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  • 201.
    Minarro-Gimenez, Jose Antonio
    et al.
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Martinez-Costa, Catalina
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schulz, Stefan
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Goeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck
    Aalborg Univ, Denmark.
    Qualitative analysis of manual annotations of clinical text with SNOMED CT2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 12, article id e0209547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SNOMED CT provides about 300,000 codes with fine-grained concept definitions to support interoperability of health data. Coding clinical texts with medical terminologies it is not a trivial task and is prone to disagreements between coders. We conducted a qualitative analysis to identify sources of disagreements on an annotation experiment which used a subset of SNOMED CT with some restrictions. A corpus of 20 English clinical text fragments from diverse origins and languages was annotated independently by two domain medically trained annotators following a specific annotation guideline. By following this guideline, the annotators had to assign sets of SNOMED CT codes to noun phrases, together with concept and term coverage ratings. Then, the annotations were manually examined against a reference standard to determine sources of disagreements. Five categories were identified. In our results, the most frequent cause of inter-annotator disagreement was related to human issues. In several cases disagreements revealed gaps in the annotation guidelines and lack of training of annotators. The reminder issues can be influenced by some SNOMED CT features.

  • 202.
    Moradi, Shahram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals: Effects of Adding Visual Cues to Auditory Speech Stimuli2016In: TRENDS IN HEARING, ISSN 2331-2165, Vol. 20, article id 2331216516653355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users (n = 20) with elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners (n = 20) in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus) and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences) presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context.

  • 203.
    Musk, Nigel
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bilingualisms-in-Practice at the Meso Level. An Example from a Bilingual School in Wales.2010In: International Journal of the Sociology of Language, ISSN 0165-2516, E-ISSN 1613-3668, Vol. 202, p. 41-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bilingualism is to be seen as dynamic bilingualisms-in-practice, which are continually being ‘‘performed,’’ that is, shaped, valued, and constituted, both through discourses which (re)contextualize the notion, as well as through the everyday language practices of bilinguals. To shed light on bilingualisms-in-practice, primarily in the context of one bilingual school in Wales, a range of data is examined to identify prevalent discourses on bilingualism. It is argued here that the meso level of society, especially educational institutions, constitute a key site for the recontextualization of these discourses and thereby play an important mediating role between the micro and macro levels of society.

  • 204.
    Musk, Nigel
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Code-switching and code-mixing in Welsh bilinguals' talk: Confirming or refuting the maintenance of language boundaries?2010In: Language, Culture and Curriculum, ISSN 0790-8318, E-ISSN 1747-7573, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 179-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article closely examines the bilingual talk emerging from informal discussions among young people attending a bilingual school in Wales. In contrast to the common focus on issues of bilinguals' linguistic competence in the literature, this paper advocates a speaker's perspective and considers bilingualism to be the sedimentation of social and linguistic practices of bilinguals, where code-alternation is often prevalent. Using a conversation analytic approach to code-switching, I distinguish between two different kinds of code-alternation: unmarked code-mixing and marked code-switching on the basis of speakers' own orientations. When these bilinguals speak Welsh, for most of the time the language boundary between Welsh and English is only loosely maintained. However, on occasion code-switching is used as a meaning-making resource, e.g. for the purpose of quoting others. It is this marked code-switching that requires bilinguals to separate and distinguish between the two language mediums, and thereby also maintain the language boundary. At the same time, these findings disclose a gap between informal language practices and the ideological insistence on maintaining strict language boundaries, for example, in educational contexts.

  • 205.
    Musk, Nigel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cromdal, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Analysing bilingual talk: Conversation analysis and language alternation2018In: Conversation Analysis and Language Alternation: Capturing Transitions in the Classroom / [ed] Anna Filipi & Numa Markee, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, p. 15-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifting focus from monolingual to multilingual talk within conversationanalysis has offered new, radically social and post-cognitivist understandingsof bilingualism, especially through the empirical study of language alternation.This chapter presents some central ideas in the literature on language alternationand traces the emergence and development of the organisational approach. Thisprioritises a participant perspective, whereby bilinguals mobilise their linguisticresources to organise their actions in mundane and institutional settings.While languaging rather than the linguistic concept of “language” is advocatedto capture the nature of bilingual talk, extending the analysis to include multimodalaspects of social interaction is put forward as a promising directionfor future inquiry.

  • 206.
    Musk, Nigel John
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Identitet som dynamisk process: Exemplet tvåspråkiga ungdomar i Wales2010In: Flerspråkighet, identitet och lärande / [ed] Nigel Musk, Åsa Wedin, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, p. 55-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här kapitlet avvisar synen på identitet som något man har och som återspeglas i individens handlingar. I stället framställs identiteten som en följd av en mängd handlingar som sker i socialt samspel med andra.

    Kapitlet börjar med en redogörelse av begreppet identitet och den teoretiska ramen. Efter en kort bakgrund till den walesiska kontexten, följer flera exempel på identitetsskapande handlingar i tvåspråkiga elevers samtal. I den avslutande diskussionen jämförs den tvåspråkiga skolmodell som gäller i Wales med den i Sverige och det diskuteras hur den svenska modellen eventuellt kan begränsa ungdomars två- eller flerspråkiga identitetsutveckling.

  • 207.
    Musk, Nigel John
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Performing Bilingualism in Wales with the Spotlight on Welsh: A Study of Language Policy and the Language Practices of Young People in Bilingual Education2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The recently established National Assembly for Wales (with the vision of a “truly bilingual Wales”) and bilingual schools are but two major sites in which bilingualism is reconstituting and repackaging Welsh.

    By close examination of the discourse(s) of language policy texts, the public discourse of one bilingual secondary school and the discussions of four focus groups composed of pupils from the same school, this study identifies three types of discourse which are particularly salient in contemporary Wales: a globalising discourse, a nationalist discourse and an ecology-of-language discourse.

    By collating the data from focus group discussions, language use questionnaires and language diaries, this study also identifies three categories of bilinguals based on their reported language use: Welsh-dominant bilinguals, English-dominant bilinguals and ‘floaters’ (balanced bilinguals). These three categories correlate with how individuals discursively construct Welsh and bilingualism. However, the medium of the focus group discussions (English or mixed-medium Welsh) correlates more closely with the category that is dominant in each focus group.

    With performativity theory as a framework, bilingualism is to be seen as a dynamic phenomenon, which is constantly being performatively (re)constituted through the situated practices of bilinguals.

    In short, this study examines how bilingualism in Wales is being performed, i.e. both how it is discursively constructed by various players in various sites, and how it is formed through everyday bilingual practices, not least those of young people in bilingual education.

  • 208.
    Musk, Nigel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wedin, ÅsaHumUS-akademin, Örebro universitet.
    Flerspråkighet, identitet och lärande2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens samhälle karakteriseras av ökad språklig, etnisk och kulturell mångfald. Takten i dessa förändringar har medfört nya krav på skolan att möta barn med olika bakgrund på ett professionellt sätt. Det visar sig ofta att invanda föreställningar om elevernas förkunskaper inte alls stämmer.

