rasmus
    Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Intonation and sequential organization: Formulations in French talk-in-interaction2013In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 57, p. 19-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to the study of the interactional functions of so-called formulations, while at the same time proposing an account for variability in phonetic design with reference to the observable interactional and sequential structure of talk. Two types of formulations are identified: final rise formulations and rise–fall formulations. The two categories differ in terms of intonational form as well as next-turn treatment and sequential location. While final rise formulations are used to solicit elaborate confirmations, rise–fall confirmations are responded to with mere confirmation. The two types of formulations can be described as projecting expansion relevance and closing relevance, respectively. The categorization is empirically warranted by means of participant orientation in both typical and deviant cases, demonstrating the robustness of the phenomena. The paper argues that linguistic design is inextricably linked to interactional functions, and that the former cannot be fully understood without consideration of the latter.

  • 241.
    Persson, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of York, UK.
    La prosodie comme ressource pour l’organisation de l’interaction : état des lieux et illustrations2017In: Revue Française de Linguistique Appliquée, ISSN 1386-1204, E-ISSN 1875-368X, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 33-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes stock of the current state of research on the connections between prosody and the organisation of social interaction. An overview is given of central studies of prosodic and phonetic design and its procedural relevance for interaction, along three lines of inquiry: the management of turns, sequence organisation, and action formation. For each of these issues, illustrative analyses based on French data are also presented.

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  • 242.
    Persson, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ York, England.
    On some functions of salient initial accents in French talk-in-interaction: Intonational meaning and the interplay of prosodic, verbal and sequential properties of talk2018In: Journal of the International Phonetic Association, ISSN 0025-1003, E-ISSN 1475-3502, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 77-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of whether and how intonation patterns bear meanings is an old one, usually evaluated with reference to imagined or elicited speech. This study takes an interactional linguistic approach instead, examining intonation and meaning in naturally occurring interaction. The pattern considered here is a French intonation contour involving a salient initial accent and a low primary accent. This intonation pattern could be analysed as the so-called accent dinsistance, which is often said to have pragmatic meanings such as intensification and contrastive focus. This article analyses the uses of this contour in repeats. When used in repeats of an interlocutors speech, the contour indicates unproblematic receipt of the repeated talk, making a confirming response optional, and contrasts with a final rise pattern used in repeats that initiate repair and request confirmation. However, in two other types of repetitions (self-repetition of a previously made assessment, and modified self-repetition for correction purposes), there is indeed interactional evidence supporting the argument that the contour helps convey the pragmatic meanings intensification and contrastive focus, respectively. It is argued that all of these meanings are achieved through the interplay of semiotic resources of several kinds (prosodic, verbal and sequential properties of talk), and that the contour itself has no inherent, context-independent meaning. The empirical findings presented suggest that the autonomy of intonation in the achievement of meaning has been overemphasised.

  • 243.
    Persson, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ York, Dept Language & Linguist Sci, N Yorkshire, England.
    Prosody as a resource for organizing interaction: state of the art and illustrations2017In: Revue Française de Linguistique Appliquée, ISSN 1386-1204, E-ISSN 1875-368X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 33-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes stock of the current state of research on the connections between prosody and the organisation of social interaction. An overview is given of central studies of prosodic and phonetic design and its procedural relevance for interaction, along three lines of inquiry: the management of turns, sequence organisation, and action formation. For each of these issues, illustrative analyses based on French data are also presented.

  • 244.
    Persson, Rasmus
    University of York, UK; Lund University, Sweden.
    Registering and repair-initiating repeats in French talk-in-interaction2015In: Discourse Studies, ISSN 1461-4456, E-ISSN 1461-7080, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 583-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the prosody and sequential organisation of repeats in French talk-in-interaction. Repeats in French are used for initiating repair, as well as for registering receipt. I show for two sequential contexts – after first pair parts and after second pair parts – that the action import of the repeat depends on its prosodic design; prosody allows participants to differentiate between repair-initiating (i.e. questioning) and receipt-registering repeats. While questioning repeats make a response conditionally relevant, registering repeats do not – however, they do not preclude a response either. Registering repeats are sometimes responded to with confirmation tokens, and sometimes not; when produced, such responses are a contingent possibility rather than an expectable second pair part. In the selection and design of confirmation tokens, participants distinguish between solicited and volunteered confirmations. The article relates these findings to prior research on repetition and sequence organisation in French and also in English, Russian and Finnish.

  • 245.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture.
    Antelius, Eleonor
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tolka ett tolkförmedlat samtal.2015In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, no 03/04Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att vara väl förberedd är nyckeln till ett gott tolkförmedlat samtal. Alla har att vinna på om tolk och kliniskt ansvarig person träffas en stund före ett besök. Detta görs vid vissa kliniker, men inte vid alla, och inte rutinmässigt, skriver Charlotta Plejert och Eleonor Antelius. 