    I mötet med heterogena klasser ställs lärare ofta inför utmaningar av annat slag än dem de utbildats för. Detta blir särskilt tydligt när eleverna ännu inte hunnit utveckla sin svenska i den utsträckning som krävs i skolan. I det här läget blir det lätt att se på barnens språkbakgrund som innehållande olika brister och problem snarare än resurser och möjligheter.

    I den här antologin ifrågasätter författarna gängse synsätt och ger en mer nyanserad bild av flerspråkighet. Genom olika exempel från aktuell svensk forskning om elevers vardag belyser de olika aspekter av flerspråkighet i skolsammanhang och problematiserar begrepp som etnicitet, identitet, lärande och makt.

    Boken riktar sig till blivande och verksamma lärare i grundskola och gymnasium samt till dem som arbetar med skolutveckling och frågor som rör flerspråkighet.

  • 209.
    Musk, Nigel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wedin, Åsa
    HumUS-akademin, Örebro universitet.
    Inledning2010In: Flerspråkighet, identitet och lärande / [ed] Nigel Musk, Åsa Wedin, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 1, p. 9-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens samhälle karakteriseras av ökad språklig, etnisk och kulturell mångfald. Takten i dessa förändringar har medfört nya krav på skolan att möta barn med olika bakgrund på ett professionellt sätt. Det visar sig ofta att invanda föreställningar om elevernas förkunskaper inte alls stämmer. I mötet med heterogena klasser ställs lärare ofta inför utmaningar av annat slag än dem de utbildats för. Detta blir särskilt tydligt när eleverna ännu inte hunnit utveckla sin svenska i den utsträckning som krävs i skolan. I det här läget blir det lätt att se på barnens språkbakgrund som innehållande olika brister och problem snarare än resurser och möjligheter. I den här antologin ifrågasätter författarna gängse synsätt och ger en mer nyanserad och balanserad bild av flerspråkighet. Genom olika exempel från aktuell svensk forskning om elevers vardag belyser de olika aspekter av flerspråkighet i skolsammanhang och problematiserar begrepp som etnicitet, identitet, lärande och makt. Boken riktar sig till blivande och verksamma lärare i grundskola och gymnasium samt till dem som arbetar med skolutveckling och frågor som rör flerspråkighet.

  • 210.
    Myrberg, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Different approaches in aphasia assessments: a comparison between test and everyday conversations2018In: Aphasiology, ISSN 0268-7038, E-ISSN 1464-5041, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 417-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When it comes to aphasia assessments, many speech and language pathologists (SLPs) rely heavily on norm-referenced language tests, even though they are aware that certain important language skills can only be evaluated by analysis of conversational discourse. The formalized aphasia test situation is a typical example of institutional interaction, which differs in systematic ways from everyday conversations. This article examines conversations between persons with aphasia (PWAs) and SLPs in the two different contexts, a topic where previous research is limited. Aims: The aim is to compare the interactions between PWAs and SLPs in test conversations and in more everyday-like conversations and to relate the interactional data to the participants performance on the aphasia test battery. Methods amp; Procedures: Ten PWAs and three SLPs participated in the study. Each PWA participated in two conversations with an SLP, a test conversation, while performing tasks targeting the ability to produce sentences and narratives from an aphasia test battery, and a more everyday-like conversation. The conversations were audio and video recorded and thereafter transcribed. Three main observations considered to be important mechanisms for interaction organization were identified and calculated in the transcriptions. The test results were summarized and analyzed. Outcomes amp; results: The results demonstrated that there were a larger number of turns produced by the PWAs in the everyday conversations compared to the test conversations. Furthermore, there were more communicative initiatives and nonverbal contributions in the everyday conversations. The number of repairs initiated by the PWAs were equivalent, but looking at repair characteristics, it was found that repairs resolved within the same turn were found in the test conversations while repairs stretching over several turns were more frequent in the everyday conversations. Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrated differences of the interaction between PWAs and SLPs in test conversations and in more everyday-like conversations. Furthermore, there seemed to be no obvious relationship between the participants actual test scores on the aphasia test battery and aspects of conversation that can be related to being a competent speaker.

  • 211.
    Mårback, Sebastian
    et al.
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Gustav
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute/Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uhm... What’s going on? An EEG study on perception of filled pauses in spontaneous Swedish speech2009In: Proceedings of FONETIK 2009, Stockholm University, 10–12 June 2009, 2009, p. 92-95Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Filled pauses have been shown to play a significant role in comprehension and long-term storage of speech. Behavioral and neurophysiological studies suggest that filled pauses can help mitigate semantic and/or syntactic incongruity in spoken language. The purpose of the present study was to explore how filled pauses affect the processing of spontaneous speech in the listener. Brain activation of eight subjects was measured by electroencephalography (EEG), while they listened to recordings of Wizard-of-Oz travel booking dialogues. The results show a P300 component in the Primary Motor Cortex, but not in the Broca or Wernicke areas. A possible interpretation could be that the listener is preparing to engage in speech. However, a larger sample is currently being collected.

  • 212.
    Müller, Nicole
    et al.
    University of Louisiana, Lafayette, USA.
    Ball, Martin J.University of Louisiana, Lafayette, USA.
    Research methods in clinical linguistics and phonetics: A practical guide2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The only volume to offer hands-on information about the wide range of research philosophies, methods and tools used across linguistics, phonetics, and speech science, as applied to disordered speech and language. • Covers core topics for students undertaking their own research, including experimental and qualitative methods, sociolinguistics, corpus construction and analysis, data recording, transcription and digital analysis of speech, and speech imaging. • Considers the research ethics associated with working with people who have speech, language or other communication difficulties. • Includes a detailed discussion of the dissemination of research results, and advice on the writing of theses and dissertations, and on the writing and publishing of journal articles, as well the peer review process. • Offers students and researchers from a variety of entry points – such as linguistics, education, psychology, and speech pathology – an introduction to the scope of research in clinical linguistics and phonetics, and a practical guide to this interdisciplinary field

  • 213.
    Müller, Nicole
    et al.
    University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
    Guendouzi, Jacqueline
    Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond.
    Transcribing discourse: Interactions with Alzheimer's disease2002In: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 345-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates the use of a 'discourse line' in transcribing spoken interaction between a person with Alzheimer's disease, and a visitor. Discourse is here interpreted as a metacategory, or an analytic level of interaction. We view transcribing as an integral part of 'doing discourse', and use two sub-layers of the discourse line, dedicated to speech acts and conversation analysis, respectively. The prosody and voice layer is used to show the analysis of a speaker's use of a specific voice quality in discourse terms.

  • 214.
    Norén, Niklas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture.
    Pronominella returfrågor i tre vardagliga svenska samtal.2010In: Språk och interaktion 2 (Nordica Helsingensia 19), ISSN 1795-4428, p. 29-71Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel presenteras resultat från en studie av hur pronominella returfrågoran vänds av deltagare för att lösa olika typer av kommunikativa uppgifter i några vardagliga svenska samtal. De pronominella returfrågorna är excerperade ur videoinspelade, naturligt förekommande och vardagliga flerpartssamtal i hemmiljö, med kvinnliga del tagare i pensionsåldern. Deltagarna (3 till 4 stycken) är i huvudsak sysselsatta med samtal och fika i de sekvenser som analyserats. Totalt 37 belägg av typiska pro nominella returfrågor (basvarianter 1–2) har excerperats ur tre samtal om samman lagt 4 tim och 9 min.

     

    Analysen visar att deltagare använder prono minella returfrågor för att å ena sidan respondera på vissa typer av lokala kon texter eller handlingar, och å andra sidan att frågorna är sekventiellt implikativa på olika sätt beroende på vilken lokal aktivitet deltagarna är involverade i, samt hur frågornas syntaktiska, prosodiska och lexikala design bidrar till dessa båda dialogiska aspekter av frågeyttrandena.

     

    Returfrågor används för att respondera på informationsrapporter i föregående tur eller föregående minimala tur sekvens. De kan inleda reparation i en sekvens där returfrågan följs av en förklaring eller redovisning som sätter fokus på något problematiskt i turen/turerna som föregår returfrågan. Returfrågor kan bekräfta ett föreslaget samtalsämne, samt respondera på en nyetablerad opposition mellan talare (som sedan reds ut) så att både en full konflikt och ett fullt uppgivande av den egna ståndpunkten/åsikten undviks. Returfrågor används i materialet även för att respondera på lokala kontexter där det blivit uppenbart att returtalaren och en eller flera andra deltagare inte längre delar en ömsesidig social värld här-och-nu.

     

    Analysen har påvisat skillnader mellan de olika lokala interaktionella kontexterna beträffande hur returfrågeyttrandena ut formas (främst prosodiskt) och behandlas i efterföljande samtal. Det finns dock även många likheter mellan returfrågeyttrandena i materialet i stort, och mellan de returfrågor som behandlats i uppsatsen. Förutom de återkommande pragmatiska villkor som beskrivits, t.ex. beträffande informations organisation, har likheterna med stor sannolikhet även att göra med yttrandenas formella grammatiska och prosodiska konfigurationer, samt de funktionella potentialer att utföra kommunikativa uppgifter i samtal som kan knytas till dessa.

  • 215.
    Norén, Niklas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, ChristinaLinköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.Plejert, CharlottaLinköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aided Communication in Everyday Interaction2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book argues for the importance of the participants' perspective within both theory and practice on the function of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) aids in everyday talk-in-interaction. Interactional approaches such as Conversation Analysis (CA) and Topical episode analysis are used to analyze and demonstrate.

  • 216.
    Nyman, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Utvärdering av kustväderuppläsning: Vilken språkprofil förstår användaren bäst?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektets syfte är att ta reda på ifall det är någon skillnad mellan två olika språkprofiler vid kustväderuppläsning. Hur ger man användaren en tydlig och relevant förståelse av kustvädret? Finns det en språkprofil som är bättre än den andra? För att svara på frågeställningarna har en utvärdering utförts med hjälp av en enkät innehållande både frågor och uppgifter, detta för att få en tydlig bild över lyssnarens förståelsegrad samt upplevelse. Resultaten visar på att språkprofil A baserat på ledigt språk är bättre än språkprofil B som är baserat på strikt språk. Dessutom indikerar resultaten på att tydlig struktur, långsam talhastighet, tydliga pauser, ett enkelt språk och att mottagaren har ett bra sätt att lyssna på är faktorer som påverkar hur kustväderuppläsningen förstås.

  • 217.
    Nyström, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zweigenbaum, Pierre
    Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Inserm U729, Inalco CRIM.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Creating a medical English-Swedish dictionary using interactive word alignment2009In: Lexicography: The Changing Landscape / [ed] Salonee Priya, Hyderabad, India: The Icfai University Press , 2009, 1, p. 131-157Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lexicography is a realm of growing academic specialization. Dictionaries map meaning onto use. We have innumerable dictionaries on different subjects and for different purposes which we keep referring to, time and again. Despite the frequency with which dictionaries are unquestioningly consulted, many have little idea of what actually goes into making them or how meanings are definitively ascertained. We have become so accustomed to using dictionaries that we fail to take notice of the effort and time spent in their making. Understanding the finer nuances of the art of dictionary-making will be of interest to everyone. With changing times and the penetration of technology, the bulkier forms of dictionaries have given way to softer forms. This book updates the reader to the changing notions of the lexicon and dictionary-making in the new realm of modern technology and newer electronic tools. The book introduces us to lexicography and leads us to dictionaries for general and specific purposes. It examines dictionary compilation and research and enables compilers, users, educators and publishers to look anew at the art of lexicography. It duly takes into account the fact that dictionaries are meant to fulfill the needs of specific user groups and reflects the same in the chapters devoted to various professional dictionaries, which have recently achieved widespread recognition in the lexicographical literature. A good read for students of linguistics, teachers and translators apart from general readers interested in knowing the intricate art of making a dictionary.

  • 218.
    Osvaldsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cromdal, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Persson Thunqvist, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pranks or accidents?: Problematic calls to the emergency services2011In: Abstracts: 12th International Pragmatics Conference, 2011 / [ed] IPRA, 2011, p. 280-280Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 219.
    Osvaldsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies.
    Persson-Thunqvist, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cromdal, Jakob
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att säkra förståelse i larmsamtal: Förtydliganden och korrigeringar i SOS-samtal med personer som har svenska som främmandespråk2007In: Språklig mångfald och hållbar samhällsutveckling / [ed] Jarmo Lainio, Annaliina Leppänen, Uppsala: Swedish Science Press , 2007, p. 241-264Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 220.
    Parsons, Dave
    et al.
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    A Randomised Controlled Trial of an Information Communication Technology Delivered Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Living in Regional Australia2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 569-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory randomised controlled trial tested the effectiveness of a tablet-based information communication technology early intervention application to augment existing therapy with the aim of improving visual motor, imitation, language and social skills in young children with ASD who reside in regional areas. Fifty-nine participants were recruited and randomised to either a therapy-as-usual group or intervention group. With the exception of the expressive language subscale on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, no significant between-group differences were recorded for visual motor, imitation, receptive language and social skills of participants between baseline and post-intervention. When all participants were pooled and measured over time, improvements were shown in receptive and pragmatic language and social skills; these gains were maintained, thus suggesting skill acquisition.