  • 246.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Anett
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A dialogical approach to Theory of Mind in aided and non-aided child interaction2013In: Aided Communication in Everyday Interaction / [ed] Niklas Norén, Christina Samuelsson and Charlotta Plejert, Guildford: J & R Press , 2013, p. 153-187Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 247.
    Ponomareva, Yulia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bilingualism in Hospitality Properties: Language Choice and Code Alternation as a Resource for Organizing the Multiple-Participant Check in Activity2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This empirical study deals with the issues of language choice and code alternation as a common practice in the organization of the complex check in activity with multiple participants in hospitality properties in Sweden. In particular, it discusses several interactional tasks that code alternation may accomplish in that setting and represents a crossroad of general linguistics, bilingualism studies and conversation analysis. In the light of arising interest of specialists of different areas of linguistics in bilingualism in formal settings, it deals with institutional bilingualism in Sweden, an EU country with a comparatively high level of bilingualism among residents.

    In the era of the new economy with its globalization and human mobility, bilingualism has become an emergent practice in many tourism settings, the hospitality sector of tourism among them. In hospitality as a tourism setting with a potentially high concentration of foreign tourists, it is inevitable that certain groups of hotel guests include members who expose different language abilities and preferences. As a result, in the interaction with one single group of guests two or even more languages can be used at the same time, as oriented to the needs and preferences of each and every guest.

    This investigation aims at discussing some possible accomplishments of language choice and code alternation in a standardized hotel check in activity where a single group of guests has to be addressed in two languages, Swedish and English, and where the language choices are crucial for participation and the accomplishment of the check in activity in general.

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  • 248.
    Prokofyeva, Tatiana
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Language Use in Two Types of Suicide Texts2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide texts are the traces left by their authors for the public allowing them to understand the causes of the desire to commit suicide, regardless of whether such notes preceded successful suicide attempts or not. The types of such texts can vary dramatically in emotional expressiveness, be it a suicide note handwritten by the author or a short post typed on a web forum dedicated to suicides. While one text can be evidence of a successful suicide attempt, the other may point to a deeply depressive state which may or may not lead to a suicide attempt in future. The main questions this study aims to answer are: (1) what is the difference between the two above-named types of suicide texts (‘suicide notes’ and ‘suicide posts’) and (2) how is it expressed linguistically? Previous works on suicide texts have been of significant importance and have managed to investigate the differences between suicide notes of the attempters and those who completed suicide (Joiner 2002) as well as underline the typical features of genuine suicide notes in comparison to fabricated suicide notes. However, no studies indicating the differences between the ‘suicide notes’ of successful suicides and the ‘suicide posts’ of authors exhibiting various degrees of depressive behavior have previously been conducted. In this thesis, the comparative analysis of ‘suicide notes’ left by those successful in their attempts  and ‘suicide posts’ composed by authors with unknown fates has been carried out with the help of discourse analysis. Both types of texts have been examined from such linguistic levels as semantics, pragmatics and syntax. The results show several distinctive features peculiar to each type. While providing a clear reason for committing suicide in the one case contrasts with detailing a number of causes for depression in the other, further differences exist in regard to expressing such emotions as (1) fear of life, (2) relief, (3) lack of hope and (4) lack of doubt versus displaying such emotions as (1) fear of death, (2) preserved desire and (3) doubt. An easy to follow structure and purposeful past tense usage in suicide notes stands in contrast to the allusions to previous suicide attempts and indistinguishable pattern found in suicide posts. At the same time, specific punctuation signs were found to be peculiar mainly to the suicide post type of text.  The results of the research also demonstrate the necessity for further investigation of the characteristic features of different types of suicide text as well as their classification. Moreover, the study indicates the possibilities of tracing the probable transformation from ‘suicide posts’ to ‘suicide notes’ which may well serve for purposes of suicide prevention, especially if an additional category, i.e., notes written by survivors, is added to the analysis. 

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    Language Use in Two Types of Suicide Texts
  • 249.
    Prokofyeva, Tatiana
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Strategic Use of Question-Answer Pairs in Russian2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important social activities in the lives of human beings is conversation. Apart from thoughts and ideas, we can express our feelings and emotions by means of conversation. Moreover, since conversation is recognized as a reciprocal process, we can understand and grasp what the people involved in the interaction are displaying. Being all around us, conversation is a means which makes us social. Its description and analysis have become a concern for many scientists. For the past forty years, conversation has been a subject of study for sociologists, linguists and social psychologists. Since that time, we may speak of the emergence of conversation analysis (hereinafter referred to as CA).

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    The Strategic Use of Question-Answer Pairs in Russian
  • 250.
    Qiang, Li
    et al.
    Department of Communicative Disorders, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, USA / School of Foreign Languages, Dalian University of Technology, China.
    Guo, X
    School of International Education, Dalian University of Technology, China.
    Yao, Y.
    School of International Education, Dalian University of Technology, China.
    Müller, Nicole
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Relative clauses preference in learners of Chinese as a second language2016In: Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 2192-9505, Vol. 39, p. 199-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether preference for subject-extracted relative clauses in language processing is a universal rule has been debated with evidences from both the first and the second language acquisition studies. But very few studies focus on learners of Chinese as a second language. The current research studied Chinese subject/object-extracted relative clauses processing among learners of Chinese as a second language by the self-paced reading experiment. The results demonstrate a faster and more accurate processing of subject-extracted relative clauses in both subject and object modifying conditions, adding more evidence to the universal preference for the subject-extracted relative clauses. Both Frequency-based Accounts and Memory-based Accounts are discussed related to the current findings.

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