  • 221.
    Persson, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of York, UK.
    Fill-in-the-blank questions in interaction: Incomplete utterancesas a resource for doing inquiries2017In: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 227-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on the use of syntactically incomplete utterances in talk-in-interaction as a resource for doing two sorts of inquiries: seeking information and initiating repair. The element inquired about is made relevant next, and typically given by the addressee, in the form of a completion fitted to the incomplete utterance. Using a vernacular term, the practice could be referred to as “asking a fill-in-the-blank question,” where syntactic structure is distributed across question and answer. It is shown how transition-relevance places can be set up in the absence of syntactic completion and how fill-in-the-blank questions thereby differ from other types of collaborative productions. The particular import and usefulness of incomplete utterances is demonstrated relative to other resources. The phenomenon shows that syntactic completion and turn completion need not coincide and illustrates how questions can constrain the form of answers through projection. Data are in French with English translation.

  • 222.
    Persson, Rasmus
    Department of Language and Linguistic Science, University of York, Heslington, York, United Kingdom; French Studies, Centre for Languages and Literature Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Indexing one’s own previous action as inadequate: On ah-prefaced repeats as receipt tokens in French talk-in-interaction2015In: Language in society (London. Print), ISSN 0047-4045, E-ISSN 1469-8013, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 497-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers a practice in French talk-in-interaction, formally characterized as other-repeats prefaced by the change-of-state particle ah. The target practice accomplishes a claim of receipt, while at the same time indexing as somehow inadequate a previous turn by the receipt speaker. Evidence drawn upon includes: (i) the sequential locations of the examined phenomenon; (ii) ensuing developments of the sequence, wherein the indexed inadequacy is more explicitly acknowledged; and (iii) the discriminability of the focal practice with respect to alternative practices. Two phonetically distinguished variants of the practice, and their respective sequential projections (‘problematizing’ topicalization or ‘accepting’ closure), are discussed. This article contributes to the study of how intersubjectivity is managed and administered by participants, and to research on the management of accountability for producing ‘adequate’ turns and actions. Finally, it addresses ongoing discussions concerning the analysis of multiple actions (first- and second-order) conveyed simultaneously in single turns. (French, talk-in-interaction, repetition, receipts, particles, indexicality, intersubjectivity, prosody, phonetics)

  • 223.
    Persson, Rasmus
    Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Intonation and sequential organization: Formulations in French talk-in-interaction2013In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 57, p. 19-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to the study of the interactional functions of so-called formulations, while at the same time proposing an account for variability in phonetic design with reference to the observable interactional and sequential structure of talk. Two types of formulations are identified: final rise formulations and rise–fall formulations. The two categories differ in terms of intonational form as well as next-turn treatment and sequential location. While final rise formulations are used to solicit elaborate confirmations, rise–fall confirmations are responded to with mere confirmation. The two types of formulations can be described as projecting expansion relevance and closing relevance, respectively. The categorization is empirically warranted by means of participant orientation in both typical and deviant cases, demonstrating the robustness of the phenomena. The paper argues that linguistic design is inextricably linked to interactional functions, and that the former cannot be fully understood without consideration of the latter.

  • 224.
    Persson, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of York, UK.
    La prosodie comme ressource pour l’organisation de l’interaction : état des lieux et illustrations2017In: Revue Française de Linguistique Appliquée, ISSN 1386-1204, E-ISSN 1875-368X, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 33-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes stock of the current state of research on the connections between prosody and the organisation of social interaction. An overview is given of central studies of prosodic and phonetic design and its procedural relevance for interaction, along three lines of inquiry: the management of turns, sequence organisation, and action formation. For each of these issues, illustrative analyses based on French data are also presented.

  • 225.
    Persson, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ York, England.
    On some functions of salient initial accents in French talk-in-interaction: Intonational meaning and the interplay of prosodic, verbal and sequential properties of talk2018In: Journal of the International Phonetic Association, ISSN 0025-1003, E-ISSN 1475-3502, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 77-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of whether and how intonation patterns bear meanings is an old one, usually evaluated with reference to imagined or elicited speech. This study takes an interactional linguistic approach instead, examining intonation and meaning in naturally occurring interaction. The pattern considered here is a French intonation contour involving a salient initial accent and a low primary accent. This intonation pattern could be analysed as the so-called accent dinsistance, which is often said to have pragmatic meanings such as intensification and contrastive focus. This article analyses the uses of this contour in repeats. When used in repeats of an interlocutors speech, the contour indicates unproblematic receipt of the repeated talk, making a confirming response optional, and contrasts with a final rise pattern used in repeats that initiate repair and request confirmation. However, in two other types of repetitions (self-repetition of a previously made assessment, and modified self-repetition for correction purposes), there is indeed interactional evidence supporting the argument that the contour helps convey the pragmatic meanings intensification and contrastive focus, respectively. It is argued that all of these meanings are achieved through the interplay of semiotic resources of several kinds (prosodic, verbal and sequential properties of talk), and that the contour itself has no inherent, context-independent meaning. The empirical findings presented suggest that the autonomy of intonation in the achievement of meaning has been overemphasised.

  • 226.
    Persson, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ York, Dept Language & Linguist Sci, N Yorkshire, England.
    Prosody as a resource for organizing interaction: state of the art and illustrations2017In: Revue Française de Linguistique Appliquée, ISSN 1386-1204, E-ISSN 1875-368X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 33-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes stock of the current state of research on the connections between prosody and the organisation of social interaction. An overview is given of central studies of prosodic and phonetic design and its procedural relevance for interaction, along three lines of inquiry: the management of turns, sequence organisation, and action formation. For each of these issues, illustrative analyses based on French data are also presented.

  • 227.
    Persson, Rasmus
    University of York, UK; Lund University, Sweden.
    Registering and repair-initiating repeats in French talk-in-interaction2015In: Discourse Studies, ISSN 1461-4456, E-ISSN 1461-7080, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 583-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the prosody and sequential organisation of repeats in French talk-in-interaction. Repeats in French are used for initiating repair, as well as for registering receipt. I show for two sequential contexts – after first pair parts and after second pair parts – that the action import of the repeat depends on its prosodic design; prosody allows participants to differentiate between repair-initiating (i.e. questioning) and receipt-registering repeats. While questioning repeats make a response conditionally relevant, registering repeats do not – however, they do not preclude a response either. Registering repeats are sometimes responded to with confirmation tokens, and sometimes not; when produced, such responses are a contingent possibility rather than an expectable second pair part. In the selection and design of confirmation tokens, participants distinguish between solicited and volunteered confirmations. The article relates these findings to prior research on repetition and sequence organisation in French and also in English, Russian and Finnish.

  • 228.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture.
    Antelius, Eleonor
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tolka ett tolkförmedlat samtal.2015In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, no 03/04Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att vara väl förberedd är nyckeln till ett gott tolkförmedlat samtal. Alla har att vinna på om tolk och kliniskt ansvarig person träffas en stund före ett besök. Detta görs vid vissa kliniker, men inte vid alla, och inte rutinmässigt, skriver Charlotta Plejert och Eleonor Antelius. 

  • 229.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Anett
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A dialogical approach to Theory of Mind in aided and non-aided child interaction2013In: Aided Communication in Everyday Interaction / [ed] Niklas Norén, Christina Samuelsson and Charlotta Plejert, Guildford: J & R Press , 2013, p. 153-187Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 230.
    Ponomareva, Yulia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bilingualism in Hospitality Properties: Language Choice and Code Alternation as a Resource for Organizing the Multiple-Participant Check in Activity2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This empirical study deals with the issues of language choice and code alternation as a common practice in the organization of the complex check in activity with multiple participants in hospitality properties in Sweden. In particular, it discusses several interactional tasks that code alternation may accomplish in that setting and represents a crossroad of general linguistics, bilingualism studies and conversation analysis. In the light of arising interest of specialists of different areas of linguistics in bilingualism in formal settings, it deals with institutional bilingualism in Sweden, an EU country with a comparatively high level of bilingualism among residents.

    In the era of the new economy with its globalization and human mobility, bilingualism has become an emergent practice in many tourism settings, the hospitality sector of tourism among them. In hospitality as a tourism setting with a potentially high concentration of foreign tourists, it is inevitable that certain groups of hotel guests include members who expose different language abilities and preferences. As a result, in the interaction with one single group of guests two or even more languages can be used at the same time, as oriented to the needs and preferences of each and every guest.

    This investigation aims at discussing some possible accomplishments of language choice and code alternation in a standardized hotel check in activity where a single group of guests has to be addressed in two languages, Swedish and English, and where the language choices are crucial for participation and the accomplishment of the check in activity in general.

  • 231.
    Prokofyeva, Tatiana
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Language Use in Two Types of Suicide Texts2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide texts are the traces left by their authors for the public allowing them to understand the causes of the desire to commit suicide, regardless of whether such notes preceded successful suicide attempts or not. The types of such texts can vary dramatically in emotional expressiveness, be it a suicide note handwritten by the author or a short post typed on a web forum dedicated to suicides. While one text can be evidence of a successful suicide attempt, the other may point to a deeply depressive state which may or may not lead to a suicide attempt in future. The main questions this study aims to answer are: (1) what is the difference between the two above-named types of suicide texts (‘suicide notes’ and ‘suicide posts’) and (2) how is it expressed linguistically? Previous works on suicide texts have been of significant importance and have managed to investigate the differences between suicide notes of the attempters and those who completed suicide (Joiner 2002) as well as underline the typical features of genuine suicide notes in comparison to fabricated suicide notes. However, no studies indicating the differences between the ‘suicide notes’ of successful suicides and the ‘suicide posts’ of authors exhibiting various degrees of depressive behavior have previously been conducted. In this thesis, the comparative analysis of ‘suicide notes’ left by those successful in their attempts  and ‘suicide posts’ composed by authors with unknown fates has been carried out with the help of discourse analysis. Both types of texts have been examined from such linguistic levels as semantics, pragmatics and syntax. The results show several distinctive features peculiar to each type. While providing a clear reason for committing suicide in the one case contrasts with detailing a number of causes for depression in the other, further differences exist in regard to expressing such emotions as (1) fear of life, (2) relief, (3) lack of hope and (4) lack of doubt versus displaying such emotions as (1) fear of death, (2) preserved desire and (3) doubt. An easy to follow structure and purposeful past tense usage in suicide notes stands in contrast to the allusions to previous suicide attempts and indistinguishable pattern found in suicide posts. At the same time, specific punctuation signs were found to be peculiar mainly to the suicide post type of text.  The results of the research also demonstrate the necessity for further investigation of the characteristic features of different types of suicide text as well as their classification. Moreover, the study indicates the possibilities of tracing the probable transformation from ‘suicide posts’ to ‘suicide notes’ which may well serve for purposes of suicide prevention, especially if an additional category, i.e., notes written by survivors, is added to the analysis. 

  • 232.
    Prokofyeva, Tatiana
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Strategic Use of Question-Answer Pairs in Russian2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important social activities in the lives of human beings is conversation. Apart from thoughts and ideas, we can express our feelings and emotions by means of conversation. Moreover, since conversation is recognized as a reciprocal process, we can understand and grasp what the people involved in the interaction are displaying. Being all around us, conversation is a means which makes us social. Its description and analysis have become a concern for many scientists. For the past forty years, conversation has been a subject of study for sociologists, linguists and social psychologists. Since that time, we may speak of the emergence of conversation analysis (hereinafter referred to as CA).

  • 233.
    Qiang, Li
    et al.
    Department of Communicative Disorders, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, USA / School of Foreign Languages, Dalian University of Technology, China.
    Guo, X
    School of International Education, Dalian University of Technology, China.
    Yao, Y.
    School of International Education, Dalian University of Technology, China.
    Müller, Nicole
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Relative clauses preference in learners of Chinese as a second language2016In: Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 2192-9505, Vol. 39, p. 199-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether preference for subject-extracted relative clauses in language processing is a universal rule has been debated with evidences from both the first and the second language acquisition studies. But very few studies focus on learners of Chinese as a second language. The current research studied Chinese subject/object-extracted relative clauses processing among learners of Chinese as a second language by the self-paced reading experiment. The results demonstrate a faster and more accurate processing of subject-extracted relative clauses in both subject and object modifying conditions, adding more evidence to the universal preference for the subject-extracted relative clauses. Both Frequency-based Accounts and Memory-based Accounts are discussed related to the current findings.

  • 234.
    Qureshi, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strindberg på färöiska: En analys av Ett halvt ark papper2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att ge en insikt i hur den färöiska översättningen av Strindbergs novell Ett halvt ark papper förhåller sig till originalet i fråga om syntax och ordbildning ur ett såväl grammatiskt som semantiskt perspektiv. Metoden som tillämpas är en kvalitativ-komparativ metod som har sitt ursprung i en kombination av kopplingsanalys och komponentanalys. Resultatet av materialet visar att måltextens syntax överlag överensstämmer med syntaxen i källtexten med ett fåtal konsekventa undantag. Dessutom visar resultatet att ordvalet och sammansättningarna i måltexten överlag överensstämmer med källtexten. Trots att lexikaliseringen kan te sig annorlunda innehar de oftast samma denotationi och konnotation.

  • 235.
    Rangraz, Masood
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Uses of the Discourse Markers ‘well’, ’you know’ and ‘I mean’ in News Interviews2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about the use of three Discourse Markers (henceforth DMs) in news interviews. It is an attempt to demonstrate how well, you know and I mean are employed in news interviews. It also shows what participants accomplish using the DMs as rhetorical devices.

  • 236.
    Rayner, Manny
    et al.
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Carter, David
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Bretan, Ivan
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    Wirén, Mats
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    Hansen, Steffen Leo
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Fredriksberg, Denmark.
    Kirchmeier-Andersen, Sabine
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Fredriksberg, Denmark.
    Philp, Christina
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Fredriksberg, Denmark.
    Sørensen, Finn
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Fredriksberg, Denmark.
    Erdman Thomsen, Hanne
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Fredriksberg, Denmark.
    Recycling Lingware in a Multilingual MT System1997In: Proceedings of ACL/EACL Workshop From Research to Commercial Applications, 1997, p. 65-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe two methods relevant to multilingual machine translation systems, which can be used to port linguistic data (grammars, lexicons and transfer rules) between systems used for processing related languages. The methods are fully implemented within the Spoken Language Translator system, and were used to create versions of the systems for two new language pairs using only a month of expert effort.

  • 237.
    Rayner, Manny
    et al.
    SRI International, USA.
    Wirén, Mats
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Swedish Coverage2000In: The Spoken Language Translator / [ed] Manny Rayner, Dave Carter, Pierrette Bouillon, Vassilis Digalakis & Mats Wirén, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 131-144Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a detailed description of Spoken Language Translator (SLT), one of the first major projects in the area of automatic speech translation. The SLT system can translate between English, French, and Swedish in the domain of air travel planning, using a vocabulary of about 1500 words, and with an accuracy of about 75%. The greater part of the book describes the language processing components, which are largely built on top of the SRI Core Language Engine, using a combination of general grammars and techniques that allow them to be rapidly customized to specific domains.  Speech recognition is based on Hidden Markov Mode technology, and uses versions of the SRI DECIPHER system. This account of the Spoken Language Translator should be an essential resource both for those who wish to know what is achievable in spoken-language translation today, and for those who wish to understand how to achieve it.

  • 238.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Working Memory for Linguistic and Non-linguistic Manual Gestures: Evidence, Theory, and Application2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 679Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures. These effects are similar to those found for working memory for speech-based language. Further, there are effects of pre-existing linguistic representation that are partially similar across language modalities. But above all, deaf signers score higher than hearing non-signers on an n-back task with sign-based stimuli, irrespective of their semantic and phonological content, but not with non-linguistic manual actions. This pattern may be partially explained by recent findings relating to cross-modal plasticity in deaf individuals. It suggests that in linguistic gesture-based working memory, semantic aspects may outweigh phonological aspects when processing takes place under challenging conditions. The close association between working memory and language development should be taken into account in understanding and alleviating the challenges faced by deaf children growing up with cochlear implants as well as other clinical populations.

  • 239.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Seeing the talker’s face improves free recall of speech for young adults with normal hearing but not older adults with hearing loss2016In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 59, p. 590-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Seeing the talker's face improves speech understanding in noise, possibly releasing resources for cognitive processing. We investigated whether it improves free recall of spoken two-digit numbers.

    Method Twenty younger adults with normal hearing and 24 older adults with hearing loss listened to and subsequently recalled lists of 13 two-digit numbers, with alternating male and female talkers. Lists were presented in quiet as well as in stationary and speech-like noise at a signal-to-noise ratio giving approximately 90% intelligibility. Amplification compensated for loss of audibility.

    Results Seeing the talker's face improved free recall performance for the younger but not the older group. Poorer performance in background noise was contingent on individual differences in working memory capacity. The effect of seeing the talker's face did not differ in quiet and noise.

    Conclusions We have argued that the absence of an effect of seeing the talker's face for older adults with hearing loss may be due to modulation of audiovisual integration mechanisms caused by an interaction between task demands and participant characteristics. In particular, we suggest that executive task demands and interindividual executive skills may play a key role in determining the benefit of seeing the talker's face during a speech-based cognitive task

  • 240.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lundeborg Hammarström, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Video Recording as a Tool for Assessing Children’s Everyday Use of Features Targeted in Phonological Intervention2016In: Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders/Equinox, ISSN 2040-5111, E-ISSN 2040-512X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 27-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decades, speech and language pathology services have been subject to changes, and there has been a growing demand for intervention activities to be effective and evidence-based. The aim of the present study was to investigate if and how video recording can be used to assess the use of features targeted in phonological intervention, in everyday talk by children with LI. Three five-year-old girls with phonological problems participated in the study, and data consist of video recordings of intervention sessions and of interaction at home. Three different paths of development were identified: Some targeted speech sounds are displayed in everyday interaction; Targeted speech sound is present in intervention-like activity; No displays of targeted sounds. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate that the use of video recordings, transcriptions and analysis of interaction outside of the clinical setting contribute important information that may guide planning, goal-setting and evaluation of intervention.

  • 241.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anward, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Defusing practices as mitigation in speech and language intervention.2014In: Communication & Medicine: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Healthcare, Ethics and Society, ISSN 1612-1783, E-ISSN 1613-3625, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 299-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper, speech and language intervention was investigated in order to explore the use and function of defusing practices. Defusing practices may be viewed as a special form of mitigation. In previous research, including studies on clinical interaction, mitigation has been described mainly as devices used in order to reduce the unwelcome effects of an utterance, or reduce the discomfort of bad news. Defusing practices, however, appear to serve somewhat different functions, which are examined here. Data comprises video and audio recordings of eight intervention sessions with children with language impairment (LI), and six intervention sessions with adults with aphasia, The analysis revealed the following kinds of defusing practices: circumscriptions/figurative language, diminutive words, words like ‘try’ or ‘test’, placing the problem outside of the patient, collective pronouns, diminishing the speech and language pathologist’s own competence, encouragement, and references to well-known phenomena. If speech and language therapists (SLPs) are made aware of the practice and function of defusing, they may make conscious use of these practices in order to reduce face-threatening situations in intervention

  • 242.
    Sautermeister, Per
    et al.
    Telia Research AB, Haninge, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Haninge, Sweden.
    Some Observations on the Influence of F0 and Duration to the Perception of Prominence by Swedish Listeners1997In: Proceedings of Fonetik ’97: PHONUM, Reports from the Department of Phonetics Umeå University, 1997, Vol. 4, p. 121-124Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments have been conducted that deal with prosodic prominence in reiterant speech in order to determine the relative contribution of F0 and duration to the perception of prosodic prominence by Swedish listeners. F0 and duration were manipulated independently on different syllables in the stimuli. The results show that F0 is considered primary cue by most subjects. Furthermore, duration only does not seem to be a sufficient cue to the perception of prominence to many of the subjects.

  • 243.
    Schofield, Alexandra
    et al.
    Cornell University Ithaca, NY, USA.
    Magnusson, Måns
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mimno, David
    Cornell University Ithaca, NY, USA.
    Pulling Out the Stops: Rethinking Stopword Removal for Topic Models2017In: 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of Conference, volume 2: Short Papers, Stroudsburg: Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL) , 2017, Vol. 2, p. 432-436Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often assumed that topic models benefit from the use of a manually curated stopword list. Constructing this list is time-consuming and often subject to user judgments about what kinds of words are important to the model and the application. Although stopword removal clearly affects which word types appear as most probable terms in topics, we argue that this improvement is superficial, and that topic inference benefits little from the practice of removing stopwords beyond very frequent terms. Removing corpus-specific stopwords after model inference is more transparent and produces similar results to removing those words prior to inference.

  • 244.
    Schötz, Susanne
    et al.
    Humanities Lab, Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A comparative acoustic analysis of purring in four cats2011In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2011, Quarterly Progress and Status Report TMH-QPSR, Volume 51, 2011, Stockholm: Universitetsservice , 2011, p. 5-8Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports results from a comparative analysis of purring in four domesticcats. An acoustic analysis describes sound pressure level, duration, number ofcycles and fundamental frequency for egressive and ingressive phases. Significantindividual differences are found between the four cats in several respects.

  • 245.
    Schötz, Susanne
    et al.
    Lund University.
    van de Weijer, Joost
    Lund University.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Phonetic Characteristics of Domestic Cat Vocalisations2017In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, p. 5-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cat (Felis catus, Linneaus 1758) has lived around or with humans for at least 10,000 years, and is now one of the most popular pets of the world with more than 600 millionindividuals. Domestic cats have developed a more extensive, variable and complex vocal repertoire than most other members of the Carnivora, which may be explained by their social organisation, their nocturnal activity and the long period of association between mother and young. Still, we know surprisingly little about the phonetic characteristics of these sounds, and about the interaction between cats and humans.

    Members of the research project Melody in human–cat communication (Meowsic) investigate the prosodic characteristics of cat vocalisations as well as the communication between human and cat. The first step includes a categorisation of cat vocalisations. In the next step it will be investigated how humans perceive the vocal signals of domestic cats. This paper presents an outline of the project which has only recently started.

  • 246.
    Schötz, Susanne
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    van de Weijer, Joost
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Phonetic Methods in Cat Vocalisation Studies: A report from the Meowsic project2019In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2019 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the project Melody in Human–Cat Communication (Meowsic) we are using established phonetic methods to collect, annotate, pre-process and analyse domestic cat–human vocal communication. This article describes these methods, and also presents results of meow vocalisations in four different mental states showing variation in fundamental frequency (f0).

  • 247.
    Skobel, Ekaterina
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Reversing Language Shift in Galicia: A Present-Day Perspective2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis is about the current linguistic situation in the Spanish province of Galicia and about the prospects of the Galician language in modern times. The situation is analyzed through applying Joshua Fishman's model of reversing language shift (RLS).

  • 248.
    Stokoe, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Loughborough Univ Technol, England.
    Fernandez-Dols, Jose-Miguel
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Spain.
    Albert, Saul
    Tufts Human Interact Lab, MA 02155 USA.
    Reeves, Stuart
    Univ Nottingham, England.
    Porcheron, Martin
    Univ Nottingham, England.
    Hepburn, Alexa
    Rutgers State Univ, NJ 08854 USA.
    Mandelbaum, Jenny
    Rutgers State Univ, NJ 08854 USA.
    Hoey, Elliott
    Univ Basel, Switzerland.
    Hofstetter, Emily
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Loughborough, England.
    How real people communicate2018In: Psychologist (Leicester), ISSN 0952-8229, E-ISSN 2398-1598, Vol. 31, p. 28-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 249.
    Stymne, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Text Harmonization Strategies for Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I aim to improve phrase-based statistical machine translation (PBSMT) in a number of ways by the use of text harmonization strategies. PBSMT systems are built by training statistical models on large corpora of human translations. This architecture generally performs well for languages with similar structure. If the languages are different for example with respect to word order or morphological complexity, however, the standard methods do not tend to work well. I address this problem through text harmonization, by making texts more similar before training and applying a PBSMT system.

    I investigate how text harmonization can be used to improve PBSMT with a focus on four areas: compounding, definiteness, word order, and unknown words. For the first three areas, the focus is on linguistic differences between languages, which I address by applying transformation rules, using either rule-based or machine learning-based techniques, to the source or target data. For the last area, unknown words, I harmonize the translation input to the training data by replacing unknown words with known alternatives.

    I show that translation into languages with closed compounds can be improved by splitting and merging compounds. I develop new merging algorithms that outperform previously suggested algorithms and show how part-of-speech tags can be used to improve the order of compound parts. Scandinavian definite noun phrases are identified as a problem forPBSMT in translation into Scandinavian languages and I propose a preprocessing approach that addresses this problem and gives large improvements over a baseline. Several previous proposals for how to handle differences in reordering exist; I propose two types of extensions, iterating reordering and word alignment and using automatically induced word classes, which allow these methods to be used for less-resourced languages. Finally I identify several ways of replacing unknown words in the translation input, most notably a spell checking-inspired algorithm, which can be trained using character-based PBSMT techniques.

    Overall I present several approaches for extending PBSMT by the use of pre- and postprocessing techniques for text harmonization, and show experimentally that these methods work. Text harmonization methods are an efficient way to improve statistical machine translation within the phrase-based approach, without resorting to more complex models.

    List of papers
    1. Generation of Compound Words in Statistical Machine Translation into Compounding Languages
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generation of Compound Words in Statistical Machine Translation into Compounding Languages
    2013 (English)In: Computational linguistics - Association for Computational Linguistics (Print), ISSN 0891-2017, E-ISSN 1530-9312, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 1067-1108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we investigate statistical machine translation (SMT) into Germanic languages, with a focus on compound processing. Our main goal is to enable the generation of novel compounds that have not been seen in the training data. We adopt a split-merge strategy, where compounds are split before training the SMT system, and merged after the translation step. This approach reduces sparsity in the training data, but runs the risk of placing translations of compound parts in non-consecutive positions. It also requires a postprocessing step of compound merging, where compounds are reconstructed in the translation output. We present a method for increasing the chances that components that should be merged are translated into contiguous positions and in the right order and show that it can lead to improvements both by direct inspection and in terms of standard translation evaluation metrics. We also propose several new methods for compound merging, based on heuristics and machine learning, which outperform previously suggested algorithms. These methods can produce novel compounds and a translation with at least the same overall quality as the baseline. For all subtasks we show that it is useful to include part-of-speech based information in the translation process, in order to handle compounds.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MIT PRESS, 2013
    Keywords
    Machine translation, compound words, compounding languages
    National Category
    Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) General Language Studies and Linguistics Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76689 (URN)10.1162/COLI_a_00162 (DOI)000327124700008 ()
    Available from: 2012-04-16 Created: 2012-04-16 Last updated: 2018-01-12
    2. Definite Noun Phrases in Statistical Machine Translation into Danish
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Definite Noun Phrases in Statistical Machine Translation into Danish
    2009 (English)In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Extracting and Using Constructions in NLP / [ed] Magnus Sahlgren and Ola Knutsson, 2009, p. 4-9Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two ways to express definiteness in Danish, which makes it problematic for statistical machine translation (SMT) from English, since the wrong realisation can be chosen. We present a part-of-speech-based method for identifying and transforming English definite NPs that would likely be expressed in a different way in Danish. The transformed English is used for training a phrase-based SMT system.This technique gives significant improvements of translation quality, of up to 22.1% relative on Bleu, compared to a baseline trained on original English, in two different domains.

    Series
    SICS Technical Report, ISSN 1100-3154 ; T2009:10
    Keywords
    Statistical machine translation, definiteness, nouns, Scandinavian languages
    National Category
    Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53955 (URN)
    Conference
    Workshop on Extracting and Using Constructions in NLP, May 14, Odense, Denmark
    Available from: 2010-02-15 Created: 2010-02-15 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Definite Noun Phrases in Statistical Machine Translation into Scandinavian Languages.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Definite Noun Phrases in Statistical Machine Translation into Scandinavian Languages.
    2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 15th conference of the European Association for Machine Translation (EAMT 2011) / [ed] Mikel L.Forcada, Heidi Depraetere, Vincent Vandeghinste, 2011, p. 289-296Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Scandinavian languages have an unusual structure of definite noun phrases (NPs), with a noun suffix as one possibility of expressing definiteness, which is problematic for statistical machine translation from languages with different NP structures. We show that translation can be improved by simple source side transformations of definite NPs, for translation from English and Italian, into Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian, with small adjustments of the preprocessing strategy, depending on the language pair. We also explored target side transformations, with mixed results.

    Keywords
    Machine translation, definiteness, Scandinavian languages
    National Category
    Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70123 (URN)
    Conference
    EAMT-2011: the 15th Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation, 30-31 May 2011, Leuven, Belgium
    Available from: 2011-08-19 Created: 2011-08-19 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Iterative reordering and word alignment for statistical MT
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Iterative reordering and word alignment for statistical MT
    2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 18th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics (NODALIDA 2011) / [ed] Bolette Sandford Pedersen, Gunta Nešpore and Inguna Skadiņa, 2011, p. 315-318Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Word alignment is necessary for statistical machine translation (SMT), and reordering as a preprocessing step has been shown to improve SMT for many language pairs. In this initial study we investigate if both word alignment and reordering can be improved by iterating these two steps, since they both depend on each other. Overall no consistent improvements were seen on the translation task, but the reordering rules contain different information in the different iterations, leading us to believe that the iterative strategy can be useful.

    Series
    NEALT Proceedings Series, ISSN 1736-6305 ; 11
    Keywords
    Machine translation, reordering
    National Category
    Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70122 (URN)
    Conference
    The 18th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics, May 11–13, Riga, Latvia
    Available from: 2011-08-19 Created: 2011-08-19 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    5. Clustered Word Classes for Preordering in Statistical Machine Translation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clustered Word Classes for Preordering in Statistical Machine Translation
    2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2012, p. 28-34Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clustered word classes have been used in connection with statistical machine translation, for instance for improving word alignments. In this work we investigate if clustered word classes can be used in a preordering strategy, where the source language is reordered prior to training and translation. Part-of-speech tagging has previously been successfully used for learning reordering rules that can be applied before training and translation. We show that we can use word clusters for learning rules, and significantly improve on a baseline with only slightly worse performance than for standard POS-tags on an English–German translation task. We also show the usefulness of the approach for the less-resourced language Haitian Creole, for translation into English, where the suggested approach is significantly better than the baseline.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Association for Computational Linguistics, 2012
    Keywords
    Statistical machine translation, reordering, clustering, unsupervised learning
    National Category
    Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76706 (URN)
    Conference
    The 13th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics April 24, Avignon, France
    Available from: 2012-04-17 Created: 2012-04-17 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    6. Vs and OOVs: Two Problems for Translation between German and English
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vs and OOVs: Two Problems for Translation between German and English
    2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the Joint Fifth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation and MetricsMATR (WMT'10), 2010, p. 183-188Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we report on experiments with three preprocessing strategies for improving translation output in a statistical MT system. In training, two reordering strategies were studied: (i) reorder on thebasis of the alignments from Giza++, and (ii) reorder by moving all verbs to the end of segments. In translation, out-of-vocabulary words were preprocessed in a knowledge-lite fashion to identify a likely equivalent. All three strategies were implemented for our English-German systems submitted to the WMT10 shared task. Combining them lead to improvements in both language directions.

    Keywords
    Machine translation, reordering, Out-of-vocabulary words
    National Category
    Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-58979 (URN)978-1-932432-71-8 (ISBN)1-932432-71-X (ISBN)
    Conference
    The Joint Fifth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation and MetricsMATR, 15-16 July 2010 Uppsala, Sweden
    Available from: 2010-09-03 Created: 2010-09-03 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    7. Spell Checking Techniques for Replacement of Unknown Words and Data Cleaning for Haitian Creole SMS Translation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spell Checking Techniques for Replacement of Unknown Words and Data Cleaning for Haitian Creole SMS Translation
    2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation (WMT 2011) / [ed] Chris Callison-Burch, Philipp Koehn, Christof Monz, Omar F. Zaidan, Stroudsburg: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2011, p. 470-477Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report results on translation of SMS messages from Haitian Creole to English. We show improvements by applying spell checking techniques to unknown words and creating a lattice with the best known spelling equivalents. We also used a small cleaned corpus to train a cleaning model that we applied to the noisy corpora.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stroudsburg: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2011
    Keywords
    Machine translation, unknown words, spell checking, data cleaning, Haitian Creole
    National Category
    Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70127 (URN)978-1-937284-12-1 (ISBN)1-937284-12-3 (ISBN)
    Conference
    The Sixth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation (WMT 2011), July 30-31, Edinburgh, UK
    Available from: 2011-08-19 Created: 2011-08-19 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
  • 250.
    Stymne, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the practice of error analysis for machine translation evaluation2012In: Proceedings of the Eight International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12), European Language Resources Association , 2012, p. 1786-1790Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Error analysis is a means to assess machine translation output in qualitative terms, which can be used as a basis for the generation of error profiles for different systems. As for other subjective approaches to evaluation it runs the risk of low inter-annotator agreement, but very often in papers applying error analysis to MT, this aspect is not even discussed. In this paper, we report results from a comparative evaluation of two systems where agreement initially was low, and discuss the different ways we used to improve it. We compared the effects of using more or less fine-grained taxonomies, and the possibility to restrict analysis to short sentences only. We report results on inter-annotator agreement before and after measures were taken, on error categories that are most likely to be confused, and on the possibility to establish error profiles also in the absence of a high inter-annotator agreement.

23456 201 - 250 of 266
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